epitopes

Summary

Summary: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Broad neutralization coverage of HIV by multiple highly potent antibodies
    Laura M Walker
    Department of Immunology and Microbial Science and IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 477:466-70. 2011
  2. pmc Broad and potent neutralizing antibodies from an African donor reveal a new HIV-1 vaccine target
    Laura M Walker
    Department of Immunology and Microbial Science and IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 326:285-9. 2009
  3. pmc Structure of HIV-1 gp120 V1/V2 domain with broadly neutralizing antibody PG9
    Jason S McLellan
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 480:336-43. 2011
  4. pmc Rational design of envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1
    Xueling Wu
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 329:856-61. 2010
  5. pmc Structural basis for broad and potent neutralization of HIV-1 by antibody VRC01
    Tongqing Zhou
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 329:811-7. 2010
  6. pmc A potent and broad neutralizing antibody recognizes and penetrates the HIV glycan shield
    Robert Pejchal
    Department of Molecular Biology, Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology and International AIDS Vaccine Initiative IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, nhe Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 334:1097-103. 2011
  7. pmc Antibody recognition of a highly conserved influenza virus epitope
    Damian C Ekiert
    Department of Molecular Biology, Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 324:246-51. 2009
  8. ncbi Antibody neutralization and escape by HIV-1
    Xiping Wei
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 720 South 20th Street, Kaul 816, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 0024, USA
    Nature 422:307-12. 2003
  9. pmc Focused evolution of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies revealed by structures and deep sequencing
    Xueling Wu
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 333:1593-602. 2011
  10. pmc The immune epitope database 2.0
    Randi Vita
    La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, Center for Infectious Disease, Allergy and Asthma Research, 9420 Athena Circle, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:D854-62. 2010

Detail Information

Publications304 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Broad neutralization coverage of HIV by multiple highly potent antibodies
    Laura M Walker
    Department of Immunology and Microbial Science and IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 477:466-70. 2011
    ..largely recapitulate the neutralization breadth found in the corresponding donor serum and many recognize novel epitopes on envelope (Env) glycoprotein gp120, illuminating new targets for vaccine design...
  2. pmc Broad and potent neutralizing antibodies from an African donor reveal a new HIV-1 vaccine target
    Laura M Walker
    Department of Immunology and Microbial Science and IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 326:285-9. 2009
    ..neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), which develop over time in some HIV-1-infected individuals, define critical epitopes for HIV vaccine design...
  3. pmc Structure of HIV-1 gp120 V1/V2 domain with broadly neutralizing antibody PG9
    Jason S McLellan
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 480:336-43. 2011
    ..In addition to structurally defining V1/V2, the results thus identify a paradigm of antibody recognition for highly glycosylated antigens, which-with PG9-involves a site of vulnerability comprising just two glycans and a strand...
  4. pmc Rational design of envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1
    Xueling Wu
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 329:856-61. 2010
    ..Exceptionally broad HIV-1 neutralization can be achieved with individual antibodies targeted to the functionally conserved CD4bs of glycoprotein 120, an important insight for future HIV-1 vaccine design...
  5. pmc Structural basis for broad and potent neutralization of HIV-1 by antibody VRC01
    Tongqing Zhou
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 329:811-7. 2010
    ..Partial receptor mimicry and extensive affinity maturation thus facilitate neutralization of HIV-1 by natural human antibodies...
  6. pmc A potent and broad neutralizing antibody recognizes and penetrates the HIV glycan shield
    Robert Pejchal
    Department of Molecular Biology, Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology and International AIDS Vaccine Initiative IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, nhe Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 334:1097-103. 2011
    ..Furthermore, our data suggest that the high neutralization potency of PGT 127 and 128 immunoglobulin Gs may be mediated by cross-linking Env trimers on the viral surface...
  7. pmc Antibody recognition of a highly conserved influenza virus epitope
    Damian C Ekiert
    Department of Molecular Biology, Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 324:246-51. 2009
    ..The CR6261 epitope identified here should accelerate the design and implementation of improved vaccines that can elicit CR6261-like antibodies, as well as antibody-based therapies for the treatment of influenza...
  8. ncbi Antibody neutralization and escape by HIV-1
    Xiping Wei
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 720 South 20th Street, Kaul 816, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 0024, USA
    Nature 422:307-12. 2003
    ..contained mutations in the env gene that were unexpectedly sparse, did not map generally to known neutralization epitopes, and involved primarily changes in N-linked glycosylation...
  9. pmc Focused evolution of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies revealed by structures and deep sequencing
    Xueling Wu
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 333:1593-602. 2011
    ....
  10. pmc The immune epitope database 2.0
    Randi Vita
    La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, Center for Infectious Disease, Allergy and Asthma Research, 9420 Athena Circle, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:D854-62. 2010
    The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB, www.iedb.org) provides a catalog of experimentally characterized B and T cell epitopes, as well as data on Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) binding and MHC ligand elution experiments...
  11. pmc Analysis of memory B cell responses and isolation of novel monoclonal antibodies with neutralizing breadth from HIV-1-infected individuals
    Davide Corti
    Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Bellinzona, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 5:e8805. 2010
    ....
  12. pmc Structural definition of a conserved neutralization epitope on HIV-1 gp120
    Tongqing Zhou
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 445:732-7. 2007
    ..A site of vulnerability, related to a functional requirement for efficient association with CD4, can therefore be targeted by antibody to neutralize HIV-1...
  13. pmc Structural basis of preexisting immunity to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus
    Rui Xu
    Department of Molecular Biology, Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 328:357-60. 2010
    ..Thus, antigenic similarity between the 2009 and 1918-like viruses provides an explanation for the age-related immunity to the current influenza pandemic...
  14. pmc The first T cell response to transmitted/founder virus contributes to the control of acute viremia in HIV-1 infection
    Nilu Goonetilleke
    Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford OX3 9DS, England, UK
    J Exp Med 206:1253-72. 2009
    ..virus escape, these first T cell responses often rapidly waned, leaving or being succeeded by T cell responses to epitopes which escaped more slowly or were invariant...
  15. pmc A highly conserved neutralizing epitope on group 2 influenza A viruses
    Damian C Ekiert
    Department of Molecular Biology, Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 333:843-50. 2011
    ..Thus, a cocktail of two antibodies may be sufficient to neutralize most influenza A subtypes and, hence, enable development of a universal flu vaccine and broad-spectrum antibody therapies...
  16. ncbi Complement factor H binds malondialdehyde epitopes and protects from oxidative stress
    David Weismann
    Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Nature 478:76-81. 2011
    ..Our findings provide important mechanistic insights into innate immune responses to oxidative stress, which may be exploited in the prevention of and therapy for AMD and other chronic inflammatory diseases...
  17. pmc Polyreactivity increases the apparent affinity of anti-HIV antibodies by heteroligation
    Hugo Mouquet
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Nature 467:591-5. 2010
    ..Despite the low affinity of the polyreactive combining site, heteroligation demonstrably increases the apparent affinity of polyreactive antibodies to HIV...
  18. ncbi The role of antibodies in HIV vaccines
    John R Mascola
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 28:413-44. 2010
    ..Thus, current vaccine design efforts have focused on a more detailed understanding of these broadly neutralizing antibodies and their epitopes to inform the design of improved vaccines.
  19. pmc Factors associated with the development of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection
    D Noah Sather
    Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA
    J Virol 83:757-69. 2009
    ..broad cross-neutralizing antibody responses were identified that targeted the gp120 subunit, but their precise epitopes mapped outside the variable regions and the CD4-binding site...
  20. pmc Identification of human neutralizing antibodies that bind to complex epitopes on dengue virions
    Ruklanthi de Alwis
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:7439-44. 2012
    ..though infected individuals develop potent and long-lasting serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies (Abs), the epitopes engaged by human neutralizing Abs have not been identified...
  21. pmc HIV-1 virus-like particles bearing pure env trimers expose neutralizing epitopes but occlude nonneutralizing epitopes
    Tommy Tong
    Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, San Diego, California, USA
    J Virol 86:3574-87. 2012
    ..This suggests that trimer VLPs bear essentially pure native trimer that should allow its unfettered evaluation in a vaccine setting...
  22. ncbi Antibody domain exchange is an immunological solution to carbohydrate cluster recognition
    Daniel A Calarese
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 300:2065-71. 2003
    ..The unique interdigitation of Fab domains within an antibody uncovers a previously unappreciated mechanism for high-affinity recognition of carbohydrate or other repeating epitopes on cell or microbial surfaces.
  23. pmc The neutralization breadth of HIV-1 develops incrementally over four years and is associated with CD4+ T cell decline and high viral load during acute infection
    Elin S Gray
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, Private Bag X4, Sandringham 2131, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Virol 85:4828-40. 2011
    ..Mapping of the epitopes targeted by cross-neutralizing antibodies revealed that in one individual these antibodies recognized the ..
  24. ncbi Prediction of continuous B-cell epitopes in an antigen using recurrent neural network
    Sudipto Saha
    Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India
    Proteins 65:40-8. 2006
    B-cell epitopes play a vital role in the development of peptide vaccines, in diagnosis of diseases, and also for allergy research. Experimental methods used for characterizing epitopes are time consuming and demand large resources...
  25. ncbi Epochal evolution shapes the phylodynamics of interpandemic influenza A (H3N2) in humans
    Katia Koelle
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 2019 Kraus Natural Science Building, University of Michigan, 830 North University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 1048, USA
    Science 314:1898-903. 2006
    ..It captures the observed boom-and-bust pattern of viral evolution, with periods of antigenic stasis during which genetic diversity grows, and with episodic contraction of this diversity during cluster transitions...
  26. pmc Recognition properties of a panel of human recombinant Fab fragments to the CD4 binding site of gp120 that show differing abilities to neutralize human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    P Roben
    Department of Immunology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037
    J Virol 68:4821-8. 1994
    ..Apparently, subtle differences in the gp120 epitope recognized allow some members of the group of anti-CD4bs antibodies to bind to the functionally relevant envelope glycoprotein complex and to neutralize virus more efficiently...
  27. pmc Broad neutralization by a combination of antibodies recognizing the CD4 binding site and a new conformational epitope on the HIV-1 envelope protein
    Florian Klein
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    J Exp Med 209:1469-79. 2012
    ..Therefore, vaccines aimed at eliciting anti-HIV-1 serologic breadth and potency should not be limited to single epitopes.
  28. pmc Analysis of a clonal lineage of HIV-1 envelope V2/V3 conformational epitope-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies and their inferred unmutated common ancestors
    Mattia Bonsignori
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 85:9998-10009. 2011
    ..Thus, E.A244, B.9021, and AE.CM243 Envs are three potential immunogen candidates for studies aimed at defining strategies to induce V2/V3 conformational epitope-specific antibodies...
  29. pmc Fitness cost of escape mutations in p24 Gag in association with control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Javier Martinez-Picado
    IrsiCaixa Foundation, University Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Barcelona, Spain
    J Virol 80:3617-23. 2006
    ..nature of escape variation resulting from these tight functional constraints indicate that p24 Gag may be a critical immunogen in vaccine design and suggest novel vaccination strategies to limit viral escape options from such epitopes.
  30. ncbi Original antigenic sin and apoptosis in the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever
    Juthathip Mongkolsapaya
    MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DS, UK
    Nat Med 9:921-7. 2003
    ....
  31. pmc Oxidation-specific epitopes are dominant targets of innate natural antibodies in mice and humans
    Meng Yun Chou
    Department of Medicine, UCSD, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:1335-49. 2009
    ..Adaptive immune responses to various oxidation-specific epitopes play an important role in atherogenesis...
  32. pmc Neutralizing antibody responses in acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C infection
    E S Gray
    AIDS Virus Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Private Bag X4, Sandringham 2131, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Virol 81:6187-96. 2007
    ..were detected in 4 of 14 individuals within a year of infection, while antibodies to CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes developed to high titers in 12 participants, in most cases before the development of autologous neutralizing ..
  33. ncbi Cardiolipin polyspecific autoreactivity in two broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies
    Barton F Haynes
    Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Science 308:1906-8. 2005
    ..may not induce these types of antibodies because of autoantigen mimicry of the conserved membrane-proximal epitopes of the virus...
  34. ncbi Evolutionary and immunological implications of contemporary HIV-1 variation
    B Korber
    Division of Theoretical Biology and Biophysics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 98545, USA
    Br Med Bull 58:19-42. 2001
    ..The impact of HIV-1 variation on host immune response is reviewed in this context...
  35. pmc Structural basis of immune evasion at the site of CD4 attachment on HIV-1 gp120
    Lei Chen
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 326:1123-7. 2009
    ..This incompatibility, the consequence of slight differences in CD4BS recognition, renders HIV-1 resistant to all but the most accurately targeted antibodies...
  36. pmc Envelope deglycosylation enhances antigenicity of HIV-1 gp41 epitopes for both broad neutralizing antibodies and their unmutated ancestor antibodies
    Ben Jiang Ma
    Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002200. 2011
    ..binding to gp140 Env may not always be due to lack of unmutated ancestor antibody reactivity with gp41 peptide epitopes, but rather, may be due to glycan interference of binding of unmutated ancestor antibodies of broad neutralizing ..
  37. pmc HIV-1 neutralization coverage is improved by combining monoclonal antibodies that target independent epitopes
    Nicole A Doria-Rose
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    J Virol 86:3393-7. 2012
    ..We analyzed the interaction of MAbs to two independent epitopes on the viral envelope glycoprotein...
  38. pmc Structure-guided alterations of the gp41-directed HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody 2F5 reveal new properties regarding its neutralizing function
    Javier Guenaga
    IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center at The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002806. 2012
    ..The data suggest a new mechanism of action, important for vaccine design, in which the 2F5 CDRH3 contacts and destabilizes the MPER helix downstream of its core epitope to allow induction of the extended-loop conformation...
  39. pmc Human monoclonal antibodies to a novel cluster of conformational epitopes on HCV E2 with resistance to neutralization escape in a genotype 2a isolate
    Zhen Yong Keck
    Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002653. 2012
    The majority of broadly neutralizing antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) are against conformational epitopes on the E2 glycoprotein...
  40. pmc Cross-reactive HIV-1-neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies identified from a patient with 2F5-like antibodies
    Zhongyu Zhu
    National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland 21702 1201, USA
    J Virol 85:11401-8. 2011
    ....
  41. pmc Structure of respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein in the postfusion conformation reveals preservation of neutralizing epitopes
    Jason S McLellan
    Vaccine Research Center, NIAID NIH, 40 Convent Drive, Bldg 40, Rm 2613B, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 85:7788-96. 2011
    ..The structure revealed that the 101F and motavizumab epitopes are present in the postfusion state and that their conformations are similar to those observed in the antibody-..
  42. ncbi Envelope-constrained neutralization-sensitive HIV-1 after heterosexual transmission
    Cynthia A Derdeyn
    Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 USA
    Science 303:2019-22. 2004
    ..Thus, the exposure of neutralizing epitopes, which are lost in chronic infection because of immune escape, appears to be favored in the newly infected host...
  43. pmc Oxidation-specific epitopes are danger-associated molecular patterns recognized by pattern recognition receptors of innate immunity
    Yury I Miller
    Department of Medicine MC0682, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Circ Res 108:235-48. 2011
    ..they also produce reactive oxygen species, which damage lipids, proteins and DNA, generating "oxidation-specific" epitopes. In this review, we discuss the hypothesis that such common oxidation-specific epitopes are a major target of ..
  44. ncbi HIV-1 evades antibody-mediated neutralization through conformational masking of receptor-binding sites
    Peter D Kwong
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 420:678-82. 2002
    ..Because this solution is available for cell-surface receptors but not for most antibodies, conformational masking enables HIV-1 to maintain receptor binding and simultaneously to resist neutralization...
  45. pmc Induction of epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus
    Theodore Oliphant
    Departments of Medicine, Molecular Microbiology, and Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 81:11828-39. 2007
    ..virus particles, we evaluated the expression pattern and activity of antibodies against the DIII-lr and DII-fl epitopes in mouse and human serum after WNV infection...
  46. ncbi Predicting the evolution of human influenza A
    R M Bush
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Science 286:1921-5. 1999
    ..However, not all codons in these sites had predictive value. Monitoring new H3 isolates for additional changes in positively selected codons might help identify the most fit extant viral strains that arise during antigenic drift...
  47. pmc NetMHC-3.0: accurate web accessible predictions of human, mouse and monkey MHC class I affinities for peptides of length 8-11
    Claus Lundegaard
    CBS, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark DTU, Kemitorvet Build 208, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
    Nucleic Acids Res 36:W509-12. 2008
    ..Here, the performance is further validated and benchmarked using a large set of newly published affinity data, non-redundant to the training set. The server is free of use and available at: http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHC...
  48. pmc Antigen sensitivity is a major determinant of CD8+ T-cell polyfunctionality and HIV-suppressive activity
    Jorge R Almeida
    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité, Hopital Pitie Salpetriere, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France
    Blood 113:6351-60. 2009
    ....
  49. ncbi Computation-guided backbone grafting of a discontinuous motif onto a protein scaffold
    Mihai L Azoitei
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Science 334:373-6. 2011
    ..The method can be generalized to design other functional proteins through backbone grafting...
  50. pmc Analysis of epitopes on dengue virus envelope protein recognized by monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal human sera by a high throughput assay
    Hong En Lin
    Institute of Microbiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6:e1447. 2012
    ..While previous studies on domain III or domain I/II alone have reported several epitopes of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against DENV E protein, the possibility of interdomain epitopes and the ..
  51. pmc Quantitative assessment shows loss of antigenic epitopes as a function of pre-analytic variables
    Yalai Bai
    Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
    Lab Invest 91:1253-61. 2011
    ..Both series were analyzed by quantitative immunofluorescence using the AQUA® method. Epitopes phospho-ERK, total ERK, phospho-AKT, total AKT, phospho-S6K1, total S6K1, estrogen receptor (ER), Ki67, ..
  52. pmc Reverse vaccinology: developing vaccines in the era of genomics
    Alessandro Sette
    La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, San Diego, CA 92130, USA
    Immunity 33:530-41. 2010
    ..targets in bacteria, parasites, and large viruses and revealed virtually all their CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell epitopes. The genomic information was first used for the development of a vaccine against serogroup B meningococcus, and ..
  53. ncbi Crystal structure of a neutralizing human IGG against HIV-1: a template for vaccine design
    E O Saphire
    Department of Molecular Biology, Department of Immunology, The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 293:1155-9. 2001
    ..The structure, together with mutagenesis studies, provides a rationale for the extensive cross-reactivity of b12 and a valuable framework for the design of HIV-1 vaccines capable of eliciting b12-like activity...
  54. ncbi Crystal structure of glycoprotein B from herpes simplex virus 1
    Ekaterina E Heldwein
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 320 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 313:217-20. 2006
    ..The domain connectivity within a gB monomer would permit such a rearrangement, including long-range translocations linked to viral and cellular membranes...
  55. pmc Neutralization of West Nile virus by cross-linking of its surface proteins with Fab fragments of the human monoclonal antibody CR4354
    Bärbel Kaufmann
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 2054, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:18950-5. 2010
    ....
  56. pmc Intraprotomer masking of third variable loop (V3) epitopes by the first and second variable loops (V1V2) within the native HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer
    Li Liu
    Laboratories of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:20148-53. 2011
    ..loop (V3) of the gp120 subunit play dual roles in antibody recognition, because they contain neutralization epitopes and also participate in epitope masking...
  57. ncbi Pneumococcal vaccination decreases atherosclerotic lesion formation: molecular mimicry between Streptococcus pneumoniae and oxidized LDL
    Christoph J Binder
    Divisions of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0682 USA
    Nat Med 9:736-43. 2003
    During the progression of atherosclerosis, autoantibodies are induced to epitopes of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and active immunization of hypercholesterolemic mice with oxLDL ameliorates atherogenesis...
  58. pmc Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells recognize conserved epitopes associated with apoptosis and oxidation
    Rosa Catera
    Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore LIJ Health System, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Mol Med 14:665-74. 2008
    ..Since apoptosis can make autoantigens accessible for recognition by antibodies, and also create neo-epitopes by chemical modifications occurring naturally during this process, we sought to determine if CLL mAbs recognize ..
  59. pmc Elicitation of structure-specific antibodies by epitope scaffolds
    Gilad Ofek
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:17880-7. 2010
    ..Epitope scaffolds thus provide a means to elicit antibodies that recognize a predetermined target shape and sequence, even if that shape is transient in nature, and a means by which to dissect factors influencing such elicitation...
  60. pmc Variable loop glycan dependency of the broad and potent HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies PG9 and PG16
    Katie J Doores
    Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Virol 84:10510-21. 2010
    ..This information may be valuable for the design of immunogens to elicit PG9 and PG16-like antibodies, as well as constructs for cocrystallization studies...
  61. pmc SEPPA: a computational server for spatial epitope prediction of protein antigens
    Jing Sun
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
    Nucleic Acids Res 37:W612-6. 2009
    ..The web server can be accessed at http://lifecenter.sgst.cn/seppa/index.php. Batch query is supported...
  62. pmc Conserved epitopes of influenza A virus inducing protective immunity and their prospects for universal vaccine development
    Zuzana Staneková
    Institute of Virology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
    Virol J 7:351. 2010
    ..Combination of chosen conserved antigens inducing cross-protective antibody response with epitopes activating also cross-protective cytotoxic T-cells would offer an attractive strategy for improving protection ..
  63. pmc Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeted to the membrane-proximal external region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein gp41
    M B Zwick
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Virol 75:10892-905. 2001
    ..Despite the apparent linear nature of the epitopes of Z13 and 4E10, denaturation of recombinant envelope protein reduces the binding of these MAbs, suggesting some ..
  64. pmc Localization and characterization of flavivirus envelope glycoprotein cross-reactive epitopes
    Wayne D Crill
    Arbovirus Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U S Department of Health and Human Services, P O Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    J Virol 78:13975-86. 2004
    ..An understanding of flavivirus E-glycoprotein cross-reactive epitopes is therefore critical for improving public health responses to these serious diseases...
  65. ncbi Identification of neutralizing linear epitopes from the VP1 capsid protein of Enterovirus 71 using synthetic peptides
    Damian Guang Wei Foo
    Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
    Virus Res 125:61-8. 2007
    ..Altogether, these data indicate that SP70 represents a promising candidate for an effective synthetic peptide-based vaccine against EV71...
  66. pmc Broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to the hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein
    Ania M Owsianka
    Institute of Virology, University of Glasgow, Church Street, Glasgow G11 5JR, UK
    J Gen Virol 89:653-9. 2008
    ..We previously isolated human monoclonal antibodies to conformational epitopes on the HCV E2 glycoprotein...
  67. ncbi Autoimmunity to specific citrullinated proteins gives the first clues to the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis
    Natalia Wegner
    The Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Immunol Rev 233:34-54. 2010
    ..Thus, both smoking and Porphyromonas gingivalis are attractive etiological agents for further investigation into the gene/environment/autoimmunity triad of RA...
  68. pmc B-cell-lineage immunogen design in vaccine development with HIV-1 as a case study
    Barton F Haynes
    Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA
    Nat Biotechnol 30:423-33. 2012
    Failure of immunization with the HIV-1 envelope to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies against conserved epitopes is a major barrier to producing a preventive HIV-1 vaccine...
  69. pmc A broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conserved, novel epitope on the globular head of the influenza H1N1 virus hemagglutinin
    Jens C Krause
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    J Virol 85:10905-8. 2011
    The conserved influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) stem domain elicits cross-reactive antibodies, but epitopes in the globular head typically elicit strain-specific responses because of the hypervariability of this region...
  70. pmc Heterosubtypic antibody recognition of the influenza virus hemagglutinin receptor binding site enhanced by avidity
    Peter S Lee
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:17040-5. 2012
    ....
  71. pmc Potent and broad neutralization of HIV-1 by a llama antibody elicited by immunization
    Laura E McCoy
    Wohl Virion Centre, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, England, UK
    J Exp Med 209:1091-103. 2012
    ..This study may represent a new benchmark for immunogens to be included in B cell-based vaccines and supports the development of VHH as anti-HIV-1 microbicides...
  72. ncbi Human antibodies to recombinant protein constructs of Plasmodium falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1) and their associations with protection from malaria
    Spencer D Polley
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
    Vaccine 23:718-28. 2004
    ..with the FVO and 3D7 allele constructs showed that antibodies can recognise either conserved or allele-specific epitopes in AMA1...
  73. pmc Toward a hepatitis C virus vaccine: the structural basis of hepatitis C virus neutralization by AP33, a broadly neutralizing antibody
    Jane A Potter
    Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, United Kingdom
    J Virol 86:12923-32. 2012
    ..Consequently, there is great interest in NAbs that target conserved epitopes. One such NAb is AP33, a mouse monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conserved, linear epitope on E2 and potently ..
  74. ncbi Mechanism of dengue virus broad cross-neutralization by a monoclonal antibody
    Joseph J B Cockburn
    Unité de Virologie Structurale, Departement de Virologie, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Structure 20:303-14. 2012
    ..The structures also highlight the mechanism by which A-strand Mabs disrupt the architecture of the mature virion, inducing premature fusion loop exposure and concomitant particle inactivation...
  75. ncbi Cross-presentation of epitopes on virus-like particles via the MHC I receptor recycling pathway
    Stephanie J Win
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Otago School of Medical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Immunol Cell Biol 89:681-8. 2011
    ..Finally, we found that cross-presentation of VLPs in vivo was not confined to CD8α(+) DC subsets. These data define the cross-presentation pathway for RHDV VLPs and may lead to improved cancer immunotherapies...
  76. ncbi Novel combinations of Post-Translational Modification (PTM) neo-epitopes provide tissue-specific biochemical markers--are they the cause or the consequence of the disease?
    Morten Asser Karsdal
    Nordic Bioscience A S, Herlev Hovedgade 207, DK 2730, Denmark
    Clin Biochem 43:793-804. 2010
    ..of this review is to discuss the potential usefulness of novel advances in the class of biochemical markers, neo-epitopes. Neo-epitopes are post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins formed by processes such as protease ..
  77. pmc High-mannose glycan-dependent epitopes are frequently targeted in broad neutralizing antibody responses during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection
    Christy L Lavine
    Division of Viral Pathogenesis, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    J Virol 86:2153-64. 2012
    ..Clearly defining the nature of BNAb epitopes on HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) targeted in vivo is critical for future directions of anti-HIV-1 vaccine ..
  78. pmc High-functional-avidity cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to HLA-B-restricted Gag-derived epitopes associated with relative HIV control
    Christoph T Berger
    AIDS Research Institute, Fundació irsiCaixa HIVACAT, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Ctra del Canyet s n, 08916 Badalona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
    J Virol 85:9334-45. 2011
    ..we measured the functional avidities of HIV-specific CTL responses targeting 20 different, optimally defined CTL epitopes restricted by 13 different HLA class I alleles in a cohort comprising 44 HIV controllers and 68 HIV ..
  79. pmc IL-5 links adaptive and natural immunity specific for epitopes of oxidized LDL and protects from atherosclerosis
    Christoph J Binder
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla 92093 0682, USA
    J Clin Invest 114:427-37. 2004
    ..These epitopes are recognized by both adaptive T cell-dependent (TD) and innate T cell-independent type 2 (TI-2) immune ..
  80. pmc Naturally occurring antibodies in humans can neutralize a variety of influenza virus strains, including H3, H1, H2, and H5
    Nobuko Ohshima
    Division of Antibody Project, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Aichi 470 1192, Japan
    J Virol 85:11048-57. 2011
    ..The possible epitope recognized by these clones is discussed...
  81. pmc Isolation of a human anti-HIV gp41 membrane proximal region neutralizing antibody by antigen-specific single B cell sorting
    Lynn Morris
    Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e23532. 2011
    ..These data indicate that there are multiple immunogenic targets in the C-terminus of the MPER of HIV-1 gp41 envelope and suggests that gp41 neutralizing epitopes may interact with a restricted set of naive B cells during HIV-1 infection.
  82. pmc Antibody mechanics on a membrane-bound HIV segment essential for GP41-targeted viral neutralization
    Mikyung Kim
    Laboratory of Immunobiology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 18:1235-43. 2011
    ..These epitopes can be engrafted onto protein scaffolds to serve as immunogens with high structural fidelity...
  83. pmc Structure and mechanistic analysis of the anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody 2F5 in complex with its gp41 epitope
    Gilad Ofek
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Instiutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 78:10724-37. 2004
    ..Based on these structural and biochemical results, immunization strategies for eliciting 2F5- and 4E10-like broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies are proposed...
  84. pmc Hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1 modulates receptor interactions, conceals the CD81 binding site, and protects conserved neutralizing epitopes
    Dorothea Bankwitz
    Division of Experimental Virology, TWINCORE Center for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research, Feodor Lynen Strasse 7 9, 30625 Hannover, Germany
    J Virol 84:5751-63. 2010
    ..Moreover, they indicate that HVR1 obstructs the viral CD81 binding site and conserved neutralizing epitopes. These functions likely optimize virus replication, facilitate immune escape, and thus foster establishment and ..
  85. pmc Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II alleles, haplotypes and epitopes which confer susceptibility or protection in systemic sclerosis: analyses in 1300 Caucasian, African-American and Hispanic cases and 1000 controls
    Frank C Arnett
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston UTHSC H, 6431 Fannin Street, MSB 5 270, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Ann Rheum Dis 69:822-7. 2010
    ..human leucocyte antigen-class II (HLA-class II) (DRB1, DQB1, DQA1 and DPB1) alleles, haplotypes and shared epitopes associated with scleroderma (systemic sclerosis (SSc)) and its subphenotypes in a large multi-ethnic US cohort by ..
  86. pmc Stable docking of neutralizing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 membrane-proximal external region monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 4E10 is dependent on the membrane immersion depth of their epitope regions
    S Moses Dennison
    Human Vaccine Institute, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Virol 83:10211-23. 2009
    ..virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp41 involves both the viral membrane and gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER) epitopes. In this study, we have used several biophysical tools to examine the secondary structure, orientation, and depth ..
  87. pmc Genetic impact of vaccination on breakthrough HIV-1 sequences from the STEP trial
    Morgane Rolland
    Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Nat Med 17:366-71. 2011
    ..whether the vaccine exerted selective T cell pressure on breakthrough viruses, we identified potential T cell epitopes in the founder sequences and compared them to epitopes in the vaccine...
  88. pmc Aromatic residues at the edge of the antibody combining site facilitate viral glycoprotein recognition through membrane interactions
    Erin M Scherer
    Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:1529-34. 2010
    ....
  89. ncbi A natural antibody to oxidized cardiolipin binds to oxidized low-density lipoprotein, apoptotic cells, and atherosclerotic lesions
    Anu Tuominen
    Department of Internal Medicine and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Finland
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26:2096-102. 2006
    ..To determine the immunogenicity and origins of oxCL in vivo, we cloned a natural antibody to oxCL...
  90. pmc Tyrosine sulfation is required for agonist recognition by glycoprotein hormone receptors
    S Costagliola
    I R I B H N and Department of Medical Genetics, ULB, 808 Lennik Street, B 1070 Brussels, Belgium
    EMBO J 21:504-13. 2002
    ..Site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicate that the motif, which is conserved in all members of the glycoprotein hormone receptor family, seems to play a similar role in the LH/CG and FSH receptors...
  91. ncbi A novel assay for extracellular matrix remodeling associated with liver fibrosis: An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for a MMP-9 proteolytically revealed neo-epitope of type III collagen
    N Barascuk
    Nordic Bioscience A S, Herlev, Denmark
    Clin Biochem 43:899-904. 2010
    ..Accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and increased matrix-metalloprotease (MMPs) activity are hallmarks of fibrosis. We developed an ELISA for quantification of MMP-9 derived collagen type III (CO3) degradation...
  92. pmc Diabetogenic T cells recognize insulin bound to IAg7 in an unexpected, weakly binding register
    Brian D Stadinski
    Integrated Department of Immunology, University of Colorado and National Jewish Health, Denver, CO 80206, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:10978-83. 2010
    ..Our findings suggest that the association of autoimmunity with particular MHCII alleles may be do to poorer, rather than more favorable, binding of the critical self-epitopes, allowing T-cell escape from thymic deletion.
  93. pmc Cross-reactive CD8+ T-cell immunity between the pandemic H1N1-2009 and H1N1-1918 influenza A viruses
    Stephanie Gras
    Protein Crystallography Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:12599-604. 2010
    ..with the A(H1N1)-2009 virus, however, elicits CD8(+) T cells specific for the 2009-NP(418) and 1918-NP(418) epitopes. This analysis points to the potential importance of cross-reactive T-cell populations that cover the possible ..
  94. pmc Conformational changes induced in the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein by soluble CD4 binding
    Q J Sattentau
    Academic Department of Genito Urinary Medicine, University College and Middlesex School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    J Exp Med 174:407-15. 1991
    ..are coordinate with the dissociation of gp120/sCD4 complexes from gp41, and the increased exposure of gp41 epitopes. At 4 degrees C, gp120 dissociation from the cell surface does not occur, but increased exposure of both gp120/V3 ..
  95. pmc Pre-existing immunity against swine-origin H1N1 influenza viruses in the general human population
    Jason A Greenbaum
    Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:20365-70. 2009
    ..we examined the molecular basis for pre-existing immunity against S-OIV, namely the recognition of viral immune epitopes by T cells or B cells/antibodies that have been previously primed by circulating influenza strains...
  96. pmc Humoral immune responses of dengue fever patients using epitope-specific serotype-2 virus-like particle antigens
    Wayne D Crill
    Arbovirus Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Service, Fort Collins, CO, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e4991. 2009
    ..DENV-2 envelope (E) protein epitope-specific antigens and measure immunoglobulin responses to three distinct epitopes in DENV-2 infected human serum samples...
  97. pmc Differential neutralization efficiency of hemagglutinin epitopes, antibody interference, and the design of influenza vaccines
    Wilfred Ndifon
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:8701-6. 2009
    ..gained from the model, together with genetic and structural data, we predict that amino acid mutations to epitopes C and E of the HA of influenza A/H3N2 viruses could lead on average to an increase in the neutralization of the ..
  98. ncbi A new variant of glycoprotein CD44 confers metastatic potential to rat carcinoma cells
    U Gunthert
    Institut fur Genetik, Universitat Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany
    Cell 65:13-24. 1991
    ..Overexpression of pMeta-1 in the nonmetastasizing BSp73AS cells suffices to establish full metastatic behavior...
  99. pmc Induction of antibodies in rhesus macaques that recognize a fusion-intermediate conformation of HIV-1 gp41
    S Moses Dennison
    Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e27824. 2011
    ..Nonetheless, the Env-liposome prime-boost immunization strategy induced antibodies that recognized a gp41 fusion intermediate protein and was successful in focusing the antibody response to the desired epitope...
  100. ncbi Passive protection against lethal enterovirus 71 infection in newborn mice by neutralizing antibodies elicited by a synthetic peptide
    Damian Guang Wei Foo
    Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, MD4A, 5 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117597, Singapore
    Microbes Infect 9:1299-306. 2007
    ..In conclusion, EV71-neutralizing antibodies elicited by the synthetic peptide SP70 were able to confer good in vivo passive protection against homologous and heterologous EV71 strains in suckling Balb/c mice...
  101. pmc Monoclonal autoantibodies specific for oxidized phospholipids or oxidized phospholipid-protein adducts inhibit macrophage uptake of oxidized low-density lipoproteins
    S Horkko
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0682
    J Clin Invest 103:117-28. 1999
    We recently cloned monoclonal IgM autoantibodies which bind to epitopes of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) from apoE-deficient mice (EO- autoantibodies)...

Research Grants74

  1. Variation in M. tuberculosis in response to host selection
    Sarah Fortune; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In these studies, we expect to provide fundamental insights into the mechanisms and targets of diversifying immune selection in M. tuberculosis. ..
  2. Vaccine Development for Falciparum Malaria in Pregnant Women and Their Offspring
    Ian C Michelow; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to implement innovative phage-based molecular screening strategies, select and test optimal malaria vaccine epitopes, cultivate and genetically manipulate malaria parasites, perform cell-based infection assays, interrogate the ..
  3. Importance of antigen specific immunoglobulin responses in controlling SIV/SHIV i
    Bapi Pahar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will also be able to identify major IgA, IgG and IgM specific B cell epitopes and their role in differentiating the immune responses of SIV inoculated protected and unprotected macaques...
  4. Biology and Pathologies of Type V Collagen
    Daniel S Greenspan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..induction of abnormal 11(V)3 homotrimers and subsequent monocyte/macrophage-dependent presentation of 11(V) epitopes to Th17 T cells underlies both OB and atherosclerosis...
  5. Cellular Immunity to Category A-C Viruses in Humans
    ROBERT WILLIAM FINBERG; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Project 4 will analyze the mechanisms underlying the selection of immunodominant epitopes from large DMA viruses, including poxviruses and herpesviruses (HHV-6)...
  6. Recombinant Attenuated Salmonella Vaccines for Humans
    Roy Curtiss; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..in the immunized individual to deliver hepatitis B virus (HBV) core particles with fused preS1, preS2 and T-cell epitopes and a DNA vaccine encoding small S antigen for synthesis in cells of the immunized host with features to enable ..
  7. Cell signaling as a leukemia biomarker
    JAMES WILLIAM JACOBBERGER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is stimulation of unfractionated bone marrow aspirates with cytokines and measuring the fine kinetics of modified epitopes on signaling proteins by immunofluorescence flow cytometry...
  8. Development of Vaccines against Clostridium difficile Infection
    SAUL R TZIPORI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Preliminary studies showed that atoxic TcdB vaccination induced antibody responses against a wide-spectrum of epitopes and potent protective immunity superior to toxoid;cTxAB immunization induced antibody and protective responses ..
  9. Novel Bioconjugate Vaccines to Prevent Staphylococcus aureus Infection
    JEAN CLAIRE LEE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are conjugated to known protective peptides without denaturing the protein carrier, thus conserving B cell epitopes. This approach paves the way for the biosynthesis of previously unattainable vaccine materials in a cost ..
  10. Novel Reagents and Methods for Rapid and High Throughput Detection of Aflatoxin C
    ALAN AI PING WEI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Usually, sandwich immunoassays of small molecules are not possible due to their lack of multiple epitopes. Recently, our collaborator Professor Hammock's group at UC Davis discovered several peptides from phage ..
  11. Mechanisms of Neutralizing Antibody Resistance in Chronic HCV and HIV Infection
    JUSTIN RICHARD BAILEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, rare infected individuals develop broad nAb responses, and nAb escape mutations in some epitopes may convey significant fitness cost to the virus...
  12. INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE TO MICROBIAL INFECTION
    William M Nauseef; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tularensis. As a corollary, we hypothesize that epitopes on CLM may elicit protective immunity, a concept supported by our data demonstrating that an anti-CLM murine ..
  13. Development of a Recombinant Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine Based on a Subunit Envelo
    Lynda G Tussey; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Based on recent findings of neutralizing epitopes of human polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, we have generated backup subunit flagellin-E vaccines that include ..
  14. ANIMAL MODELS OF HYPERTHYROIDISM
    Sandra M McLachlan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Mice without infiltrates lack these antibodies. Moreover, TSHR autoantibody and T cell epitopes are highly restricted...
  15. Carbohydrate-based Antiinfective Agents
    Chi Huey Wong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are also targets of the adaptive immune response, which can generate neutralizing antibodies to antigenic protein epitopes, particularly with HA...
  16. Yale Autoimmunity Center of Excellence
    Kevan C Herold; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Two Clinical trial concepts are proposed: A Phase I trial of a fusion protein containing autoantigenic epitopes for treatment of patients with Type 1 diabetes, and a Phase II trial of antip40 mAb CNTO 1275 (Ustekinumab) for ..
  17. Gold Nanoparticle Assisted Delivery of Cancer Vaccines and Immune Stimulants
    Adam Lin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..for unknown class II peptides situations, peptide pools will be used to incorporate both class I and class II epitopes. In aim 3, CpG, a known inflammatory stimulant used for cancer immunotherapy, on AuNPs will be combined with ..
  18. Autoimmunity in the Mediation of Infectious Myocarditis
    Jay Reddy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Panel of mimicry epitopes identified from the CVB proteome are capable of inducing pathogenic cross-reactive T cells for three cardiac ..
  19. Moraxella catarrhalis: virulence-based prevention
    Timothy F Murphy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Aim 1, we will investigate OppA and related transporter as virulence factors. We showed that OppA expresses epitopes on the bacterial surface, a surprising observation for a predicted soluble periplasmic protein...
  20. Protective orthopox immunization in normals and patients with cancer or eczema
    Ellis Reinherz; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..vaccinology, virology, immunology, cutaneous biology, structure and bioinformatics to identify critical orthopox epitopes affording protective human immunity...
  21. Translational Immunology Research and Accelerated [vaccine] Development (TRIAD)
    ANNE SEARLS DEGROOT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will maximize payload quantity using validated immunoinformatics tools that permit selection of optimal T cell epitopes that are highly conserved and immunogenic...
  22. Epigenetic programming of brain development by choline nutrition
    Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..by microarray analysis and 3) chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with antibodies against different methylated epitopes on specific lysine residues of histone 3 (e.g. H3K9me2;H3K4me1;H3K4me3) followed microarray analysis (ChIP-chip)...
  23. Novel Therapeutic Vaccines for Chronic HBV
    ROBERT GERALD WHALEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We hypothesize that mixtures of variant HBsAg proteins containing xenogeneic hepadnavirus T epitopes will prime helper T cells and CTLs to recognize the viral protein in chronically infected individuals, which ..
  24. Anti-Phospholipid Multiplex For Pathologic Epitopes
    Paul O Neilsen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..phospholipids to create chemically defined homogenous surfaces towards the goal of determining pathogenic epitopes and characterizing the clinically relevant antibodies that bind to these determinants...
  25. IMMUNOLOGY OF UNIQUE TUMOR SPECIFIC ANTIGENS
    Hans Schreiber; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..lung, prostate, ovary and pancreas) have defects in O-linked glycosylation thereby generating tumor-specific epitopes on surface glycoproteins of cancer cells...
  26. Development of New Molecular Probes for Diagnostic Imaging of Atherosclerosis
    KAREN CATHERIN BRILEY SAEBO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Since OxLDL is immunogenic, autoantibodies that specifically bind oxidation-specific epitopes have been isolated from mice (MDA2 and E06) and humans (IK17)...
  27. Gutless Adenovirus Mediated Gene Therapy for Glioma
    Maria G Castro; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..through the phosphorylation of the prodrug GCV (GCV) induces tumor cell death, making potentially antigenic tumor epitopes available to the DCs recruited to the brain...
  28. Crossprotective CTL Against Influenza
    Ellis L Reinherz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and proteomics to explore the potential to elicit protective CDS T cell responses against 153 conserved epitopes derived from 5,315 sets of influenza A taxonomy data covering all internal and surface viral proteins and ..
  29. PA-50/PA-41 antitoxin antibody therapy for C. difficile infection
    William C Olson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..have generated highly potent humanized mAbs, designated PA-50 and PA-41 that are directed to novel neutralization epitopes on toxins A and B, respectively...
  30. GENETIC ASPECTS OF DNA METHYLATION
    Eric U Selker; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..antibodies specific for modified histones and other relevant epitopes and 5. powerful analytical methods (e.g...
  31. Antibody Mediated Autoimmunity in Neuromyelitis Optica
    HANS CHRISTIAN VON BUEDINGEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To address this hypothesis, we will first delineate the repertoire of AQP4 epitopes recognized by a.) recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rAbs) generated from CSF plasma cells, and by b...
  32. Hepatitis C: Studies of Immunity and Pathogenesis
    Charles Rice; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The nAb responses and the HCV epitopes they recognize will be defined and used to establish a database of conserved neutralization determinants that can ..
  33. Innate Regulation and CD4+Th1/17 Immunity in TMEV-Induced Demyelination
    Stephen D Miller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our previous studies have shown that demyelination is initiated by virus-specific CD4+ T cells targeting viral epitopes presented by persistently infected CNS- resident APCs...
  34. GENE THERAPEUTIC APPROACH FOR TOLERANCE INDUCTION
    DAVID WILLIAM SCOTT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..last decade, we created a platform technology that can be used for gene therapy to induce tolerance to multiple epitopes. In our model, LPS-activated B cells are transduced via retroviral vectors to express an Ig fusion protein with ..
  35. Key determinants of dengue virus neutralization by naturally occurring human mAbs
    Scott A Smith; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Understanding the epitopes and activity of these naturally-occurring antibodies is critical for vaccine development, as vaccines that induce ..
  36. Photocrosslinking characterization of heat-labile toxin glycoreceptors
    Amberlyn M Wands; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..accommodate glycoconjugates carrying terminal N- acetyllactosamine (Gal[unreadable]1-4GlcNAc[unreadable]1-3-R) epitopes (albeit with significantly weaker affinity)...
  37. Mechanisms of Race-Based Differences in Factor VIII Immunogenicity in Hemophilia
    KATHLEEN PALMER PRATT; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..directly the hypothesis that amino acid sequences encoded by F8 loci containing ns-SNPs comprise immunodominant epitopes that, when allogeneically mismatched, stimulate T cells of HA patients...
  38. Chemistry and biology of protein histidine phosphorylation
    Tom Muir; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The specific aims of this proposal are: (i) To develop a suite of antibodies against pHis epitopes with uses in the area of chromatin biology and beyond;(ii) To characterize the H4 histidine kinase and to ..
  39. Humoral and cellular immunity in polyomavirus-linked Merkel cell carcinoma
    Paul Nghiem; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Therefore, in collaboration with Dr. David Koelle, in Aim 2 we will comprehensively map T cell epitopes/MHC restriction for MCPyV oncoproteins, develop peptide-MHC reagents, and use them to characterize the frequency ..
  40. Effector and Memory Anti-Malaria CD8+ Cell Responses
    FIDEL P ZAVALA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will be facilitated by the availability of TCR transgenic mice and transgenic parasites expressing model CD8 epitopes developed in my laboratory...
  41. Malaria vaccines modified with TLR agonist adjuvant
    Elizabeth H Nardin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..by fusing flagellin to full-length circumsporozoite (CS) protein or to well-defined, functional T and B cell epitopes of CS...
  42. Development of Cross Protective H5 Hemagglutinin Antigens
    Susan C Bock; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These conserved "secondary" epitopes are more likely to be preserved in future epidemic (and possibly pandemic) strains, than are the actively ..
  43. A novel vaccine to prevent HCV infection and hence liver cancer
    Ellen S Vitetta; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..My hypothesis is that new vaccines against HCV can be generated based entirely on selecting synthetic B cell epitopes recognized by already-existing neutralizing monoclonal anti-HCV antibodies that we are fortunate to have...
  44. Mechanisms of Gene Regulation by EBV EBNA-1 Protein
    Jeffery T Sample; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of persistence, while precluding those with acute transforming properties and/or which encode dominant epitopes recognized by the EBV-specific T-cell surveillance...
  45. Infant immunoprophylaxis against a primate lentivirus
    RUTH MARGRIT RUPRECHT; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our oral R5 SHIV challenge model has a dual function: 1) to determine protective epitopes using passive immunization with brnmAbs, and 2) to develop immunoprophylaxis for intrapartum HIV transmission and ..
  46. EGFRvIII in Pancreatic Cancer
    Maneesh Jain; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..an attractive target for targeted therapy due to its tumor-restricted expression and presence of unique antigenic epitopes. In this grant application, we propose to investigate EGFRvIII's expression in pancreatic tumors (various ..
  47. Bacterial peptidylarginine deiminase, a link between gums and joint disease
    JAN S POTEMPA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..conditions in the lungs of cigarette smokers contributes to the breakdown of immune tolerance to citrullinated epitopes, chronic exposure to citrullinated proteins at periodontitis sites may also predispose susceptible individuals to ..
  48. Immunogenicity of the Type IV Secretin System
    WENDY CATHERINE BROWN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The requirement for linked recognition of T and B lymphocyte epitopes on unique but naturally complexed proteins will necessarily differ for individuals expressing different MHC class ..
  49. Reactivity epitopes of ribonuclease III substrates
    ALLEN WHITALL NICHOLSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  50. T cell immunity to influenza virus in the aged nasal mucosa
    Bas Baaten; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, vaccine strategies that mimic natural infection and induce T cell responses to conserved epitopes, such as cold-adapted live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV), would be advantageous...
  51. Translating CNS therapies for the NCLs from rodent models to humans
    Beverly L Davidson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In a second series of the studies, we identified peptide epitopes that homed to the brain, and cloned these epitopes into the AAV capsid...
  52. Surrogate endpoints for correlating protective immunity in response to influenza
    Gary Fujii; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..influenza that combines a unilamellar liposome carrier with a recombinant protein expressing specific antigenic epitopes. The recombinant protein immunogen incorporates a conserved N-terminal sequence of the structural M2 protein ..
  53. Genetics &Biology of M. catarrhalis LOS in Otitis Media
    Anthony A Campagnari; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e. Neisseria meningitidis, N. gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus influenzae. More importantly, these common carbohydrate epitopes are involved in virulence, i.e. adherence, biofilm formation and serum resistance...
  54. STUDIES ON THE STRUCTURE OF BASEMENT MEMBRANES
    BILLY GERALD HUDSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We hypothesis that complete epitopes for 13NC1-specific GP autoantibodies encompass the EA/EB regions and but extend outside of these regions and are ..
  55. Benaroya Research Institute/UCDHSC Autoimmune Cooperative Study Group
    George S Eisenbarth; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..cadaveric donors (a program planned to be international JDRF/NIH effort), defined a series of tetramer epitopes in type 1 diabetes and regulation of expression or tetramer positive T cells, discovered a remarkable risk of ..
  56. Genome-wide Identification of Minor Histocompatibility Antigens
    Shoudan Liang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..reduced because the enrichment of leukemia-specific T cells dilutes the T cells with specificities to all other epitopes, including those that cause GVHD...
  57. Geographically robust rapid assay for T. cruzi infection
    SYAMAL X RAYCHAUDHURI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This recombinant contains TcF (currently used in Abbott assay and contains four different repeating epitopes) fused with five additional peptide epitopes and has been employed as the central diagnostic target antigen...
  58. Id3/B Lymphocytes and Atherosclerosis
    Coleen A McNamara; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..have been detected in atherosclerotic plaques and titers of antibodies against various oxidized LDL (oxLDL) epitopes have been described17 . 19 " 20...
  59. Generation and Evaluation of KSHV VLPs as Vaccines
    GARY S contact HAYWARD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..has the additional advantage of not only likely providing much new data discovery about novel KSHV antigens and epitopes, but also potentially of being used as a Pan-herpesvirus immune assessment test chip for both humoral and T-cell ..
  60. NEUTROPHIL FLAVOCYTOCHROME B STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
    ALGIRDAS JOSEPH JESAITIS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..strategies for exploiting 9 monoclonal and recombinant antibodies that recognize unique native flavocytochrome b epitopes, defining their placement on the surface of flavocytochrome b...
  61. Synthesis of immunogenic glycolipopeptides for the development of vaccines for Ch
    Katja Michael; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to develop a vaccine for Chagas disease by the idea of incorporating parasitic cell surface carbohydrate epitopes into fully synthetic vaccines...
  62. Implementation of phosphoprotein preservation technology for cancer biospecimens
    LANCE ALLEN LIOTTA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Therefore, measurement of this new class of phosphoprotein signal pathway epitopes in tumor biopsy samples is crucial for individualizing molecular targeted therapies...
  63. Dengue Epitope Vaccine,Tetravalent & MHCII-Targeted
    J Thomas August; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..of a new form of epitope-based dengue genetic vaccine encoding an ensemble of selected antigen peptide units (epitopes) containing the minimum antibody and cellular antigen sequences required for an effective vaccine applicable to ..
  64. PATHOGENESIS AND PREVENTION OF IDDM
    Hugh McDevitt; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The peptide epitopes of glutamic acid decarboxylase and pre pro-insulin will be identified in Dr...
  65. EPITOPES RECOGNIZED BY CTL FROM EIAV CARRIER HORSES
    SHERITTA RIDGELY; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Identification of viral epitopes recognized by CD8+, class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes in carrier horses and the ability of identified ..
  66. CC Chemokine Secretion to Protect Antigen-Specific CD4 T Cells from HIV
    Catarina E Hioe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Antigen stimulation of CD4 T cells specific for certain HIV epitopes have been shown to render these cells more resistant to CCR5-tropic HIV and this resistance is associated with ..
  67. Xenograft-like rejection of tumors in a-gal glycolipids
    URI GALILI GALILI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..them into endogenous tumor vaccines by intratumoral injection of micelles of glycosphingolipids bearing a-gal epitopes (Gala1-3Galb1-4GlcNAc-R) (designated GSL?gal)...
  68. Novel Linear Peptide Universal Malaria Vaccines
    Alberto Moreno; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..is to evaluate the potential of synthetic linear peptide chimeras (LPCs) containing Plasmodium universal T cell epitopes and immunodominant B cell epitopes as effective malaria vaccine components...
  69. Masking the GH-loop: model for human Rhinovirus vaccine
    Peter Nara; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..antigenic variation is promoted through genetic instability and the evolution of immunodominant, highly variant epitopes within the capsid structure...
  70. Human Autoantibodies in Anti-GBM Disease
    Anne Christensen; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Although putative antigenic epitopes have been identified, little is known about the origin, structure and conformation of pathogenic human anti-GBM ..
  71. THYROID PEROXIDASE AS AN AUTOANTIGEN
    Basil Rapoport; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..We plan the following specific studies:- 1. TPO AUTOANTIBODY EPITOPES Polyclonal TPO autoantibodies in patients' sera are primarily directed to a restricted immunodominant region (IDR)..
  72. Immune Recognition of Modified Antigen in Scleroderma
    Robert Hoffman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We hypothesize that oxidative modified 70k exposes previously cryptic epitopes, driving the development of scleroderma-associated anti-70k immune response...
  73. IDENTIFICATION--ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS PROTECTIVE EPITOPES
    THOMAS UNNASCH; Fiscal Year: 1993
    The long term goals of this project are to identify epitopes found in the filarial parasite Onchocera volvulus that may be used to elicit protective immunity, and to evaluate the utility of these epitopes for use as the basis of a vaccine ..
  74. Molecular Evolution of Viral Epitopes: Adaptive Evolution of Evasion
    Helen Piontkivska; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Pattern of sequence changes at different kinds of epitopes (both linear and non-linear) will be studied, including the extent of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions ..