rh hr blood group system

Summary

Summary: Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups, because the genes differ by determining a different number of the over thirty antigens thus far described and do so with remarkably different quality. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Partial D, weak D types, and novel RHD alleles among 33,864 multiethnic patients: implications for anti-D alloimmunization and prevention
    Gregory A Denomme
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Transfusion 45:1554-60. 2005
  2. ncbi The Rh blood group system: a review
    N D Avent
    Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, England
    Blood 95:375-87. 2000
  3. ncbi Secondary anti-D immunization by Del red blood cells
    Hiroyasu Yasuda
    Division of Blood Transfusion and Transplantation Immunology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, 1 Hikariga oka, Fukushima City, Fukushima, Japan
    Transfusion 45:1581-4. 2005
  4. ncbi Non-invasive antenatal RHD typing
    C E van der Schoot
    Department of Experimental Immunohematology, Sanquin Research, 125, Plesmanlaan, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Transfus Clin Biol 13:53-7. 2006
  5. ncbi Report of the Second International Workshop on molecular blood group genotyping
    G Daniels
    International Blood Group Reference Laboratory, NHS Blood and Transplant, Bristol, UK
    Vox Sang 93:83-8. 2007
  6. ncbi RHD gene deletion occurred in the Rhesus box
    F F Wagner
    Abteilung Transfusionsmedizin, Universitatsklinikum Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    Blood 95:3662-8. 2000
  7. ncbi DNA from blood samples can be used to genotype patients who have recently received a transfusion
    M E Reid
    New York Blood Center, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Transfusion 40:48-53. 2000
  8. doi Toxoplasma and reaction time: role of toxoplasmosis in the origin, preservation and geographical distribution of Rh blood group polymorphism
    M Novotna
    Department of Parasitology, Charles University, Prague 128 44, Czech Republic
    Parasitology 135:1253-61. 2008
  9. ncbi Neurophysiological effect of the Rh factor. Protective role of the RhD molecule against Toxoplasma-induced impairment of reaction times in women
    Jaroslav Flegr
    Department of Philosophy and History of Natural Science, Charles University, Vinicna 7, Prague 128 44, Czech Republic
    Neuro Endocrinol Lett 29:475-81. 2008
  10. ncbi The presence of an RHD pseudogene containing a 37 base pair duplication and a nonsense mutation in africans with the Rh D-negative blood group phenotype
    B K Singleton
    Bristol Institute for Transfusion Sciences, Bristol, England
    Blood 95:12-8. 2000

Research Grants

  1. Adverse effects of RBC transfusions: A unifying hypothesis
    John D Roback; Fiscal Year: 2010
  2. DECIPHERING THE FUNCTION OF THE RH BLOOD GROUP PROTEINS
    Connie Westhoff; Fiscal Year: 2002
  3. RhBG and RhcG Proteins in Nonerythroid Tissues
    Chen Han Huang; Fiscal Year: 2005
  4. RH PROTEIN AND THE RH BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM
    Chen Han Huang; Fiscal Year: 2004
  5. Membrane Transport of NH3 and NH4+
    NAZIH NAKHOUL; Fiscal Year: 2007
  6. Connexin 26 Testing in Infants
    Christina Palmer; Fiscal Year: 2005
  7. Outcomes of Cx26 Testing in Deaf/Hard of Hearing Adults
    Christina Palmer; Fiscal Year: 2009
  8. Outcomes of Cx26 Testing in Deaf/Hard of Hearing Adults
    Christina Palmer; Fiscal Year: 2007
  9. Genetic Bases of Developmental Language Disorders
    Elena L Grigorenko; Fiscal Year: 2010
  10. GENETIC ASSOCIATION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA AND OTHER DISORDERS
    Bernie Devlin; Fiscal Year: 2007

Detail Information

Publications167 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Partial D, weak D types, and novel RHD alleles among 33,864 multiethnic patients: implications for anti-D alloimmunization and prevention
    Gregory A Denomme
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Transfusion 45:1554-60. 2005
    ..At present, there is little prospective information on the prevalence of D variants among obstetric patients and potential transfusion recipients...
  2. ncbi The Rh blood group system: a review
    N D Avent
    Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, England
    Blood 95:375-87. 2000
    ..Extensive documentation is provided to enable the interested reader to obtain further information. (Blood. 2000;95:375-387)..
  3. ncbi Secondary anti-D immunization by Del red blood cells
    Hiroyasu Yasuda
    Division of Blood Transfusion and Transplantation Immunology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, 1 Hikariga oka, Fukushima City, Fukushima, Japan
    Transfusion 45:1581-4. 2005
    ..No D(el) phenotype has yet been shown to induce a primary or secondary alloanti-D immunization, however...
  4. ncbi Non-invasive antenatal RHD typing
    C E van der Schoot
    Department of Experimental Immunohematology, Sanquin Research, 125, Plesmanlaan, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Transfus Clin Biol 13:53-7. 2006
    ..In this review the main characteristics and applications of cell free fetal DNA are discussed, with an emphasis on prenatal RHD genotyping...
  5. ncbi Report of the Second International Workshop on molecular blood group genotyping
    G Daniels
    International Blood Group Reference Laboratory, NHS Blood and Transplant, Bristol, UK
    Vox Sang 93:83-8. 2007
    ..With greater care and attention to detail, very high standards could be set for molecular blood group genotyping...
  6. ncbi RHD gene deletion occurred in the Rhesus box
    F F Wagner
    Abteilung Transfusionsmedizin, Universitatsklinikum Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    Blood 95:3662-8. 2000
    ..The molecular structure of the RH gene locus explains the mechanisms for generating RHD/RHCE hybrid alleles and the RHD deletion. Specific detection of the RHD(-) genotype is now possible. (Blood. 2000;95:3662-3668)..
  7. ncbi DNA from blood samples can be used to genotype patients who have recently received a transfusion
    M E Reid
    New York Blood Center, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Transfusion 40:48-53. 2000
    ....
  8. doi Toxoplasma and reaction time: role of toxoplasmosis in the origin, preservation and geographical distribution of Rh blood group polymorphism
    M Novotna
    Department of Parasitology, Charles University, Prague 128 44, Czech Republic
    Parasitology 135:1253-61. 2008
    ..Moreover, an unequal prevalence of toxoplasmosis in different countries could explain pronounced differences in frequencies of RhD-negative phenotype in geographically distinct populations...
  9. ncbi Neurophysiological effect of the Rh factor. Protective role of the RhD molecule against Toxoplasma-induced impairment of reaction times in women
    Jaroslav Flegr
    Department of Philosophy and History of Natural Science, Charles University, Vinicna 7, Prague 128 44, Czech Republic
    Neuro Endocrinol Lett 29:475-81. 2008
    ..No phenotypic effect of RhD protein, except its role in hemolytic disease of newborns and protective role against Toxoplasma-induced impairment of reaction times in men, has been described...
  10. ncbi The presence of an RHD pseudogene containing a 37 base pair duplication and a nonsense mutation in africans with the Rh D-negative blood group phenotype
    B K Singleton
    Bristol Institute for Transfusion Sciences, Bristol, England
    Blood 95:12-8. 2000
    ..Consequently, we have developed a new test that detects the 37 bp insert in exon 4 of RHDpsi. (Blood. 2000; 95:12-18)..
  11. ncbi RHD gene polymorphisms among RhD-negative Chinese in Taiwan
    C F Sun
    Department of Clinical Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Lin Kou Medical Center, Lin Kou, Taiwan
    Vox Sang 75:52-7. 1998
    ..We try to explore the genomic structure of the RhD gene among apparently Rh-negative Chinese in Taiwan in this study...
  12. ncbi Alteration of RH gene structure and expression in human dCCee and DCW-red blood cells: phenotypic homozygosity versus genotypic heterozygosity
    C H Huang
    Lindsley F Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York 10021, USA
    Blood 88:2326-33. 1996
    ..Together, this study not only shows the complexity of Rh phenotypic diversity, but also points to the importance of concurrent analysis of genomic structure and transcript expression in deciphering the underlying genetic mechanisms...
  13. ncbi The analysis of nucleotide substitutions, gaps, and recombination events between RHD and RHCE genes through complete sequencing
    H Okuda
    Department of Legal Medicine and Human Genetics, Jichi Medical School, Minamikawachi Machi, Kawachi gun, Tochigi ken, 329 0498, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 274:670-83. 2000
    ....
  14. ncbi Testing for the D zygosity with three different methods revealed altered Rhesus boxes and a new weak D type
    Paul Perco
    Clinical Department of Blood Group Serology, University of Vienna, Austria
    Transfusion 43:335-9. 2003
    ..The discrimination of D+/D+ from D+/D- partners of D- mothers with anti-D is important to estimate the risk for HDN. This may be achieved if the presence or absence of the hybrid Rhesus box in the father can be demonstrated...
  15. ncbi The human Rhesus-associated RhAG protein and a kidney homologue promote ammonium transport in yeast
    A M Marini
    Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Institut de Biologie et de Médecine Moléculaires, Gosselies, Belgium
    Nat Genet 26:341-4. 2000
    ..Our results provide the first experimental evidence for a direct role of RhAG and RhGK in ammonium transport. These findings are of high interest, because no specific ammonium transport system has been characterized so far in human...
  16. ncbi Rh phenotype prediction by DNA typing and its application to practice
    W A Flegel
    Abteilung Transfusionsmedizin, Universitatsklinikum Ulm, Germany
    Transfus Med 8:281-302. 1998
    ..Transfusion medicine is in the unique position of being able to utilize the most extensive phenotype databases available to check and develop genotyping strategies...
  17. ncbi Prenatal determination of fetal RhD type by DNA amplification
    P R Bennett
    Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Queen Charlotte s and Chelsea Hospital, London
    N Engl J Med 329:607-10. 1993
    ..A safe method of determining fetal RhD type early in pregnancy would eliminate the risks to an RhD-negative fetus of fetal-blood sampling or serial amniocenteses...
  18. doi Effect of screening for red cell antibodies, other than anti-D, to detect hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: a population study in the Netherlands
    J M Koelewijn
    Sanquin Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Transfusion 48:941-52. 2008
    ..The effect of a first-trimester antibody screening program on the timely detection of HDFN caused by antibodies other than anti-D was evaluated...
  19. ncbi Insights into the structure and function of membrane polypeptides carrying blood group antigens
    J P Cartron
    INSERM Research Unit U76, Institut National de la Transfusion Sanguine, Paris, France
    Vox Sang 74:29-64. 1998
    ....
  20. ncbi Interleukin-10-mediated regulatory T-cell responses to epitopes on a human red blood cell autoantigen
    Andrew M Hall
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen Foresterhill, Aberdeen, United Kingdom
    Blood 100:4529-36. 2002
    ..Antigenic peptides with the ability to stimulate specific regulatory cells may represent a new class of therapeutic agents for immune-mediated disease...
  21. ncbi The Dc(G48)e(s) haplotype is frequent among the Dce haplotypes within a white population
    Carlos M Cotorruelo
    Laboratory of Immunohematology Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rosario National University, Rosario, Argentina
    Transfusion 47:486-91. 2007
    ....
  22. pmc Genetic predisposition to chikungunya--a blood group study in chikungunya affected families
    Sudarsanareddy Lokireddy
    Department of Biotechnology, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, India
    Virol J 6:77. 2009
    ..Among ABO group, the blood group O +ve individuals are more susceptible to chikungunya than other blood groups. No blood group with Rh negative was affected with chikungunya, it indicates Rh -ve more resistance to chikungunya...
  23. pmc RHD positive haplotypes in D negative Europeans
    F F Wagner
    Abteilung Transfusionsmedizin, Universitatsklinikum Ulm and DRK Blutspendedienst Baden Württemberg, Institut Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    BMC Genet 2:10. 2001
    ..Excluding RHDpsi and CdeS frequent only in individuals of African descent, most of these alleles are unknown and the population frequency of any such allele has not been determined...
  24. ncbi Molecular testing for transfusion medicine
    Connie M Westhoff
    American Red Cross, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19130, USA
    Curr Opin Hematol 13:471-5. 2006
    ..This review summarizes the progress made in the last decade in applying genotyping to prenatal practice and clinical transfusion medicine...
  25. ncbi Genetic basis of the RhD-positive and RhD-negative blood group polymorphism as determined by Southern analysis
    Y Colin
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unité 76, Institut National de Transfusion Sanguine, Paris, France
    Blood 78:2747-52. 1991
    ..The absence of any D gene and of its postulated allelic form d in the RhD-negative genome explains finally why no Rhd antigen has ever been shown...
  26. ncbi Evolution of the human RH (rhesus) blood group genes: a 50 year old prediction (partially) fulfilled
    B Carritt
    MRC Human Biochemical Genetics Unit, University College, London, UK
    Hum Mol Genet 6:843-50. 1997
    ..e. the order is C-E-D. We provide both genetic and physical evidence supporting this arrangement...
  27. pmc RHD allele distribution in Africans of Mali
    Franz F Wagner
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital, Ulm, Germany
    BMC Genet 4:14. 2003
    ..The DAU cluster of RHD alleles exemplifies that the alleles frequent in Africans have evaded recognition until recently. A comprehensive survey of RHD alleles in any African population was lacking...
  28. ncbi Molecular cloning of RhD cDNA derived from a gene present in RhD-positive, but not RhD-negative individuals
    M A Arce
    Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110
    Blood 82:651-5. 1993
    ..Thus, by correlating the presence of Rh mRNA and gene sequences with individual Rh phenotypes, we were able to establish that the new Rh13 cDNA clone represents the RhD protein...
  29. ncbi Rare RHCE phenotypes in black individuals of Afro-Caribbean origin: identification and transfusion safety
    France Noizat-Pirenne
    Centre National de Référence des Groupes Sanguins CNRGS and Institut National de la Transfusion Sanguine INTS, France
    Blood 100:4223-31. 2002
    ..We also described a new variant [ce(s)(748)] and variants carrying different altered alleles in nonimmunized patients and for whom the risk of immunization is discussed...
  30. doi Variation in the host ABO blood group may be associated with susceptibility to hepatitis C virus infection
    R Behal
    Department of Faculty of advanced studies in the Life Sciences, CSJM University, Kanpur, India
    Epidemiol Infect 138:1096-9. 2010
    ..04%). The results of this study demonstrate that that HCV infection may not be related to age and sex but the possible association of blood group antigens with HCV infection cannot be ruled out...
  31. ncbi Novel 3'Rhesus box sequences confound RHD zygosity assignment
    Kimberly A Matheson
    Canadian Blood Services, Research and Development Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Transfusion 42:645-50. 2002
    ..The most common D- haplotype is due to the deletion of RHD, which results in the formation of a hybrid Rhesus box, theoretically through the recombination of 5' and 3'Rhesus boxes...
  32. ncbi Presence of the RHD pseudogene and the hybrid RHD-CE-D(s) gene in Brazilians with the D-negative phenotype
    A Rodrigues
    Hemocentro, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brasil
    Braz J Med Biol Res 35:767-73. 2002
    ..These data confirm that the inclusion of two different multiplex PCR for RHD is essential to test the D-negative Brazilian population in order to avoid false-positive typing of polytransfused patients and fetuses...
  33. ncbi Prenatal genotyping for the RhD blood group antigen: considerations in developing an accurate test
    R W Allen
    H A Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK 74135, USA
    Genet Test 4:377-81. 2000
    ....
  34. ncbi The DAU allele cluster of the RHD gene
    Franz F Wagner
    Abteilung Transfusionsmedizin, Universitätsklinikum Ulm and DRK Blutspendedienst Baden Württemberg Hessen, Institut Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    Blood 100:306-11. 2002
    ..The identification of the DAU alleles increased the number of known partial D alleles in Africans considerably. DAU alleles may be a major cause of antigen D variability and anti-D immunization in patients of African descent...
  35. ncbi Application of RHD and RHCE genotyping for correct blood group determination in chronically transfused patients
    T J Legler
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, University of Gottingen, Germany
    Transfusion 39:852-5. 1999
    ..In chronically transfused patients, conventional blood group typing may be impossible because of mixed-field agglutination...
  36. ncbi Molecular basis of weak D phenotypes
    F F Wagner
    Abteilung Transfusionsmedizin, Universitatsklinikum Ulm and DRK Blutspendedienst Baden Württemberg, Institut Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    Blood 93:385-93. 1999
    ..Our results showed means to specifically detect and to classify weak D. The genotyping of weak D may guide Rhesus negative transfusion policy for such molecular weak D types that were prone to develop anti-D...
  37. ncbi Weak D alleles express distinct phenotypes
    F F Wagner
    Abteilung Transfusionsmedizin, Universitatsklinikum Ulm and DRK Blutspendedienst Baden Württemberg, Institut Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    Blood 95:2699-708. 2000
    ..Blood. 2000;95:2699-2708)..
  38. ncbi Three molecular structures cause rhesus D category VI phenotypes with distinct immunohematologic features
    F F Wagner
    Abteilung Transfusionsmedizin, Universitat Ulm and DRK Blutspendezentrale Ulm, Ulm, Germany
    Blood 91:2157-68. 1998
    ..Genotyping strategies should take account of allelic variations in partial RhD. The reconsideration of previous serologic and clinical data for partial D in view of the underlying molecular structures may be worthwhile...
  39. ncbi Differentiation of autologous ABO, RHD, RHCE, KEL, JK, and FY blood group genotypes by analysis of peripheral blood samples of patients who have recently received multiple transfusions
    P Rozman
    Department of Immunohematology, Blood Transfusion Centre of Slovenia, Ljubljana, Slovenia
    Transfusion 40:936-42. 2000
    ..The genotyping of ABO, Rh, Kell, Kidd, and Duffy systems could be used to determine autologous blood group antigen status...
  40. ncbi Novel weak D types 31 and 32: adsorption-elution-supported D antigen analysis and comparison to prevalent weak D types
    Günther F Körmöczi
    Department of Blood Group Serology and Transfusion Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Transfusion 45:1574-80. 2005
    ..Weak D types are thought to express rather quantitative than qualitative D antigen variants. Distinct type-specific phenotypes and weak D cases with anti-D alloimmunization, however, suggest a variable degree of D antigen alteration...
  41. ncbi Noninvasive fetal Rh genotyping: the time has come
    John T Queenan
    Obstet Gynecol 106:682-3. 2005
  42. ncbi Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal Rhesus D: ready for Prime(r) Time
    Diana W Bianchi
    Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Tufts New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, 02111, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 106:841-4. 2005
    ..The United States should begin to undertake clinical trials to bring this technology to patient care as soon as possible...
  43. ncbi Weak D type 1.1 exemplifies another complexity in weak D genotyping
    Andrea Doescher
    DRK Blutspendedienst NSTOB, Oldenburg Institute, Oldenburg, Germany
    Transfusion 45:1568-73. 2005
    ..Possible sources of error are rare D variants that are inadvertently carrying known polymorphisms of frequent weak D types...
  44. ncbi A comprehensive analysis of DEL types: partial DEL individuals are prone to anti-D alloimmunization
    Günther F Körmöczi
    Department of Blood Group Serology and Transfusion Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Transfusion 45:1561-7. 2005
    ..The least expressed D variants collectively called DEL are serologically detectable only by adsorption-elution techniques, with so far only poorly defined antigenic properties...
  45. ncbi Do we need to be more concerned about weak D antigens?
    George Garratty
    Transfusion 45:1547-51. 2005
  46. ncbi On a much higher than reported incidence of anti-c in R1R1 patients with anti-E
    W J Judd
    Department of Pathology, UH 2G332, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, 48109 0054, USA
    Immunohematology 21:94-6. 2005
    ..The data from this study strongly support the selection of R(1)R(1) RBCs for all c- patients with anti-E...
  47. ncbi [Transfusions of rhesus-incompatible platelet concentrates in Rouen University Hospital: procedures and consequences]
    P Chamouni
    Département d épidémiologie et de santé publique, CHU, Rouen, France
    Transfus Clin Biol 12:306-12. 2005
    ....
  48. ncbi [Blood group incompatible pregnancy]
    Mitsuo Okubo
    Transfusion Medicine and Cell Therapy, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama Medical School
    Nihon Rinsho 63:727-30. 2005
  49. ncbi [Foetomaternal erythrocyte incompatibilities: from immunohaematologic surveillance of pregnant women to haemolytic disease of the newborn]
    E Miquel
    Etablissement Français du Sang, NORMANDIE, France
    Transfus Clin Biol 12:45-55. 2005
    ....
  50. ncbi Fetal RhD genotyping by maternal serum analysis: a two-year experience
    Evelyne Gautier
    Centre de Diagnostic Prenatal, Americal Hospital of Paris, Neuilly, France
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 192:666-9. 2005
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the none-invasive prenatal determination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based fetal RhD genotyping...
  51. ncbi Non-invasive fetal RHD and RHCE genotyping from maternal plasma in alloimmunized pregnancies
    I Hromadnikova
    Cell Biology Laboratory, Paediatric Clinic, 2nd Medical Faculty, Charles University, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic
    Prenat Diagn 25:1079-83. 2005
    ....
  52. ncbi [Severe bleeding in a patient with anti-c alloantibodies and a rare Rhesus phenotype treated with compatible erythrocyte concentrate from the blood bank of the Council of Europe]
    G S Sonke
    afd Interne Geneeskunde, Ziekenhuis Gooi Noord, Blaricum
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 149:2628-32. 2005
    ..In view of the large number of antigens on erythrocytes, one should therefore be conservative as to blood transfusion in order to prevent alloantibody formation...
  53. ncbi [Obtention of a heterohybridoma for production of type IgM monoclonal antibodies against the D antigen of the Rh system]
    Graciela León-González
    Banco Municipal de Sangre del Distrito Capital, Esquina de Pirineos San José, Caracas, Venezuela
    Invest Clin 48:57-67. 2007
    ..Given the excellent qualities of the antibody, we are evaluating dilution media and the addition of type IgG antibodies in order to manufacture a reactive for use in hemoclassification...
  54. doi Transfusion medicine illustrated: blocked D phenomenon
    Bushra Moiz
    Blood Bank, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
    Transfusion 48:1545-6. 2008
  55. ncbi First report from India of haemolytic disease of newborn by anti-c and anti-E in Rh (D) positive mothers
    Beenu Thakral
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education Research, Chandigarh, India
    Hematology 12:377-80. 2007
    ..A close follow-up throughout pregnancy is required if irregular antibodies are present so that antigen negative, crossmatch compatible blood can be provided in a timely manner for intra-uterine or exchange transfusions...
  56. ncbi Management of pregnancy complicated by anti-hrB/anti-HrB
    N Win
    Red Cell Immunohaematology, National Blood Service Tooting Centre, London SW17 ORB, UK
    Immunohematology 23:143-5. 2007
    ..Further information and publications are warranted to gain more knowledge of these rare antibodies...
  57. doi Fetal RhD genotyping: a more efficient use of anti-D immunoglobulin
    G Daniels
    Bristol Institute for Transfusion Sciences and International Blood Group Reference Laboratory, NHSBT, Southmead Road, Bristol, United Kingdom
    Transfus Clin Biol 14:568-71. 2007
    ..The results of trials in Bristol and Amsterdam suggest that such routine testing is feasible and accurate...
  58. doi The suitability of hemolyzed specimens for compatibility testing using automated technology
    Alvaro Laga
    Herbert C Lichtman Blood Bank and Transfusion Medicine Research Unit, The Miriam Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island 02906, USA
    Transfusion 48:1713-20. 2008
    ..Samples from emergency departments (EDs) are commonly discarded due to hemolysis or mislabeling...
  59. ncbi On the immunologic basis of Rh immune globulin (anti-D) prophylaxis
    Belinda M Kumpel
    Transfusion 46:1652-6. 2006
  60. ncbi [Fetal D gene in maternal plasma should be examined in all immunized Rh(-) pregnant women to avoid invasive procedures]
    Barbara Zupanska
    Instytut Hematologii i Transfuzjologii w Warszawie
    Ginekol Pol 77:359-64. 2006
    ..We have recently developed and published a noninvasive determination of fetal RhD status by examination of cell-free DNA in maternal plasma. The predictive value of the procedure of fetal testing, already published by us, was 99,6%...
  61. ncbi Alloimmunity to RhD in humans
    S J Urbaniak
    Academic Transfusion Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen AB25 2ZW, Scotland, UK
    Transfus Clin Biol 13:19-22. 2006
    ..With greater understanding comes the possibility of manipulating the immune response to D in clinical situations...
  62. ncbi Recent developments in fetal nucleic acids in maternal plasma: implications to noninvasive prenatal fetal blood group genotyping
    Y M D Lo
    Department of Chemical Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong
    Transfus Clin Biol 13:50-2. 2006
    ..These developments hold promise to allow the eventual widespread utilization of maternal plasma DNA analysis for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of blood group mismatches between the mother and fetus...
  63. ncbi [Prevention of fetomaternal rhesus-D allo-immunization. Perspectives]
    A Cortey
    Centre national de référence en hémobiologie périnatale CNRHP, Hopital Saint Antoine, 184, rue du Faubourg Saint Antoine, 75012 Paris
    J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 35:1S119-1S122. 2006
    ..A new generation of antibodies is in process and preliminary clinical results are suggesting a possible use of these monoclonal antibodies for future rhesus prophylaxis but long-term follow-up is required to draw further conclusions...
  64. ncbi [Adverse effects and patient information]
    A Cortey
    Centre national de référence en hémobiologie périnatale CNRHP, Hopital Saint Antoine, 184, rue du Faubourg Saint Antoine, 75012 Paris
    J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 35:1S112-1S118. 2006
    ..In absence of ABO incompatibility, no additional investigation is needed in these newborns...
  65. ncbi Incidence of weak D in blood donors typed as D positive by the Olympus PK 7200
    C M Jenkins
    BloodCenter of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, 53201 2178, USA
    Immunohematology 21:152-4. 2005
    ..The incidence of weak D found in this study is not significantly different from that found in earlier studies using polyclonal anti-D reagents...
  66. ncbi Anti-D alloimmunization by weak D type 1 red blood cells with a very low antigen density
    M Mota
    Departamento de Hemoterapia, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, SP, Brazil
    Vox Sang 88:130-5. 2005
  67. ncbi [Observation of antibody screen of patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia]
    Shao Ming Yang
    Shaoguan Blood Center, Shaoguan 512026, China
    Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 12:849-51. 2004
    ..In conclusion, detections of alloantibodies by chloroquine elution test and ether elution test were very important for transfusion safety in therapy of patients with AIHA...
  68. ncbi DNB: a partial D with anti-D frequent in Central Europe
    Franz F Wagner
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, University of Ulm, DRK German Red Cross Blood Donation Service Baden Württemberg Hessen, Institute Ulm, Heimholtzstrasse 10, D 89081 Ulm, Germany
    Blood 100:2253-6. 2002
    ..DNB was the most frequent partial D recognized so far in whites, occurring with frequencies of up to 1:292 in Switzerland. DNB was the underlying partial D phenotype in a relevant fraction of anti-D immunizations occurring in whites...
  69. ncbi Is antibody screening in Rh (D)-positive pregnant women necessary?
    S Lurie
    Women s Health Center, Netka, Tel Aviv, Israel
    J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 14:404-6. 2003
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of blood type antibodies other than Rh (D) in pregnant women attending for prenatal care in a typical urban population...
  70. ncbi Fetal hemolytic disease due to anti-Rh17 alloimmunization
    Masaya Hirose
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa, Japan
    Fetal Diagn Ther 19:182-6. 2004
    ..To delineate clinical features of a case of fetal hemolytic disease due to anti-Rh17, along with a review of relevant studies published in English and Japanese...
  71. ncbi Prenatal genotyping of RHD and SRY using maternal blood
    I Randen
    Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Ulleval University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
    Vox Sang 85:300-6. 2003
    ..Duplex PCR, amplifying RHD and SRY in the same tube, was undertaken. The effect of varying storage temperatures on the concentration of fetal DNA was investigated in a separate study involving 10 RhD-negative pregnant women...
  72. ncbi In vivo studies of monoclonal anti-D and the mechanism of immune suppression
    Belinda M Kumpel
    International Blood Group Reference Laboratory, Bristol Institute of Transfusion Sciences, Southmead Road, Bristol BS10 5ND, UK
    Transfus Clin Biol 9:9-14. 2002
    ..The most likely mechanism of action was considered to be inhibition of B cells resulting from co-crosslinking antigen receptors with inhibitory Fc gamma R when the B cells contacted red cells that had bound passive anti-D...
  73. ncbi Clinical significance of RBC alloantibodies and autoantibodies in sickle cell patients who received transfusions
    Banu Aygun
    Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Schneider Children s Hospital, New Hyde Park, NY, USA
    Transfusion 42:37-43. 2002
    ....
  74. ncbi An automatable format for accurate immunohematology testing by flow cytometry
    John D Roback
    Transfusion Medicine Program, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Transfusion 43:918-27. 2003
    ..Furthermore, current automated and semiautomated workstations cannot accommodate many other tests relevant to blood transfusion...
  75. ncbi Prognostic value of screening for irregular antibodies late in pregnancy in rhesus positive women
    Anita S Andersen
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Clinical Immunology, Hillerød Hospital, Denmark
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 81:407-11. 2002
    ..Only those cases where irregular antibodies have not previously been demonstrated during routine screening in the first trimester with regard to clinically relevant complications in the newborn, were studied...
  76. ncbi Absence of D- alloimmunization in AIDS patients receiving D-mismatched RBCs
    Fouad N Boctor
    Department of Pathology, Blood Bank and Transfusion Service, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA
    Transfusion 43:173-6. 2003
    ..D- patients with AIDS may require blood transfusion and, during times of blood shortage, may receive D+ RBCs. They would be expected to become alloimmunized to the d antigen...
  77. ncbi Prenatal typing of Rh and Kell blood group system antigens: the edge of a watershed
    C Ellen van der Schoot
    Department of Experimental Immunohematology, Sanquin Division, CLB and Laboratory for Experimental and Clinical Immunology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Transfus Med Rev 17:31-44. 2003
    ..Assays for the genotyping of the other Rh antigens or Kell antigens with cell-free fetal DNA have not yet been described...
  78. ncbi Prediction of fetal Rh D and Rh CcEe phenotype from maternal plasma with real-time polymerase chain reaction
    Tobias J Legler
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, University of Gottingen, Robert Koch Str 40, 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    Transfus Apher Sci 27:217-23. 2002
    ..In conclusion real-time PCR of maternal plasma is a non-invasive method to determine fetal RH genotype. However, more studies are required for routine applications because the method is not 100% sensitive...
  79. ncbi Clinical significance of anti-G
    B Lenkiewicz
    Transfus Med 12:221. 2002
  80. ncbi Transfusion medicine illustrated. Maternofetal transfusion detected by gel-based typing
    Beatriz Garcia
    Department of Hematology and Hemotherapy, University Hospital of La Paz, Madrid, Spain
    Transfusion 42:1531. 2002
  81. ncbi Laboratory assays for predicting the severity of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn
    Andrew G Hadley
    National Blood Service, Bristol, UK
    Transpl Immunol 10:191-8. 2002
    ..Although these assays are cumbersome, there are now sufficient data to suggest that some cellular assays provide clinically useful information to complement serological and quantitative assays...
  82. ncbi Predicting the effect of transfusing only phenotype-matched RBCs to patients with sickle cell disease: theoretical and practical implications
    Oswaldo Castro
    Department of Internal Meidicine, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA
    Transfusion 42:684-90. 2002
    ..Transfusing only phenotype-matched RBCs has been recommended to reduce the incidence of alloimmunization to blood group antigens in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD)...
  83. ncbi Molecular blood grouping
    G Daniels
    Bristol Institute for Transfusion Sciences, International Blood Group Reference Laboratory, Bristol, UK
    Vox Sang 87:63-6. 2004
  84. ncbi Anti-Rh17 (anti-Hr0): a rare diagnostic and management problem
    N Salamat
    Armed Forces Institute of Transfusion, Rawalpindi
    J Pak Med Assoc 54:215-8. 2004
  85. ncbi Severe hemolysis resulting from D incompatibility in a case of ABO-identical liver transplant
    Mark K Fung
    Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pennsylvania, USA
    Transfusion 44:1635-9. 2004
    ..Approximately 10 percent of ABO-compatible liver transplants involve a D- donor and a D+ recipient...
  86. ncbi Prenatal diagnosis of fetal RhD status by molecular analysis of maternal plasma
    Y M Lo
    Department of Chemical Pathology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital
    N Engl J Med 339:1734-8. 1998
    ..The recent demonstration of fetal DNA in maternal plasma raises the possibility that fetal RhD genotyping may be possible with the use of maternal plasma...
  87. ncbi Monoclonal anti-D development programme
    Belinda M Kumpel
    International Blood Group Reference Laboratory, Bristol Institute of Transfusion Sciences, UK
    Transpl Immunol 10:199-204. 2002
    ..The most likely mechanism of action was considered to be inhibition of B cells resulting from co-cross-linking antigen receptors with inhibitory Fc gammaR when the B cells contacted red cells that had bound passive anti-D...
  88. ncbi Risk free simultaneous prenatal identification of fetal Rhesus D status and sex by multiplex real-time PCR using cell free fetal DNA in maternal plasma
    X Y Zhong
    Laboratory for Prenatal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Basel, Switzerland
    Swiss Med Wkly 131:70-4. 2001
    ....
  89. ncbi Maternal ABO-mismatched blood for intrauterine transfusion of severe hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Rh17
    G A Denomme
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Transfusion 44:1357-60. 2004
    ..Antigen-negative blood may be difficult to obtain for intrauterine transfusion (IUT). In these instances, maternal blood is de facto compatible regardless of an ABO mismatch...
  90. ncbi Maternal-fetal conditions necessitating a medical intervention resulting in preterm birth
    Cande V Ananth
    Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 1977, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 195:1557-63. 2006
    ..The objective of the study was to evaluate the extent to which maternal and fetal conditions necessitate medically indicated preterm birth...
  91. ncbi Disease versus disease: how one disease may ameliorate another
    E Richard Stiehm
    Department of Pediatrics, Mattel Children s Hospital, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    Pediatrics 117:184-91. 2006
    ..Additional exploration of these genetic, infectious, and metabolic influences on disease severity may provide new therapeutic approaches to HIV and other diseases...
  92. doi Prevention of Rh sensitization in the context of trauma: two case reports
    Jochewed B Werch
    Department of Pathology, Baylor College of Medicine and Ben Taub General Hospital, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Clin Apher 25:70-3. 2010
    ..The cases discussed herein of women of childbearing age who suffered severe trauma requiring emergency surgery illustrate the dilemma of determining the ideal strategy for Rh immunoprophylaxis...
  93. ncbi Noninvasive management of Rh partial null (D--) to supplement traditional management of Rh isoimmunization
    Melissa C Bush
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Science, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 102:1145-8. 2003
    ..Rh partial null (D--) is a rare cause of Rh sensitization in an Rh-positive patient. Noninvasive management for this condition using middle cerebral artery Doppler studies was used to reduce invasive testing...
  94. doi A curious case of anti-D antibody titer
    Jennifer G Hensley
    University of Colorado Denver, College of Nursing, Education 2 North, 13120 E 19th St, Box C 288, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    J Midwifery Womens Health 54:497-502. 2009
    ....
  95. ncbi CD47 is expressed at normal levels in patients with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and/or immune thrombocytopenia
    N Ahrens
    Institute for Transfusion Medicine, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Transfus Med 16:397-402. 2006
    ..Similarly, CD47 was detectable in the plasma of the studied subjects. No evidence for a pathogenetic role of CD47 in autoimmune haemolysis or thrombocytopenia in humans could be demonstrated...
  96. ncbi In-frame triplet deletions in RHD alter the D antigen phenotype
    Willy A Flegel
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital, Ulm, Germany
    Transfusion 46:2156-61. 2006
    ..Only one such in-frame deletion is known in the two RH genes, represented by the RHCE allele ceBP expressing a "very weak e antigen."..
  97. ncbi [Investigation of RHD 1227A allele in five pedigrees in Zhejiang Han population]
    An xin Chen
    Department of Transfusion, Jinhua Central Hospital, Jinhua, Zhejiang, 321000 PR China
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 23:536-9. 2006
    ..To analysis the genetic mode of Rh DEL phenotype and RHD 1227A allele in Zhejiang Han population through family investigations...
  98. pmc Molecular cloning, sequence, and expression of a human GDP-L-fucose:beta-D-galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase cDNA that can form the H blood group antigen
    R D Larsen
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ann Arbor, MI
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87:6674-8. 1990
    ..These results strongly suggest that this cloned alpha(1,2)FT cDNA represents the product of the human H blood group locus...
  99. ncbi Candidate gene acting as a suppressor of the RH locus in most cases of Rh-deficiency
    B Cherif-Zahar
    INSERM U76, GIP Institut National de la Transfusion Sanguine, Paris, France
    Nat Genet 12:168-73. 1996
    ..We propose that mutant alleles of Rh50, which map to chromosome 6p11-21.1, are likely candidates for suppressors of the RH locus accounting for most cases of Rh-deficiency...
  100. doi Genetic admixture of eight Mexican indigenous populations: based on five polymarker, HLA-DQA1, ABO, and RH loci
    Leonora Buentello-Malo
    Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico District Federal, Mexico
    Am J Hum Biol 20:647-50. 2008
    ....
  101. ncbi D(Va) category phenotype and genotype in Japanese families
    T J Legler
    Department of Transfusion Medicine, University of Gottingen, Germany
    Vox Sang 78:194-7. 2000
    ..The genetic background of the D(Va) category phenotype has been described in two Caucasian individuals. We were interested in the RHD sequence of 7 Japanese D(Va) individuals and their families...

Research Grants82

  1. Adverse effects of RBC transfusions: A unifying hypothesis
    John D Roback; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..However, transfusions are associated with adverse effects. These studies will seek to determine why adverse outcomes happen after transfusion, and develop ways to improve blood collection and storage to minimize these outcomes. ..
  2. DECIPHERING THE FUNCTION OF THE RH BLOOD GROUP PROTEINS
    Connie Westhoff; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These studies will lead, not only to an understanding of Rh function, but also to an explanation of the clinical effects that occur when this function is disrupted. ..
  3. RhBG and RhcG Proteins in Nonerythroid Tissues
    Chen Han Huang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The results obtained should contribute to understanding the structure, function and regulation of the Rh family, revealing a potentially important, new homeostatic mechanism operative in human and mammalian organs. ..
  4. RH PROTEIN AND THE RH BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM
    Chen Han Huang; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The knowledge gained will also deepen our understanding of clinical problems associated with the RH blood group system, allowing the clinical service to explore new approaches for their management. ..
  5. Membrane Transport of NH3 and NH4+
    NAZIH NAKHOUL; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These are new properties of NH3/NH4+ transport that will help explain the role of NH3 and NH4+ in acidosis and their effect on transport of other ions a well. ..
  6. Connexin 26 Testing in Infants
    Christina Palmer; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..A large cohort of infants and toddlers will be followed for up to three years to fully evaluate the audiologic phenotype of infants and data will be compared based on Cx26 genotype. ..
  7. Outcomes of Cx26 Testing in Deaf/Hard of Hearing Adults
    Christina Palmer; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  8. Outcomes of Cx26 Testing in Deaf/Hard of Hearing Adults
    Christina Palmer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  9. Genetic Bases of Developmental Language Disorders
    Elena L Grigorenko; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  10. GENETIC ASSOCIATION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA AND OTHER DISORDERS
    Bernie Devlin; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Therefore we propose to study its properties. We also propose refinement to models for admixture mapping that account for uncertainty in ancestral allele distributions and dependent markers. ..
  11. Adverse effects of RBC transfusions: A unifying hypothesis
    John Roback; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..However, transfusions are associated with adverse effects. These studies will seek to determine why adverse outcomes happen after transfusion, and develop ways to improve blood collection and storage to minimize these outcomes. ..
  12. Reading Disabilities in Zambian Children
    Elena Grigorenko; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  13. Vaccine-enhanced DLI to prevent cancer recurrence after stem cell transplantation
    John Roback; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  14. Metamoodics: Meta-analyses and bioinformatics display of mood disorders genetics
    Peter P Zandi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The web resource will provide a computational tool for analyzing the synthesized data to test the etiologic contribution of different molecular pathways, such as the Wnt signaling pathway. ..
  15. Phage Display Tools for Automated Blood Typing
    Donald Siegel; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  16. Metamoodics: Meta-analyses and bioinformatics display of mood disorders genetics
    Peter P Zandi; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The web resource will provide a computational tool for analyzing the synthesized data to test the etiologic contribution of different molecular pathways, such as the Wnt signaling pathway. ..
  17. GENETIC ASSOCIATION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA AND OTHER DISORDERS
    Bernie Devlin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..To accomplish this goal, researchers need the right tools;our research group seeks to develop the required statistical tools. ..
  18. Genetics of Anorexia Nervosa
    Bernie Devlin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The diagnostic and genetic data and lymphoblastoid cell lines (derived from blood samples) will become part of a national archival resource for genetic studies of AN through the NIMH Genetics Initiative. ..
  19. Reading Disabilities in Zambian Children
    Elena Grigorenko; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  20. Identification and Significance of Biologic Mediators in Red Cell Concentrates
    Richard P Phipps; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our research will discover explanations for these effects, and we will devise inexpensive strategies to reduce these complications ..
  21. Genetic Bases of Developmental Language Disorders
    Elena Grigorenko; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  22. BIOINFORMATICS TO DISCOVER GENES IN PSYCHIATRIC ILLNESS
    Peter Zandi; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The training and research plans of this proposal will provide the groundwork for the candidate to achieve his long-term goal of helping to elucidate the genetic contribution to complex psychiatric disorders. ..
  23. Prenatal and Neonatal Biologic Markers for Autism
    Lisa Croen; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  24. NOVEL DEVICES FOR RAPID BLOOD COMPATIBILITY TESTING
    John Roback; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The results of the multi-center trial (to be completed during Phase Ill) will lead to an FDA 510(k) application. ..
  25. Prenatal Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds in the EMA Study
    Lisa A Croen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In the long-term, a better understanding of the underlying biology may suggest appropriate strategies for early intervention and contribute to the eventual prevention of this often devastating and usually life-long disability. ..
  26. Genetics of Schizophrenia in Oceanic Palau.
    Bernie Devlin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Molecular and fine-mapping studies will identify risk loci. We believe this study is unique among studies of Scz genetics for its population, sample, the research team and the novelty of hypotheses and approach. ..
  27. Admixture Mapping Schizophrenia Genes in Oceanic Palau
    Bernie Devlin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Collaborating sites are the University of Pittsburgh (Devlin), Carnegie Mellon University (Roeder, subcontract to Pitt) and University of California Irvine (Byerley). ..
  28. GENETIC ASSOCIATION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA AND OTHER DISORDERS
    Bernie Devlin; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We plan to apply these methods to data on three psychiatric disorders, namely schizophrenia, attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, and Alzheimer's disease, as well as to data on simple genetic disorders. ..
  29. GENETIC ASSOCIATION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA AND OTHER DISORDERS
    Bernie Devlin; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..To accomplish this goal, researchers need the right tools; our research group seeks to develop the required statistical tools. ..
  30. Schizophrenia Liability Genes among African Americans
    Bernie Devlin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Finally, we have an outstanding track record of African American participation in research studies, and a deep appreciation of their population genetics. ..