allergens

Summary

Summary: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).

Top Publications

  1. doi A mechanism for the initiation of allergen-induced T helper type 2 responses
    Caroline L Sokol
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connceticut 06510, USA
    Nat Immunol 9:310-8. 2008
  2. ncbi The asthma epidemic
    Waltraud Eder
    University Children s Hospital, Munich, Germany
    N Engl J Med 355:2226-35. 2006
  3. pmc House dust mite allergen induces asthma via Toll-like receptor 4 triggering of airway structural cells
    Hamida Hammad
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation and Mucosal Immunology, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
    Nat Med 15:410-6. 2009
  4. pmc Allergenicity resulting from functional mimicry of a Toll-like receptor complex protein
    Aurelien Trompette
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center and the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Nature 457:585-8. 2009
  5. pmc The development of allergic inflammation
    Stephen J Galli
    Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 454:445-54. 2008
  6. ncbi Genomic sequence of the pathogenic and allergenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus
    William C Nierman
    The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    Nature 438:1151-6. 2005
  7. ncbi Immunological mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy
    Mark Larché
    Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5, Canada
    Nat Rev Immunol 6:761-71. 2006
  8. pmc In vivo switch to IL-10-secreting T regulatory cells in high dose allergen exposure
    Flurina Meiler
    Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research, University of Zurich, 7270 Davos, Switzerland
    J Exp Med 205:2887-98. 2008
  9. pmc The danger signal, extracellular ATP, is a sensor for an airborne allergen and triggers IL-33 release and innate Th2-type responses
    Hideaki Kouzaki
    Division of Allergic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    J Immunol 186:4375-87. 2011
  10. doi Immunoglobulin G4: an odd antibody
    R C Aalberse
    Sanquin and Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Clin Exp Allergy 39:469-77. 2009

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications348 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi A mechanism for the initiation of allergen-induced T helper type 2 responses
    Caroline L Sokol
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connceticut 06510, USA
    Nat Immunol 9:310-8. 2008
    Both metazoan parasites and simple protein allergens induce T helper type 2 (TH2) immune responses, but the mechanisms by which the innate immune system senses these stimuli are unknown...
  2. ncbi The asthma epidemic
    Waltraud Eder
    University Children s Hospital, Munich, Germany
    N Engl J Med 355:2226-35. 2006
  3. pmc House dust mite allergen induces asthma via Toll-like receptor 4 triggering of airway structural cells
    Hamida Hammad
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation and Mucosal Immunology, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
    Nat Med 15:410-6. 2009
    ..Our data identify an innate immune function of airway epithelial cells that drives allergic inflammation via activation of mucosal DCs...
  4. pmc Allergenicity resulting from functional mimicry of a Toll-like receptor complex protein
    Aurelien Trompette
    Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children s Hospital Medical Center and the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA
    Nature 457:585-8. 2009
    ..Why particular proteins tend to act as allergens in susceptible hosts is a fundamental mechanistic question that remains largely unanswered...
  5. pmc The development of allergic inflammation
    Stephen J Galli
    Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Nature 454:445-54. 2008
    ..In allergic subjects, persistent or repetitive exposure to allergens, which typically are intrinsically innocuous substances common in the environment, results in chronic allergic ..
  6. ncbi Genomic sequence of the pathogenic and allergenic filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus
    William C Nierman
    The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    Nature 438:1151-6. 2005
    ..The Af293 genome sequence provides an unparalleled resource for the future understanding of this remarkable fungus...
  7. ncbi Immunological mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy
    Mark Larché
    Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5, Canada
    Nat Rev Immunol 6:761-71. 2006
    ..Approaches to address this problem include the use of modified allergens, novel adjuvants and alternative routes of administration...
  8. pmc In vivo switch to IL-10-secreting T regulatory cells in high dose allergen exposure
    Flurina Meiler
    Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research, University of Zurich, 7270 Davos, Switzerland
    J Exp Med 205:2887-98. 2008
    ..exposure in beekeepers by natural bee stings represents a model to understand mechanisms of T cell tolerance to allergens in healthy individuals...
  9. pmc The danger signal, extracellular ATP, is a sensor for an airborne allergen and triggers IL-33 release and innate Th2-type responses
    Hideaki Kouzaki
    Division of Allergic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    J Immunol 186:4375-87. 2011
    ..ATP and purinergic signaling in the respiratory epithelium are critical sensors for airway exposure to airborne allergens, and they may provide novel opportunities to dampen the hypersensitivity response in Th2-type airway diseases ..
  10. doi Immunoglobulin G4: an odd antibody
    R C Aalberse
    Sanquin and Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Clin Exp Allergy 39:469-77. 2009
    ..The existence of the IgG4 subclass, its up-regulation by anti-inflammatory factors and its own anti-inflammatory characteristics may help the immune system to dampen inappropriate inflammatory reactions...
  11. doi Epicutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy ameliorates grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis: A double-blind, placebo-controlled dose escalation study
    Gabriela Senti
    Clinical Trials Center, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 129:128-35. 2012
    ..Epicutaneous allergen administration using a patch may be an alternative to subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy...
  12. ncbi Allergen-specific immunotherapy with recombinant grass pollen allergens
    Marek Jutel
    Department of Internal Medicine and Allergology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 116:608-13. 2005
    ..Recombinant DNA technology has enabled the cloning of many allergens, thus facilitating investigations aimed at improving efficacy and safety of immunotherapy.
  13. ncbi IL-10 and TGF-beta cooperate in the regulatory T cell response to mucosal allergens in normal immunity and specific immunotherapy
    Marek Jutel
    Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research SIAF, Davos, Switzerland
    Eur J Immunol 33:1205-14. 2003
    The regulation of normal and allergic immune responses to airborne allergens in the mucosa is still poorly understood, and the mechanism of specific immunotherapy (SIT) in normalizing the allergic response to such allergens is currently ..
  14. ncbi Loosening of plant cell walls by expansins
    D J Cosgrove
    Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802, USA
    Nature 407:321-6. 2000
    ..Expansin's action has puzzling implications for plant cell-wall structure. The recent explosion of gene sequences and expression data has given new hints of additional biological functions for expansins...
  15. ncbi Interleukin-13: central mediator of allergic asthma
    M Wills-Karp
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Science 282:2258-61. 1998
    ..Thus, IL-13 is critical to allergen-induced asthma but operates through mechanisms other than those that are classically implicated in allergic responses...
  16. doi Allergens and their role in the allergic immune response
    Thomas A E Platts-Mills
    Asthma and Allergic Diseases Center, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22908 1355, USA
    Immunol Rev 242:51-68. 2011
    b>Allergens are recognized as the proteins that induce immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses in humans. The proteins come from a range of sources and, not surprisingly, have many different biological functions...
  17. pmc Mesenteric lymph node transcriptome profiles in BALB/c mice sensitized to three common food allergens
    Mainul Husain
    Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
    BMC Genomics 12:12. 2011
    ..Therefore, the present study analyzed the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) transcriptome profiles of BALB/c mice in response to three common food allergens.
  18. doi Mechanisms of immunotherapy to aeroallergens
    M H Shamji
    Allergy and Clinical Immunology Section, Medical Research Council and Asthma UK Centre for Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma, Faculty of Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK
    Clin Exp Allergy 41:1235-46. 2011
    ..These insights have resulted in novel approaches and portend future biomarkers that may be surrogate or predictive of the clinical response to treatment...
  19. pmc Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) vicilin Cor a 11: molecular characterization of a glycoprotein and its allergenic activity
    Iris Lauer
    Department of Allergology, Paul Ehrlich Institut, Langen, Germany
    Biochem J 383:327-34. 2004
    In Europe, hazelnuts (Corylus avellana) are a frequent cause of food allergies. Several important hazelnut allergens have been previously identified and characterized...
  20. ncbi Distribution and determinants of house dust mite allergens in Europe: the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II
    Jan Paul Zock
    Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Municipal Institute of Medical Research, Barcelona, Spain
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 118:682-90. 2006
    ....
  21. ncbi Long-term clinical efficacy of grass-pollen immunotherapy
    S R Durham
    Department of Upper Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine at the National Heart and Lung Institute, London, United Kingdom
    N Engl J Med 341:468-75. 1999
    ..Pollen immunotherapy is effective in selected patients with IgE-mediated seasonal allergic rhinitis, although it is questionable whether there is long-term benefit after the discontinuation of treatment...
  22. ncbi Usefulness of specific immunotherapy in patients with atopic dermatitis and allergic sensitization to house dust mites: a multi-centre, randomized, dose-response study
    T Werfel
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
    Allergy 61:202-5. 2006
    ..Therefore, a multi-centre, randomized dose-response trial, double-blind with respect to the efficacy of a biologically standardized depot house dust mite preparation was performed...
  23. ncbi Sensitisation, asthma, and a modified Th2 response in children exposed to cat allergen: a population-based cross-sectional study
    T Platts-Mills
    University of Virginia Asthma and Allergic Diseases Center, University of Virginia Department of Medicine, Charlottesville, USA
    Lancet 357:752-6. 2001
    Although asthma is strongly associated with immediate hypersensitivity to indoor allergens, several studies have suggested that a cat in the house can decrease the risk of asthma...
  24. ncbi Bioaerosol health effects and exposure assessment: progress and prospects
    J Douwes
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences IRAS, Division of Environmental and Occupational Health, Utrecht University, The Netherlands
    Ann Occup Hyg 47:187-200. 2003
    ..Non-culture methods and assessment methods for microbial constituents [e.g. allergens, endotoxin, beta(1-->3)-glucans, fungal extracellular polysaccharides] appear more successful; however, ..
  25. ncbi The role of protein glycosylation in allergy
    Friedrich Altmann
    Divison of Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 142:99-115. 2007
    ..and suppress anti-CCD IgE without interference from peptide epitopes can be best met by artificial glycoprotein allergens. Hydroxyproline-linked arabinose (single beta-arabinofuranosyl residues) has been identified as a new IgE-..
  26. doi Allergens to wheat and related cereals
    A S Tatham
    Cardiff School of Health Sciences, University of Wales Institute Cardiff, Cardiff, UK
    Clin Exp Allergy 38:1712-26. 2008
    ..Processing of wheat and of related cereals (barley and rye, which may contain related allergens) may lead to decreased allergenicity while genetic engineering technology offers opportunities to eliminate ..
  27. pmc Allergen-specific IgE as a biomarker of exposure plus sensitization in inner-city adolescents with asthma
    E C Matsui
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Allergy 65:1414-22. 2010
    ..Relationships among allergen-specific IgE levels, allergen exposure and asthma severity are poorly understood since sensitization has previously been evaluated as a dichotomous, rather than continuous characteristic...
  28. doi Microarrayed recombinant allergens for diagnostic testing
    Wayne G Shreffler
    Food Allergy Center and Center for Immunology and Inflammatory Diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 127:843-9; quiz 850-1. 2011
    The development of protein microarray-based immunoassays and the availability of recombinant allergens have, to a significant extent, emerged together over the past decade...
  29. doi Mechanisms and treatment of allergic disease in the big picture of regulatory T cells
    Cezmi A Akdis
    Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research, University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 123:735-46; quiz 747-8. 2009
    ..Their identification as key regulators of immunologic processes in peripheral tolerance to allergens has opened an important era in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases...
  30. ncbi Major house dust mite allergens Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1 and Dermatophagoides farinae 1 degrade and inactivate lung surfactant proteins A and D
    Roona Deb
    MRC Immunochemistry Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 282:36808-19. 2007
    ..They interact with a wide range of inhaled allergens, competing with their binding to cell-sequestered IgE resulting in inhibition of mast cell degranulation, and ..
  31. ncbi Selective cloning of peanut allergens, including profilin and 2S albumins, by phage display technology
    T Kleber-Janke
    Research Center Borstel, Germany
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 119:265-74. 1999
    Peanut kernels contain many allergens able to elicit IgE-mediated type 1 allergic reactions in sensitized individuals. Sera from sensitized patients recognize variable patterns of IgE-binding proteins...
  32. doi Phl p 5 resorption in human oral mucosa leads to dose-dependent and time-dependent allergen binding by oral mucosal Langerhans cells, attenuates their maturation, and enhances their migratory and TGF-beta1 and IL-10-producing properties
    Jean Pierre Allam
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 126:638-45.e1. 2010
    ..Oral mucosal Langerhans cells (oLCs) play a central role. However, little is known about allergen binding by oLCs during mucosal allergen resorption and its impact on oLC functions...
  33. pmc Developmentally regulated expression, alternative splicing and distinct sub-groupings in members of the Schistosoma mansoni venom allergen-like (SmVAL) gene family
    Iain W Chalmers
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1QP, UK
    BMC Genomics 9:89. 2008
    ..protein/Tpx-1/Ag5/PR-1/Sc7 (SCP/TAPS) domain is found across phyla and is a major structural feature of insect allergens, mammalian sperm proteins and parasitic nematode secreted molecules...
  34. doi The mannose receptor mediates the uptake of diverse native allergens by dendritic cells and determines allergen-induced T cell polarization through modulation of IDO activity
    Pierre Joseph Royer
    School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Queen s Medical Centre, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 185:1522-31. 2010
    ..We have investigated the ability of MR to recognize glycosylated allergens. Using a gene silencing strategy, we have specifically inhibited the expression of MR on human monocyte-derived ..
  35. ncbi Quantification of chemical peptide reactivity for screening contact allergens: a classification tree model approach
    G Frank Gerberick
    The Procter and Gamble Company, Miami Valley Innovation Center, Cincinnati, OH 45252, USA
    Toxicol Sci 97:417-27. 2007
    ..One unifying characteristic of chemical allergens is the requirement that they react with proteins for the effective induction of skin sensitization...
  36. ncbi Preventive and therapeutic effects of oral tolerance in a murine model of asthma
    Yeonseok Chung
    Laboratory of Immunology, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Korea
    Immunobiology 206:408-23. 2002
    ..These results demonstrate that allergic asthma may be ameliorated by feeding allergen; there is hope that these results will provide a new immunotherapeutic strategy for allergic asthma...
  37. doi Cross-sectional survey on immunoglobulin E reactivity in 23,077 subjects using an allergenic molecule-based microarray detection system
    E Scala
    Centre for Clinical and Experimental Allergology, IDI IRCCS, Rome, Italy
    Clin Exp Allergy 40:911-21. 2010
    ..This can be carried out applying the test in the routine diagnostic work-up...
  38. ncbi A role for cysteinyl leukotrienes in airway remodeling in a mouse asthma model
    William R Henderson
    Departments of Medicine and Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 6523, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165:108-16. 2002
    ..These data suggest an important role for cysteinyl leukotrienes in the pathogenesis of chronic allergic airway inflammation with fibrosis...
  39. ncbi Amb a 1-immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide conjugate immunotherapy decreases the nasal inflammatory response
    Meri K Tulic
    Meakins Christie Laboratories, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 113:235-41. 2004
    ..Clinical trials have documented reduced allergic response to AIC in comparison with licensed ragweed extract...
  40. doi Exposure to furry pets and the risk of asthma and allergic rhinitis: a meta-analysis
    B Takkouche
    Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    Allergy 63:857-64. 2008
    ..We sought to examine the association between exposure to furry pets and asthma and allergic rhinitis by means of a meta-analysis...
  41. doi Association of allergen-specific regulatory T cells with the onset of clinical tolerance to milk protein
    Wayne G Shreffler
    Jaffe Food Allergy Institute, Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 123:43-52.e7. 2009
    ..About 70% of children with milk allergy tolerate extensively heated milk (HM) products and outgrow their allergy earlier than those who react to HM...
  42. pmc Myeloid dendritic cells induce Th2 responses to inhaled antigen, leading to eosinophilic airway inflammation
    B N Lambrecht
    Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Clin Invest 106:551-9. 2000
    ..These data demonstrate that DCs in the airways induce sensitization to inhaled antigen and that molecules expressed on the surface of these cells are critical for the development of Th2-dependent airway eosinophilia...
  43. ncbi Characterization and immunobiology of house dust mite allergens
    Wayne R Thomas
    Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, PO Box 855, West Perth, W A 6872, Australia
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 129:1-18. 2002
    ..There are however dominant specificities especially the group 1 and 2 allergens which can account for much of the allergenicity of extracts...
  44. ncbi A mouse model for food allergy using intraperitoneal sensitization
    Rebecca J Dearman
    Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TJ, UK
    Methods 41:91-8. 2007
    ..most foreign proteins are immunogenic (able to induce IgG antibody responses), relatively few are important food allergens with the capacity to provoke IgE antibody production...
  45. pmc Role of interleukin 10 in specific immunotherapy
    C A Akdis
    Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research, CH 7270 Davos, Switzerland
    J Clin Invest 102:98-106. 1998
    ..Accordingly, increased IL-10 production by SIT causes specific anergy in peripheral T cells, and regulates specific IgE and IgG4 production toward normal IgG4-related immunity...
  46. ncbi Relation of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cell suppression of allergen-driven T-cell activation to atopic status and expression of allergic disease
    Eleanor M Ling
    Department of Allergy, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London SW3 6LY, UK
    Lancet 363:608-15. 2004
    Allergic diseases are frequent and rising in prevalence, and result from activation of T-helper (Th) 2 cells by allergens. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress T-cell activation in vitro and prevent pathological findings in animal ..
  47. ncbi Cities as harbingers of climate change: common ragweed, urbanization, and public health
    Lewis H Ziska
    Alternate Crop and Systems Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 111:290-5. 2003
    ..Although controlled laboratory experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the sensitivity of allergenic pollen production to future climatic change (ie, increased CO(2) and temperature), no in situ data are available...
  48. ncbi Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4 attenuates airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation in a model of secondary allergen challenge
    A Kanehiro
    Division of Basic Sciences, Department of Pediatrics and Department of Immunology, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, Colorado 80206, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 163:173-84. 2001
    ..The use of agents that inhibit PDE4 may have an important role in the treatment of asthma in previously sensitized mice...
  49. ncbi Inner City Asthma Study: relationships among sensitivity, allergen exposure, and asthma morbidity
    Rebecca S Gruchalla
    University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 75390 8859, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 115:478-85. 2005
    ..Asthma-associated morbidity is rising, especially in inner city children...
  50. pmc Association of pediatric asthma severity with exposure to common household dust allergens
    Janneane F Gent
    Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
    Environ Res 109:768-74. 2009
    Reducing exposure to household dust inhalant allergens has been proposed as one strategy to reduce asthma.
  51. doi Efficacy of recombinant birch pollen vaccine for the treatment of birch-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis
    Gabrielle Pauli
    University Hospital, Strasbourg, France
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 122:951-60. 2008
    ..Recombinant DNA technology has the potential to produce allergen-specific immunotherapy vaccines with defined composition...
  52. doi Sublingual grass pollen immunotherapy is associated with increases in sublingual Foxp3-expressing cells and elevated allergen-specific immunoglobulin G4, immunoglobulin A and serum inhibitory activity for immunoglobulin E-facilitated allergen binding to B
    G W Scadding
    National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, UK
    Clin Exp Allergy 40:598-606. 2010
    ..The mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) are less well understood than those of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT)...
  53. ncbi Sublingual immunotherapy induces IL-10-producing T regulatory cells, allergen-specific T-cell tolerance, and immune deviation
    Barbara Bohle
    Department of Pathophysiology, Center for Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 120:707-13. 2007
    ..The immunologic mechanisms underlying sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) are still unclear, particularly the role of regulatory T cells...
  54. ncbi Allergenic pollen and pollen allergy in Europe
    G D'Amato
    Division of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Department of Chest Diseases, High Speciality Hospital A Cardarelli Napoli, Italy
    Allergy 62:976-90. 2007
    ....
  55. doi Mucosal allergic sensitization to cockroach allergens is dependent on proteinase activity and proteinase-activated receptor-2 activation
    Narcy G Arizmendi
    Pulmonary Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    J Immunol 186:3164-72. 2011
    ..We hypothesized that PAR(2) activation in the airways by natural allergens with serine proteinase activity plays an important role in allergic sensitization...
  56. doi Occupational asthma: current concepts in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management
    Mark S Dykewicz
    Allergy and Immunology Service, Section of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Allergy and Immunologic Diseases, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 123:519-28; quiz 529-30. 2009
    ..Preventive and management approaches are reviewed. Longitudinal studies of patients with OA continue to show that timely removal from exposure leads to the best prognosis...
  57. ncbi Noninjection routes for immunotherapy
    Giorgio Walter Canonica
    Division of Allergy and Respiratory Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, Italy
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 111:437-48; quiz 449. 2003
    ..Although the long-lasting efficacy has been recently documented for the sublingual route, several points still need to be elucidated, including mechanisms of action, optimal dosage, cost-effectiveness, and adherence...
  58. ncbi Tropomyosin: an invertebrate pan-allergen
    G Reese
    Section of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 119:247-58. 1999
    Among food allergens, crustaceans, such as shrimp, crab, crawfish and lobster, are a frequent cause of adverse food reactions in allergic individuals. The major allergen has been identified as the muscle protein tropomyosin...
  59. doi Breast feeding, parental allergy and asthma in children followed for 8 years. The PIAMA birth cohort study
    S Scholtens
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Thorax 64:604-9. 2009
    ..These factors--the age of the child and maternal or paternal allergy--might partly explain the conflicting results observed in cross-sectional studies...
  60. doi Traffic-related air pollution and development of allergic sensitization in children during the first 8 years of life
    Olena Gruzieva
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 129:240-6. 2012
    ..The role of exposure to air pollution in the development of allergic sensitization remains unclear...
  61. ncbi Microarrayed allergen molecules: diagnostic gatekeepers for allergy treatment
    Reinhard Hiller
    VBC GENOMICS, A 1030 Vienna, Austria
    FASEB J 16:414-6. 2002
    ..determination and monitoring of allergic patients' IgE reactivity profiles to large numbers of disease-causing allergens by using single measurements and minute amounts of serum...
  62. doi Allergen provocation increases TH2-cytokines and FOXP3 expression in the asthmatic lung
    S Thunberg
    Clinical Immunology and Allergy Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Allergy 65:311-8. 2010
    Allergic asthma is caused by allergen-specific IgE and T-helper cell (Th) type 2 responses towards airborne allergens. The objective of this study was to investigate local and systemic regulatory mechanisms in the early asthmatic ..
  63. ncbi Relevance of Ara h1, Ara h2 and Ara h3 in peanut-allergic patients, as determined by immunoglobulin E Western blotting, basophil-histamine release and intracutaneous testing: Ara h2 is the most important peanut allergen
    S J Koppelman
    TNO Nutrition and Food Research, Zeist, The Netherlands
    Clin Exp Allergy 34:583-90. 2004
    A number of allergenic proteins in peanut has been described and the relative importance of these allergens is yet to be determined.
  64. doi Differential effects of outdoor versus indoor fungal spores on asthma morbidity in inner-city children
    Jacqueline A Pongracic
    Children s Memorial Hospital, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Ill, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 125:593-9. 2010
    Although sensitization to fungal allergens is prevalent in inner-city children with asthma, the relationship between fungal exposure and morbidity is poorly understood.
  65. doi Genetic engineering of trimers of hypoallergenic fragments of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, for allergy vaccination
    Susanne Vrtala
    Division of Immunopathology, Department of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18 20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Vaccine 29:2140-8. 2011
    ..Our data show that the immunogenicity of allergy vaccines can be increased by oligomerization...
  66. pmc The indoor air and asthma: the role of cat allergens
    Libby A Kelly
    University of Virginia Asthma and Allergic Diseases Center, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Curr Opin Pulm Med 18:29-34. 2012
    The objective is to discuss recent progress in our understanding of the role of the indoor environment in asthma, focusing on the special role of cat allergens.
  67. doi Sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy adjuvanted with monophosphoryl lipid A: a phase I/IIa study
    Oliver Pfaar
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital Mannheim, Center for Rhinology and Allergology, Wiesbaden, Germany
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 154:336-44. 2011
    ..This is the first reported study of adjuvanted SLIT...
  68. doi Allergens are distributed into few protein families and possess a restricted number of biochemical functions
    Christian Radauer
    Department of Pathophysiology, Center for Physiology, Pathophysiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 121:847-52.e7. 2008
    Existing allergen databases classify their entries by source and route of exposure, thus lacking an evolutionary, structural, and functional classification of allergens.
  69. doi nsLTP and profilin are allergens in mustard seeds: cloning, sequencing and recombinant production of Sin a 3 and Sin a 4
    S Sirvent
    Departament of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    Clin Exp Allergy 39:1929-36. 2009
    ..Patients allergic to mustard are frequently sensitized to peach...
  70. pmc Indoor environmental exposures for children with asthma enrolled in the HEAL study, post-Katrina New Orleans
    L Faye Grimsley
    School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 120:1600-6. 2012
    Rain and flooding from Hurricane Katrina resulted in widespread growth of mold and bacteria and production of allergens in New Orleans, Louisiana, which may have led to increased exposures and morbidity in children with asthma.
  71. doi Epicutaneous immunotherapy results in rapid allergen uptake by dendritic cells through intact skin and downregulates the allergen-specific response in sensitized mice
    Vincent Dioszeghy
    DBV Technologies, Pépinière Paris Santé Cochin, 75014 Paris, France
    J Immunol 186:5629-37. 2011
    ..skin has proved to be an efficient and safe alternative treatment of allergy in an animal model with various allergens and in children for cow's milk allergy...
  72. doi Basophils play a pivotal role in immunoglobulin-G-mediated but not immunoglobulin-E-mediated systemic anaphylaxis
    Yusuke Tsujimura
    Department of Immune Regulation and Tokyo Medical and Dental University Graduate School, Tokyo 113 8519, Japan
    Immunity 28:581-9. 2008
    ....
  73. pmc Pulmonary CD103(+) dendritic cells prime Th2 responses to inhaled allergens
    H Nakano
    Laboratory of Respiratory Biology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Mucosal Immunol 5:53-65. 2012
    ..largely from the actions of T helper 2 (Th2) cells, but the pathways that initiate Th2 responses to inhaled allergens are not fully understood...
  74. doi First screening method for the simultaneous detection of seven allergens by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry
    J Heick
    Eurofins Analytik, Neuländer Kamp 1, 21079 Hamburg, Germany
    J Chromatogr A 1218:938-43. 2011
    The development of a multi-method for the detection of seven allergens based on liquid chromatography and triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction mode is described...
  75. doi Ovomucoid (Gal d 1) specific IgE detected by microarray system predict tolerability to boiled hen's egg and an increased risk to progress to multiple environmental allergen sensitisation
    C Alessandri
    Center for Molecular Allergology, IDI IRCCS, Rome, Italy
    Clin Exp Allergy 42:441-50. 2012
    ..Egg allergy is a very common finding in early childhood. Detecting hen's egg (HE) allergy outgrowing and reintroduction of food containing egg is a task for the allergist...
  76. pmc Optimization of allergen standardization
    Kyoung Yong Jeong
    Department of Internal Medicine and Institute of Allergy, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seodaemun gu, Seoul 120 752, Korea
    Yonsei Med J 52:393-400. 2011
    ..Recently, quantification of individual allergens has been the main focus of allergen standardization because the allergenicity of most allergen extracts is known ..
  77. pmc Antigenic changes in human albumin caused by reactivity with the occupational allergen diphenylmethane diisocyanate
    Adam V Wisnewski
    Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Anal Biochem 400:251-8. 2010
    ..The study also describes new applications of contemporary proteomic methodology for characterizing and standardizing MDI-albumin conjugates destined for use in clinical research...
  78. doi Component-resolved in vitro diagnosis of hazelnut allergy in Europe
    Kirsten Skamstrup Hansen
    Allergy Clinic, National University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 123:1134-41, 1141.e1-3. 2009
    ..Food allergy to hazelnut occurs both with and without concomitant pollen allergy...
  79. ncbi T cell-specific T-box transcription factor haplotype is associated with allergic asthma in children
    Monica Cheng Munthe-Kaas
    Department of Paediatrics, Ulleval University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 121:51-6. 2008
    ..Asthma and allergy are common complex diseases characterized by T(H)2-mediated inflammation...
  80. ncbi Nuclear magnetic resonance structure and IgE epitopes of Blo t 5, a major dust mite allergen
    Siew Leong Chan
    Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
    J Immunol 181:2586-96. 2008
    ..IgE binding to the group 5 allergen, Blo t 5, is found to be the most prevalent among all B. tropicalis allergens. The NMR structure of Blo t 5 determined represents a novel helical bundle structure consisting of three ..
  81. pmc Diagnosing human anisakiasis: recombinant Ani s 1 and Ani s 7 allergens versus the UniCAP 100 fluorescence enzyme immunoassay
    A M Anadón
    Laboratorio de Parasitologia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:496-502. 2010
    ..of human anisakiasis either are poorly specific or do not include some of the most relevant Anisakis allergens. The use of selected recombinant allergens may improve serodiagnosis...
  82. pmc In vivo-to-in silico iterations to investigate aeroallergen-host interactions
    Alba Llop-Guevara
    Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Division of Respiratory Diseases and Allergy, Centre for Gene Therapeutics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    PLoS ONE 3:e2426. 2008
    ....
  83. pmc Functional interaction of common allergens and a C-type lectin receptor, dendritic cell-specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), on human dendritic cells
    Shih Chang Hsu
    Johns Hopkins Asthma and Allergy Center, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:7903-10. 2010
    ..Similar fucosylated structures are also commonly found in a variety of allergens, but their functional significance remains unclear...
  84. doi Allergen-related approaches to immunotherapy
    Jennifer M Rolland
    Department of Immunology, Monash University, Commercial Road, Melbourne VIC 3004, Australia
    Pharmacol Ther 121:273-84. 2009
    ..is restricted, largely due to the risk of serious adverse events, especially in asthmatics and for potent allergens such as peanut, seafood and latex...
  85. ncbi Non-native Ambrosia pollen in the atmosphere of Rzeszów (SE Poland); evaluation of the effect of weather conditions on daily concentrations and starting dates of the pollen season
    Idalia Kasprzyk
    Department of Environmental Biology, University of Rzeszow, Rejtana 16C, Rzeszów 35 959, Poland
    Int J Biometeorol 52:341-51. 2008
    ..A close dependence was also found between the starting date of the season and the sum of maximum temperatures and the sum of differences between the maximum and minimum temperatures...
  86. doi Characterization and comparison of commercially available mite extracts for in vivo diagnosis
    B Brunetto
    Center for Immunobiologicals Research and Evaluation, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome
    Allergy 65:184-90. 2010
    ..This study aimed at evaluating commercially available mite extracts for in vivo diagnosis from eight manufacturers...
  87. doi Use of IL-18 production in a human keratinocyte cell line to discriminate contact sensitizers from irritants and low molecular weight respiratory allergens
    Emanuela Corsini
    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Laboratory of Toxicology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
    Toxicol In Vitro 23:789-96. 2009
    ..models, such as the murine local lymph node assay, which does not distinguish between respiratory and contact allergens. Progress in understanding the mechanisms of skin sensitization, provides us with the opportunity to develop in ..
  88. doi Lipid transfer protein (Ara h 9) as a new peanut allergen relevant for a Mediterranean allergic population
    Susanne Krause
    Research Center Borstel, Borstel, Germany
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 124:771-8.e5. 2009
    Nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) represent potent pollen and food allergens. However, the allergenic properties of peanut LTP have not been studied.
  89. pmc Atopic sensitization to common allergens without symptoms or signs of airway disorders does not increase exhaled nitric oxide
    Annamari Rouhos
    Division of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Respir J 2:141-8. 2008
    ..It is, however, unclear whether sensitization to common allergens per se- as verified with positive skin prick tests--affects FENO in healthy individuals.
  90. doi The role of dendritic and epithelial cells as master regulators of allergic airway inflammation
    Bart N Lambrecht
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation and Mucosal Immunology, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, Ghent, Belgium
    Lancet 376:835-43. 2010
    Lung dendritic cells bridge innate and adaptive immunity, integrating a variety of stimuli from allergens, microbial colonisation, environmental pollution, and innate immune cells into a signal for T lymphocytes of the adaptive immune ..
  91. doi Interactions of airway epithelium with protease allergens in the allergic response
    A Jacquet
    Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok, Thailand
    Clin Exp Allergy 41:305-11. 2011
    ..This review will summarize insights into the interactions of protease allergens with the respiratory epithelium...
  92. ncbi Induction of IL-10+CD4+CD25+ T cells by grass pollen immunotherapy
    James N Francis
    Upper Respiratory Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, Dovehouse Street, London SW3 6LY, UK
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 111:1255-61. 2003
    ..IL-10-producing CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells have emerged as potential mediators of immune tolerance in numerous murine models of immunopathology...
  93. doi Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants strongly affect the results of the basophil activation test in hymenoptera-venom allergy
    M Mertens
    Department of Dermatology, University of Munster, Von Esmarch Strasse 58, Munster, Germany
    Clin Exp Allergy 40:1333-45. 2010
    ..This phenomenon is mainly caused by specific IgE (sIgE) against cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD). Whether or not these antibodies can induce clinical symptoms is a longstanding debate...
  94. pmc Latex-allergic patients sensitized to the major allergen hevein and hevein-like domains of class I chitinases show no increased frequency of latex-associated plant food allergy
    Christian Radauer
    Department of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Wahringer Gurtel 18 20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    Mol Immunol 48:600-9. 2011
    ..Despite considerable cross-reactivity between these allergens, no correlation between latex-associated plant food allergy and sensitization to hevein or HLDs was found.
  95. doi Kiwifruit Act d 11 is the first member of the ripening-related protein family identified as an allergen
    R D'Avino
    Institute of Protein Biochemistry, CNR, Naples, Italy
    Allergy 66:870-7. 2011
    ..Kiwifruit is an important cause of food allergy. A high amount of a protein with a molecular mass compatible with that of Bet v 1 was observed in the kiwifruit extract...
  96. doi Microarrayed allergen molecules for the diagnosis of allergic diseases
    Adriano Mari
    Center for Molecular Allergology, IDI IRCCS, Via dei Monti di Creta 104, Rome, Italy
    Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 10:357-64. 2010
    ..During the past 30 years, knowledge of the molecular structure of allergens has increased dramatically, and the characterization and production of allergenic molecules, as natural purified ..
  97. doi Isoform identification and characterization of Art v 3, the lipid-transfer protein of mugwort pollen
    Gabriele Gadermaier
    Christian Doppler Laboratory for Allergy Diagnosis and Therapy, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, A 5020 Salzburg, Austria
    Mol Immunol 46:1919-24. 2009
    ..The newly identified sequences provide the basis for recombinant mugwort LTP production enabling batch-to-batch reproducibility and thus ensuring high-quality products for diagnosis and therapy...
  98. doi House dust mite-promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human bronchial epithelium
    Irene H Heijink
    Department of Allergology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 42:69-79. 2010
    ..We propose that TGF-beta secretion and dysregulated EGFR signaling may increase epithelial vulnerability to allergens and trigger the induction of EMT, a hitherto unrecognized contributor to airway remodeling in asthma.
  99. ncbi Prevalence of sensitization to Artemisia allergens Art v 1, Art v 3 and Art v 60 kDa. Cross-reactivity among Art v 3 and other relevant lipid-transfer protein allergens
    M Lombardero
    Dept I D, ALK Abelló SA, Madrid, Spain
    Clin Exp Allergy 34:1415-21. 2004
    Artemisia vulgaris is a widespread weed in the Mediterranean area and several allergens have been detected in its pollen...
  100. doi Allergen-specific immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis and asthma. Mechanisms and proof of efficacy
    Anaïs Pipet
    INSERM U 915, l institut du thorax, 1 rue Gaston Veil, Nantes F 44000, France
    Respir Med 103:800-12. 2009
    ..Most recently sublingual tablets were proposed in allergic rhinitis. This paper reviews the mechanisms of SIT, the evidence of efficacy of SIT from the injective to the sublingual route and reminds the current guidelines...
  101. pmc Towards a cure for food allergy
    Justin M Skripak
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States
    Curr Opin Immunol 20:690-6. 2008
    ..Allergen non-specific approaches include biologics to suppress free total IgE levels (e.g. anti-IgE antibody) or to induce more general immune suppression (Chinese herbal medication)...

Research Grants84

  1. Host Defense Mechanisms in Chronic Lung Disease
    Jo Rae Wright; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..with cells of both the adaptive and innate immune systems to coordinately maximize defense against inhaled allergens and that cause and exacerbate asthma, while minimizing an over exuberant immune response that could result in ..
  2. Mapping for Specialized Domains for FCeRI Signaling & Internalization
    Bridget S Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    By crosslinking IgE bound to the high affinity IgE receptor, FceRI, allergens initiate a complex sequence of events leading to release of mast cell inflammatory mediators...
  3. ASTHMA AND ALLERGIC DISEASE CENTER
    Thomas Platts Mills; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies have provided extensive evidence about effects of chronic exposure to indoor allergens, as well as the relevance of viruses to acute episodes in the hospital; the role of chronic sinus disease; and ..
  4. Therapeutic Strategies for Environmental Lung Diseases
    James Bonner; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..asthma or interstitial pulmonary fibrosis that result from environmental exposures to a wide variety of inhaled allergens and toxicants...
  5. Diesel, Allergens and Gene Interaction and Child Atopy
    Grace LeMasters; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  6. OCCUPATIONAL ASTHMA ASOCIATED WITH SEAFOOD PROCESSING
    Thomas Robins; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..spirometry and methacholine challenge tests, skin prick tests (for common aeroallergens and specific seafood allergens) and skin patch testing...
  7. Health Effects of CREON2000 In Asthmatic Children
    Mark Glazman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    DESCRIPTION: (provided by applicant): Indoor allergens including molds and bacterial byproducts (e.g., endotoxin) have the potential to act as protective agents versus allergens capable of sensitizing and causing allergies and asthma...
  8. UVA Asthma and Allergic Diseases Center
    Thomas Platts Mills; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..objective of research at the University of Virginia has been to understand the role of foreign antigens or allergens in causing and maintaining the chronic inflammation of asthma...
  9. Soy Immunotherapy for Patients with Peanut Anaphylaxis
    ARVIL BURKS; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..idea that the storage proteins in soybeans would share enough amino acid homology with the respective peanut allergens to down regulate peanut-specific T cells, we have utilized soybean protein IT in a peanut allergic mouse model ..
  10. Rapid Test for Monitoring Dust Mite Avoidance in Homes
    Martin Chapman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    b>Allergens found in the home derived from dust mites, animal dander, cockroaches and fungi are commonly associated with the development of asthma...
  11. Socio-Cultural Influences on Allergic Sensitization
    Ginger Chew; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In addition, we understand that housing factors influence levels of indoor allergens, such that poor housing lends rise to cockroach and mouse allergens, and high humidity is associated with high ..
  12. Chitosan IFNgamma-pDNA Nanosphere Therapy and Immunopathology of Allergic Asthma
    Shyam Mohapatra; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Deviation of immune response to allergens from a pathogenic T helper-2 type response to T helper-1 type may provide a practical approach to modifying the ..
  13. DUST MITE, COCKROACH AND CAT ALLERGENS IN ASTHMA
    Thomas Platts Mills; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..By contrast, exposure to dust mite, cockroach or pollen allergens can induce sufficient IgE ab to make an important contribution to total serum IgE...
  14. DUST MITE, COCKROACH AND CAT ALLERGENS IN ASTHMA
    Thomas A Platts Mills; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..By contrast, exposure to dust mite, cockroach or pollen allergens can induce sufficient IgE ab to make an important contribution to total serum IgE...
  15. DUST MITE, COCKROACH AND CAT ALLERGENS IN HOUSES/ASTHMA
    Thomas Platts Mills; Fiscal Year: 1992
    The objective of these studies is to improve understanding of the role that indoor allergens play in asthma and to establish effective regimes for treating the disease by reducing exposure to allergens in homes...
  16. The Epidemiology of Home Allergens and Asthma
    Diane R Gold; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Asthma is the most common disease of childhood in the United States. The role of microbial flora and allergens in asthma development is poorly understood...
  17. The Epidemiology of Home Allergens and Asthma
    Diane Gold; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Asthma is the most common disease of childhood in the United States. The role of microbial flora and allergens in asthma development is poorly understood...
  18. Early Life Exposure to Microbial Products and Asthma
    Joel Kline; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..According to this paradigm, microbial exposures inhibit the development of Th2-skewed responses to environmental allergens, putatively through the induction of Th1 and/or regulatory-type responses...
  19. IMMUNOBIOLOGY OF WALNUT FOOD ALLERGY
    Suzanne Teuber; Fiscal Year: 2002
    Over the last ten years, genes encoding food allergens have been cloned and sequenced but no consensus sequences or motifs associated with allergy have been determined...