- IL-23 and IL-17 in the establishment of protective pulmonary CD4+ T cell responses after vaccination and during Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge
Shabaana A Khader
Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, New York 12983, USA
Nat Immunol 8:369-77. 2007
- Loss of RD1 contributed to the attenuation of the live tuberculosis vaccines Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium microti
Alexander S Pym
Unite de Genetique Moleculaire Bacterienne, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris, Cedex 15, France
Mol Microbiol 46:709-17. 2002
..Knocking-in five other RD loci did not affect the virulence of BCG. This study describes a genetic lesion that contributes to safety and opens new avenues for vaccine development...
- Yersinia pestis--etiologic agent of plague
R D Perry
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40536, USA
Clin Microbiol Rev 10:35-66. 1997
..These areas of research have provide new insights into the host-parasite relationship. This review will update our present understanding of the history, etiology, epidemiology, clinical aspects, and public health issues of plague...
- Helicobacter exploits integrin for type IV secretion and kinase activation
Department of Medical Microbiology, Otto von Guericke University, Leipziger Strasse 44, D 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
Nature 449:862-6. 2007
..Our findings provide insights into the role of integrins in H.-pylori-induced pathogenesis. CagL may be exploited as a new molecular tool for our further understanding of integrin signalling...
- A universal vaccine for serogroup B meningococcus
Marzia M Giuliani
Novartis Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:10834-9. 2006
..The strain coverage could be increased to 90% and above by the addition of CpG oligonucleotides or by using MF59 as adjuvant. The vaccine has the potential to conquer one of the most devastating diseases of childhood...
- Facing the crisis: improving the diagnosis of tuberculosis in the HIV era
Mark D Perkins
Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Geneva, Switzerland
J Infect Dis 196:S15-27. 2007
..In this article, we will define the need for better TB tests and describe technologies being developed to meet that need...
- Detailed analysis of sequence changes occurring during vlsE antigenic variation in the mouse model of Borrelia burgdorferi infection
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 5:e1000293. 2009
- The meningococcal vaccine candidate GNA1870 binds the complement regulatory protein factor H and enhances serum resistance
Section of Infectious Diseases, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
J Immunol 177:501-10. 2006
..These data provide further support for inclusion of this molecule in a meningococcal vaccine. To reflect the critical function of this molecule, we suggest calling it fH-binding protein...
- Transgenic expression of Helicobacter pylori CagA induces gastrointestinal and hematopoietic neoplasms in mouse
Division of Molecular Oncology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Graduate School of Science, Health Administration Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060 0815, Japan
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:1003-8. 2008
- Anthrax lethal factor cleaves the N-terminus of MAPKKs and induces tyrosine/threonine phosphorylation of MAPKs in cultured macrophages
Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Universita di Padova, Italy
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 248:706-11. 1998
..The possible implications of these findings for the cytolysis of macrophage cells induced by LF are discussed. These results open the way to the design and screening of specific inhibitors of LF...
- Immunological and molecular polymorphisms of OspC, an immunodominant major outer surface protein of Borrelia burgdorferi
Max von Pettenkofer Institut fur Hygiene und Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Universitat Munchen, Germany
Infect Immun 61:2182-91. 1993
- Anthrax lethal toxin and Salmonella elicit the common cell death pathway of caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis via distinct mechanisms
Susan L Fink
Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Departments of Microbiology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:4312-7. 2008
- Individual RD1-region genes are required for export of ESAT-6/CFP-10 and for virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Kristi M Guinn
Department of Pathobiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Mol Microbiol 51:359-70. 2004
..Our results indicate that RD1 genes work together to form a single virulence determinant, and argue that RD1 encodes a novel specialized secretion system that is required for pathogenesis of MTB...
- c-Src/Lyn kinases activate Helicobacter pylori CagA through tyrosine phosphorylation of the EPIYA motifs
IRIS Chiron S p A, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
Mol Microbiol 43:971-80. 2002
..Thus, CagA translocation followed by tyrosine phosphorylation at the EPIYA motifs promotes a growth factor-like response with intense cytoskeletal rearrangements, cell elongation effects and increased cellular motility...
- Human capillary morphogenesis protein 2 functions as an anthrax toxin receptor
Heather M Scobie
McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:5170-4. 2003
..These studies distinguish CMG2 as a second anthrax toxin receptor and identify a potent antitoxin that may prove useful for the treatment of anthrax...
- Dynamic relationship between IFN-gamma and IL-2 profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cells and antigen load
Kerry A Millington
Tuberculosis Immunology Group, Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Wright Fleming Institute of Infection and Immunity, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
J Immunol 178:5217-26. 2007
..These distinct T cell functional signatures before and after treatment suggest a novel immunological marker of mycobacterial load and clinical status in tuberculosis that now requires validation in larger prospective studies...
- Oncogenic mechanisms of the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein
Division of Molecular Oncology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060 0815, Japan
Nat Rev Cancer 4:688-94. 2004
..Intriguingly, CagA is noted for its variation, particularly at the SHP2-binding site, which could affect the potential of different strains of H. pylori to promote gastric carcinogenesis...
- Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in recognition of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial cell wall components
Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Japan
Immunity 11:443-51. 1999
..These results demonstrate that TLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components in vivo and TLR2 plays a major role in Gram-positive bacterial recognition...
- Clinical relevance of Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA gene polymorphisms
Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
Gastroenterology 135:91-9. 2008
..We assessed the association of new and established cagA and vacA polymorphisms with disease...
- Nalp1b controls mouse macrophage susceptibility to anthrax lethal toxin
Eric D Boyden
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Nat Genet 38:240-4. 2006
- Vaccination against Neisseria meningitidis using three variants of the lipoprotein GNA1870
IRIS, Chiron Srl, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
J Exp Med 197:789-99. 2003
..The novel antigen is a top candidate for the development of a new vaccine against meningococcus...
- Role of the major antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cell wall biogenesis
J T Belisle
Department of Microbiology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
Science 276:1420-2. 1997
..Furthermore, the use of an antagonist (6-azido-6-deoxy-alpha, alpha'-trehalose) of this activity demonstrates that these proteins are essential and potential targets for new antimycobacterial drugs...
- Activation of beta-catenin by carcinogenic Helicobacter pylori
Aime T Franco
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 2279, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:10646-51. 2005
..cag- strains or uninfected persons. These results indicate that H. pylori-induced dysregulation of beta-catenin-dependent pathways may explain in part the augmentation in the risk of gastric cancer conferred by this pathogen...
- Geographic uniformity of the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) and its shared history with tick vector (Ixodes scapularis) in the Northeastern United States
Wei Gang Qiu
Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 5245, USA
Genetics 160:833-49. 2002
..We therefore conclude that the genetic structure of B. burgdorferi has been intimately shaped by the natural history of its main vector, the northern lineage of I. scapularis ticks...
- Enhanced immunogenicity and protective efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis of bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine using mucosal administration and boosting with a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara
Nilu P Goonetilleke
Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford University, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
J Immunol 171:1602-9. 2003
..These findings support further evaluation of mucosally targeted prime-boost vaccination approaches for tuberculosis...
- Expression of Borrelia burgdorferi OspC and DbpA is controlled by a RpoN-RpoS regulatory pathway
Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:12724-9. 2001
..burgdorferi. Our findings provide a foundation for elucidating further key regulatory networks that potentially impact many aspects of B. burgdorferi's parasitic strategy, host range, and virulence expression...
- Anthrolysin O and other gram-positive cytolysins are toll-like receptor 4 agonists
Jin Mo Park
Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Dept of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
J Exp Med 200:1647-55. 2004
..We also provide genetic evidence that ALO is required for induction of macrophage apoptosis in response to infection with live B. anthracis and that other CDC family members share the ability to activate TLR4...
- Tuberculosis subunit vaccination provides long-term protective immunity characterized by multifunctional CD4 memory T cells
Department of Infectious Disease Immunology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark
J Immunol 182:8047-55. 2009
- Receptors of anthrax toxin and cell entry
Gisou van der Goot
Global Health Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, SV AI Extension, Station 15, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
Mol Aspects Med 30:406-12. 2009
..The roles played by cellular factors in regulating the endocytosis of toxin-receptor complexes is also discussed...
- Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin induces TNF-alpha-independent hypoxia-mediated toxicity in mice
National Institutes of Health, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
J Clin Invest 112:670-82. 2003
..The evidence presented shows that LT kills mice through a TNF-alpha-independent, FasL-independent, noninflammatory mechanism that involves hypoxic tissue injury but does not require macrophage sensitivity to toxin...
- Direct extracellular interaction between the early secreted antigen ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TLR2 inhibits TLR signaling in macrophages
Sushil Kumar Pathak
Bose Institute, Department of Chemistry, Kolkata 700 009, India
Nat Immunol 8:610-8. 2007
- Anthrax lethal toxin induces endothelial barrier dysfunction
Jason M Warfel
Laboratory of Biochemistry and Vascular Biology, Division of Hematology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 29 Lincoln Drive, Bldg 29, Rm 129, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Am J Pathol 166:1871-81. 2005
..The present findings support a possible role for LT-induced barrier dysfunction in the vascular permeability changes accompanying systemic anthrax infection...
- The role of VlsE antigenic variation in the Lyme disease spirochete: persistence through a mechanism that differs from other pathogens
Department of Biochemistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4 N1, Canada
Mol Microbiol 65:1547-58. 2007
..Data are also presented that cast doubt on an immune evasion mechanism whereby VlsE directly masks other surface antigens similar to what has been observed for several other pathogens that undergo recombinational antigenic variation...
- Vaccine potential of the Neisseria meningitidis 2086 lipoprotein
Leah D Fletcher
Wyeth Vaccines Research, Pearl River, New York 10965, USA
Infect Immun 72:2088-100. 2004
..The rLP2086 family of antigens are candidates worthy of further vaccine development...
- Anthrax edema toxin cooperates with lethal toxin to impair cytokine secretion during infection of dendritic cells
Jean Nicolas Tournier
Département de Biologie des Agents Transmissibles, Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, La Tronche Cedex, France
J Immunol 174:4934-41. 2005
..These results suggest that ET produced during infection impairs DC functions and cooperates with LT to suppress the innate immune response. This may represent a new strategy developed by B. anthracis to escape the host immune response...
- Outer-surface protein C of the Lyme disease spirochete: a protein induced in ticks for infection of mammals
Laboratory of Human Bacterial Pathogenesis, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 South Fourth Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3142-7. 2004
..The induction of a spirochetal virulence factor preceding the time and host in which it is required demonstrates a developmental sequence for transmission of this arthropod-borne pathogen...
- Genetic exchange and plasmid transfers in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto revealed by three-way genome comparisons and multilocus sequence typing
Wei Gang Qiu
Department of Biological Sciences, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:14150-5. 2004
..Frequent recombination implies a potential for rapid adaptive evolution and a possible polygenic basis of B. burgdorferi pathogenicity...
- Are the PE-PGRS proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis variable surface antigens?
Unite de Genetique Moleculaire Bacterienne, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
Mol Microbiol 44:9-19. 2002
..Subcellular fractionation studies and immunoelectron microscopy localized many PE-PGRS proteins in the cell wall and cell membrane of M. tuberculosis. The data suggest that some PE-PGRS proteins are variable surface antigens...
- Discovery of novel Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens by screening a whole-genome lambda-display library
Kenton Srl, Pomezia, Rome, Italy
FEMS Microbiol Lett 262:14-21. 2006
..For the development of effective vaccines able to prevent pneumococcal infection, characterization of bacterial antigens involved in host immune response is crucial...
- New tools and emerging technologies for the diagnosis of tuberculosis: part I. Latent tuberculosis
University of California, Berkeley and San Francisco, Berkeley Division of Epidemiology, 140, Warren Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Expert Rev Mol Diagn 6:413-22. 2006
..The review concludes by highlighting areas where evidence is lacking, and provides an agenda for future research. Active TB and drug resistance are discussed in Part II; 423-432 of this issue...
- Antigenic variation with a twist--the Borrelia story
Steven J Norris
Department of Pathology University of Texas Medical School at Houston, PO Box 20708, Houston, TX 77225 0708, USA
Mol Microbiol 60:1319-22. 2006
..These two systems thus appear to represent divergence from a common precursor followed by functional convergence to create two distinct antigenic variation processes...
- Factor H-binding protein is important for meningococcal survival in human whole blood and serum and in the presence of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37
K L Seib
Molecular Genetics Unit, Novartis Vaccines, Via Fiorentina, 1, 53100 Siena, Italy
Infect Immun 77:292-9. 2009
- Identification of the cellular receptor for anthrax toxin
K A Bradley
McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin Madison, 1400 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
Nature 414:225-9. 2001
..In addition, a soluble version of this domain can protect cells from the action of the toxin...
- Relationship between the cagA 3' repeat region of Helicobacter pylori, gastric histology, and susceptibility to low pH
VA Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
Gastroenterology 117:342-9. 1999
..We investigated whether structural subtypes of the cagA 3' region are associated with presentation of the infection or to susceptibility to acid...
- Single mucosal, but not parenteral, immunization with recombinant adenoviral-based vaccine provides potent protection from pulmonary tuberculosis
Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine and Division of Infectious Diseases, Centre for Gene Therapeutics, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 3Z5
J Immunol 173:6357-65. 2004
..Our study also lends strong evidence that respiratory mucosal vaccination is critically advantageous over systemic routes of vaccination against TB...
- Correlation of ESAT-6-specific gamma interferon production with pathology in cattle following Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination against experimental bovine tuberculosis
H Martin Vordermeier
Veterinary Laboratories Agency Weybridge, TB Research Group, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, United Kingdom
Infect Immun 70:3026-32. 2002
- Recognition of stage-specific mycobacterial antigens differentiates between acute and latent infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:179-86. 2006
- M protein, a classical bacterial virulence determinant, forms complexes with fibrinogen that induce vascular leakage
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Lund University, Tornavagen 10, S 221 84 Lund, Sweden
Cell 116:367-79. 2004
..In addition, M protein/fibrinogen complexes were identified in tissue biopsies from a patient with necrotizing fasciitis and STSS, further underlining the pathogenic significance of such complexes in severe streptococcal infections...
- Host defense mechanisms triggered by microbial lipoproteins through toll-like receptors
H D Brightbill
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Anges, CA 90095, USA
Science 285:732-6. 1999
..Activation of TLRs by microbial lipoproteins may initiate innate defense mechanisms against infectious pathogens...
- ESAT-6 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis dissociates from its putative chaperone CFP-10 under acidic conditions and exhibits membrane-lysing activity
Marien I de Jonge
Unite de Genetique Moleculaire Bacterienne, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
J Bacteriol 189:6028-34. 2007
..tuberculosis is the interaction with biomembranes that occurs after dissociation from its putative chaperone CFP-10 under acidic conditions typically encountered in the phagosome...
- Antigenic and genetic heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi populations transmitted by ticks
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:670-5. 2001
..burgdorferi transmission. Implicit in our model is the concept that tick transmission converts a homogeneous spirochete population into a heterogeneous population that is poised to infect the mammalian host...
- The ESAT6 protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces apoptosis of macrophages by activating caspase expression
Steven C Derrick
Laboratory of Mycobacterial Diseases and Cellular Immunology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, United States Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Cell Microbiol 9:1547-55. 2007
..Finally, experimental results using a cell impermeable fluorescent stain suggests that the formation of membrane pores may be a primary mechanism by which ESAT6 evokes an apoptotic response...
- Immunodominant tuberculosis CD8 antigens preferentially restricted by HLA-B
Deborah A Lewinsohn
Department of Pediatrics, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, USA
PLoS Pathog 3:1240-9. 2007
..These findings provide an improved understanding of immunodominance in humans and may contribute to a development of an effective TB vaccine and improved immunodiagnostics...
- Disruption of the epithelial apical-junctional complex by Helicobacter pylori CagA
Manuel R Amieva
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Science 300:1430-4. 2003
..CagA appears to target H. pylori to host cell intercellular junctions and to disrupt junction-mediated functions...
- Immunogenicity of eight dormancy regulon-encoded proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in DNA-vaccinated and tuberculosis-infected mice
Mycobacterial Immunology, WIV Pasteur Institute Brussels, 642 Engelandstraat, B1180 Brussels, Belgium
Infect Immun 75:941-9. 2007
..These findings have implications for proof-of-concept studies in mice mimicking tuberculosis (TB) latency models and their extrapolation to humans for potential new vaccination strategies against TB...
- Structure and function of the complex formed by the tuberculosis virulence factors CFP-10 and ESAT-6
Philip S Renshaw
Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
EMBO J 24:2491-8. 2005
- Rv1818c-encoded PE_PGRS protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is surface exposed and influences bacterial cell structure
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Viale San Pietro 43 B, 07100 Sassari, Italy
Mol Microbiol 52:725-33. 2004
..Regulated expression of PE genes could have implications for the survival and pathogenesis of mycobacteria within the human host and in other environmental niches...
- cag, a pathogenicity island of Helicobacter pylori, encodes type I-specific and disease-associated virulence factors
Immunobiological Research Institute of Siena, Chiron Vaccines, Italy
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:14648-53. 1996
..Thus, we believe the cag region may encode a novel H. pylori secretion system for the export of virulence determinants...
- Sequence diversity of the factor H binding protein vaccine candidate in epidemiologically relevant strains of serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis
Wyeth Vaccines Research, Pearl River, New York 10965, USA
J Infect Dis 200:379-89. 2009
..We report an extensive survey and phylogenetic analysis of the diversity of fhbp genes and predicted protein sequences in invasive clinical isolates obtained in the period 2000-2006...
- SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase as an intracellular target of Helicobacter pylori CagA protein
Division of Molecular Oncology, Institute for Genetic Medicine and Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060 0815, Japan
Science 295:683-6. 2002
..Conversely, the CagA effect on cells was reproduced by constitutively active SHP-2. Thus, upon translocation, CagA perturbs cellular functions by deregulating SHP-2...
- Superantigens and their potential role in human disease
B L Kotzin
Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, Denver, Colorado 80206
Adv Immunol 54:99-166. 1993
..Finally, it is apparent that superantigens have dramatic effects on the immune system. One wonders whether these molecules or modifications of them can be used as specific modulators of the immune system to treat disease...
- Src is the kinase of the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein in vitro and in vivo
Max Planck Institut für Infektionsbiologie, Abt Molekulare Biologie, Schumannstrasse 20 21, D 10117 Berlin, Germany
J Biol Chem 277:6775-8. 2002
- Helicobacter pylori in North and South America before Columbus
Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
FEBS Lett 517:180-4. 2002
..pylori. Some Native Alaskan strains appear to have originated in Central Asia and to have arrived after strains found in South America suggesting that H. pylori crossed the Bering Strait from Asia to the New World at different times...
- Role of type IV secretion in Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis
Otto von Guericke Universitat Magdeburg, Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Leipziger Strasse 44, D 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
Cell Microbiol 10:1573-81. 2008
..The contribution of these signalling cascades to H. pylori pathogenesis is discussed...
- Anthrax lethal toxin-induced inflammasome formation and caspase-1 activation are late events dependent on ion fluxes and the proteasome
Katherine E Wickliffe
Bacterial Toxins and Therapeutics Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Cell Microbiol 10:332-43. 2008
..Our data indicate that inflammasome formation is a contributing, but not initiating, event in LT-mediated cytotoxicity and that earlier LT-mediated events leading to ion fluxes are required for death...
- Protein translocation through the anthrax toxin transmembrane pore is driven by a proton gradient
Bryan A Krantz
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School 200 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Mol Biol 355:968-79. 2006
..In a sense, the channel functions as a proton/protein symporter...
- Relationship between Helicobacter pylori iceA, cagA, and vacA status and clinical outcome: studies in four different countries
Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
J Clin Microbiol 37:2274-9. 1999
..iceA status shows considerable geographic differences, and neither iceA nor combinations of iceA, vacA, and cagA were helpful in predicting the clinical presentation of an H. pylori infection...
- Recombinant V antigen protects mice against pneumonic and bubonic plague caused by F1-capsule-positive and -negative strains of Yersinia pestis
G W Anderson
United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21702 5011, USA
Infect Immun 64:4580-5. 1996
- Improved diagnostic evaluation of suspected tuberculosis
Davinder P S Dosanjh
Tuberculosis Immunology Group, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
Ann Intern Med 148:325-36. 2008
..The role of new T-cell-based blood tests for tuberculosis in the diagnosis of active tuberculosis is unclear...
- Mucosal administration of Ag85B-ESAT-6 protects against infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and boosts prior bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunity
Department of Infectious Disease Immunology, Statens Serum Institute, Artillerivej 5, DK 2300 Copenhagen, Denmark
J Immunol 177:6353-60. 2006
..tb in LTK63/Ag85B-ESAT-6-boosted mice, compared with BCG-vaccinated animals. Thus, LTK63/Ag85B-ESAT-6 represents an efficient preventive vaccine against tuberculosis with a strong ability to boost prior BCG immunity...
- Identification and molecular characterisation of a fibrinogen binding protein from Streptococcus iniae
Justice C F Baiano
Aquatic Animal Health Laboratory, Centre for Marine Studies, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, 4072, Australia
BMC Microbiol 8:67. 2008
..iniae, a Lancefield non-typeable pathogen causing devastating fish losses in the aquaculture industry and an opportunistic pathogen of humans, and identifies the proteins involved and their encoding genes...
- Crystal structure of the anthrax lethal factor
A D Pannifer
Biochemistry Department, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
Nature 414:229-33. 2001
..The structure thus reveals a protein that has evolved through a process of gene duplication, mutation and fusion, into an enzyme with high and unusual specificity...
- Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori pathogenicity-associated cagA and vacA genotypes among Pakistani dyspeptic patients
Life Sciences Group, IAD, PINSTECH, Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan
FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 55:34-8. 2009
..5%) followed by s1a/m1 (19.7%). cagA was positive in 24.2% of the cases and strongly associated with s1a/m1, vacA. The prevalence of virulent cagA, and vacA allelic form s1a/m1 was lower than that reported from neighboring countries...
- OspC facilitates Borrelia burgdorferi invasion of Ixodes scapularis salivary glands
Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
J Clin Invest 113:220-30. 2004
..These studies conclusively demonstrate the importance of OspC in the invasion of tick salivary glands by B. burgdorferi, a critical step in the transmission of spirochetes from the arthropod vector to the mammalian host...
- A predominant role for antibody in acquired immunity to chlamydial genital tract reinfection
Sandra G Morrison
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama, Birmingham 35294 0007, USA
J Immunol 175:7536-42. 2005
..These results impact our understanding of immunity to chlamydial genital infection and may provide important insight into vaccine development...
- Rapid clearance of Lyme disease spirochetes lacking OspC from skin
Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, Montana 59840, USA
Infect Immun 75:1517-9. 2007
..To delineate this requirement, we analyzed the clearance of ospC mutant spirochetes and found that they were eliminated within 48 h. We conclude that B. burgdorferi uses OspC to resist innate host defenses immediately after transmission...
- Phosphorylation of Helicobacter pylori CagA by c-Abl leads to cell motility
Junior Research Group, Paul Ehrlich Institute, Langen, Germany
Oncogene 26:3462-72. 2007
..pylori infection and pathogenicity. These results implicate c-Abl as a novel molecular target for therapeutic intervention in H. pylori-related gastric diseases...
- Alteration of epitope recognition pattern in Ag85B and ESAT-6 has a profound influence on vaccine-induced protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Department of Infectious Disease Immunology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark
Eur J Immunol 36:3346-55. 2006
- Human fibrinogen bound to Streptococcus pyogenes M protein inhibits complement deposition via the classical pathway
Department of Medical Microbiology, Dermatology and Infection, Lund University, Solvegatan 23, SE 22362 Lund, Sweden
Mol Microbiol 56:28-39. 2005
..Our data identify a novel function for surface-bound Fg and allow us to propose a unifying mechanism by which M proteins interfere with innate immunity...
- Differential oncogenic potential of geographically distinct Helicobacter pylori CagA isoforms in mice
Division of Molecular Oncology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
Int J Cancer 125:2497-504. 2009
..Differential oncogenic potential of geographically distinct CagA isoforms may contribute to the differential prevalence of gastric carcinoma between East Asian countries and Western countries...
- Helicobacter pylori and gastric carcinogenesis
Division of Molecular Oncology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 15, Nishi 7, Kita ku, Sapporo, 060 0815, Japan
J Gastroenterol 44:239-48. 2009
..Ectopically expressed AID may contribute to H. pylori-initiated gastric carcinogenesis by increasing the risk of likelihood of epithelial cells acquiring mutations in cancer-related genes...
- Frequent homologous recombination events in Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE/PPE multigene families: potential role in antigenic variability
Unit of Typing and Genetics of Mycobacteria, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia
J Bacteriol 190:7838-46. 2008
..The finding of high prevalence (approximately 45% and approximately 58%) for at least two of the genomic deletions suggests that they likely confer advantageous biological attributes...
- Review of meningococcal group B vaccines
Dan M Granoff
Center for Immunobiology and Vaccine Development, Children s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California, USA
Clin Infect Dis 50:S54-65. 2010
..Thus, the prospects have never been better for developing vaccines for prevention of meningococcal disease, including that caused by group B strains...
- The protective antigen component of anthrax toxin forms functional octameric complexes
Alexander F Kintzer
Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, 94720, USA
J Mol Biol 392:614-29. 2009
..This assembly mechanism may provide a novel means to control cytotoxicity...
- Initiation of the adaptive immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on antigen production in the local lymph node, not the lungs
Andrea J Wolf
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
J Exp Med 205:105-15. 2008
- Protective antigen as a correlative marker for anthrax in animal models
Department of Infectious Diseases, Israel Institute for Biological Research, P O Box 19, Ness Ziona, Israel 74100
Infect Immun 74:5871-6. 2006
..As the time required for immunodetection of PA can be very short, the use of this marker will be beneficial for faster diagnosis and treatment of inhalation anthrax...
- A novel sheathed surface organelle of the Helicobacter pylori cag type IV secretion system
Max von Pettenkofer Institut für Hygiene and Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat Munchen, D 80336 MUnchen, Germany
Mol Microbiol 49:219-34. 2003
..These observations demonstrate for the first time by microscopic techniques a complex T4SS-associated, sheathed surface organelle reminiscent to the needle structures of bacterial type III secretion systems...
- Immunisation with BCG and recombinant MVA85A induces long-lasting, polyfunctional Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4+ memory T lymphocyte populations
Natalie E R Beveridge
Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Eur J Immunol 37:3089-100. 2007
..Overall, these data strongly support the use of MVA85A in humans as a boosting agent to expand polyfunctional M.tb-specific CD4(+) T cells capable of significant secondary responses...
- Determinants and consequences of different levels of CagA phosphorylation for clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori
Richard H Argent
Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, and the Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, University of Nottingham, Queen s Medical Centre, England
Gastroenterology 127:514-23. 2004
- Neisseria meningitidis recruits factor H using protein mimicry of host carbohydrates
Muriel C Schneider
Centre for Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK
Nature 458:890-3. 2009
..The structure also indicates the molecular basis of the host-specificity of the interaction between fH and the meningococcus, and informs attempts to develop novel therapeutics and vaccines...
- Evaluating Burkholderia pseudomallei Bip proteins as vaccines and Bip antibodies as detection agents
Cangene Corporation, Mississauga, ON, Canada
FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 52:78-87. 2008
..However, these ELISAs had low diagnostic accuracy in endemic regions, possibly due to previous patient exposure to B. pseudomallei...
- Safety and immunogenicity of 26-valent group a streptococcus vaccine in healthy adult volunteers
Shelly A McNeil
Clinical Trials Research Center, IWK Health Centre, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Clin Infect Dis 41:1114-22. 2005
..New molecular techniques have allowed the previous obstacles to be largely overcome...
- Proteasomes control caspase-1 activation in anthrax lethal toxin-mediated cell killing
Raynal C Squires
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
J Biol Chem 282:34260-7. 2007
..Taken together, caspase-1-mediated necrosis appears to be tightly controlled and differentially regulated by proteasomes depending on the source of caspase-1 induction...
- CD8alpha+ dendritic cells selectively present MHC class I-restricted noncytolytic viral and intracellular bacterial antigens in vivo
Gabrielle T Belz
Division of Immunology and Cooperative Research Centre for Vaccine Technology, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
J Immunol 175:196-200. 2005
..We show that regardless of the type of intracellular infection, CD8alpha(+) DCs are the principal DC subset that initiate CD8(+) T cell immunity...
- Systematic mutagenesis of the Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island: essential genes for CagA translocation in host cells and induction of interleukin-8
, , Pettenkoferstr. 9a, , Germany
Mol Microbiol 42:1337-48. 2001
..We identified a point mutation in gene hp0532, causing a premature translational stop in the corresponding polypeptide chain, providing a putative explanation for the defect in the type IV secretion system of the spontaneous mutant...
- Anthrax toxin: receptor binding, internalization, pore formation, and translocation
John A T Young
Infectious Disease Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
Annu Rev Biochem 76:243-65. 2007
- Anthrax toxins suppress T lymphocyte activation by disrupting antigen receptor signaling
Silvia Rossi Paccani
Department of Evolutionary Biology, Policlinico Le Scotte, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
J Exp Med 201:325-31. 2005
..These data identify a novel strategy of immune evasion by B. anthracis, based on both effector subunits of the toxic complex, and targeted to a key cellular component of adaptive immunity...
- Protective immune responses to a recombinant adenovirus type 35 tuberculosis vaccine in two mouse strains: CD4 and CD8 T-cell epitope mapping and role of gamma interferon
Crucell Holland BV, Archimedesweg 4 6, 2333 CN Leiden, The Netherlands
Infect Immun 75:4105-15. 2007
..These results unify conflicting reports on the relative importance of CD4 versus CD8 T-cell responses in protection and emphasize the key role of IFN-gamma...
- The alveolar macrophage: the Trojan horse of Bacillus anthracis
Laboratoire Organismes Photosynthetiques et Environnement, Ecole Normale Superieure, 46 rue d Ulm, 75005 CNRS URA2172, Paris, France
Trends Microbiol 10:405-9. 2002
..Here, recent advances in the analysis of B. anthracis pathogenesis are summarized and future challenges discussed...
- Effective, broad spectrum control of virulent bacterial infections using cationic DNA liposome complexes combined with bacterial antigens
Laboratory of Intracellular Parasites, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH, Hamilton, Montana, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 6:e1000921. 2010
..Lastly, CLDC+MPF was also effective at controlling infections with Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia pseudomallei and Brucella abortus. Thus, CLDC+MPF represents a novel prophylaxis to protect against multiple, highly virulent pathogens...
- Lethality during continuous anthrax lethal toxin infusion is associated with circulatory shock but not inflammatory cytokine or nitric oxide release in rats
Critical Care Medicine Department, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 10, Rm 7D43, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 286:R699-709. 2004
..Although therapies to modulate these host mediators may be applicable fo shock caused by LPS or other bacterial toxins, they may not with LeTx...