viral envelope proteins

Summary

Summary: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Binding of hepatitis C virus to CD81
    P Pileri
    IRIS, Chiron, Siena 53100, Italy
    Science 282:938-41. 1998
  2. pmc Viral membrane fusion
    Stephen C Harrison
    Jack and Eileen Connors Structural Biology Laboratory, Harvard Medical School, Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Children s Hospital Boston, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 250 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 15:690-8. 2008
  3. pmc Construction and characterization of infectious intragenotypic and intergenotypic hepatitis C virus chimeras
    Thomas Pietschmann
    Department of Molecular Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 345, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:7408-13. 2006
  4. pmc Cross-reacting antibodies enhance dengue virus infection in humans
    Wanwisa Dejnirattisai
    Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, UK
    Science 328:745-8. 2010
  5. pmc Structure of dengue virus: implications for flavivirus organization, maturation, and fusion
    Richard J Kuhn
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
    Cell 108:717-25. 2002
  6. pmc The human immune response to Dengue virus is dominated by highly cross-reactive antibodies endowed with neutralizing and enhancing activity
    Martina Beltramello
    Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Bellinzona 6500, Switzerland
    Cell Host Microbe 8:271-83. 2010
  7. ncbi Complete replication of hepatitis C virus in cell culture
    Brett D Lindenbach
    Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 309:623-6. 2005
  8. ncbi Endosomal proteolysis of the Ebola virus glycoprotein is necessary for infection
    Kartik Chandran
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 308:1643-5. 2005
  9. pmc Identification of human neutralizing antibodies that bind to complex epitopes on dengue virions
    Ruklanthi de Alwis
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:7439-44. 2012
  10. ncbi A structural perspective of the flavivirus life cycle
    Suchetana Mukhopadhyay
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 915 West State Street, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 2054, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:13-22. 2005

Detail Information

Publications273 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Binding of hepatitis C virus to CD81
    P Pileri
    IRIS, Chiron, Siena 53100, Italy
    Science 282:938-41. 1998
    ..Binding of E2 was mapped to the major extracellular loop of CD81. Recombinant molecules containing this loop bound HCV and antibodies that neutralize HCV infection in vivo inhibited virus binding to CD81 in vitro...
  2. pmc Viral membrane fusion
    Stephen C Harrison
    Jack and Eileen Connors Structural Biology Laboratory, Harvard Medical School, Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Children s Hospital Boston, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 250 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 15:690-8. 2008
    ..Fusion inhibitors can be effective antiviral agents...
  3. pmc Construction and characterization of infectious intragenotypic and intergenotypic hepatitis C virus chimeras
    Thomas Pietschmann
    Department of Molecular Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 345, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:7408-13. 2006
    ..Finally, we describe an E1-specific antiserum capable of neutralizing infectivity of all HCV chimeras...
  4. pmc Cross-reacting antibodies enhance dengue virus infection in humans
    Wanwisa Dejnirattisai
    Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, UK
    Science 328:745-8. 2010
    ....
  5. pmc Structure of dengue virus: implications for flavivirus organization, maturation, and fusion
    Richard J Kuhn
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
    Cell 108:717-25. 2002
    ..The structure suggests that flaviviruses, and by analogy also alphaviruses, employ a fusion mechanism in which the distal beta barrels of domain II of the glycoprotein E are inserted into the cellular membrane...
  6. pmc The human immune response to Dengue virus is dominated by highly cross-reactive antibodies endowed with neutralizing and enhancing activity
    Martina Beltramello
    Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Bellinzona 6500, Switzerland
    Cell Host Microbe 8:271-83. 2010
    ..Our findings reveal an unexpected degree of cross-reactivity in human antibodies against DENV and illustrate the potential for an antibody-based therapy to control severe dengue...
  7. ncbi Complete replication of hepatitis C virus in cell culture
    Brett D Lindenbach
    Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 309:623-6. 2005
    ..HCVcc replication was inhibited by interferon-alpha and by several HCV-specific antiviral compounds, suggesting that this in vitro system will aid in the search for improved antivirals...
  8. ncbi Endosomal proteolysis of the Ebola virus glycoprotein is necessary for infection
    Kartik Chandran
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 308:1643-5. 2005
    ..CatB and CatB/CatL inhibitors diminish the multiplication of infectious EboV-Zaire in cultured cells and may merit investigation as anti-EboV drugs...
  9. pmc Identification of human neutralizing antibodies that bind to complex epitopes on dengue virions
    Ruklanthi de Alwis
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:7439-44. 2012
    ..These results have significant implications for the DENV Ab and vaccine field...
  10. ncbi A structural perspective of the flavivirus life cycle
    Suchetana Mukhopadhyay
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 915 West State Street, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 2054, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:13-22. 2005
    ..This review focuses mainly on structural studies of dengue virus...
  11. pmc Hepatitis C virus entry depends on clathrin-mediated endocytosis
    Emmanuelle Blanchard
    Equipe Hepatite C, CNRS UMR8161, Institut de Biologie de Lille, 1 rue du Professeur Calmette, BP447, 59021 Lille Cedex, France
    J Virol 80:6964-72. 2006
    ..These data indicate that HCV enters target cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, followed by a fusion step from within an acidic endosomal compartment...
  12. pmc Efficacy results of a trial of a herpes simplex vaccine
    Robert B Belshe
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Allergy, and Immunology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO 63104, USA
    N Engl J Med 366:34-43. 2012
    ..Efficacy was not observed in men or HSV-1 seropositive women...
  13. ncbi Dengue virus infectivity depends on envelope protein binding to target cell heparan sulfate
    Y Chen
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109, USA
    Nat Med 3:866-71. 1997
    ..Similar motifs were also identified in the envelope proteins of other flaviviridae. Developing pharmaceuticals that inhibit target cell binding may be an effective strategy for treating flavivirus infections...
  14. pmc Development of a humanized monoclonal antibody with therapeutic potential against West Nile virus
    Theodore Oliphant
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Box 8051, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Nat Med 11:522-30. 2005
    ..In postexposure therapeutic trials in mice, a single dose of humanized E16 protected mice against WNV-induced mortality, and may therefore be a viable treatment option against WNV infection in humans...
  15. ncbi Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States
    R S Lanciotti
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Science 286:2333-7. 1999
    ..This North American WN virus was most closely related to a WN virus isolated from a dead goose in Israel in 1998...
  16. pmc Coreceptor usage of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates varies according to biological phenotype
    A Bjorndal
    Microbiology and Tumorbiology Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Virol 71:7478-87. 1997
    ..The results show that all 36 primary HIV-1 isolates induce syncytia, provided that target cells carry the particular coreceptor required by the virus...
  17. ncbi Tracking global patterns of N-linked glycosylation site variation in highly variable viral glycoproteins: HIV, SIV, and HCV envelopes and influenza hemagglutinin
    Ming Zhang
    Theoretical Biology Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544, USA
    Glycobiology 14:1229-46. 2004
    ..Human influenza A hemagglutinin H3 HA1 is accumulating sequons over time, but this trend is not evident in any other avian or human influenza A serotypes...
  18. pmc A virus-like particle vaccine for epidemic Chikungunya virus protects nonhuman primates against infection
    Wataru Akahata
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Nat Med 16:334-8. 2010
    ..Immunization with alphavirus VLP vaccines represents a strategy to contain the spread of CHIKV and related pathogenic viruses in humans...
  19. ncbi Cell entry of hepatitis C virus requires a set of co-receptors that include the CD81 tetraspanin and the SR-B1 scavenger receptor
    Birke Bartosch
    Laboratoire de Vectorologie Rétrovirale et Thérapie Génique, INSERM U412, Institut Fédératif de Recherche 128, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 allee d Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France
    J Biol Chem 278:41624-30. 2003
    ..Finally, by correlating expression of HCV receptors and infectivity, we suggest that, besides CD81 and SR-B1, additional hepatocyte-specific co-factor(s) are necessary for HCV entry...
  20. pmc Human monoclonal antibodies to a novel cluster of conformational epitopes on HCV E2 with resistance to neutralization escape in a genotype 2a isolate
    Zhen Yong Keck
    Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002653. 2012
    ..Thus, the cluster of HC-84 epitopes, designated as antigenic domain D, is relevant for vaccine design for this highly diverse virus...
  21. pmc Repulsion of superinfecting virions: a mechanism for rapid virus spread
    Virginie Doceul
    Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Science 327:873-6. 2010
    ..Additional spreading mechanisms may exist for other viruses that also spread faster than predicted by replication kinetics...
  22. ncbi A novel role for 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate in herpes simplex virus 1 entry
    D Shukla
    Department of Microbiology Immunology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    Cell 99:13-22. 1999
    ....
  23. pmc Novel structural protein in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus encoded by an alternative ORF5 present in all arteriviruses
    Craig R Johnson
    Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    J Gen Virol 92:1107-16. 2011
    ..Its discovery also provides a new potential target for immunological and pharmacological intervention in PRRS...
  24. ncbi Glycoprotein organization of Chikungunya virus particles revealed by X-ray crystallography
    James E Voss
    Institut Pasteur, Departement de Virologie, Unité de Virologie Structurale, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Nature 468:709-12. 2010
    ..3), this work also provides new insight into the acid-triggered conformational change on the virus particle and its inbuilt inhibition mechanism in the immature complex...
  25. pmc Dengue virus neutralization by human immune sera: role of envelope protein domain III-reactive antibody
    W M P B Wahala
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, CB 7290 University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Virology 392:103-13. 2009
    ..Our results have implications for understanding protective immunity following natural DENV infection and for evaluating DENV vaccines...
  26. pmc West Nile virus recombinant DNA vaccine protects mouse and horse from virus challenge and expresses in vitro a noninfectious recombinant antigen that can be used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays
    B S Davis
    Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    J Virol 75:4040-7. 2001
    ..This recombinant antigen has great potential to become the antigen of choice and will facilitate the standardization of reagents and implementation of WN virus surveillance in the United States and elsewhere...
  27. ncbi Crystal structure of glycoprotein B from herpes simplex virus 1
    Ekaterina E Heldwein
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 320 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 313:217-20. 2006
    ..The domain connectivity within a gB monomer would permit such a rearrangement, including long-range translocations linked to viral and cellular membranes...
  28. ncbi Structural basis of West Nile virus neutralization by a therapeutic antibody
    Grant E Nybakken
    Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Nature 437:764-9. 2005
    ..Collectively, our results suggest that a vaccine strategy targeting the dominant DIII epitope may elicit safe and effective immune responses against flaviviral diseases...
  29. pmc Topology of the C-terminal tail of HIV-1 gp41: differential exposure of the Kennedy epitope on cell and viral membranes
    Jonathan D Steckbeck
    Center for Vaccine Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e15261. 2010
    ..These data indicate apparently distinct CTT topologies for virion- and cell-associated Env species and add to the case for a reconsideration of CTT topology that is more complex than currently envisioned...
  30. pmc Structure of hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein E2 antigenic site 412 to 423 in complex with antibody AP33
    Leopold Kong
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA
    J Virol 86:13085-8. 2012
    ..These structures establish two different modes of binding to E2 that antibodies adopt to neutralize diverse HCV...
  31. pmc Analysis of epitopes on dengue virus envelope protein recognized by monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal human sera by a high throughput assay
    Hong En Lin
    Institute of Microbiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6:e1447. 2012
    ....
  32. pmc Vaccine prevention of maternal cytomegalovirus infection
    Robert F Pass
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham 35233, USA
    N Engl J Med 360:1191-9. 2009
    ..Congenital infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of hearing, cognitive, and motor impairments in newborns...
  33. pmc Molecular architectures of trimeric SIV and HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins on intact viruses: strain-dependent variation in quaternary structure
    Tommi A White
    Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001249. 2010
    ....
  34. pmc Human broadly neutralizing antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein complex of hepatitis C virus
    Erick Giang
    Department of Immunology and Microbial Science and International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:6205-10. 2012
    ..The mAb panel will be useful for the design and development of vaccine candidates to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies to HCV...
  35. pmc Transferrin receptor 1 is a cellular receptor for New World haemorrhagic fever arenaviruses
    Sheli R Radoshitzky
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, New England Primate Research Center, Southborough, Massachusetts 01772, USA
    Nature 446:92-6. 2007
    ..These data indicate that TfR1 is a cellular receptor for New World haemorrhagic fever arenaviruses...
  36. pmc Naturally occurring antibodies that recognize linear epitopes in the amino terminus of the hepatitis C virus E2 protein confer noninterfering, additive neutralization
    Alexander W Tarr
    School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    J Virol 86:2739-49. 2012
    ....
  37. pmc Biochemical and morphological properties of hepatitis C virus particles and determination of their lipidome
    Andreas Merz
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Molecular Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 345, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Biol Chem 286:3018-32. 2011
    ..Taken together, we describe a rapid and efficient system for the production of large quantities of affinity-purified HCV allowing a comprehensive analysis of the infectious virion, including the determination of its lipid composition...
  38. pmc CD81 is required for hepatitis C virus glycoprotein-mediated viral infection
    Jie Zhang
    Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Diseases, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Virol 78:1448-55. 2004
    ..These data suggest a functional role for CD81 as a coreceptor for HCV glycoprotein-dependent viral cell entry...
  39. pmc Role of N-linked glycans in the functions of hepatitis C virus envelope proteins incorporated into infectious virions
    François Helle
    Institut Pasteur de Lille, Bâtiment IBL, 59021 Lille Cedex, France
    J Virol 84:11905-15. 2010
    ..Furthermore, these carbohydrates form a "glycan shield" at the surface of the virion, which contributes to the evasion of HCV from the humoral immune response...
  40. ncbi Hepatitis C virus continuously escapes from neutralizing antibody and T-cell responses during chronic infection in vivo
    Thomas von Hahn
    Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Gastroenterology 132:667-78. 2007
    ....
  41. pmc Ebola virus glycoprotein: proteolytic processing, acylation, cell tropism, and detection of neutralizing antibodies
    H Ito
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Virol 75:1576-80. 2001
    ..This finding provides evidence of shared neutralizing epitopes on GP and SGP molecules and indicates the potential of SGP to serve as a decoy for neutralizing antibodies...
  42. pmc The disulfide bonds in glycoprotein E2 of hepatitis C virus reveal the tertiary organization of the molecule
    Thomas Krey
    Institut Pasteur, CNRS URA3015, Unité de Virologie Structurale, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000762. 2010
    ....
  43. pmc Herpesvirus entry: an update
    Patricia G Spear
    Department of Microbiology Immunology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    J Virol 77:10179-85. 2003
  44. pmc Structural changes of envelope proteins during alphavirus fusion
    Long Li
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 915 W State Street, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 2054, USA
    Nature 468:705-8. 2010
    ..The amino- and carboxy-terminal domains of E2 each form immunoglobulin-like folds, consistent with the receptor attachment properties of E2...
  45. pmc N-linked glycosylation of west nile virus envelope proteins influences particle assembly and infectivity
    Sheri L Hanna
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, 225 Johnson Pavilion, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Virol 79:13262-74. 2005
    ..This suggests a multifaceted role for envelope N-linked glycosylation in WNV biology and tropism...
  46. pmc Identification of a broadly cross-reacting and neutralizing human monoclonal antibody directed against the hepatitis C virus E2 protein
    Mario Perotti
    Laboratorio di Microbiologia e Virologia, Universita Vita Salute San Raffaele, DIBIT2, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milano, Italia
    J Virol 82:1047-52. 2008
    ..Fab e137 was also able to inhibit cell culture-grown HCV (genotype 2a). These data indicate that broadly cross-reacting and cross-neutralizing antibodies are generated during HCV infection...
  47. ncbi Phylogenetic analysis of North American West Nile virus isolates, 2001-2004: evidence for the emergence of a dominant genotype
    C Todd Davis
    Department of Pathology, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, and Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77550 0609, USA
    Virology 342:252-65. 2005
    ..The implications of these findings are discussed as they relate to transmission and spread of the virus in the Western Hemisphere...
  48. pmc Structural analysis of a dengue cross-reactive antibody complexed with envelope domain III reveals the molecular basis of cross-reactivity
    Claire M Midgley
    Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 188:4971-9. 2012
    ..Surprisingly, 2H12 facilitated little or no enhancement of infection. These data provide a structural basis for understanding Ab neutralization and enhancement of infection, which is crucial for the development of future dengue vaccines...
  49. ncbi Intrauterine transmission of cytomegalovirus to infants of women with preconceptional immunity
    S B Boppana
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35233, USA
    N Engl J Med 344:1366-71. 2001
    ..Whether congenital CMV infection in the offspring of women who are seropositive for CMV can occur after maternal reinfection with a different strain of CMV is unknown...
  50. pmc Toward a hepatitis C virus vaccine: the structural basis of hepatitis C virus neutralization by AP33, a broadly neutralizing antibody
    Jane A Potter
    Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, United Kingdom
    J Virol 86:12923-32. 2012
    ..The structural details of this neutralizing epitope provide a starting point for the design of an immunogen capable of eliciting AP33-like antibodies...
  51. pmc West Nile virus discriminates between DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR for cellular attachment and infection
    Carl W Davis
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    J Virol 80:1290-301. 2006
    ..We believe this is the first report of a pathogen interacting more efficiently with DC-SIGNR than with DC-SIGN. Our results should lead to the discovery of new mechanisms by which these well-studied lectins discriminate among ligands...
  52. ncbi Residues in domain III of the dengue virus envelope glycoprotein involved in cell-surface glycosaminoglycan binding
    Daniel Watterson
    Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia
    J Gen Virol 93:72-82. 2012
    ..These studies have also demonstrated differential binding between mosquito and human cells...
  53. ncbi Structure of the dengue virus envelope protein after membrane fusion
    Yorgo Modis
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Children s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 320 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 427:313-9. 2004
    ..Specific features of the folded-back structure suggest strategies for inhibiting flavivirus entry...
  54. ncbi Mechanism of dengue virus broad cross-neutralization by a monoclonal antibody
    Joseph J B Cockburn
    Unité de Virologie Structurale, Departement de Virologie, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Structure 20:303-14. 2012
    ..The structures also highlight the mechanism by which A-strand Mabs disrupt the architecture of the mature virion, inducing premature fusion loop exposure and concomitant particle inactivation...
  55. pmc Emergence of the Asian 1 genotype of dengue virus serotype 2 in viet nam: in vivo fitness advantage and lineage replacement in South-East Asia
    Thi Ty Hang Vu
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4:e757. 2010
    ..These results provide a mechanistic basis to a marked change in the genetic structure of DENV-2 and more broadly underscore that an understanding of DENV evolutionary dynamics can inform the development of vaccines and anti-viral drugs...
  56. ncbi Molecular mechanisms of flavivirus membrane fusion
    Karin Stiasny
    Institute of Virology, Medical University of Vienna, AT, Austria
    Amino Acids 41:1159-63. 2011
    ..This includes the identification of a conserved histidine as being part of the pH sensor in the fusion protein that responds to the acidic pH and thus initiates the structural transitions driving fusion...
  57. pmc Conformational changes of the flavivirus E glycoprotein
    Ying Zhang
    Department of Biological Sciences, Lilly Hall, 915 West State Street, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
    Structure 12:1607-18. 2004
    ..Flexibility of E is apparently a functional requirement for assembly and infection of flaviviruses...
  58. ncbi The flavivirus precursor membrane-envelope protein complex: structure and maturation
    Long Li
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
    Science 319:1830-4. 2008
    ..The structure provides a basis for identifying the stages of its pH-directed conformational metamorphosis during maturation, ending with release of pr when budding from the host...
  59. pmc Neutralizing antibody response to hepatitis C virus
    Yong Wang
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Viruses 3:2127-45. 2011
    ....
  60. pmc Structure and function analysis of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies against dengue virus type 2
    Soila Sukupolvi-Petty
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Ave, Box 8051, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 84:9227-39. 2010
    ..Overall, these studies define the structural and functional complexity of antibodies against DENV-2 with protective potential...
  61. pmc Herpes simplex virus glycoproteins gH/gL and gB bind Toll-like receptor 2, and soluble gH/gL is sufficient to activate NF-κB
    Valerio Leoni
    Department of Experimental Pathology, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
    J Virol 86:6555-62. 2012
    ..Thus, whereas both HSV gH/gL and gB are ligands to TLR2, only gH/gL is sufficient to initiate a signaling cascade which leads to NF-κB activation...
  62. pmc The Tyro3 receptor kinase Axl enhances macropinocytosis of Zaire ebolavirus
    Catherine L Hunt
    Dept Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Virol 85:334-47. 2011
    ..Our findings demonstrate for the first time that Axl enhances macropinocytosis, thereby increasing productive ZEBOV entry...
  63. pmc Chikungunya virus emergence is constrained in Asia by lineage-specific adaptive landscapes
    Konstantin A Tsetsarkin
    Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Tropical Diseases and Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:7872-7. 2011
    ..albopictus-adapted African strains. These results underscore how different adaptive landscapes occupied by closely related viral genotypes can profoundly affect the outcome of viral evolution and disease emergence...
  64. pmc Characterization of the envelope glycoproteins associated with infectious hepatitis C virus
    Gabrielle Vieyres
    Institut Pasteur de Lille, Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, F 59019 Lille, France
    J Virol 84:10159-68. 2010
    ..Overall, our study fills a gap in the description of HCV outer morphology and should guide further investigations into virus entry and assembly...
  65. pmc Localization and characterization of flavivirus envelope glycoprotein cross-reactive epitopes
    Wayne D Crill
    Arbovirus Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U S Department of Health and Human Services, P O Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    J Virol 78:13975-86. 2004
    ..The third epitope consists of discontinuous residues that are structurally related to the strictly conserved tryptophan at dengue virus serotype 2 E-glycoprotein position 231...
  66. pmc Ebolavirus is internalized into host cells via macropinocytosis in a viral glycoprotein-dependent manner
    Asuka Nanbo
    Influenza Research Institute, Department of Pathological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001121. 2010
    ..These findings provide new insights into the lifecycle of Ebolavirus and may aid in the development of therapeutics for Ebolavirus infection...
  67. pmc The major determinant of attenuation in mice of the Candid1 vaccine for Argentine hemorrhagic fever is located in the G2 glycoprotein transmembrane domain
    Cesar G Albarino
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MS G14, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Virol 85:10404-8. 2011
    ..This work provides insight into the molecular mechanisms of attenuation of the only arenavirus vaccine currently available...
  68. pmc Development of a recombinant tetravalent dengue virus vaccine: immunogenicity and efficacy studies in mice and monkeys
    David E Clements
    Hawaii Biotech, Inc, 99 193 Aiea Heights Drive, Aiea, HI 96701, United States
    Vaccine 28:2705-15. 2010
    ..These results support the development of a dengue virus tetravalent vaccine based on the four 80E subunits produced in the Drosophila S2 cell expression system...
  69. pmc The development of therapeutic antibodies that neutralize homologous and heterologous genotypes of dengue virus type 1
    Bimmi Shrestha
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000823. 2010
    ..Overall, our experiments define a complex structural epitope on DIII of DENV-1 that can be recognized by protective antibodies with therapeutic potential...
  70. ncbi Human endogenous retrovirus rec interferes with germ cell development in mice and may cause carcinoma in situ, the predecessor lesion of germ cell tumors
    Uwe M Galli
    Department of Virology, Bldg 47, University of Saarland Medical School, 66421 Homburg Saar, Germany
    Oncogene 24:3223-8. 2005
    ..This provides the first direct evidence that the expression of a human endogenous retroviral gene previously established as a marker in human germ cell tumors may contribute to organ-specific tumorigenesis in a transgenic mouse model...
  71. pmc Monoclonal antibodies that bind to domain III of dengue virus E glycoprotein are the most efficient blockers of virus adsorption to Vero cells
    W D Crill
    Arbovirus Disease Branch, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    J Virol 75:7769-73. 2001
    ..These results extend our understanding of the structure-function relationships in the E glycoprotein of DEN virus and provide the first direct evidence that domain III encodes the primary flavivirus receptor-binding motif...
  72. pmc Maturation of West Nile virus modulates sensitivity to antibody-mediated neutralization
    Steevenson Nelson
    Viral Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000060. 2008
    ..Thus, in addition to a role in facilitating viral entry, changes in E protein arrangement associated with maturation modulate neutralization sensitivity and introduce an additional layer of complexity into humoral immunity against WNV...
  73. pmc Identification of multiple protective epitopes (protectopes) in the central conserved domain of a prototype human respiratory syncytial virus G protein
    H Plotnicky-Gilquin
    Centre d Immunologie Pierre Fabre, 74164 Saint Julien en Genevois cedex, France
    J Virol 73:5637-45. 1999
    ..Should these murine protectopes also be implicated in human LRT protection, their clustering around the highly conserved cysteine noose region will have important implications for the development of RSV vaccines...
  74. ncbi Entry of alphaherpesviruses mediated by poliovirus receptor-related protein 1 and poliovirus receptor
    R J Geraghty
    Department of Microbiology Immunology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Science 280:1618-20. 1998
    ..HveC was expressed in human cells of epithelial and neuronal origin; it is the prime candidate for the coreceptor that allows both HSV-1 and HSV-2 to infect epithelial cells on mucosal surfaces and spread to cells of the nervous system...
  75. pmc Assembly and maturation of the flavivirus Kunjin virus appear to occur in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and along the secretory pathway, respectively
    J M MacKenzie
    Clinical Medical Virology Centre, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia
    J Virol 75:10787-99. 2001
    ..The results suggest that the assembly of virions occurs within the lumen of the RER and that subsequent maturation occurs via the secretory pathway...
  76. ncbi Molecular epidemiological analysis of Japanese encephalitis virus in China
    Huan Yu Wang
    State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 100 YingXinJie, XuanWuQu, Beijing 100052, People s Republic of China
    J Gen Virol 88:885-94. 2007
    ..The results suggest that genotype 1 JEV was introduced to China around 1979 and that JEV strains belonging to genotypes 1 and 3 circulate in China...
  77. pmc Retrovirus envelope protein complex structure in situ studied by cryo-electron tomography
    Friedrich Förster
    Abteilung für Molekulare Strukturbiologie, Max Planck Institut fur Biochemie, Am Klopferspitz 18, D 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:4729-34. 2005
    ..This study thus provides 3D structural information regarding the prefusion conformation of an intact unstained retrovirus surface protein...
  78. pmc Crystal structure of the conserved herpesvirus fusion regulator complex gH-gL
    Tirumala K Chowdary
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 17:882-8. 2010
    ..Formation of a gB-gH-gL complex is critical for fusion and is inhibited by a neutralizing antibody, making the gB-gH-gL interface a promising antiviral target...
  79. ncbi Serological response to human endogenous retrovirus K in melanoma patients correlates with survival probability
    Silvia Hahn
    Retroelement Section, Paul Ehrlich Institut, Langen, Germany
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24:717-23. 2008
    ..027) in melanoma patients with the early stages of the disease (AJCC I-III). This is the first report that the humoral anti-HERV-K immune response may provide additional prognostic information to that of established melanoma markers...
  80. pmc Human cytomegalovirus virion protein complex required for epithelial and endothelial cell tropism
    Dai Wang
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, NJ 08544, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:18153-8. 2005
    ....
  81. pmc Natural history of human respiratory syncytial virus inferred from phylogenetic analysis of the attachment (G) glycoprotein with a 60-nucleotide duplication
    Alfonsina Trento
    Unidad de Biología Viral, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid, Spain
    J Virol 80:975-84. 2006
    ..We have taken advantage of this situation to reexamine the molecular epidemiology of HRSV and to explore the natural history of this important human pathogen...
  82. ncbi Phylogeography and evolutionary history of dengue virus type 3
    Josélio M G Araújo
    Laboratory of Flavivirus, Oswaldo Cruz Institute FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Infect Genet Evol 9:716-25. 2009
    ....
  83. pmc Depletion of interfering antibodies in chronic hepatitis C patients and vaccinated chimpanzees reveals broad cross-genotype neutralizing activity
    Pei Zhang
    Division of Hematology and Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, United States Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:7537-41. 2009
    ..Our studies contribute to understanding the mechanisms of antibody-mediated neutralization and interference and provide a practical approach to the development of more potent and broadly reactive hepatitis C immune globulins...
  84. ncbi Structures of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein: membrane fusion revisited
    S Roche
    CNRS, UMR2472, INRA, UMR1157, IFR 115, Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, Gif sur Yvette, France
    Cell Mol Life Sci 65:1716-28. 2008
    ..Besides the similarities with other viral fusion machineries, the fusion properties and structures of G also reveal some striking particularities that invite us to reconsider a few dogmas concerning fusion proteins...
  85. pmc Entomologic and virologic investigation of Chikungunya, Singapore
    Lee Ching Ng
    National Environment Agency, Singapore
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:1243-9. 2009
    ..These findings led to a revision of the current vector control strategy in Singapore. This report highlights the use of entomologic and virologic data to assist in the control of chikungunya in disease-endemic areas...
  86. ncbi The envelope glycoprotein domain III of dengue virus serotypes 1 and 2 inhibit virus entry
    J F L Chin
    Flavivirology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, 5 Science Drive 2, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597, Singapore
    Microbes Infect 9:1-6. 2007
    ..This observation may be of importance when formulating a generic vaccine that is effective against all dengue virus serotypes...
  87. pmc Isolation and characterization of human monoclonal antibodies from individuals infected with West Nile Virus
    Mark Throsby
    Crucell Holland B V, P O Box 2048, 2301 CA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Virol 80:6982-92. 2006
    ....
  88. pmc Hepatitis C virus glycoproteins mediate pH-dependent cell entry of pseudotyped retroviral particles
    Mayla Hsu
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:7271-6. 2003
    ..However, HIV-HCV pseudotype infectivity was inhibited by a recombinant soluble form of CD81 and a mAb specific for CD81, suggesting that CD81 may be a component of a receptor complex...
  89. ncbi Dendrimer functionalization with a membrane-interacting domain of herpes simplex virus type 1: towards intracellular delivery
    Tom P Carberry
    Molecular Design Institute, Department of Chemistry, New York University, NY 10003, USA
    Chemistry 18:13678-85. 2012
    ..Our results suggest that the presented peptidodendrimeric scaffold may be a promising material for efficient drug delivery...
  90. pmc NKp44 receptor mediates interaction of the envelope glycoproteins from the West Nile and dengue viruses with NK cells
    Oren Hershkovitz
    Shraga Segal Department of Microbiology and Immunology and National Institute for Biotechnology in the Negev, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
    J Immunol 183:2610-21. 2009
    ..Our findings show that triggering of NK cells by flavivirus is mediated by interaction of NKp44 with the flavivirus envelope protein...
  91. pmc Physical and functional interactions of human endogenous retrovirus proteins Np9 and rec with the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein
    Miriam Denne
    Institute of Virology, University of Saarland Medical School, Homburg Saar D 66421, Germany
    J Virol 81:5607-16. 2007
    ..Thus, the human endogenous retrovirus proteins Np9 and Rec may act oncogenically by derepressing c-myc through the inhibition of PLZF...
  92. ncbi Cellular binding of hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein E2 requires cell surface heparan sulfate
    Heidi Barth
    Department of Medicine II, University of Freiburg, D 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    J Biol Chem 278:41003-12. 2003
    ..Docking of E2 to cellular HSPG may be the initial step in the interaction between HCV and the cell surface resulting in receptor-mediated entry and initiation of infection...
  93. pmc Analysis of Rab GTPase-activating proteins indicates that Rab1a/b and Rab43 are important for herpes simplex virus 1 secondary envelopment
    Helen L Zenner
    Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
    J Virol 85:8012-21. 2011
    ....
  94. pmc A small-molecule dengue virus entry inhibitor
    Qing Yin Wang
    Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases, 10 Biopolis Rd, Chromos Building, Singapore 138670, Singapore
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:1823-31. 2009
    ..It arrests dengue virus in vesicles that colocalize with endocytosed dextran and inhibits NS3 expression. The inhibitors described in this report can serve as molecular probes for the study of the entry of flavivirus into host cells...
  95. pmc Mutational evidence of internal fusion loops in herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B
    Brian P Hannah
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, School of Dental Medicine, 240 S 40th Street, Levy Building R233, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Virol 81:4858-65. 2007
    ..We hypothesize that two loops in domain 1 of HSV gB function as fusion loops. Our data are further evidence that gB is a viral fusogen and suggest clues as to how gB may function...
  96. pmc Evidence that TMPRSS2 activates the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein for membrane fusion and reduces viral control by the humoral immune response
    Ilona Glowacka
    Institute of Virology, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany
    J Virol 85:4122-34. 2011
    ..In summary, we show that TMPRSS2 might promote viral spread and pathogenesis by diminishing viral recognition by neutralizing antibodies and by activating SARS S for cell-cell and virus-cell fusion...
  97. pmc Early events in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection of target cells
    Bala Chandran
    H M Bligh Cancer Research Laboratories, Dept of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, Illinois 60064, USA
    J Virol 84:2188-99. 2010
    ..The various signaling events triggered by infection, and their potential roles in the different stages of infection and disease pathogenesis, are summarized...
  98. ncbi The beta-chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR5 facilitate infection by primary HIV-1 isolates
    H Choe
    Division of Human Retrovirology Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cell 85:1135-48. 1996
    ..The ability of various members of the chemokine receptor family to support the early stages of HIV-1 infection helps to explain viral tropism and beta-chemokine inhibition of primary HIV-1 isolates...
  99. pmc Ebola virus glycoprotein needs an additional trigger, beyond proteolytic priming for membrane fusion
    Shridhar Bale
    Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1395. 2011
    ..After entry into host endosomes, GP(1,2) is enzymatically cleaved by endosomal cathepsins B and L, a necessary step in infection. However, the functional effects of the cleavage on the glycoprotein are unknown...
  100. pmc Phylogeography and population dynamics of dengue viruses in the Americas
    Orchid M Allicock
    Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, St Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
    Mol Biol Evol 29:1533-43. 2012
    ..However, for DENV-3 and DENV-4, the more stochastic "equal rates" model was preferred...
  101. pmc Antibodies to envelope glycoprotein of dengue virus during the natural course of infection are predominantly cross-reactive and recognize epitopes containing highly conserved residues at the fusion loop of domain II
    Chih Yun Lai
    Institute of Microbiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Virol 82:6631-43. 2008
    ..These findings have implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis of dengue and for the future design of subunit vaccine against DENV as well...

Research Grants63

  1. Development of a Recombinant Subunit Vaccine for CCHF
    David E Clements; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The platform proposed for use in this project has the demonstrated capability of producing complex viral envelope proteins with native-like conformation...
  2. Underlying Mechanisms of ApoE in HCV Infection and Assembly
    GUANGXIANG GEORGE LUO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..uses a cellular protein (apoE) for cell attachment is unprecedented and challenges the current dogma that viral envelope proteins mediate virus attachment by binding to cell surface receptors...
  3. Development of a Novel Rift Valley Fever Virus Vaccine
    Shinji Makino; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Although humoral immunity against the viral envelope proteins elicits protective immunity, there is currently no RVFV vaccine suitable for massive human vaccination ..
  4. Immune factors in vaccine-enhanced pandemic H1N1 influenza disease
    Amy L Vincent; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2) Using recombinant vaccines, determine if mismatch between viral envelope proteins of the vaccine strain and panH1N1 is sufficient to cause enhanced disease following panH1N1 challenge...
  5. Virion Sialic Acid and HSV Ocular Infection
    Curtis R Brandt; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..TAT-C, that inhibits HSV-1 infection and preliminary data suggests TAT-C binds to sialic acids on viral envelope proteins. A second critical finding recently published, is that sialic acids on one or more HSV-1 entry proteins ..
  6. Mechanisms of Chikungunya Virus Binding and Entry
    LAURIE SILVA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In Specific Aim 1, we will determine the role of N-linked glycosylation sites in the viral envelope proteins in viral replication...
  7. The role of envelope phosphatidylserine in the binding of HIV to target cells
    KOKI MORIZONO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..including reverse transcription, processing of viral proteins, integration, and antibodies against viral envelope proteins. In this proposal, we will study a novel mechanism of HIV binding to target cells, which is mediated in ..
  8. Dengue Epitope Vaccine,Tetravalent & MHCII-Targeted
    J Thomas August; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..technologies will be applied with both mouse and human antisera to identify the minimum sequences of the viral envelope proteins effective as neutralizing antibody epitopes...
  9. High-throughput Epitope Mapping of Anti-Viral Antibodies
    BENJAMIN JACOB DORANZ; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..this proposal is to develop tools to rapidly and comprehensively map MAb epitopes on structurally complex viral Envelope proteins. Identifying the epitopes of potent and broadly neutralizing MAbs will enable Env variants exhibiting ..
  10. Protein interactions by analytical ultracentrifugation
    PETER GETTINS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Systems that will be studied include (i) viral envelope proteins gp41 and gp120 from HIV and the S1 and S2 from SARS coronavirus (Caffrey), (ii) interactions of the LDL ..
  11. Hepatitis B virus immune escape mutants
    Shuping Tong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Such mutants contain amino acid changes in the alpha determinant of viral envelope proteins, the primary target of neutralizing antibodies...
  12. The roles of phosphatidylserine and its receptors in HIV replication
    KOKI MORIZONO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Binding of HIV is usually mediated by viral envelope proteins, gp120, and its receptors, including CD4 and DC-SIGN...
  13. Novel HIV Neutralizing Human MAbs from Transgenic Mice
    Abraham Pinter; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This latter antigen was uccessful in eliciting Mabs that recognized native viral envelope proteins, including antibodies with potent neutralizing activities for the SF162 strain...
  14. Replication and Persistence of Primate Lentiviruses
    Welkin Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..neutralization, either by SIV-positive animal plasma or by monoclonal antibodies directed against the viral envelope proteins, a property it also shares with clinically relevant, primary isolates of HIV- 1...
  15. Baculovirus envelope proteins and insect cells
    GARY BLISSARD; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These studies will advance our understanding of viral envelope proteins and they will also have broader applications to important areas of biology, medicine, and public health...
  16. Molecular Mechanism of Sec1p-Regulated Membrane Fusion
    CHAVELA CARR; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..cellular proteins, called SNAREs, share structural similarity with the fusion-active conformation of the viral envelope proteins. Despite the inherent ability of SNARE proteins to fuse membranes, eukaryotic cells require at least a ..
  17. MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO HIV CORECEPTORS
    Monica Tsang; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..However, little is known about their distribution, their structure-function relationships with viral envelope proteins or chemokines, and because there are few tools for studying receptor function...
  18. Role of Phospholipid Scramblase in Interferon Action
    Robert Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The possibility that PLSCR1 co-localizes with viral envelope proteins in detergent-resistant membrane "rafts" will be explored, and the functional significance of conserved ..
  19. Cell Therapy by In Vivo Fusion
    Markus Grompe; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Aim 3 is geared toward enhancing the efficiency of in vivo fusion and thereby increasing the number of bone marrow derived hepatocytes. Fusogenic viral envelope proteins will be used to artificially induce cell fusion.
  20. Transgenic mouse for modifying antiviral mAb specificity
    Welkin Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..experiments comprising the second specific aim, transgenic animals that are immunologically tolerant to viral envelope proteins will be used to "focus" the antibody response on epitopes present in the inoculum but not in the ..
  21. HUMAN T CELL RECOGNITION OF HIV ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEINS
    Robert Siliciano; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In addition, studies are proposed to determine whether this novel pathway is utilized by all viral envelope proteins. With respect to env processing for recognition by CD4 + T cells, the proposed studies will extend work ..
  22. Biochemical and NMR Studies of Influenza HA2
    Michael Caffrey; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The viral envelope proteins HA1 and HA2 play critical roles in influenza entry...
  23. HIV CHEMOKINE-LIKE PROTEINS
    Linda Ludwig; Fiscal Year: 2000
    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) entry into cells requires tile viral envelope proteins (gp-120/gp4l) and cellular receptors, CD4 and chemokine receptors. Yet puzzles remain...
  24. New human gene that mediates herpes simplex virus entry
    A Fuller; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..long-term objective is to understand how HSV infection involves multiple cellular protein receptors and viral envelope proteins for attachments that lead to membrane fusion at neutral pH...
  25. HIV-1 Fusion Coreceptors
    Christopher Broder; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  26. Receptor usage and pathogenicity of feline lentiviruses
    BRIAN WILLETT; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  27. Nipah Virus and Hendra Virus Subunit Vaccines
    Christopher Broder; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We will evaluate monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies in both reporter-gene membrane fusion assays and in virus-neutralization assays. ..
  28. Nipah virus and Hendra virus Peptide Therapeutics
    Christopher Broder; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We will establish the required experimental conditions and parameters and test this hypothesis in a NiV infection model using the cat. ..
  29. HCMV US2 & US11 Inhibition of MHC Class II Presentation
    David Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  30. VACCINES FOR PREVENTION OF EXPERIMENTAL CONGENITAL CMV
    Mark Schleiss; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We anticipate that these subunit vaccine studies in this small animal model will clarify which strategies may be of value for vaccination against congenital HCMV infection. ..
  31. Hantavirus Vaccines Based On Nonreplicating Adenoviruses
    David Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This will be a prelude to challenge experiments in which vaccinated hamsters will be challenged with Andes virus that causes a lethal pulmonary disease similar to that in humans. ..
  32. A reverse genetic system for the study of Nipah Virus
    Benhur Lee; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  33. Functional Activities of HCV Core Protein
    Ranjit Ray; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  34. Transgenic Plant-Derived CMV Glycoprotein B Vaccine
    Mark Schleiss; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies will advance the fields of plant and CMV vaccines. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  35. Novel Strategy for Animal Model Testing of HCMV Vaccines
    Mark Schleiss; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies will represent the first efficacy test of a human CMV subunit vaccine in a small animal model of congenital CMV infection. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  36. Herpes Simplex Virus Transmission Across Cell Junctions
    David Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. QUALITATIVE NATURE OF ANTIBODIES TO HCV GLYCOPROTEIN SUBUNIT VACCINE IN HUMANS
    Ranjit Ray; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our proposed complimentary experimental approaches in this vaccinated cohort will help in developing successful vaccine strategies for the intervention of the first crucial step of the HCV life cycle. ..
  38. Studies on DC-SIGN Interactions with HIV and SIV
    Benhur Lee; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  39. Peptidomimics of DC-SIGN binding structures on gp120
    Benhur Lee; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Therefore, we believe this research proposal appropriately meets the research objectives defined by the Innovation Grant Program for AIDS Research (PA-02-046). ..
  40. HCV ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEINS AND VACCINE DEVELOPMENT
    Ranjit Ray; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  41. HIV 1 CORECEPTORS AND THEIR ROLE IN HEMATOPOIESIS
    Benhur Lee; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Lee to gain the necessary technical and professional expertise to make the necessary transition to an independent clinical scientist in the field of academic Transfusion Medicine. (End of Abstract) ..
  42. Development of Novel Antiviral Agents VS West Nile Virus
    Michael Diamond; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  43. NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODIES AGAINST ORTHOPOX VIRUSES
    Dennis Burton; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..To examine the impact of passive immunization in immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy of a smallpox-like disease in a non-human primate model, we will use an experimental model of monkeypox virus infection ..
  44. Remodeling SARS Coronavirus Genome Regulatory Networks
    Ralph Baric; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  45. MINORITY PREDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM
    Bruno Sainz; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The goal of the studies proposed herein is to elucidate the mechanism(s) by which IFN-beta and IFN-gamma inhibit HSV-1 replication and to identify the cellular factors that are involved in this process. ..
  46. Toxin Gene Deleted C. perfringens as an Oral Delivery Vector
    Yue Chen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Successful completion of this study will create a safe, low-cost and efficient oral delivery vector for vaccine and therapeutic agents. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  47. High Throughput Screening of HIV Entry Inhibitors (RMI)
    Michael Caffrey; Fiscal Year: 2005
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters target cells by specific interactions between the viral envelope proteins gp41 and gp120 and human target cell receptors...
  48. Viral antigen glycosylation--Marker for HBV induced HCC?
    Timothy Block; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  49. Structural Specificity of Heparan Sulfate for Herpes Infections
    JIAN NONE LIU; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our results could lead to a novel approach to treat herpes simplex virus infections and improve the basic understanding on the biosynthesis of HS with specific sulfonation patterns. ..
  50. BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISM OF HIV DNA INTEGRATION
    Alan Engelman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. THE ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF ANTIBODIES TO A FILOVIRUS
    Dennis Burton; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  52. Epitope Driven HIV Vaccine Development
    Anne De Groot; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The final product of this joint effort will be a set of plasmids to be combined in an epitope-driven, oligonucleotide-based DNA cocktail vaccine for HIV. ..
  53. Novel Smallpox Vaccine Derived from VV/VAR Immunome
    Anne De Groot; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  54. HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TERMINASES
    Joel Baines; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  55. ONTOGENY OF MEASLES IMMUNITY IN INFANTS
    Ann Arvin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Understanding the maturation of host responses to viral antigens during the first year of life has general relevance for vaccine strategies in infancy. ..
  56. Theta-defensins Novel HIV-1 Uptake Inhibitors
    Robert Lehrer; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Specific Aim 2 will be realized by a combination of microchemical techniques, including surface plasmon resonance, tandem mass spectrometry, and state-of-the-art lectinomic and peptidomic chemistry. ..
  57. ASSEMBLY OF MHC CLASS I MOLECULES IN VITRO AND IN VIVO
    Hidde Ploegh; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  58. LEDGF-Integrase Structural Biology
    Alan Engelman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  59. ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS OF VARICELLA VIRUS
    Charles Grose; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These proposed VZV studies will provide further insight into the multiple functions of gE and the gE:gI complex. ..
  60. A Novel Model for the Study of Lung Pathogenesis of SARS
    Linqi Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These methods are repeatedly used to support each of the aims. ..
  61. NK CELL RECEPTORS AND THEIR LIGANDS
    LEWIS LANIER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These studies promise to provide new insights into the role of innate immunity in protection against pathogens and cancer. ..
  62. Biology of Leukocyte Regulatory Receptor
    LEWIS LANIER; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This represents the first conference to bring together investigators with a focus on structure, signaling, and in vivo biology of Leukocyte Regulatory Receptor function. ..