viral envelope proteins

Summary

Summary: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.

Top Publications

  1. pmc The human immune response to Dengue virus is dominated by highly cross-reactive antibodies endowed with neutralizing and enhancing activity
    Martina Beltramello
    Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Bellinzona 6500, Switzerland
    Cell Host Microbe 8:271-83. 2010
  2. pmc Cross-reacting antibodies enhance dengue virus infection in humans
    Wanwisa Dejnirattisai
    Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, UK
    Science 328:745-8. 2010
  3. pmc Construction and characterization of infectious intragenotypic and intergenotypic hepatitis C virus chimeras
    Thomas Pietschmann
    Department of Molecular Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 345, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:7408-13. 2006
  4. ncbi Structure of the dengue virus envelope protein after membrane fusion
    Yorgo Modis
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Children s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 320 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 427:313-9. 2004
  5. ncbi Endosomal proteolysis of the Ebola virus glycoprotein is necessary for infection
    Kartik Chandran
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 308:1643-5. 2005
  6. pmc Structure of dengue virus: implications for flavivirus organization, maturation, and fusion
    Richard J Kuhn
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
    Cell 108:717-25. 2002
  7. ncbi Complete replication of hepatitis C virus in cell culture
    Brett D Lindenbach
    Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 309:623-6. 2005
  8. ncbi Binding of hepatitis C virus to CD81
    P Pileri
    IRIS, Chiron, Siena 53100, Italy
    Science 282:938-41. 1998
  9. ncbi Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States
    R S Lanciotti
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Science 286:2333-7. 1999
  10. ncbi Cell entry of hepatitis C virus requires a set of co-receptors that include the CD81 tetraspanin and the SR-B1 scavenger receptor
    Birke Bartosch
    Laboratoire de Vectorologie Rétrovirale et Thérapie Génique, INSERM U412, Institut Fédératif de Recherche 128, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 allee d Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France
    J Biol Chem 278:41624-30. 2003

Detail Information

Publications239 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc The human immune response to Dengue virus is dominated by highly cross-reactive antibodies endowed with neutralizing and enhancing activity
    Martina Beltramello
    Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Bellinzona 6500, Switzerland
    Cell Host Microbe 8:271-83. 2010
    ..Our findings reveal an unexpected degree of cross-reactivity in human antibodies against DENV and illustrate the potential for an antibody-based therapy to control severe dengue...
  2. pmc Cross-reacting antibodies enhance dengue virus infection in humans
    Wanwisa Dejnirattisai
    Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, UK
    Science 328:745-8. 2010
    ....
  3. pmc Construction and characterization of infectious intragenotypic and intergenotypic hepatitis C virus chimeras
    Thomas Pietschmann
    Department of Molecular Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 345, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:7408-13. 2006
    ..Finally, we describe an E1-specific antiserum capable of neutralizing infectivity of all HCV chimeras...
  4. ncbi Structure of the dengue virus envelope protein after membrane fusion
    Yorgo Modis
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Children s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 320 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nature 427:313-9. 2004
    ..Specific features of the folded-back structure suggest strategies for inhibiting flavivirus entry...
  5. ncbi Endosomal proteolysis of the Ebola virus glycoprotein is necessary for infection
    Kartik Chandran
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 308:1643-5. 2005
    ..CatB and CatB/CatL inhibitors diminish the multiplication of infectious EboV-Zaire in cultured cells and may merit investigation as anti-EboV drugs...
  6. pmc Structure of dengue virus: implications for flavivirus organization, maturation, and fusion
    Richard J Kuhn
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
    Cell 108:717-25. 2002
    ..The structure suggests that flaviviruses, and by analogy also alphaviruses, employ a fusion mechanism in which the distal beta barrels of domain II of the glycoprotein E are inserted into the cellular membrane...
  7. ncbi Complete replication of hepatitis C virus in cell culture
    Brett D Lindenbach
    Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 309:623-6. 2005
    ..HCVcc replication was inhibited by interferon-alpha and by several HCV-specific antiviral compounds, suggesting that this in vitro system will aid in the search for improved antivirals...
  8. ncbi Binding of hepatitis C virus to CD81
    P Pileri
    IRIS, Chiron, Siena 53100, Italy
    Science 282:938-41. 1998
    ..Binding of E2 was mapped to the major extracellular loop of CD81. Recombinant molecules containing this loop bound HCV and antibodies that neutralize HCV infection in vivo inhibited virus binding to CD81 in vitro...
  9. ncbi Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States
    R S Lanciotti
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    Science 286:2333-7. 1999
    ..This North American WN virus was most closely related to a WN virus isolated from a dead goose in Israel in 1998...
  10. ncbi Cell entry of hepatitis C virus requires a set of co-receptors that include the CD81 tetraspanin and the SR-B1 scavenger receptor
    Birke Bartosch
    Laboratoire de Vectorologie Rétrovirale et Thérapie Génique, INSERM U412, Institut Fédératif de Recherche 128, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 allee d Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France
    J Biol Chem 278:41624-30. 2003
    ..Finally, by correlating expression of HCV receptors and infectivity, we suggest that, besides CD81 and SR-B1, additional hepatocyte-specific co-factor(s) are necessary for HCV entry...
  11. ncbi A novel role for 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate in herpes simplex virus 1 entry
    D Shukla
    Department of Microbiology Immunology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    Cell 99:13-22. 1999
    ....
  12. pmc Crystal structure of the conserved herpesvirus fusion regulator complex gH-gL
    Tirumala K Chowdary
    Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 17:882-8. 2010
    ..Formation of a gB-gH-gL complex is critical for fusion and is inhibited by a neutralizing antibody, making the gB-gH-gL interface a promising antiviral target...
  13. pmc Biochemical and morphological properties of hepatitis C virus particles and determination of their lipidome
    Andreas Merz
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Molecular Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 345, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Biol Chem 286:3018-32. 2011
    ..Taken together, we describe a rapid and efficient system for the production of large quantities of affinity-purified HCV allowing a comprehensive analysis of the infectious virion, including the determination of its lipid composition...
  14. ncbi Dengue virus infectivity depends on envelope protein binding to target cell heparan sulfate
    Y Chen
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109, USA
    Nat Med 3:866-71. 1997
    ..Similar motifs were also identified in the envelope proteins of other flaviviridae. Developing pharmaceuticals that inhibit target cell binding may be an effective strategy for treating flavivirus infections...
  15. ncbi Repulsion of superinfecting virions: a mechanism for rapid virus spread
    Virginie Doceul
    Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    Science 327:873-6. 2010
    ..Additional spreading mechanisms may exist for other viruses that also spread faster than predicted by replication kinetics...
  16. pmc Transferrin receptor 1 is a cellular receptor for New World haemorrhagic fever arenaviruses
    Sheli R Radoshitzky
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, New England Primate Research Center, Southborough, Massachusetts 01772, USA
    Nature 446:92-6. 2007
    ..These data indicate that TfR1 is a cellular receptor for New World haemorrhagic fever arenaviruses...
  17. pmc Monoclonal antibodies that bind to domain III of dengue virus E glycoprotein are the most efficient blockers of virus adsorption to Vero cells
    W D Crill
    Arbovirus Disease Branch, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522, USA
    J Virol 75:7769-73. 2001
    ..These results extend our understanding of the structure-function relationships in the E glycoprotein of DEN virus and provide the first direct evidence that domain III encodes the primary flavivirus receptor-binding motif...
  18. pmc Naturally occurring antibodies that recognize linear epitopes in the amino terminus of the hepatitis C virus E2 protein confer noninterfering, additive neutralization
    Alexander W Tarr
    School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Queen s Medical Centre, Nottingham, United Kingdom
    J Virol 86:2739-49. 2012
    ....
  19. pmc Human broadly neutralizing antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein complex of hepatitis C virus
    Erick Giang
    Department of Immunology and Microbial Science and International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:6205-10. 2012
    ..The mAb panel will be useful for the design and development of vaccine candidates to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies to HCV...
  20. pmc Dengue virus neutralization by human immune sera: role of envelope protein domain III-reactive antibody
    W M P B Wahala
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, CB 7290 University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Virology 392:103-13. 2009
    ..Our results have implications for understanding protective immunity following natural DENV infection and for evaluating DENV vaccines...
  21. ncbi Cellular binding of hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein E2 requires cell surface heparan sulfate
    Heidi Barth
    Department of Medicine II, University of Freiburg, D 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    J Biol Chem 278:41003-12. 2003
    ..Docking of E2 to cellular HSPG may be the initial step in the interaction between HCV and the cell surface resulting in receptor-mediated entry and initiation of infection...
  22. pmc Ebola virus glycoprotein: proteolytic processing, acylation, cell tropism, and detection of neutralizing antibodies
    H Ito
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Virol 75:1576-80. 2001
    ..This finding provides evidence of shared neutralizing epitopes on GP and SGP molecules and indicates the potential of SGP to serve as a decoy for neutralizing antibodies...
  23. pmc Structural changes of envelope proteins during alphavirus fusion
    Long Li
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 915 W State Street, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 2054, USA
    Nature 468:705-8. 2010
    ..The amino- and carboxy-terminal domains of E2 each form immunoglobulin-like folds, consistent with the receptor attachment properties of E2...
  24. pmc The disulfide bonds in glycoprotein E2 of hepatitis C virus reveal the tertiary organization of the molecule
    Thomas Krey
    Institut Pasteur, CNRS URA3015, Unité de Virologie Structurale, Paris, France
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000762. 2010
    ....
  25. ncbi Hepatitis C virus continuously escapes from neutralizing antibody and T-cell responses during chronic infection in vivo
    Thomas von Hahn
    Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Gastroenterology 132:667-78. 2007
    ....
  26. pmc Identification of a broadly cross-reacting and neutralizing human monoclonal antibody directed against the hepatitis C virus E2 protein
    Mario Perotti
    Laboratorio di Microbiologia e Virologia, Universita Vita Salute San Raffaele, DIBIT2, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milano, Italia
    J Virol 82:1047-52. 2008
    ..Fab e137 was also able to inhibit cell culture-grown HCV (genotype 2a). These data indicate that broadly cross-reacting and cross-neutralizing antibodies are generated during HCV infection...
  27. pmc Characterization of the envelope glycoproteins associated with infectious hepatitis C virus
    Gabrielle Vieyres
    Institut Pasteur de Lille, Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, F 59019 Lille, France
    J Virol 84:10159-68. 2010
    ..Overall, our study fills a gap in the description of HCV outer morphology and should guide further investigations into virus entry and assembly...
  28. doi Molecular mechanisms of flavivirus membrane fusion
    Karin Stiasny
    Institute of Virology, Medical University of Vienna, AT, Austria
    Amino Acids 41:1159-63. 2011
    ..This includes the identification of a conserved histidine as being part of the pH sensor in the fusion protein that responds to the acidic pH and thus initiates the structural transitions driving fusion...
  29. pmc Structure and function analysis of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies against dengue virus type 2
    Soila Sukupolvi-Petty
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Ave, Box 8051, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Virol 84:9227-39. 2010
    ..Overall, these studies define the structural and functional complexity of antibodies against DENV-2 with protective potential...
  30. doi The flavivirus precursor membrane-envelope protein complex: structure and maturation
    Long Li
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
    Science 319:1830-4. 2008
    ..The structure provides a basis for identifying the stages of its pH-directed conformational metamorphosis during maturation, ending with release of pr when budding from the host...
  31. pmc Localization and characterization of flavivirus envelope glycoprotein cross-reactive epitopes
    Wayne D Crill
    Arbovirus Diseases Branch, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U S Department of Health and Human Services, P O Box 2087, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA
    J Virol 78:13975-86. 2004
    ..The third epitope consists of discontinuous residues that are structurally related to the strictly conserved tryptophan at dengue virus serotype 2 E-glycoprotein position 231...
  32. pmc Chikungunya virus emergence is constrained in Asia by lineage-specific adaptive landscapes
    Konstantin A Tsetsarkin
    Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, Center for Tropical Diseases and Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:7872-7. 2011
    ..albopictus-adapted African strains. These results underscore how different adaptive landscapes occupied by closely related viral genotypes can profoundly affect the outcome of viral evolution and disease emergence...
  33. pmc Herpes simplex virus glycoproteins gH/gL and gB bind Toll-like receptor 2, and soluble gH/gL is sufficient to activate NF-κB
    Valerio Leoni
    Department of Experimental Pathology, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
    J Virol 86:6555-62. 2012
    ..Thus, whereas both HSV gH/gL and gB are ligands to TLR2, only gH/gL is sufficient to initiate a signaling cascade which leads to NF-κB activation...
  34. pmc The major determinant of attenuation in mice of the Candid1 vaccine for Argentine hemorrhagic fever is located in the G2 glycoprotein transmembrane domain
    Cesar G Albarino
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MS G14, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
    J Virol 85:10404-8. 2011
    ..This work provides insight into the molecular mechanisms of attenuation of the only arenavirus vaccine currently available...
  35. pmc The Tyro3 receptor kinase Axl enhances macropinocytosis of Zaire ebolavirus
    Catherine L Hunt
    Dept Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Virol 85:334-47. 2011
    ..Our findings demonstrate for the first time that Axl enhances macropinocytosis, thereby increasing productive ZEBOV entry...
  36. pmc Conformational changes of the flavivirus E glycoprotein
    Ying Zhang
    Department of Biological Sciences, Lilly Hall, 915 West State Street, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
    Structure 12:1607-18. 2004
    ..Flexibility of E is apparently a functional requirement for assembly and infection of flaviviruses...
  37. pmc Ebolavirus is internalized into host cells via macropinocytosis in a viral glycoprotein-dependent manner
    Asuka Nanbo
    Influenza Research Institute, Department of Pathological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001121. 2010
    ..These findings provide new insights into the lifecycle of Ebolavirus and may aid in the development of therapeutics for Ebolavirus infection...
  38. pmc Neutralizing antibody response to hepatitis C virus
    Yong Wang
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Viruses 3:2127-45. 2011
    ....
  39. pmc Role of N-linked glycans in the functions of hepatitis C virus envelope proteins incorporated into infectious virions
    François Helle
    Institut Pasteur de Lille, Bâtiment IBL, 59021 Lille Cedex, France
    J Virol 84:11905-15. 2010
    ..Furthermore, these carbohydrates form a "glycan shield" at the surface of the virion, which contributes to the evasion of HCV from the humoral immune response...
  40. pmc The development of therapeutic antibodies that neutralize homologous and heterologous genotypes of dengue virus type 1
    Bimmi Shrestha
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000823. 2010
    ..Overall, our experiments define a complex structural epitope on DIII of DENV-1 that can be recognized by protective antibodies with therapeutic potential...
  41. pmc Development of a recombinant tetravalent dengue virus vaccine: immunogenicity and efficacy studies in mice and monkeys
    David E Clements
    Hawaii Biotech, Inc, 99 193 Aiea Heights Drive, Aiea, HI 96701, United States
    Vaccine 28:2705-15. 2010
    ..These results support the development of a dengue virus tetravalent vaccine based on the four 80E subunits produced in the Drosophila S2 cell expression system...
  42. ncbi Entry of alphaherpesviruses mediated by poliovirus receptor-related protein 1 and poliovirus receptor
    R J Geraghty
    Department of Microbiology Immunology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
    Science 280:1618-20. 1998
    ..HveC was expressed in human cells of epithelial and neuronal origin; it is the prime candidate for the coreceptor that allows both HSV-1 and HSV-2 to infect epithelial cells on mucosal surfaces and spread to cells of the nervous system...
  43. pmc Identification of multiple protective epitopes (protectopes) in the central conserved domain of a prototype human respiratory syncytial virus G protein
    H Plotnicky-Gilquin
    Centre d Immunologie Pierre Fabre, 74164 Saint Julien en Genevois cedex, France
    J Virol 73:5637-45. 1999
    ..Should these murine protectopes also be implicated in human LRT protection, their clustering around the highly conserved cysteine noose region will have important implications for the development of RSV vaccines...
  44. pmc Herpesvirus entry: an update
    Patricia G Spear
    Department of Microbiology Immunology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    J Virol 77:10179-85. 2003
  45. pmc Entomologic and virologic investigation of Chikungunya, Singapore
    Lee Ching Ng
    National Environment Agency, Singapore
    Emerg Infect Dis 15:1243-9. 2009
    ..These findings led to a revision of the current vector control strategy in Singapore. This report highlights the use of entomologic and virologic data to assist in the control of chikungunya in disease-endemic areas...
  46. pmc Hepatitis C virus glycoproteins mediate pH-dependent cell entry of pseudotyped retroviral particles
    Mayla Hsu
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center and Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:7271-6. 2003
    ..However, HIV-HCV pseudotype infectivity was inhibited by a recombinant soluble form of CD81 and a mAb specific for CD81, suggesting that CD81 may be a component of a receptor complex...
  47. doi Structures of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein: membrane fusion revisited
    S Roche
    CNRS, UMR2472, INRA, UMR1157, IFR 115, Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, Gif sur Yvette, France
    Cell Mol Life Sci 65:1716-28. 2008
    ..Besides the similarities with other viral fusion machineries, the fusion properties and structures of G also reveal some striking particularities that invite us to reconsider a few dogmas concerning fusion proteins...
  48. pmc Isolation and characterization of human monoclonal antibodies from individuals infected with West Nile Virus
    Mark Throsby
    Crucell Holland B V, P O Box 2048, 2301 CA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Virol 80:6982-92. 2006
    ....
  49. pmc Depletion of interfering antibodies in chronic hepatitis C patients and vaccinated chimpanzees reveals broad cross-genotype neutralizing activity
    Pei Zhang
    Division of Hematology and Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, United States Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:7537-41. 2009
    ..Our studies contribute to understanding the mechanisms of antibody-mediated neutralization and interference and provide a practical approach to the development of more potent and broadly reactive hepatitis C immune globulins...
  50. doi Phylogeography and evolutionary history of dengue virus type 3
    Josélio M G Araújo
    Laboratory of Flavivirus, Oswaldo Cruz Institute FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Infect Genet Evol 9:716-25. 2009
    ....
  51. doi Glycoprotein organization of Chikungunya virus particles revealed by X-ray crystallography
    James E Voss
    Institut Pasteur, Departement de Virologie, Unité de Virologie Structurale, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    Nature 468:709-12. 2010
    ..3), this work also provides new insight into the acid-triggered conformational change on the virus particle and its inbuilt inhibition mechanism in the immature complex...
  52. ncbi The envelope glycoprotein domain III of dengue virus serotypes 1 and 2 inhibit virus entry
    J F L Chin
    Flavivirology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, 5 Science Drive 2, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597, Singapore
    Microbes Infect 9:1-6. 2007
    ..This observation may be of importance when formulating a generic vaccine that is effective against all dengue virus serotypes...
  53. pmc Identification of human neutralizing antibodies that bind to complex epitopes on dengue virions
    Ruklanthi de Alwis
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:7439-44. 2012
    ..These results have significant implications for the DENV Ab and vaccine field...
  54. pmc A small-molecule dengue virus entry inhibitor
    Qing Yin Wang
    Novartis Institute for Tropical Diseases, 10 Biopolis Rd, Chromos Building, Singapore 138670, Singapore
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:1823-31. 2009
    ..It arrests dengue virus in vesicles that colocalize with endocytosed dextran and inhibits NS3 expression. The inhibitors described in this report can serve as molecular probes for the study of the entry of flavivirus into host cells...
  55. pmc Antibodies to envelope glycoprotein of dengue virus during the natural course of infection are predominantly cross-reactive and recognize epitopes containing highly conserved residues at the fusion loop of domain II
    Chih Yun Lai
    Institute of Microbiology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    J Virol 82:6631-43. 2008
    ..These findings have implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis of dengue and for the future design of subunit vaccine against DENV as well...
  56. pmc Phylogeography and population dynamics of dengue viruses in the Americas
    Orchid M Allicock
    Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, St Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
    Mol Biol Evol 29:1533-43. 2012
    ..However, for DENV-3 and DENV-4, the more stochastic "equal rates" model was preferred...
  57. pmc Mutational evidence of internal fusion loops in herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B
    Brian P Hannah
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, School of Dental Medicine, 240 S 40th Street, Levy Building R233, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Virol 81:4858-65. 2007
    ..We hypothesize that two loops in domain 1 of HSV gB function as fusion loops. Our data are further evidence that gB is a viral fusogen and suggest clues as to how gB may function...
  58. ncbi The beta-chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR5 facilitate infection by primary HIV-1 isolates
    H Choe
    Division of Human Retrovirology Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cell 85:1135-48. 1996
    ..The ability of various members of the chemokine receptor family to support the early stages of HIV-1 infection helps to explain viral tropism and beta-chemokine inhibition of primary HIV-1 isolates...
  59. pmc Ebola virus glycoprotein needs an additional trigger, beyond proteolytic priming for membrane fusion
    Shridhar Bale
    Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5:e1395. 2011
    ..After entry into host endosomes, GP(1,2) is enzymatically cleaved by endosomal cathepsins B and L, a necessary step in infection. However, the functional effects of the cleavage on the glycoprotein are unknown...
  60. pmc Early events in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection of target cells
    Bala Chandran
    H M Bligh Cancer Research Laboratories, Dept of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, Illinois 60064, USA
    J Virol 84:2188-99. 2010
    ..The various signaling events triggered by infection, and their potential roles in the different stages of infection and disease pathogenesis, are summarized...
  61. pmc Evidence that TMPRSS2 activates the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein for membrane fusion and reduces viral control by the humoral immune response
    Ilona Glowacka
    Institute of Virology, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany
    J Virol 85:4122-34. 2011
    ..In summary, we show that TMPRSS2 might promote viral spread and pathogenesis by diminishing viral recognition by neutralizing antibodies and by activating SARS S for cell-cell and virus-cell fusion...
  62. pmc Analysis of Rab GTPase-activating proteins indicates that Rab1a/b and Rab43 are important for herpes simplex virus 1 secondary envelopment
    Helen L Zenner
    Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK
    J Virol 85:8012-21. 2011
    ....
  63. ncbi Cell surface expression of functional hepatitis C virus E1 and E2 glycoproteins
    Heidi E Drummer
    St Vincent s Institute of Medical Research, 41 Victoria Pde, Fitzroy, VIC 3065, Australia
    FEBS Lett 546:385-90. 2003
    ..These studies suggest that functional HCV glycoproteins are not retained exclusively in the ER and transit through the secretory pathway...
  64. pmc Mutations within a conserved region of the hepatitis C virus E2 glycoprotein that influence virus-receptor interactions and sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies
    Simrat Dhillon
    MRC Virology Unit, Institute of Virology, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    J Virol 84:5494-507. 2010
    ..The properties of all of these viruses in terms of receptor reactivity and neutralization by human antibodies were similar to JFH1(N415D), highlighting the importance of the E2 412-423 region in virus entry...
  65. pmc Viral entry and escape from antibody-mediated neutralization influence hepatitis C virus reinfection in liver transplantation
    Samira Fafi-Kremer
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unité 748, Strasbourg, France
    J Exp Med 207:2019-31. 2010
    ..These findings provide significant insights into the molecular mechanisms of viral evasion during HCV reinfection and suggest that viral entry is a viable target for prevention of HCV reinfection of the liver graft...
  66. pmc Biochemical and structural characterization of cathepsin L-processed Ebola virus glycoprotein: implications for viral entry and immunogenicity
    Chantelle L Hood
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Room 4502, Building 40, MSC 3005, 40 Convent Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 3005, USA
    J Virol 84:2972-82. 2010
    ..Together, these data suggest that CatL cleavage of EBOV GP exposes its receptor-binding domain, thereby facilitating access to a putative cellular receptor in steps that lead to membrane fusion...
  67. ncbi Glycoprotein-D-adjuvant vaccine to prevent genital herpes
    Lawrence R Stanberry
    Department of Pediatrics and Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston 77555 0351, USA
    N Engl J Med 347:1652-61. 2002
    ..An effective prophylactic vaccine would help control the spread of genital herpes...
  68. doi Platelet-derived growth factor-alpha receptor activation is required for human cytomegalovirus infection
    Liliana Soroceanu
    Department of Neurosciences, California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, Suite 220, 475 Brannan Street, San Francisco, California 94107, USA
    Nature 455:391-5. 2008
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that PDGFR-alpha is a critical receptor required for HCMV infection, and thus a target for novel anti-viral therapies...
  69. pmc Compensatory mutations in E1, p7, NS2, and NS3 enhance yields of cell culture-infectious intergenotypic chimeric hepatitis C virus
    Minkyung Yi
    Center for Hepatitis Research, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 1019, USA
    J Virol 81:629-38. 2007
    ..We conclude that interactions between NS2 and E1 and p7 as well as between NS2 and NS3 are essential for virus assembly and/or release and that each of these viral proteins plays an important role in this process...
  70. pmc Vaccine prevention of maternal cytomegalovirus infection
    Robert F Pass
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham 35233, USA
    N Engl J Med 360:1191-9. 2009
    ..Congenital infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of hearing, cognitive, and motor impairments in newborns...
  71. pmc SEL1L, the homologue of yeast Hrd3p, is involved in protein dislocation from the mammalian ER
    Britta Mueller
    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    J Cell Biol 175:261-70. 2006
    ..These results allow us to place SEL1L in the broader context of glycoprotein degradation, and imply the existence of multiple independent modes of extraction of misfolded substrates from the mammalian ER...
  72. pmc West Nile virus discriminates between DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR for cellular attachment and infection
    Carl W Davis
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA
    J Virol 80:1290-301. 2006
    ..We believe this is the first report of a pathogen interacting more efficiently with DC-SIGNR than with DC-SIGN. Our results should lead to the discovery of new mechanisms by which these well-studied lectins discriminate among ligands...
  73. pmc Human combinatorial libraries yield rare antibodies that broadly neutralize hepatitis C virus
    Daniel X Johansson
    Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Karolinska Institutet, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:16269-74. 2007
    ....
  74. pmc Expression and characterization of a minimal hepatitis C virus glycoprotein E2 core domain that retains CD81 binding
    Kathleen McCaffrey
    Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, 85 Commercial Rd, Melbourne, Australia
    J Virol 81:9584-90. 2007
    ..Our data provide insights into the E2 structure by suggesting that the three variable regions reside outside a conserved E2 core...
  75. pmc Human monoclonal antibody to hepatitis C virus E1 glycoprotein that blocks virus attachment and viral infectivity
    Zhen Yong Keck
    Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305, USA
    J Virol 78:7257-63. 2004
    ..Finally, H-111 blocks HCV-like particle binding to and HCV virion infection of target cells, suggesting the involvement of this epitope in virus binding and entry...
  76. pmc Infectious hepatitis C virus pseudo-particles containing functional E1-E2 envelope protein complexes
    Birke Bartosch
    Laboratoire de Vectorologie Rétrovirale et Thérapie Génique, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U412, IFR 128, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France
    J Exp Med 197:633-42. 2003
    ..Altogether, these studies indicate that these pseudo-particles may mimic the early infection steps of parental HCV and will be suitable for the development of much needed new antiviral therapies...
  77. pmc In vitro assay for neutralizing antibody to hepatitis C virus: evidence for broadly conserved neutralization epitopes
    Birke Bartosch
    Laboratoire de Vectorologie Rétrovirale et Thérapie Génique, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U412, IFR 128, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 allee d Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:14199-204. 2003
    ..The ability to assay neutralizing anti-HCV should permit an assessment of the prospects for successful Ab-mediated passive and active immunoprophylaxis against hepatitis C...
  78. pmc Isolation and characterization of broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to the e1 glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus
    Jean Christophe Meunier
    Molecular Hepatitis Section, LID, NIAID, NIH, Bldg 50, Rm 6537, 50 South Dr, MSC 8009, Bethesda, MD 20892 8009, USA
    J Virol 82:966-73. 2008
    ..In addition, robust neutralization was also observed against cell culture-adapted viruses of genotypes 1a and 2a. Results from this study suggest that these MAbs may have the potential to prevent HCV infection...
  79. pmc Cellular and viral requirements for rapid endocytic entry of herpes simplex virus
    Anthony V Nicola
    Medical Virology Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 1888, USA
    J Virol 78:7508-17. 2004
    ..Thus, similar to entry via direct penetration at the cell surface, HSV entry into cells by wortmannin-sensitive endocytosis is efficient, involves rapid cellular uptake of viral particles, and requires gB, gD, and gH-gL...
  80. ncbi Phylogenetic comparison of the carboxy-terminal region of glycoprotein C (gC) of bovine herpesviruses (BoHV) 1.1, 1.2 and 5 from South America (SA)
    P A Esteves
    Embrapa Suinos e Aves, BR 153, Km 110, CEP 89700 000, Concordia, SC, Brazil
    Virus Res 131:16-22. 2008
    ..1, BoHV-1.2 and BoHV-5 after phylogenetic analysis. The results suggest that the phylogenetic analysis performed here can be used as a potential molecular epidemiological tool for herpesviruses...
  81. pmc The neutralizing activity of anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies is modulated by specific glycans on the E2 envelope protein
    François Helle
    Institut de Biologie de Lille UMR8161, CNRS, Université Lille I and II and Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille, France
    J Virol 81:8101-11. 2007
    ..In conclusion, this work indicates that HCV glycans contribute to the evasion of HCV from the humoral immune response...
  82. pmc Monoclonal antibody AP33 defines a broadly neutralizing epitope on the hepatitis C virus E2 envelope glycoprotein
    Ania Owsianka
    MRC Virology Unit, Institute of Virology, University of Glasgow, UK
    J Virol 79:11095-104. 2005
    ..Thus, identification of a broadly neutralizing antibody that recognizes a linear epitope is likely to be of significant benefit to future vaccine and therapeutic antibody development...
  83. pmc Human cytomegalovirus virion protein complex required for epithelial and endothelial cell tropism
    Dai Wang
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, NJ 08544, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:18153-8. 2005
    ....
  84. ncbi A structural perspective of the flavivirus life cycle
    Suchetana Mukhopadhyay
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, 915 West State Street, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 2054, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 3:13-22. 2005
    ..This review focuses mainly on structural studies of dengue virus...
  85. pmc Maturation of West Nile virus modulates sensitivity to antibody-mediated neutralization
    Steevenson Nelson
    Viral Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000060. 2008
    ..Thus, in addition to a role in facilitating viral entry, changes in E protein arrangement associated with maturation modulate neutralization sensitivity and introduce an additional layer of complexity into humoral immunity against WNV...
  86. doi Domain III of the envelope protein as a dengue vaccine target
    Maria G Guzman
    Department of Virology, PAHO WHO Collaborating Center for the Study of Dengue and its Vector, Pedro Kouri Tropical Medicine Institute, Autopista Novia del Mediodia, Km 6, Apdo 601, Marianao 13, Havana, Cuba
    Expert Rev Vaccines 9:137-47. 2010
    ..Due to the results obtained concerning the immune response and protection in mice and monkeys, particular attention is paid to the chimeric protein domain III fused to p64k of Neisseria meningitidis...
  87. doi Chikungunya virus of Asian and Central/East African genotypes in Malaysia
    I Ching Sam
    Tropical Infectious Diseases Research and Education Centre, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    J Clin Virol 46:180-3. 2009
    ..In Malaysia, limited CHIKV outbreaks of the endemic Asian and imported Central/East African genotypes were reported in 1998 and 2006. Since April 2008, an unprecedented nationwide outbreak has affected Malaysia...
  88. pmc Identification of new functional regions in hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein E2
    Anna Albecka
    Institut Pasteur de Lille, Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, F 59019 Lille, France
    J Virol 85:1777-92. 2011
    ..In conclusion, our study highlights new functional and structural regions in HCV envelope glycoprotein E2...
  89. pmc Mutations in the N termini of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 gDs alter functional interactions with the entry/fusion receptors HVEM, nectin-2, and 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate but not with nectin-1
    Miri Yoon
    Department of Microbiology Immunology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    J Virol 77:9221-31. 2003
    ..The sequence of the N terminus determines whether nectin-2 or 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate, as well as HVEM, can serve as entry/fusion receptors...
  90. pmc In vitro selection of a neutralization-resistant hepatitis C virus escape mutant
    Meital Gal-Tanamy
    Center for Hepatitis Research, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 1073, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:19450-5. 2008
    ....
  91. pmc Cascade of events governing cell-cell fusion induced by herpes simplex virus glycoproteins gD, gH/gL, and gB
    Doina Atanasiu
    Department of Microbiology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Virol 84:12292-9. 2010
    ..The third step may be common to other herpesviruses...
  92. pmc Human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B is required for virus entry and cell-to-cell spread but not for virion attachment, assembly, or egress
    Marisa K Isaacson
    McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin Madison Medical School, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
    J Virol 83:3891-903. 2009
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that gB is required for virus entry and cell-to-cell spread of the virus. However, HCMV gB is not absolutely required for virus attachment or assembly and egress from infected cells...
  93. ncbi Inhibition of Chikungunya virus infection in cultured human muscle cells by furin inhibitors: impairment of the maturation of the E2 surface glycoprotein
    Simona Ozden
    Unité d Epidémiologie et Physiopathologie des Virus Oncogènes, CNRS URA 3015, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris, France
    J Biol Chem 283:21899-908. 2008
    ..Our results demonstrate the role of furin-like proteases in the processing of CHIKV particles and point out new approaches to inhibit this infection...
  94. pmc Nectin2alpha (PRR2alpha or HveB) and nectin2delta are low-efficiency mediators for entry of herpes simplex virus mutants carrying the Leu25Pro substitution in glycoprotein D
    M Lopez
    Institute of Cancerology and Immunology, INSERM U119, Marseille, France
    J Virol 74:1267-74. 2000
    ..Binding of wt HSV-1 gD to soluble nectin2 was not detectable. (iv) A major region of nectin2 functional in virus entry mapped to the V domain, located at the N terminus...
  95. pmc Identification and characterization of broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies directed against the E2 envelope glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus
    Teresa J Broering
    MassBiologics, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02130, USA
    J Virol 83:12473-82. 2009
    ....
  96. pmc Structural basis for the preferential recognition of immature flaviviruses by a fusion-loop antibody
    Mickaël V Cherrier
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 2054, USA
    EMBO J 28:3269-76. 2009
    ..As these highly cross-reactive antibodies are often weakly neutralizing they also may contribute to antibody-dependent enhancement and flavi virus pathogenesis thereby complicating development of safe and effective vaccines...
  97. pmc Glycoprotein D receptor-dependent, low-pH-independent endocytic entry of herpes simplex virus type 1
    Richard S B Milne
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, School of Dental Medicine, 215 Levy Building, 240 South 40th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6002, USA
    J Virol 79:6655-63. 2005
    ..Resistance to similar reagents should therefore not be taken as proof of HSV entry by a nonendosomal pathway. These data define a novel gD receptor-dependent acid-independent endocytic entry pathway for HSV...
  98. pmc Interaction of hepatitis C virus-like particles and cells: a model system for studying viral binding and entry
    Miriam Triyatni
    Liver Diseases Section, National Institute of Diabetes and DigestiveKidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Virol 76:9335-44. 2002
    ..Altogether, our results indicate that HCV-LPs can be used to further characterize the mechanisms involved in the early steps of HCV infection...
  99. ncbi Genetic diversity and evolution of hepatitis C virus--15 years on
    Peter Simmonds
    Centre for Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Summerhall, Edinburgh EH9 1QH, UK
    J Gen Virol 85:3173-88. 2004
    ..These contrasting aspects of conservatism and adaptability provide a fascinating paradigm in which to explore the complex selection pressures that underlie the evolution of HCV and other persistent viruses...
  100. ncbi RNA interference effectively inhibits mRNA accumulation and protein expression of hepatitis C virus core and E2 genes in human cells
    Min Liu
    Department of Microbiology, State Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70:2049-55. 2006
    ..This may provide an approach for the development of novel prophylactic or therapeutic agents for HCV infection...
  101. pmc Rapid complementation assays measuring replicative potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein mutants
    E Helseth
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
    J Virol 64:2416-20. 1990
    ..Furthermore, virus transmission appears to be less sensitive to inhibition of membrane fusion than is syncytium formation...

Research Grants70

  1. Dengue Epitope Vaccine,Tetravalent & MHCII-Targeted
    J August; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..technologies will be applied with both mouse and human antisera to identify the minimum sequences of the viral envelope proteins effective as neutralizing antibody epitopes...
  2. Dengue Epitope Vaccine,Tetravalent & MHCII-Targeted
    J August; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..technologies will be applied with both mouse and human antisera to identify the minimum sequences of the viral envelope proteins effective as neutralizing antibody epitopes...
  3. Dengue Epitope Vaccine,Tetravalent & MHCII-Targeted
    J August; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..technologies will be applied with both mouse and human antisera to identify the minimum sequences of the viral envelope proteins effective as neutralizing antibody epitopes...
  4. Dengue Epitope Vaccine,Tetravalent & MHCII-Targeted
    J Thomas August; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..technologies will be applied with both mouse and human antisera to identify the minimum sequences of the viral envelope proteins effective as neutralizing antibody epitopes...
  5. Dengue Epitope Vaccine,Tetravalent & MHCII-Targeted
    J August; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..technologies will be applied with both mouse and human antisera to identify the minimum sequences of the viral envelope proteins effective as neutralizing antibody epitopes...
  6. Toward Control of Rift Valley Fever Virus Replication
    Shinji Makino; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Although humoral immunity against the viral envelope proteins elicits protective immunity, there is currently no RVFV vaccine suitable for massive human vaccination ..
  7. FUNCTION OF THE BACULOVIRUS MEMBRANE FUSION PROTEIN
    GARY BLISSARD; Fiscal Year: 1993
    The initial interactions of viral envelope proteins with host cells are critical for the establishment of infection by most animal viruses...
  8. Mechanisms of Chikungunya Virus Binding and Entry
    LAURIE SILVA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In Specific Aim 1, we will determine the role of N-linked glycosylation sites in the viral envelope proteins in viral replication...
  9. Protein interactions by analytical ultracentrifugation
    PETER GETTINS; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Systems that will be studied include (i) viral envelope proteins gp41 and gp120 from HIV and the S1 and S2 from SARS coronavirus (Caffrey), (ii) interactions of the LDL ..
  10. ASSEMBLY OF ENVELOPED VIRUSES
    DOUGLAS LYLES; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..viral envelope glycoproteins will be studied to determine the mechanisms involved in phenotypic mixing of viral envelope proteins. The experiments are designed to address questions about virus assembly that have existed for many years...
  11. MUTATIONAL AND PHYSICAL ANALYSIS OF THE MULV-E RECEPTOR
    Lorraine Albritton; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Interactions of the viral envelope proteins have been implicated as directly causative or as accelerating factors in viral pathogenesis...
  12. MUTATIONAL AND PHYSICAL ANALYSIS OF THE MULV-E RECEPTOR
    Lorraine Albritton; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Interactions of the viral envelope proteins have been implicated as directly causative or as accelerating factors in viral pathogenesis...
  13. MUTATIONAL AND PHYSICAL ANALYSIS OF THE MULV-E RECEPTOR
    Lorraine Albritton; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Interactions of the viral envelope proteins have been implicated as directly causative or as accelerating factors in viral pathogenesis...
  14. Hepatitis B virus immune escape mutants
    Shuping Tong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Such mutants contain amino acid changes in the alpha determinant of viral envelope proteins, the primary target of neutralizing antibodies...
  15. Virion Sialic Acid and HSV Ocular Infection
    Curtis R Brandt; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..TAT-C, that inhibits HSV-1 infection and preliminary data suggests TAT-C binds to sialic acids on viral envelope proteins. A second critical finding recently published, is that sialic acids on one or more HSV-1 entry proteins ..
  16. Virion Sialic Acid and HSV Ocular Infection
    CURTIS BRANDT; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..TAT-C, that inhibits HSV-1 infection and preliminary data suggests TAT-C binds to sialic acids on viral envelope proteins. A second critical finding recently published, is that sialic acids on one or more HSV-1 entry proteins ..
  17. HOST CELL PROTEASE AND HIV-GP160 IN AIDS
    Alex Franzusoff; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..In the absence of gp160 cleavage, the viral envelope proteins cannot promote membrane fusion between the virions (or infected host cells) and uninfected human CD4+ T-..
  18. IMMUNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MOUSE LEUKEMIAS
    ROBERT NOWINSKI; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Immunization of mice with leukemic cells induces an immune response to the viral envelope proteins gp70 and p15(E), as well as to two glycosylated forms of the gag gene product...
  19. Novel HIV Neutralizing Human MAbs from Transgenic Mice
    Abraham Pinter; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This latter antigen was uccessful in eliciting Mabs that recognized native viral envelope proteins, including antibodies with potent neutralizing activities for the SF162 strain...
  20. Novel HIV Neutralizing Human MAbs from Transgenic Mice
    Abraham Pinter; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This latter antigen was uccessful in eliciting Mabs that recognized native viral envelope proteins, including antibodies with potent neutralizing activities for the SF162 strain...
  21. FUNCTIONAL, ENHANCEMENT NEGATIVE, RHIVENV IMMUNOGENS
    William Mitchell; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..the analysis may provide basic data on the role of the conserved immunodominant domains of the viral envelope proteins. The author has five specific aims, the first of which is to evaluate systematic mutations within the ..
  22. Novel HIV Neutralizing Human MAbs from Transgenic Mice
    Abraham Pinter; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This latter antigen was uccessful in eliciting Mabs that recognized native viral envelope proteins, including antibodies with potent neutralizing activities for the SF162 strain...
  23. Novel HIV Neutralizing Human MAbs from Transgenic Mice
    Abraham Pinter; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This latter antigen was uccessful in eliciting Mabs that recognized native viral envelope proteins, including antibodies with potent neutralizing activities for the SF162 strain...
  24. Novel HIV Neutralizing Human MAbs from Transgenic Mice
    Abraham Pinter; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This latter antigen was uccessful in eliciting Mabs that recognized native viral envelope proteins, including antibodies with potent neutralizing activities for the SF162 strain...
  25. Novel HIV Neutralizing Human MAbs from Transgenic Mice
    Abraham Pinter; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This latter antigen was uccessful in eliciting Mabs that recognized native viral envelope proteins, including antibodies with potent neutralizing activities for the SF162 strain...
  26. Replication and Persistence of Primate Lentiviruses
    Welkin Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..neutralization, either by SIV-positive animal plasma or by monoclonal antibodies directed against the viral envelope proteins, a property it also shares with clinically relevant, primary isolates of HIV- 1...
  27. Replication and Persistence of Primate Lentiviruses
    Welkin Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..neutralization, either by SIV-positive animal plasma or by monoclonal antibodies directed against the viral envelope proteins, a property it also shares with clinically relevant, primary isolates of HIV- 1...
  28. High-throughput Epitope Mapping of Anti-Viral Antibodies
    BENJAMIN JACOB DORANZ; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..this proposal is to develop tools to rapidly and comprehensively map MAb epitopes on structurally complex viral Envelope proteins. Identifying the epitopes of potent and broadly neutralizing MAbs will enable Env variants exhibiting ..
  29. Baculovirus envelope proteins and insect cells
    GARY BLISSARD; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These studies will advance our understanding of viral envelope proteins and they will also have broader applications to important areas of biology, medicine, and public health...
  30. REGULATION OF HIV ENV FUNCTION DURING VIRION MATURATION
    Christopher Aiken; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..constraints on the gp41 cytoplasmic domain are revealed, unlocking the fusogenic activity of the viral envelope proteins. Experiments will be performed to test this model...
  31. Molecular Mechanism of Sec1p-Regulated Membrane Fusion
    CHAVELA CARR; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..cellular proteins, called SNAREs, share structural similarity with the fusion-active conformation of the viral envelope proteins. Despite the inherent ability of SNARE proteins to fuse membranes, eukaryotic cells require at least a ..
  32. Molecular Mechanism of Sec1p-Regulated Membrane Fusion
    CHAVELA CARR; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..cellular proteins, called SNAREs, share structural similarity with the fusion-active conformation of the viral envelope proteins. Despite the inherent ability of SNARE proteins to fuse membranes, eukaryotic cells require at least a ..
  33. REGULATION OF HIV ENV FUNCTION DURING VIRION MATURATION
    Christopher Aiken; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..constraints on the gp41 cytoplasmic domain are revealed, unlocking the fusogenic activity of the viral envelope proteins. Experiments will be performed to test this model...
  34. MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO HIV CORECEPTORS
    Monica Tsang; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..However, little is known about their distribution, their structure-function relationships with viral envelope proteins or chemokines, and because there are few tools for studying receptor function...
  35. Molecular Mechanism of Sec1p-Regulated Membrane Fusion
    CHAVELA CARR; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..cellular proteins, called SNAREs, share structural similarity with the fusion-active conformation of the viral envelope proteins. Despite the inherent ability of SNARE proteins to fuse membranes, eukaryotic cells require at least a ..
  36. REGULATION OF HIV ENV FUNCTION DURING VIRION MATURATION
    Christopher Aiken; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..constraints on the gp41 cytoplasmic domain are revealed, unlocking the fusogenic activity of the viral envelope proteins. Experiments will be performed to test this model...
  37. Contributions of Antibody to Control of SIV infection
    Welkin Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..neutralization, either by SIV-positive animal plasma or monoclonal antibodies directed against the viral envelope proteins, a property it shares with clinically relevant, primary isolates of HIV-1...
  38. Role of Phospholipid Scramblase in Interferon Action
    Robert Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The possibility that PLSCR1 co-localizes with viral envelope proteins in detergent-resistant membrane "rafts" will be explored, and the functional significance of conserved ..
  39. Role of Phospholipid Scramblase in Interferon Action
    Robert Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The possibility that PLSCR1 co-localizes with viral envelope proteins in detergent-resistant membrane "rafts" will be explored, and the functional significance of conserved ..
  40. Role of Phospholipid Scramblase in Interferon Action
    Robert Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The possibility that PLSCR1 co-localizes with viral envelope proteins in detergent-resistant membrane "rafts" will be explored, and the functional significance of conserved ..
  41. Role of Phospholipid Scramblase in Interferon Action
    Robert Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The possibility that PLSCR1 co-localizes with viral envelope proteins in detergent-resistant membrane "rafts" will be explored, and the functional significance of conserved ..
  42. Role of Phospholipid Scramblase in Interferon Action
    Robert Silverman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The possibility that PLSCR1 co-localizes with viral envelope proteins in detergent-resistant membrane "rafts" will be explored, and the functional significance of conserved ..
  43. HIV ASSEMBLY
    David Rekosh; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..He also proposes to study the effect of viral envelope proteins and vpu on virus release and assembly, and to examine the mechanisms which underlie the targeting of ..
  44. Cell Therapy by In Vivo Fusion
    Markus Grompe; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Aim 3 is geared toward enhancing the efficiency of in vivo fusion and thereby increasing the number of bone marrow derived hepatocytes. Fusogenic viral envelope proteins will be used to artificially induce cell fusion.
  45. Cell Therapy by In Vivo Fusion
    Markus Grompe; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Aim 3 is geared toward enhancing the efficiency of in vivo fusion and thereby increasing the number of bone marrow derived hepatocytes. Fusogenic viral envelope proteins will be used to artificially induce cell fusion.
  46. Cell Therapy by In Vivo Fusion
    Markus Grompe; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Aim 3 is geared toward enhancing the efficiency of in vivo fusion and thereby increasing the number of bone marrow derived hepatocytes. Fusogenic viral envelope proteins will be used to artificially induce cell fusion.
  47. Cell Therapy by In Vivo Fusion
    Markus Grompe; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Aim 3 is geared toward enhancing the efficiency of in vivo fusion and thereby increasing the number of bone marrow derived hepatocytes. Fusogenic viral envelope proteins will be used to artificially induce cell fusion.
  48. Mitochondrial fusion: analysis of Fzo function
    David Chan; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Intriguingly, Fzo contains several coiled-coil motifs, reminiscent of viral envelope proteins and SNARE complexes that are directly involved in other types of membrane fusion...
  49. Mitochondrial fusion: analysis of Fzo function
    David Chan; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Intriguingly, Fzo contains several coiled-coil motifs, reminiscent of viral envelope proteins and SNARE complexes that are directly involved in other types of membrane fusion...
  50. Mitochondrial fusion: analysis of Fzo function
    David Chan; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Intriguingly, Fzo contains several coiled-coil motifs, reminiscent of viral envelope proteins and SNARE complexes that are directly involved in other types of membrane fusion...
  51. Mitochondrial fusion: analysis of Fzo function
    David Chan; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Intriguingly, Fzo contains several coiled-coil motifs, reminiscent of viral envelope proteins and SNARE complexes that are directly involved in other types of membrane fusion...
  52. Mitochondrial fusion: analysis of Fzo function
    David Chan; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Intriguingly, Fzo contains several coiled-coil motifs, reminiscent of viral envelope proteins and SNARE complexes that are directly involved in other types of membrane fusion...
  53. gp120 covalent analogs as candidate HIV vaccines
    Sudhir Paul; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Such Abs are made only rarely in infected individuals or following immunization with viral envelope proteins because of various immune evasion mechanisms deployed by HIV...
  54. Biochemical and NMR Studies of Influenza HA2
    Michael Caffrey; Fiscal Year: 2006
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The viral envelope proteins HA1 and HA2 play critical roles in influenza entry...
  55. HIV-1 Resistance to Chemokine Receptor Antagonists
    Daniel Kuritzkes; Fiscal Year: 2007
    Entry of HIV-1 into target cells involves the interaction of viral envelope proteins with specific cell surface receptors, leading ultimately to fusion of viral and host cell membranes...
  56. Transgenic mouse for modifying antiviral mAb specificity
    Welkin Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..experiments comprising the second specific aim, transgenic animals that are immunologically tolerant to viral envelope proteins will be used to "focus" the antibody response on epitopes present in the inoculum but not in the ..
  57. HUMAN T CELL RECOGNITION OF HIV ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEINS
    Robert Siliciano; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..In addition, studies are proposed to determine whether this novel pathway is utilized by all viral envelope proteins. With respect to env processing for recognition by CD4 + T cells, the proposed studies will extend work ..
  58. HIV-1 Resistance to Chemokine Receptor Antagonists
    Daniel R Kuritzkes; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Entry of HIV-1 into target cells involves the interaction of viral envelope proteins with specific cell surface receptors, leading ultimately to fusion of viral and host cell membranes...
  59. HIV-1 Resistance to Chemokine Receptor Antagonists
    Daniel Kuritzkes; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Entry of HIV-1 into target cells involves the interaction of viral envelope proteins with specific cell surface receptors, leading ultimately to fusion of viral and host cell membranes...
  60. Biochemical and NMR Studies of Influenza HA2
    Michael Caffrey; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The viral envelope proteins HA1 and HA2 play critical roles in influenza entry...
  61. HUMAN T CELL RECOGNITION OF HIV ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEINS
    Robert Siliciano; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..In addition, studies are proposed to determine whether this novel pathway is utilized by all viral envelope proteins. With respect to env processing for recognition by CD4 + T cells, the proposed studies will extend work ..
  62. gp120 covalent analogs as candidate HIV vaccines
    Sudhir Paul; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Such Abs are made only rarely in infected individuals or following immunization with viral envelope proteins because of various immune evasion mechanisms deployed by HIV...
  63. HIV-1 Resistance to Chemokine Receptor Antagonists
    Daniel Kuritzkes; Fiscal Year: 2009
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Entry of HIV-1 into target cells involves the interaction of viral envelope proteins with specific cell surface receptors, leading ultimately to fusion of viral and host cell membranes...
  64. gp120 covalent analogs as candidate HIV vaccines
    Sudhir Paul; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Such Abs are made only rarely in infected individuals or following immunization with viral envelope proteins because of various immune evasion mechanisms deployed by HIV...
  65. HIV CHEMOKINE-LIKE PROTEINS
    Linda Ludwig; Fiscal Year: 2000
    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) entry into cells requires tile viral envelope proteins (gp-120/gp4l) and cellular receptors, CD4 and chemokine receptors. Yet puzzles remain...
  66. HUMAN T CELL RECOGNITION OF HIV ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEINS
    Robert Siliciano; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..In addition, studies are proposed to determine whether this novel pathway is utilized by all viral envelope proteins. With respect to env processing for recognition by CD4 + T cells, the proposed studies will extend work ..