viral proteins

Summary

Summary: Proteins found in any species of virus.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Generalized lacZ expression with the ROSA26 Cre reporter strain
    P Soriano
    Nat Genet 21:70-1. 1999
  2. ncbi The multifunctional NS1 protein of influenza A viruses
    Benjamin G Hale
    Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, UK
    J Gen Virol 89:2359-76. 2008
  3. pmc A physical and regulatory map of host-influenza interactions reveals pathways in H1N1 infection
    Sagi D Shapira
    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Cell 139:1255-67. 2009
  4. ncbi Replication of hepatitis C virus
    Darius Moradpour
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, University of Lausanne, CH 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:453-63. 2007
  5. pmc An efficient recombination system for chromosome engineering in Escherichia coli
    D Yu
    Gene Regulation and Chromosome Biology Laboratory and Mouse Cancer Genetics Program, National Cancer Institute, Division of Basic Science, National Cancer Institute Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:5978-83. 2000
  6. ncbi A novel influenza A virus mitochondrial protein that induces cell death
    W Chen
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Nat Med 7:1306-12. 2001
  7. ncbi The cap-snatching endonuclease of influenza virus polymerase resides in the PA subunit
    Alexandre Dias
    Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions, UJF EMBL CNRS, UMR 5233, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP181, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
    Nature 458:914-8. 2009
  8. ncbi Analysis of the aphthovirus 2A/2B polyprotein 'cleavage' mechanism indicates not a proteolytic reaction, but a novel translational effect: a putative ribosomal 'skip'
    M L Donnelly
    Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Biology, Biomolecular Sciences Building, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9ST, UK
    J Gen Virol 82:1013-25. 2001
  9. ncbi A newly discovered human pneumovirus isolated from young children with respiratory tract disease
    B G van den Hoogen
    Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Med 7:719-24. 2001
  10. pmc Molecular mechanism of BST2/tetherin downregulation by K5/MIR2 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
    Mandana Mansouri
    Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
    J Virol 83:9672-81. 2009

Detail Information

Publications377 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Generalized lacZ expression with the ROSA26 Cre reporter strain
    P Soriano
    Nat Genet 21:70-1. 1999
  2. ncbi The multifunctional NS1 protein of influenza A viruses
    Benjamin G Hale
    Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, UK
    J Gen Virol 89:2359-76. 2008
    ....
  3. pmc A physical and regulatory map of host-influenza interactions reveals pathways in H1N1 infection
    Sagi D Shapira
    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
    Cell 139:1255-67. 2009
    During the course of a viral infection, viral proteins interact with an array of host proteins and pathways. Here, we present a systematic strategy to elucidate the dynamic interactions between H1N1 influenza and its human host...
  4. ncbi Replication of hepatitis C virus
    Darius Moradpour
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, University of Lausanne, CH 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Nat Rev Microbiol 5:453-63. 2007
    ..These efforts have already translated into the identification of novel antiviral targets and the development of new therapeutic strategies, some of which are currently undergoing clinical evaluation...
  5. pmc An efficient recombination system for chromosome engineering in Escherichia coli
    D Yu
    Gene Regulation and Chromosome Biology Laboratory and Mouse Cancer Genetics Program, National Cancer Institute, Division of Basic Science, National Cancer Institute Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:5978-83. 2000
    ..This system will be especially useful for the engineering of large bacterial plasmids such as those from bacterial artificial chromosome libraries...
  6. ncbi A novel influenza A virus mitochondrial protein that induces cell death
    W Chen
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Nat Med 7:1306-12. 2001
    ..We propose that PB1-F2 functions to kill host immune cells responding to influenza virus infection...
  7. ncbi The cap-snatching endonuclease of influenza virus polymerase resides in the PA subunit
    Alexandre Dias
    Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions, UJF EMBL CNRS, UMR 5233, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP181, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
    Nature 458:914-8. 2009
    ..These results will facilitate the optimisation of endonuclease inhibitors as potential new anti-influenza drugs...
  8. ncbi Analysis of the aphthovirus 2A/2B polyprotein 'cleavage' mechanism indicates not a proteolytic reaction, but a novel translational effect: a putative ribosomal 'skip'
    M L Donnelly
    Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Biology, Biomolecular Sciences Building, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9ST, UK
    J Gen Virol 82:1013-25. 2001
    ..This process produces a ribosomal 'skip' from one codon to the next without the formation of a peptide bond...
  9. ncbi A newly discovered human pneumovirus isolated from young children with respiratory tract disease
    B G van den Hoogen
    Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Med 7:719-24. 2001
    ..Serological studies showed that by the age of five years, virtually all children in the Netherlands have been exposed to human metapneumovirus and that the virus has been circulating in humans for at least 50 years...
  10. pmc Molecular mechanism of BST2/tetherin downregulation by K5/MIR2 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
    Mandana Mansouri
    Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
    J Virol 83:9672-81. 2009
    ..We further demonstrate that KSHV release is decreased in the absence of K5 in a BST2-dependent manner, suggesting that K5 contributes to the evasion of intracellular antiviral defense programs...
  11. pmc Genetic detection and characterization of Lujo virus, a new hemorrhagic fever-associated arenavirus from southern Africa
    Thomas Briese
    Center for Infection and Immunity, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000455. 2009
    ..LUJV is a novel, genetically distinct, highly pathogenic arenavirus...
  12. pmc Fusing structure and function: a structural view of the herpesvirus entry machinery
    Sarah A Connolly
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA
    Nat Rev Microbiol 9:369-81. 2011
    ....
  13. pmc Cucumber mosaic virus-encoded 2b suppressor inhibits Arabidopsis Argonaute1 cleavage activity to counter plant defense
    Xiuren Zhang
    Laboratory of Plant Molecular Biology, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Genes Dev 20:3255-68. 2006
    ..These findings provide insight on the molecular arms race between host antiviral RNA silencing and virus counterdefense...
  14. ncbi Hierarchical action and inhibition of plant Dicer-like proteins in antiviral defense
    Angelique Deleris
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire des Plantes, CNRS Unité Propre de Recherche UPR 2357, 12, rue du Général Zimmer, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Science 313:68-71. 2006
    ..These findings define a molecular framework for studying antiviral silencing and defense in plants...
  15. ncbi Virus inhibition of RIP3-dependent necrosis
    Jason W Upton
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 7:302-13. 2010
    ....
  16. ncbi 5'-Triphosphate RNA is the ligand for RIG-I
    Veit Hornung
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Science 314:994-7. 2006
    ....
  17. pmc Metagenomic analyses of an uncultured viral community from human feces
    Mya Breitbart
    Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California 92182, USA
    J Bacteriol 185:6220-3. 2003
    ..Most of the sequences were unrelated to anything previously reported. The recognizable viruses were mostly siphophages, and the community contained an estimated 1,200 viral genotypes...
  18. ncbi Crystal structure of an avian influenza polymerase PA(N) reveals an endonuclease active site
    Puwei Yuan
    National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    Nature 458:909-13. 2009
    ..The high conservation of this endonuclease active site among influenza strains indicates that PA(N) is an important target for the design of new anti-influenza therapeutics...
  19. ncbi Herpesvirus assembly: an update
    Thomas C Mettenleiter
    Friedrich Loeffler Institut, 17493 Greifswald Insel Riems, Germany
    Virus Res 143:222-34. 2009
    ..C., 2004. Budding events in herpesvirus morphogenesis. Virus Res. 106, 167-180]...
  20. pmc The landscape of human proteins interacting with viruses and other pathogens
    Matthew D Dyer
    Genetics, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology Program, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 4:e32. 2008
    ..Supplementary data accompanying this paper is available at http://staff.vbi.vt.edu/dyermd/publications/dyer2008a.html...
  21. ncbi The 'cleavage' activities of foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A site-directed mutants and naturally occurring '2A-like' sequences
    M L Donnelly
    Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Biology, Biomolecular Sciences Building, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9ST, UK
    J Gen Virol 82:1027-41. 2001
    ....
  22. pmc Phylogeny of the genus Flavivirus
    G Kuno
    Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado 80522 2087, USA
    J Virol 72:73-83. 1998
    ..We also resolved many of the past taxonomic problems by establishing phylogenetic relationships of the antigenically unclassified viruses with the well-established viruses and by identifying synonymous viruses...
  23. ncbi Genetic content of wild-type human cytomegalovirus
    Aidan Dolan
    MRC Virology Unit, Institute of Virology, Church Street, Glasgow G11 5JR, UK
    J Gen Virol 85:1301-12. 2004
    ..The case in support of a lack of protein-coding potential in the region between UL105 and UL111A was also strengthened...
  24. ncbi Subregion- and cell type-restricted gene knockout in mouse brain
    J Z Tsien
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Center for Learning and Memory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139, USA
    Cell 87:1317-26. 1996
    ..The brain subregional restricted gene knockout should allow a more precise analysis of the impact of a gene mutation on animal behaviors...
  25. ncbi The pathophysiology of mitochondrial cell death
    Douglas R Green
    Division of Cellular Immunology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, 10355 Science Center Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    Science 305:626-9. 2004
    ..The general rules governing the pathophysiology of MOMP and controversial issues regarding its regulation are discussed...
  26. pmc HTLV-I basic leucine zipper factor gene mRNA supports proliferation of adult T cell leukemia cells
    Yorifumi Satou
    Laboratory of Virus Immunology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoin Kawahara cho, Sakyo ku, Kyoto 606 8507, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:720-5. 2006
    ..Thus, the single HBZ gene has bimodal functions in two different molecular forms. The growth-promoting activity of HBZ RNA likely plays an important role in oncogenesis by HTLV-I...
  27. pmc Viral latency and its regulation: lessons from the gamma-herpesviruses
    Samuel H Speck
    Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 8:100-15. 2010
    ..Here, we review the molecular basis of latency, with special attention to the gamma-herpesviruses, in which the understanding of this process is most advanced...
  28. ncbi Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor
    K W Moore
    Department of Molecular Biology, DNAX Research Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology Inc, Palo Alto, California 94304, USA
    Annu Rev Immunol 19:683-765. 2001
    ..This review highlights findings that have advanced our understanding of IL-10 and its receptor, as well as its in vivo function in health and disease...
  29. pmc High-resolution human cytomegalovirus transcriptome
    Derek Gatherer
    Medical Research Council University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow G11 5JR, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:19755-60. 2011
    ..The study also illustrates the key contribution that deep sequencing can make to the genomics of nuclear DNA viruses...
  30. pmc Avian-to-human transmission of the PB1 gene of influenza A viruses in the 1957 and 1968 pandemics
    Y Kawaoka
    Department of Virology Molecular Biology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38101 0318
    J Virol 63:4603-8. 1989
    ..Comparative analysis of deduced amino acid sequences disclosed highly conserved regions in PB1 proteins, which may be key structures required for PB1 activities...
  31. pmc A genome-wide genetic screen for host factors required for hepatitis C virus propagation
    Qisheng Li
    Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:16410-5. 2009
    ..The identification of host factors participating in the complete HCV lifecycle will both advance our understanding of HCV pathogenesis and illuminate therapeutic targets...
  32. pmc Compensatory mutations in E1, p7, NS2, and NS3 enhance yields of cell culture-infectious intergenotypic chimeric hepatitis C virus
    Minkyung Yi
    Center for Hepatitis Research, Institute for Human Infections and Immunity, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 1019, USA
    J Virol 81:629-38. 2007
    ..We conclude that interactions between NS2 and E1 and p7 as well as between NS2 and NS3 are essential for virus assembly and/or release and that each of these viral proteins plays an important role in this process.
  33. pmc The PB2 subunit of the influenza virus RNA polymerase affects virulence by interacting with the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein and inhibiting expression of beta interferon
    Katy M Graef
    Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 3203, USA
    J Virol 84:8433-45. 2010
    ..Overall this study implicates the PB2 protein in the regulation of host antiviral innate immune pathways and suggests an important role for the mitochondrial association of the PB2 protein in determining virulence...
  34. pmc Identification of amino acids in HA and PB2 critical for the transmission of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in a mammalian host
    Yuwei Gao
    Animal Influenza Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and National Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People s Republic of China
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000709. 2009
    ..These amino acids changes in PB2 and HA could serve as important molecular markers for assessing the pandemic potential of H5N1 field isolates...
  35. ncbi Cell entry of hepatitis C virus requires a set of co-receptors that include the CD81 tetraspanin and the SR-B1 scavenger receptor
    Birke Bartosch
    Laboratoire de Vectorologie Rétrovirale et Thérapie Génique, INSERM U412, Institut Fédératif de Recherche 128, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 allee d Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France
    J Biol Chem 278:41624-30. 2003
    ..Finally, by correlating expression of HCV receptors and infectivity, we suggest that, besides CD81 and SR-B1, additional hepatocyte-specific co-factor(s) are necessary for HCV entry...
  36. pmc Hepatitis C virus p7 and NS2 proteins are essential for production of infectious virus
    Christopher T Jones
    Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease, Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Virol 81:8374-83. 2007
    ..The protease domain of NS2 was required for infectivity, whereas its catalytic active site was dispensable. We conclude that p7 and NS2 function at an early stage of virion morphogenesis, prior to the assembly of infectious virus...
  37. pmc Hepatitis C virus p7 protein is crucial for assembly and release of infectious virions
    Eike Steinmann
    Department of Molecular Virology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 3:e103. 2007
    ..Although much has been learned about the function of individual viral proteins, the role of the HCV p7 protein in virus replication is not known...
  38. pmc Distant Mimivirus relative with a larger genome highlights the fundamental features of Megaviridae
    Defne Arslan
    Information Genomique et Structurale, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Propre de Recherche 2589, Aix Marseille University, Institut de Microbiologie de la Mediterranee, Parc Scientifique de Luminy, Case 934, FR 13288 Marseille, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:17486-91. 2011
    ....
  39. pmc A complicated message: Identification of a novel PB1-related protein translated from influenza A virus segment 2 mRNA
    Helen M Wise
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Virol 83:8021-31. 2009
    ..Thus, the influenza A virus proteome includes a 12th primary translation product that (similarly to PB1-F2) is nonessential for virus viability but whose loss, in particular genetic backgrounds, is detrimental to virus replication...
  40. ncbi Nipah virus: a recently emergent deadly paramyxovirus
    K B Chua
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Malaya Medical Center, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Science 288:1432-5. 2000
    ..Like Hendra virus, Nipah virus is unusual among the paramyxoviruses in its ability to infect and cause potentially fatal disease in a number of host species, including humans...
  41. pmc Vaccinia virus protein C6 is a virulence factor that binds TBK-1 adaptor proteins and inhibits activation of IRF3 and IRF7
    Leonie Unterholzner
    School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002247. 2011
    ..Thus C6 contributes to VACV virulence and might do so via the inhibition of PRR-induced activation of IRF3 and IRF7...
  42. ncbi Epstein-Barr virus: 40 years on
    Lawrence S Young
    Cancer Research UK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Nat Rev Cancer 4:757-68. 2004
    ..Despite such ubiquity, the link between EBV and 'endemic' Burkitt's lymphoma proved consistent and became the first of an unexpectedly wide range of associations discovered between this virus and tumours...
  43. pmc Hepatitis C virus infection protein network
    B de Chassey
    IMAP Team, Inserm Unit 851, Lyon, France
    Mol Syst Biol 4:230. 2008
    ..CORE protein appeared as a major perturbator of this network. Focal adhesion was identified as a new function affected by HCV, mainly by NS3 and NS5A proteins...
  44. pmc Structure of the Lassa virus nucleoprotein reveals a dsRNA-specific 3' to 5' exonuclease activity essential for immune suppression
    Kathryn M Hastie
    Departments of Immunology and Microbial Science and Molecular Biology, and The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:2396-401. 2011
    ..Thus, the nucleoprotein is a viral exonuclease with anti-immune activity, and this work provides a unique opportunity to combat arenaviral infections...
  45. pmc MicroRNA-196 represses Bach1 protein and hepatitis C virus gene expression in human hepatoma cells expressing hepatitis C viral proteins
    Weihong Hou
    Liver Biliary Pancreatic Center and the Liver, Digestive Diseases, and Metabolism Laboratory, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28232 2861, USA
    Hepatology 51:1494-504. 2010
    ..Moreover, there was no detectable effect of mutant miR-196 on Bach1 3'-UTR-dependent luciferase activity...
  46. ncbi Viral evasion and subversion of pattern-recognition receptor signalling
    Andrew G Bowie
    School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Nat Rev Immunol 8:911-22. 2008
    ....
  47. pmc Growth inhibition and DNA damage induced by Cre recombinase in mammalian cells
    A Loonstra
    Division of Molecular Genetics and Center of Biomedical Genetics, Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:9209-14. 2001
    ..Prolonged, low levels of Cre activity permit recombination without concomitant toxicity. This urges for a careful titration of Cre activity in conditional gene modification in mammalian cells...
  48. pmc Expression of hepatitis C virus proteins induces distinct membrane alterations including a candidate viral replication complex
    Denise Egger
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, University of Basel, CH 4003 Basel, Switzerland
    J Virol 76:5974-84. 2002
    ..Virchows Arch. B., 33:233-243, 1980). In view of this finding and the observation that all HCV proteins accumulate on the membranous web, we propose that the membranous web forms the viral replication complex in HCV-infected cells...
  49. pmc Inhibition of interferon signaling by dengue virus
    Jorge L Munoz-Jordan
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave Levy Place, New York, NY 10029
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:14333-8. 2003
    ..This protein, encoded by a positive strand RNA virus, is implicated as an IFN-signaling inhibitor...
  50. pmc Differential inhibition of type I interferon induction by arenavirus nucleoproteins
    Luis Martinez-Sobrido
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Virol 81:12696-703. 2007
    ..Consistent with this observation, TCRV-infected cells also failed to inhibit interferon production...
  51. ncbi The structural basis for cap binding by influenza virus polymerase subunit PB2
    Delphine Guilligay
    Grenoble Outstation, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP181, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 15:500-6. 2008
    ..These findings clarify the nature of the cap binding site in PB2 and will allow efficient structure-based design of new anti-influenza compounds inhibiting viral transcription...
  52. pmc Novel structural protein in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus encoded by an alternative ORF5 present in all arteriviruses
    Craig R Johnson
    Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    J Gen Virol 92:1107-16. 2011
    ..Its discovery also provides a new potential target for immunological and pharmacological intervention in PRRS...
  53. ncbi The protein network of HIV budding
    Uta K von Schwedler
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
    Cell 114:701-13. 2003
    ..These studies define a protein network required for human MVB biogenesis and indicate that the entire network participates in the release of HIV and probably many other viruses...
  54. pmc Common origin of four diverse families of large eukaryotic DNA viruses
    L M Iyer
    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20894, USA
    J Virol 75:11720-34. 2001
    ....
  55. pmc Cap binding and immune evasion revealed by Lassa nucleoprotein structure
    Xiaoxuan Qi
    Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, School of Chemistry, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, UK
    Nature 468:779-83. 2010
    ..These findings provide great potential for vaccine and drug development...
  56. pmc Chapare virus, a newly discovered arenavirus isolated from a fatal hemorrhagic fever case in Bolivia
    Simon Delgado
    Centro de Salud de Eterazama, Cochabamba, Bolivia
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000047. 2008
    ..In conclusion, two different arenaviruses, Machupo and Chapare, can be associated with severe HF cases in Bolivia...
  57. pmc Latency-associated degradation of the MRP1 drug transporter during latent human cytomegalovirus infection
    Michael P Weekes
    Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Science 340:199-202. 2013
    ..The UL138-mediated loss of MRP1 provides a marker for detecting latent HCMV infection and a therapeutic target for eliminating latently infected cells before transplantation...
  58. ncbi Influenza virus propagation is impaired by inhibition of the Raf/MEK/ERK signalling cascade
    S Pleschka
    , , , D-35392 Giessen, Germany
    Nat Cell Biol 3:301-5. 2001
    ..The functions of most of the ten different viral proteins of this negative-strand RNA virus have been well elucidated...
  59. pmc Small RNA binding is a common strategy to suppress RNA silencing by several viral suppressors
    Lóránt Lakatos
    Agricultural Biotechnology Center, Plant Biology Institute, Godollo, Hungary
    EMBO J 25:2768-80. 2006
    ..None of the suppressors affected the activity of preassembled RISC complexes. In contrast, each suppressor uniformly inhibited the siRNA-initiated RISC assembly pathway by preventing RNA silencing initiator complex formation...
  60. pmc Concurrent expression of latent and a limited number of lytic genes with immune modulation and antiapoptotic function by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus early during infection of primary endothelial and fibroblast cells and subsequent decline of l
    Harinivas H Krishnan
    Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA
    J Virol 78:3601-20. 2004
    ..These are unique observations among in vitro herpesvirus infections and may have important implications in KSHV biology and pathogenesis...
  61. ncbi Identification of virus-encoded microRNAs
    Sebastien Pfeffer
    Laboratory of RNA Molecular Biology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, Box 186, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 304:734-6. 2004
    ..Given that miRNAs function in RNA silencing pathways either by targeting messenger RNAs for degradation or by repressing translation, we identified viral regulators of host and/or viral gene expression...
  62. pmc Viral targeting of DEAD box protein 3 reveals its role in TBK1/IKKepsilon-mediated IRF activation
    Martina Schröder
    Viral Immune Evasion Group, School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    EMBO J 27:2147-57. 2008
    ..Therefore, this study shows for the first time the involvement of a DEAD box helicase in TBK1/IKKepsilon-mediated IRF activation and Ifnb promoter induction...
  63. pmc DAI/ZBP1/DLM-1 complexes with RIP3 to mediate virus-induced programmed necrosis that is targeted by murine cytomegalovirus vIRA
    Jason W Upton
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Cell Host Microbe 11:290-7. 2012
    ..Thus, DAI interacts with RIP3 to mediate virus-induced necrosis analogous to the RIP1-RIP3 complex controlling death receptor-induced necroptosis. These studies unveil a role for DAI as the RIP3 partner mediating virus-induced necrosis...
  64. pmc Failure to activate the IFN-β promoter by a paramyxovirus lacking an interferon antagonist
    M J Killip
    School of Biology, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, North Haugh, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, UK
    Virology 415:39-46. 2011
    ....
  65. pmc High efficiency mutagenesis, repair, and engineering of chromosomal DNA using single-stranded oligonucleotides
    H M Ellis
    Gene Regulation and Chromosome Biology Laboratory, Division of Basic Sciences, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, P.O. Box B, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:6742-6. 2001
    ..Beta protein and ssDNA may prove generally applicable for repairing DNA in many organisms...
  66. ncbi The interferon system and vaccinia virus evasion mechanisms
    Beatriz Perdiguero
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, Ciudad Universitaria Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain
    J Interferon Cytokine Res 29:581-98. 2009
    ..The molecular dissection of how VACV prevents the IFN response is providing important insights on our understanding of antiviral action and immune surveillance...
  67. pmc Host determinant residue lysine 627 lies on the surface of a discrete, folded domain of influenza virus polymerase PB2 subunit
    Franck Tarendeau
    Grenoble Outstation, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble, France
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000136. 2008
    ..Host specificity is determined by multiple sites in different viral proteins, and mutation of only a limited number of these sites can lead to inter-species transmission...
  68. pmc Essential role of domain III of nonstructural protein 5A for hepatitis C virus infectious particle assembly
    Nicole Appel
    Department of Molecular Virology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000035. 2008
    ..Since domain III of NS5A is one of the most variable regions in the HCV genome, the results suggest that viral isolates may differ in their level of virion production and thus in their level of fitness and pathogenesis...
  69. pmc Viral control of mitochondrial apoptosis
    Lorenzo Galluzzi
    INSERM, U848, Villejuif, France
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000018. 2008
    ..Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the viral modulation of mitochondrial apoptosis, by focusing in particular on the mechanisms by which viral proteins control the host cell death apparatus.
  70. pmc The NPro product of bovine viral diarrhea virus inhibits DNA binding by interferon regulatory factor 3 and targets it for proteasomal degradation
    Louise Hilton
    Division of Basic Medical Sciences, St George s, University of London, London SW17 0RE, United Kingdom
    J Virol 80:11723-32. 2006
    ..The autoprotease activity of NPro is not required for the inhibition of type I interferon induction or the targeting of IRF-3 for degradation...
  71. pmc A viral protein suppresses RNA silencing and binds silencing-generated, 21- to 25-nucleotide double-stranded RNAs
    Dániel Silhavy
    Agricultural Biotechnology Center, Plant Biology Institute, PO Box 411, H 2101, Godollo, Hungary
    EMBO J 21:3070-80. 2002
    ..Moreover, the observation that p19-expressing transgenic plants show altered leaf morphology might indicate that the p19-targeted PTGS pathway is also important in the regulation of plant development...
  72. pmc The epigenetic landscape of latent Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus genomes
    Thomas Gunther
    Heinrich Pette Institute for Experimental Virology and Immunology, Hamburg, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000935. 2010
    ..Our findings suggest that the modification patterns identified here induce a poised state of repression during viral latency, which can be rapidly reversed once the lytic cycle is induced...
  73. pmc A concerted action of hepatitis C virus p7 and nonstructural protein 2 regulates core localization at the endoplasmic reticulum and virus assembly
    Bertrand Boson
    Universite de Lyon, Lyon, France
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002144. 2011
    ..In conclusion, we identified p7 and NS2 as key determinants governing the subcellular localization of HCV core to LDs vs. ER and required for initiation of the early steps of virus assembly...
  74. pmc Hepatitis C virus protease NS3/4A cleaves mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein off the mitochondria to evade innate immunity
    Xiao Dong Li
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 9148, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:17717-22. 2005
    ....
  75. pmc Hepatitis C virus NS2 protein serves as a scaffold for virus assembly by interacting with both structural and nonstructural proteins
    Yinghong Ma
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 0610, USA
    J Virol 85:86-97. 2011
    ..p7 may play an accessory role by regulating NS2 membrane topology, which is important for NS2-mediated protein interactions and therefore NS2 function...
  76. pmc Transmission of influenza virus in a mammalian host is increased by PB2 amino acids 627K or 627E/701N
    John Steel
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000252. 2009
    ..Thus, our data show that PB2 amino acids 627 and 701 are determinants of mammalian inter-host transmission in diverse virus backgrounds...
  77. ncbi Expression of baculovirus P35 prevents cell death in Drosophila
    B A Hay
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California Berkeley 94720 3200
    Development 120:2121-9. 1994
    ..Identification of molecules that interact biochemically or genetically with P35 in Drosophila should provide important insights into how cell death is regulated...
  78. ncbi Analysis of the genomic sequence of a human metapneumovirus
    Bernadette G van den Hoogen
    Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, Dr Molewaterplein 50, Rotterdam, 3015 GE, The Netherlands
    Virology 295:119-32. 2002
    ....
  79. ncbi Molecular basis for high virulence of Hong Kong H5N1 influenza A viruses
    M Hatta
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2015 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Science 293:1840-2. 2001
    ..Moreover, high cleavability of the hemagglutinin glycoprotein was an essential requirement for lethal infection...
  80. pmc A single N66S mutation in the PB1-F2 protein of influenza A virus increases virulence by inhibiting the early interferon response in vivo
    Gina M Conenello
    Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology, One Gustave L Levy Place, Box 1124, New York, NY 10029, USA
    J Virol 85:652-62. 2011
    ..These data suggest that PB1-F2 N66S may contribute to the delay of innate immune responses, allowing for unchecked viral growth and ultimately severe immunopathology observed in the lungs...
  81. ncbi The 1.2-megabase genome sequence of Mimivirus
    Didier Raoult
    Unite des Rickettsies, Faculte de Medecine, CNRS UMR6020, Universite de la Mediterranee, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05, France
    Science 306:1344-50. 2004
    ..This new sequence data might help shed a new light on the origin of DNA viruses and their role in the early evolution of eukaryotes...
  82. pmc Adaptation of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in mice
    Natalia A Ilyushina
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 3678, USA
    J Virol 84:8607-16. 2010
    ..These modulators of virulence, therefore, may have been the driving components of early evolution, which paved the way for novel 2009 viruses in mammals...
  83. ncbi A bacteriolytic agent that detects and kills Bacillus anthracis
    Raymond Schuch
    Laboratory of Bacteriql Pathogenesis and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    Nature 418:884-9. 2002
    ..The lytic specificity of PlyG was also exploited as part of a rapid method for the identification of B. anthracis. We conclude that PlyG is a tool for the treatment and detection of B. anthracis...
  84. ncbi Different trajectories of parallel evolution during viral adaptation
    H A Wichman
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA
    Science 285:422-4. 1999
    ..However, the order of these changes differed between replicates, and parallel substitutions did not reflect the changes with the largest beneficial effects or indicate a common trajectory of adaptation...
  85. pmc Identification of amino acid residues critical for the anti-interferon activity of the nucleoprotein of the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
    Luis Martinez-Sobrido
    Department of Immunology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, New York 10029, USA
    J Virol 83:11330-40. 2009
    ..In addition, A549 cells infected with rLCMV/NP*(D382A), but not with WT LCMV, produced IFN and failed to rescue replication of the IFN-sensitive Newcastle disease virus...
  86. pmc Interaction of polymerase subunit PB2 and NP with importin alpha1 is a determinant of host range of influenza A virus
    Gülsah Gabriel
    Institute of Virology, Philipps University Marburg, Germany
    PLoS Pathog 4:e11. 2008
    ..These findings demonstrate that adaptation of the viral polymerase to the nuclear import machinery plays an important role in interspecies transmission of influenza virus...
  87. pmc The complete genomes and proteomes of 27 Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophages
    Tony Kwan
    Targanta Therapeutics, 7170 Frederick Banting, Second Floor, Ville Saint Laurent, QC, Canada H4S 2A1
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:5174-9. 2005
    ..These phage genomes offer an exciting opportunity to discern molecular mechanisms of phage evolution and diversity...
  88. pmc A Begomovirus DNAbeta-encoded protein binds DNA, functions as a suppressor of RNA silencing, and targets the cell nucleus
    Xiaofeng Cui
    Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, People s Republic of China
    J Virol 79:10764-75. 2005
    ....
  89. ncbi Plant viral movement proteins: agents for cell-to-cell trafficking of viral genomes
    William J Lucas
    Section of Plant Biology, College of Biological Sciences, University of California, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Virology 344:169-84. 2006
    ....
  90. ncbi Poxvirus genomes: a phylogenetic analysis
    Caroline Gubser
    Department of Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, St Mary s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK
    J Gen Virol 85:105-17. 2004
    ..This suggests that CPV-BR and GRI-90 should be separate species...
  91. pmc Transcriptomic analysis of host immune and cell death responses associated with the influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein
    Ronan Le Goffic
    Unite de Virologie et Immunologie Moleculaires, UR 892 INRA, Jouy en Josas, France
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002202. 2011
    ..Collectively, these data demonstrate that PB1-F2 strongly influences the early host response during IAV infection and provides new insights into the mechanisms by which PB1-F2 mediates virulence...
  92. ncbi Human cytomegalovirus and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands: cell-specific localization of active viral and oncogenic signaling proteins is confirmatory of a causal relationship
    Michael Melnick
    Laboratory for Developmental Genetics, USC, Los Angeles, CA 90089 0641, USA
    Exp Mol Pathol 92:118-25. 2012
    ..In the absence of any contrary evidence, hCMV can reasonably be designated an "oncovirus."..
  93. pmc Evidence for a role of the cellular ND10 protein PML in mediating intrinsic immunity against human cytomegalovirus infections
    Nina Tavalai
    Institut für Klinische und Molekulare Virologie der Universität Erlangen Nürnberg, Schlossgarten 4, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    J Virol 80:8006-18. 2006
    ..These results strongly suggest that PML functions as part of an intrinsic immune mechanism against cytomegalovirus infections...
  94. pmc The influenza virus protein PB1-F2 inhibits the induction of type I interferon at the level of the MAVS adaptor protein
    Zsuzsanna T Varga
    Department of Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York City, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002067. 2011
    ..In summary, we have characterized the anti-interferon function of PB1-F2 and we suggest that this activity contributes to the enhanced pathogenicity seen with PB1-F2 N66S- expressing influenza viruses...
  95. pmc Characterization of the human cytomegalovirus gH/gL/UL128-131 complex that mediates entry into epithelial and endothelial cells
    Brent J Ryckman
    6366 Basic Sciences Building, Mail Code L 220, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, 3181 Sam Jackson Park Rd, Portland, OR 97239, USA
    J Virol 82:60-70. 2008
    ..Thus, we concluded that UL128, UL130, and UL131 must all bind simultaneously onto gH/gL for the production of complexes that can function in entry into epithelial and endothelial cells...
  96. pmc Human metapneumovirus glycoprotein G inhibits TLR4-dependent signaling in monocyte-derived dendritic cells
    Deepthi Kolli
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    J Immunol 187:47-54. 2011
    ..Our results demonstrate that hMPV G protein plays an important role in inhibiting host innate immune responses, likely affecting adaptive responses too...
  97. ncbi Viral disorder or disordered viruses: do viral proteins possess unique features?
    Bin Xue
    Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Protein Pept Lett 17:932-51. 2010
    ..To sustain these fast environmental changes, viral proteins elaborated multiple measures, from relatively low van der Waals contact densities, to inclusion of a large ..
  98. pmc Norovirus regulation of the innate immune response and apoptosis occurs via the product of the alternative open reading frame 4
    Nora McFadden
    Section of Virology, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002413. 2011
    ..The immune regulatory function of the MNV VF1 protein provide important perspectives for future research into norovirus biology and pathogenesis...
  99. pmc Polydnavirus Ank proteins bind NF-κB homodimers and inhibit processing of Relish
    Kavita Bitra
    Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002722. 2012
    ..Overall, our data provide the first quantitative measures of insect and viral IκB binding affinities, while also showing that viral mimics disable Relish processing...
  100. ncbi Nuclear import of the influenza A virus transcriptional machinery
    E C Hutchinson
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, United Kingdom
    Vaccine 30:7353-8. 2012
    ..In this review we discuss how the virus exploits nuclear import pathways to allow regulated and chaperoned assembly of RNPs in the nucleus, and describe how the import machinery itself can be a determinant of host tropism...
  101. pmc The phage lambda major tail protein structure reveals a common evolution for long-tailed phages and the type VI bacterial secretion system
    Lisa G Pell
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Medical Sciences Building, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:4160-5. 2009
    ..Using Hcp1 as a model, we propose a polymerization mechanism for gpV involving several disorder-to-order transitions...

Research Grants70

  1. Host proteins in Vaccinia viral membrane biogenesis
    Victor Hsu; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..b>Viral proteins that participate in membrane wrapping are beginning to be identified, but host proteins that would also be ..
  2. Tat and CDK9 on gene expression alterations coupled to HIV-1 Associated Dementia
    Xavier Grana; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Astrocytes are infected by HIV-1, and viral proteins including Tat are made, but the virus does not productively replicate...
  3. Molecular Mechanisms of Parvovirus Gene Expression and Replication
    Jianming Qiu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..polyadenylation of B19V mRNAs, and generates abundant small viral mRNAs for encoding two small non- structural viral proteins, i.e. 7.5-kDa and 11-kDa...
  4. A quantitative proteomics approach to understand viral immune evasion strategies
    Michele E Hardy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..is important to understand how the innate antiviral response is triggered in rotavirus infected cells and what viral proteins function to modulate this first line of host defense...
  5. Inhibiting Mucosal HIV-1 Transmission by Host Cell RNA Interference
    Alexandra L Howell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) in mucosal tissues express receptors that are triggered by viral proteins and nucleic acids, leading to the secretion of anti-viral factors that destroy the invading pathogen...
  6. Regulation of Astrocyte TIMP-1 in HIV-Associated Dementia
    JEREL ADAM FIELDS; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..infected macrophages/microglia in the central nervous system, which secrete cytokines, infectious virions and viral proteins that activate surrounding astrocytes leading to astrogliosis and altered gene expression...
  7. CTL response to AAV Vector
    Richard J Samulski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Many viruses (For example herpes, EB) evade host immune response by synthesizing small peptides called viral proteins interfering with antigen presentation (VIPR), we propose that integration of VIPR into AAV capsid evade host ..
  8. Glial-neuronal interactions underlying the molecular feedback between HIV viral p
    Sulie L Chang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..examine the synergistic effects of methamphetamine (METH), an addictive psychostimulant, and HIV-1 viral proteins on glial-neuronal induction of inflammation in the rat brain...
  9. Varicella zoster virus: molecular controls of cell fusion-dependent pathogenesis
    Ann Arvin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..events in cell fusion via post-translational modifications of tyrosine and/r lysine residues by cellular or viral proteins. Mass spectrometry will be used to identify cellular and viral proteins that interact with the gBcyt domain in ..
  10. Human cytomegalovirus entry into epithelial and endothelial cells
    David C Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These observations have important conceptual implications for models of how viral proteins fuse membranes...
  11. White matter changes in HIV models
    Pamela E Knapp; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Even if vasculitis is involved in myelin pallor, OLs/myelin may also be more immediate targets of viral proteins, since white matter defects are observed when myelin pallor is absent...
  12. Roles of Host Kinases in Paramyxovirus RNA Synthesis
    Biao He; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It is thought that phosphorylation of viral proteins is carried out by host kinases...
  13. Human Papillomavirus Association with Subsets of Colorectal Cancer
    Polly A Newcomb; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..HPV promotes oncogenesis via viral proteins E6 and E7...
  14. Host defense against poxviruses and viral immune evasion
    Liang Deng; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We plan to elucidate the mechanisms of autophagy inhibition by viral proteins using both genetic and biochemical approaches (Aim 2B) and to assess the role of autophagy machinery in the ..
  15. Regulation and Function of the HCMV pp71 Tegument Protein
    Julie Kerry; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This research will analyze the function and regulation of viral proteins involved in establishing infection and assembling new virus particles, and thus may identify novel targets for ..
  16. Development of transformed lactobacilli as a microbicide
    Richard B Markham; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the unique advantage of targeting receptor-ligand interactions that are completely independent of mutable viral proteins. A similar delivery system targeting Glycoprotein D of herpes simplex type 2 will also prevent infection with ..
  17. Coronavirus RNA Replication
    DAVID ALVIN BRIAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..2) With affinity pull-down and mass spectrometry we will identify the putative viral proteins of 55, 38, and 22 kDa that UV-crosslink to stem-loop III and nine abundant cellular proteins that UV-crosslink ..
  18. Single RNA sensitive probes for studying viral replication and budding
    Philip J Santangelo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Fluorescent fusion protein technology currently enables the live-cell imaging of viral proteins, but no standard technology exists to image non-engineered RNA with single RNA sensitivity...
  19. HTLV-1 &Cellular Factors in Neuroinflammatory Disease
    Brian Wigdahl; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..insight into why many CD4+ T cells in infected individuals containing HTLV-1 proviral sequences do not express viral proteins. In addition, these studies will provide a comparative account of molecular mechanism(s) related to HTLV-1 ..
  20. Development of a novel vaccine against congenital cytomegalovirus infection
    Christopher S Morello; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We hypothesized that the essential viral proteins that are highly conserved among the CMVs may represent a novel class of T cell targets...
  21. IRES-mediated translation initiation on viral mRNAs
    CHRISTOPHER ULRICH TRISTRAM HELLEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..varies, but they all coordinate the activities of protein factors in order to recruit ribosomes to translate viral proteins and are consequently essential for virus viability...
  22. Protective Effects of Cannabinoids in HIV Neuropathogenesis
    ROBERT BRYAN ROCK; Fiscal Year: 2012
    The neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 involves a complex interaction between viral proteins, glial and neuronal mediators, and environmental factors, such as drugs of abuse...
  23. Crossprotective CTL Against Influenza
    Ellis L Reinherz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..153 conserved epitopes derived from 5,315 sets of influenza A taxonomy data covering all internal and surface viral proteins and predicted to bind to common HLA alleles such as HLA-A*0201...
  24. Encapsidation of the poxvirus genome
    Paula Traktman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Genetic analyses of conditionally lethal viral mutants have identified two viral proteins as being directly associated with genome encapsidation: I6 and A32...
  25. Helicobacter induced hepatitis and tumorigenesis
    James Fox; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..hepaticus can synergize with viral proteins to induced hepatocellular carcinomas...
  26. GB Virus C and Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma Risk and Prognosis
    Jack T Stapleton; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specifically, two viral proteins (nonstructural protein 5A and envelope glycoprotein E2) inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis in lymphocyte cell ..
  27. STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF NUCLEOPROTEIN COMPLEXES
    Edward H Egelman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The initial focus will be on Herpes Simplex Type 1 Virus (HSV-1) ICP8, but will then be extended to related viral proteins, such as from Epstein Barr Virus and Kaposi Sarcoma Herpes Virus...
  28. Mannose Binding Lectin in Neuroinflammation and NeuroAIDS
    Kumud K Singh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, lower MBL expression or function can result in neuroinflammation and anomalous accumulation of viral proteins and immune complexes in brain leading to neurotoxicity and neurocognitive impairment...
  29. Mechanisms by which VZV IE proteins interact with cell antiviral proteins to prev
    MARIA ACENA NAGEL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..productive versus latent infection are unclear, but likely involve cell type-specific interactions of viral proteins and host cell antiviral defense mechanisms...
  30. Humoral and cellular immunity in polyomavirus-linked Merkel cell carcinoma
    Paul Nghiem; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Because antigen-specific cellular and humoral responses to viral proteins expressed in MCC can be tracked, these studies will provide significant biological insight into the immune ..
  31. CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF PTLD IN TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS
    Olivia M Martinez; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our broad, long term objective has been to determine the cellular and viral proteins that are essential to the growth and survival of PTLD-associated EBV+ B cell lymphomas with the intent to ..
  32. Mechanisms of non-neutralizing antibody-mediated protection from influenza virus
    DENISE KAMINSKI; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..By contrast, vaccines against less variable viral proteins could protect against multiple strains...
  33. Pathophysiology of Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma
    UTPAL P DAVE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..After initial infection, viral proteins expressed by HTLV-1, notably tax, transcriptionally activate expression of IL2 and IL2R genes resulting in ..
  34. AIDS, Immune Activation and Mental Health
    Robert Dantzer; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..When exposed to both viral glycoproteins (e.g., gp120) and/or transactivator viral proteins (e.g., Tat), virally infected macrophages and microglial cells synthesize these neurotoxic metabolites...
  35. Mechanisms of mitochondrial fission/fusion dysregulation during HIV-1-associated
    JEREL ADAM FIELDS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Scheme A [is that] HIV-infected microglia secrete progeny virus, cytokines and toxic viral proteins that lead to neurodegeneration and HAND...
  36. Modulation of histone deacetylase activity by a gammaherpesviral kinase
    Bryan C Mounce; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..For example, herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) has evolved mechanisms to antagonize HDACs through two distinct viral proteins: ICP02 and the Us3 kinase3;4...
  37. Targeting MCPyV to Overcome Immune Evasion in Merkel Cell Carcinoma
    Paul Nghiem; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Importantly viral proteins are expressed in advanced and metastatic MCC tumors...
  38. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF ALPHAVIRUS ENTRY AND EXIT
    Margaret Kielian; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will define the mechanism of tetherin inhibition and determine if tetherin is antagonized by 6K or other viral proteins. We will determine the activity of 6K in directly modulating membrane curvature at the bud site. 3...
  39. Epigenetic Regulation of Epstein-Barr Virus Latency Programs
    Paul M Lieberman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..detection and clearance by several mechanisms including the ability to reversibly down-regulate immunogenic viral proteins. This down-regulation is known to be regulated by epigenetic changes in the latent viral chromosome...
  40. 2nd ASM Conference on Manipulation of Nuclear Processes by DNA Viruses
    Laimonis A Laimins; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Furthermore, interactions of viral proteins with cellular oncogenes and tumor suppressors are important for viral propagation as well as transformation...
  41. Functions of 5'NCRs of picornavirus and cellular mRNAs
    Bert L Semler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..utilize sequences in the 5'noncoding regions (5'NCRs) of their genomic RNAs to bind host cell and viral proteins to carry out important functions during their intracellular replication cycles...
  42. Interaction of Sindbis Virus with Cellular Processes
    ILYA V FROLOV; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..latter complexes either function as competitors for SG formation and/or serve in the preferential synthesis of viral proteins. The proposed research plan is focused on two broad Specific Aims: i) to study virus-specific protein ..
  43. Generation and Evaluation of KSHV VLPs as Vaccines
    GARY S contact HAYWARD; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..steps in development of an innovative new global high-throughput assay approach for identifying and measuring viral proteins as targets for humoral (neutralizing antibodies) and T-cell-mediated immune responses to KSHV and other human ..
  44. Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus Protein Network
    PETER M contact HOWLEY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will generate a set of research tools for the viral proteins encoded by 18 different HPV types representing two distinct genera of HPVs that have been associated with ..
  45. Role of HCV Sequence Variation in Pathology
    John E Tavis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Aim 2: Determine how HCV genetic variation affects function of viral proteins implicated in modulating virulence...
  46. Role of Dopamine Transporter: HIV-1 Tat Protein and Nicotine Sensitization
    Jun Zhu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..with HIV is associated with a variety of neurological impairments that result from the presence of the viral proteins. HIV-1 trans-activator of transcription (Tat) protein is essential for efficient viral replication and plays a ..
  47. Discovery of a urine biomarker of HIV for noninvasive, point-of-care testing use
    Hans P Schlecht; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We will test our central hypothesis with the following specific aim: Identify urinary viral proteins or protein degradation fragments that correlate with highly active systemic HIV replication...
  48. Markers of HIV Brain Disease under HAART: Validation in a Mouse Model
    David J Volsky; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Unabated production of viral proteins by these cells can cause cumulative inflammatory, antiviral, and oxidative stress reactions that affect ..
  49. The Viral Life Cycle of Human Endogenous Retrovirus Type K
    Derek Dube; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..non-functional, many of the more than 91 HERV-K genomes present maintain intact open reading frames for their viral proteins (gag, pol, prt, env)...
  50. Mechanisms of PASG-Mediated Senescence in Hematopoietic Development and Leukemia
    ROBERT JOHN ARCECI; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The senescence phenotype can be circumvented by expression of oncogenic viral proteins as well as by exposure to specific cytokines, suggesting pathways for malignant transformation in the setting ..
  51. Alteration of circadian rhythm and sleep by HIV protein Tat
    Jian M Ding; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Although the exact mechanism of HIV-1 neuropathogenesis remains poorly understood, viral proteins (gp41, gp120, and Tat) are thought to play a major role in the neural AIDS...
  52. 3C Protease Polyubiquitylation as a Picornavirus Replication Success Determinant
    THOMAS GLEN LAWSON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..how the three ubiquitylation pathways known to target the 3C proteases function together to mark these viral proteins for degradation by the proteasome...
  53. Down-regulation of MHC class l molecules by HCMV US2
    Domenico Tortorella; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This suggests that US2 is an important gene in the HCMV repertoire of viral proteins that modulates the immune system...
  54. Genetic analysis of Herpes virus neurotropism and encephalitis
    JENNIFER HART LAVAIL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We shall also define the viral proteins and host proteins that associate with Us9 in infected axons...
  55. CHARACTERIZATION OF HCMV UL84
    Gregory S Pari; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..phosphorylated and ubiquinated protein that displays nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, interacts with viral proteins IE2, UL44, UL83 and binds to RNA and DNA...
  56. Drug and Viral Induced Thyroiditis and Diabetes
    Yaron Tomer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..group from UC, we will examine the epigenetic effects of exposure of a human beta cell line to HCV viral proteins or infectious virions, as well as the epigenetic modifications induce by IFNa in human beta cells...
  57. Drugs of Abuse Affecting AIDS Pathogenesis
    Thomas J Rogers; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..that involves dysregulation of immunomodulators and cytokines, and their downstream signaling pathways by viral proteins, such as gp120 and Tat, in both infected and uninfected bystander cells including neurons...
  58. Platelet Activating Factor, Synaptic Failure &NeuroAIDS
    Harris A Gelbard; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this competing renewal, we hypothesize that viral proteins from HIV-1 can disrupt normal PAF signaling between neuronal synapses by direct and enduring effects on CNS-..
  59. Novel molecular imaging approaches to monitor gene and cell-based therapies
    Shahriar Yaghoubi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Instead of commonly used, highly immunogenic viral proteins, we will generate novel PET reporter genes based on fully human proteins, to overcome this challenge to ..
  60. Assembly dynamics and role of PI4P enriched replication organelles for enterovira
    Ann Cali; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..on the RNA polymerase and whether PI4P binding can modulate the enzymatic activity of the polymerase and other viral proteins within the replication complex...
  61. Genotyping and Phenotyping the Hepatitis C Drug Target NS5A
    ROBERT T STRIKER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We will use cell-free studies to determine how cellular cyclophilin proteins interact with two viral proteins NS5A and NS5B and how viral protein interactions differ depending upon whether they are from strains of HCV ..
  62. Intra- and Inter-Neuronal Viral Trafficking
    Glenn F Rall; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the first aim, intra-neuronal spread of measles virus to the synapse is studied, which will characterize the viral proteins that are present at synaptic membranes, and whether these proteins are required for trans-synaptic spread...
  63. Analysis of Coronavirus-Host Cell Interactions
    Shinji Makino; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..As past studies have shown that viral proteins that inhibit host gene expression are major virulence factors, nsp1 proteins of CoVs most probably play a ..
  64. AIDS ASSOCIATED LEUKOPLAKIA--ROLE OF EBV
    Nancy Raab Traub; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..infection and the viral proteins characteristic of latent, transforming infection in lymphocytes, including EBNA2, EBNA-LP, and LMP1...
  65. ENHANCING THE IMMUNOGENICITY OF HUMAN ROTAVIRUS VACCINES
    Linda Saif; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The RV genome consists of 11 segments of dsRNA which encode 6 structural (VP) and 6 non-structural (NSP) viral proteins. The diversity and complexity of RV antigens (outer capsid VP4, VP7, and NSP4 sero/genotypes) have hindered ..
  66. Simian Virus 40 (SV40) uncoating and penetration
    Daniel Hebert; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This facilitates genome replication, the cytosolic synthesis of viral proteins, and viral assembly. Both the mechanisms of viral uncoating and genome penetration are largely unknown...
  67. VIRAL PROTEINS IN ROTAVIRUS REPLICATION
    John Patton; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..To establish possible function of viral proteins in replication, viral proteins that bind RNA and nucleotides will be identified...
  68. A MODEL SYSTEM FOR PHYSIOLOGICAL EXOCYTOSIS
    FREDRIC COHEN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This study encompasses viral proteins of both classes...
  69. Cis-acting RNA elements in hepatitis C virus replication
    Guangxiang Luo; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The ORF encodes a large polypeptide that is processed to structural and nonstructural viral proteins. The roles of viral proteins and conserved RNA sequences/structures in HCV replication are poorly understood...
  70. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS GENE EXPRESSION IN CERVICAL CANCER
    DAVID SMOTKIN; Fiscal Year: 1992
    This project will test the hypothesis that mapping the viral RNA and characterizing the early viral proteins of human papillomavirus (HPV) will improve our understanding of how these viruses alter the normal keratinocyte and how this may ..