Genomes and Genes
hiv envelope protein gp41
Summary: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
Publications187 found, 100 shown here
- Enfuvirtide is active against HIV type 1 group OEva Poveda
Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 21:583-5. 2005..After initiating treatment with ENF, a significant decline in plasma HIV-RNA and CD4 gain was noticed in one patient. Therefore, individuals with HIV-1 group O strains might benefit from ENF therapy...
- Progress in targeting HIV-1 entryHugues J P Ryser
Departments of Pathology and Pharmacology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
Drug Discov Today 10:1085-94. 2005..Inhibiting cell surface PDI prevents HIV-1 entry. The new potential targets outlined are PDI activity as well as the sites of PDI-CD4 and PDI-gp120 interaction...
- Broad and potent neutralizing antibodies from an African donor reveal a new HIV-1 vaccine targetLaura M Walker
Department of Immunology and Microbial Science and IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Science 326:285-9. 2009..The results provide a framework for the design of new vaccine candidates for the elicitation of bNAb responses...
- Antibody neutralization and escape by HIV-1Xiping Wei
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 720 South 20th Street, Kaul 816, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 0024, USA
Nature 422:307-12. 2003..The evolving glycan shield thus represents a new mechanism contributing to HIV-1 persistence in the face of an evolving antibody repertoire...
- Topological layers in the HIV-1 gp120 inner domain regulate gp41 interaction and CD4-triggered conformational transitionsAndres Finzi
Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Mol Cell 37:656-67. 2010..Thus, despite lack of contact with CD4, the gp120 inner-domain layers govern CD4 triggering by participating in conformational transitions within gp120 and regulating the interaction with gp41...
- Emergence of resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in patients receiving fusion inhibitor (T-20) monotherapyXiping Wei
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:1896-905. 2002..These findings provide the first evidence for the rapid emergence of clinical resistance to a novel class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors and may be relevant to future treatment strategies involving these agents...
- HIV enters cells via endocytosis and dynamin-dependent fusion with endosomesKosuke Miyauchi
Institute of Human Virology and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
Cell 137:433-44. 2009..These findings imply that HIV-1 infects cells via endocytosis and envelope glycoprotein- and dynamin-dependent fusion with intracellular compartments...
- Stable docking of neutralizing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 membrane-proximal external region monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 4E10 is dependent on the membrane immersion depth of their epitope regionsS Moses Dennison
Human Vaccine Institute, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
J Virol 83:10211-23. 2009..These data have important implications for the design and use of peptide-liposome conjugates as immunogens for the induction of MPER-neutralizing antibodies...
- Aromatic residues at the edge of the antibody combining site facilitate viral glycoprotein recognition through membrane interactionsErin M Scherer
Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:1529-34. 2010....
- Role of HIV membrane in neutralization by two broadly neutralizing antibodiesS Munir Alam
Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:20234-9. 2009..These results bear directly on strategies for rational design of HIV-1 envelope immunogens...
- Structure and mechanistic analysis of the anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody 2F5 in complex with its gp41 epitopeGilad Ofek
Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Instiutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
J Virol 78:10724-37. 2004..Based on these structural and biochemical results, immunization strategies for eliciting 2F5- and 4E10-like broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies are proposed...
- The membrane-proximal external region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope: dominant site of antibody neutralization and target for vaccine designMarinieve Montero
Department of Molecular Biology and Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby V5A 1S6, British Columbia, Canada
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 72:54-84, table of contents. 2008..In addition, emerging approaches to vaccine design are presented...
- Resistance to CCR5 inhibitors caused by sequence changes in the fusion peptide of HIV-1 gp41Cleo G Anastassopoulou
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:5318-23. 2009..Together, the experimental results and theoretical model may help understand how HIV-1 uses CCR5 to enter target cells under various conditions...
- A fusion-intermediate state of HIV-1 gp41 targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodiesGary Frey
Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Children s Hospital, and Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, 320 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:3739-44. 2008..These results help explain the rarity of 2F5- and 4E10-like antibody responses and suggest a strategy for eliciting them...
- Soluble CD4 and CD4-mimetic compounds inhibit HIV-1 infection by induction of a short-lived activated stateHillel Haim
Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
PLoS Pathog 5:e1000360. 2009..This novel strategy for inhibition may be generally applicable to high-potential-energy viral entry machines that are normally activated by receptor binding...
- Comprehensive cross-clade neutralization analysis of a panel of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 monoclonal antibodiesJames M Binley
IMM2, Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
J Virol 78:13232-52. 2004..As well as the significance for vaccine design, our data have implications for passive-immunization studies in countries where clade C viruses are common, given that only MAbs b12 and 4E10 were effective against viruses from this clade...
- Prolonged exposure of the HIV-1 gp41 membrane proximal region with L669S substitutionXiaoying Shen
Department of Surgery, Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:5972-7. 2010..These data suggest that a major contribution to the L669S mutant virus phenotype of enhanced susceptibility to MPER mAbs is prolonged exposure of the MPER neutralizing epitope during viral entry...
- Structure of HIV-1 gp120 with gp41-interactive region reveals layered envelope architecture and basis of conformational mobilityMarie Pancera
Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:1166-71. 2010....
- Relationship between antibody 2F5 neutralization of HIV-1 and hydrophobicity of its heavy chain third complementarity-determining regionGilad Ofek
Vaccine Research Center, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
J Virol 84:2955-62. 2010..Together, the results provide a more complete understanding of the 2F5 mechanism of HIV-1 neutralization and indicate ways to enhance the potency of MPER-directed antibodies...
- In vivo gp41 antibodies targeting the 2F5 monoclonal antibody epitope mediate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization breadthXiaoying Shen
Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University Medicine Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
J Virol 83:3617-25. 2009..Our findings suggest that multiple events (i.e., genetic predisposition and HIV-1 immune dysregulation) may be required for induction of broadly reactive gp41 MPER antibodies in natural infection...
- Single-particle cryoelectron microscopy analysis reveals the HIV-1 spike as a tripod structureShang Rung Wu
Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, S 141 83 Huddinge, Sweden
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:18844-9. 2010..The loop displacements probably prepared the spike for coreceptor interaction and roof opening so that a new fusion-active gp41 structure, assembled at the center of the cage bottom, could reach the target membrane...
- Dissociation of gp120 from HIV-1 virions induced by soluble CD4J P Moore
Chester Beatty Laboratories, Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom
Science 250:1139-42. 1990..This may represent the initial stage in virus-cell and cell-cell fusion. Shedding of gp120 from virions induced by sCD4 may also contribute to the mechanism by which these soluble receptor molecules neutralize HIV-1...
- HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody extracts its epitope from a kinked gp41 ectodomain region on the viral membraneZhen Yu J Sun
Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Immunity 28:52-63. 2008....
- Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 4E10 directed against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 membrane-proximal external region protect against mucosal challenge by simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIVBa-LAnn J Hessell
Department of Immunology and Microbial Science and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
J Virol 84:1302-13. 2010..The study confirms the protective potential of 2F5 and 4E10 and supports emphasis on HIV immunogen design based on the MPER region of gp41...
- Electron tomography of the contact between T cells and SIV/HIV-1: implications for viral entryRachid Sougrat
Laboratory of Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 3:e63. 2007..Determination of the molecular composition and structure of the entry claw may facilitate the identification of improved drugs for the inhibition of HIV-1 entry...
- Interaction of endocytic signals from the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex with members of the adaptor medium chain familyH Ohno
Cell Biology and Metabolism Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Virology 238:305-15. 1997..These observations suggest that HIV-1 Env utilizes the protein sorting machinery of the host cells for internalization and sorting at various steps of the endocytic and biosynthetic pathways...
- The membrane-proximal tryptophan-rich region of the HIV glycoprotein, gp41, forms a well-defined helix in dodecylphosphocholine micellesD J Schibli
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Biochemistry 40:9570-8. 2001..This work shows that the Trp-rich membrane-proximal region of HIV and related viruses can bind to the surfaces of zwitterioninc membranes in a "Velcro-like" manner...
- Characterization of a trimeric MPER containing HIV-1 gp41 antigenAndreas Hinz
Unit for Virus Host Cell Interaction, UMI 3265 UJF EMBL CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
Virology 390:221-7. 2009..Thus trimerisation of MPER regions does not suffice to induce a potent neutralizing antibody response specific for conserved regions within gp41...
- Broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies disrupt a hinge-related function of gp41 at the membrane interfaceLikai Song
Cancer Vaccine Center, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:9057-62. 2009..HIV-1 MPER features important for targeted vaccine design have been revealed, the implications of which extend to BNAb targets on other viral fusion proteins...
- Depletion of latent HIV-1 infection in vivo: a proof-of-concept studyGinger Lehrman
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 753901, USA
Lancet 366:549-55. 2005..This finding, though not definitive, suggests that new approaches will allow the cure of HIV in the future...
- Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 antibodies that mask membrane proximal region epitopes: antibody binding kinetics, induction, and potential for regulation in acute infectionS Munir Alam
Human Vaccine Institute, Box 3258, Duke University Medical Center, MSRBII Bldg, Room 4042, Durham, NC 27710, USA
J Virol 82:115-25. 2008....
- HIV-1 neutralization: mechanisms and relevance to vaccine designMichael B Zwick
Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
Curr HIV Res 5:608-24. 2007....
- Analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 membrane proximal external region arrayed on hepatitis B surface antigen particlesS Phogat
Structural Virology Section, Vaccine Research Center, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 3005, USA
Virology 373:72-84. 2008..The first generation HBsAg-MPER particles represent a unique means to present HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein neutralizing determinants to the immune system...
- Neutralizing as well as non-neutralizing polyclonal immunoglobulin (Ig)G from infected patients capture HIV-1 via antibodies directed against the principal immunodominant domain of gp41Renaud Burrer
EA3770, Institut de Virologie, Universite Louis Pasteur, 67000 Strasbourg, France
Virology 333:102-13. 2005..Thus, capture assays, including the immune complex capture assay that is more representative of "physiological" conditions, cannot be used as surrogate method for the investigation of the neutralizing activity of Abs...
- Coreceptor tropism can be influenced by amino acid substitutions in the gp41 transmembrane subunit of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope proteinWei Huang
Monogram Biosciences, 345 Oyster Point Blvd, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
J Virol 82:5584-93. 2008..We hypothesize that the latter plays an important role in the transition from CCR5 to CXCR4 coreceptor use...
- Structural details of HIV-1 recognition by the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2F5: epitope conformation, antigen-recognition loop mobility, and anion-binding siteJean Philippe Julien
Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, 1 King s College Circle, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8
J Mol Biol 384:377-92. 2008....
- Induction of neutralizing antibody against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by immunization with gp41 membrane-proximal external region (MPER) fused with porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) p15E fragmentMin Luo
Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, The College of Life Sciences, No. 5 Yi He Yuan Road, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
Vaccine 24:435-42. 2006..These results offer a new strategy for HIV-1 vaccine design and development targeting the gp41 MPER...
- Immunogenicity of recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1-like particles expressing gp41 derivatives in a pre-fusion stateMikyung Kim
Laboratory of Immunobiology, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, United States
Vaccine 25:5102-14. 2007..In addition, the anti-gp41 immune response was preferentially directed to the C-helical domain, away from the MPER. Future vaccine design needs to contend with the complexity of epitope display as well as immunodominance...
- Detailed mechanistic insights into HIV-1 sensitivity to three generations of fusion inhibitorsDirk Eggink
Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
J Biol Chem 284:26941-50. 2009..Implications for the design of novel antiviral peptide inhibitors are discussed...
- Genetic signatures in the envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1 that associate with broadly neutralizing antibodiesS Gnanakaran
Theoretical Biology and Biophysics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA
PLoS Comput Biol 6:e1000955. 2010..Five sites were in the CD4-induced coreceptor binding site of gp120, suggesting an important role for this region in the elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibody responses against HIV-1...
- In vivo efficacy of anti-glycoprotein 41, but not anti-glycoprotein 120, immunotoxins in a mouse model of HIV infectionSeth H Pincus
Department of Microbiology and Animal Resources Center, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
J Immunol 170:2236-41. 2003..These data support continued exploration of the utility of ITs for HIV infection, particularly the use of anti-gp41 ITs in combination with soluble CD4 derivatives...
- Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeted to the membrane-proximal external region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein gp41M B Zwick
Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
J Virol 75:10892-905. 2001..g., subtypes B, C, and E). The results suggest that a rather extensive region of gp41 close to the transmembrane domain is accessible to neutralizing Abs and could form a useful target for vaccine design...
- Monoclonal antibodies that bind to the core of fusion-active glycoprotein 41C H Chen
Department of Microbiology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee 37208, USA
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 16:2037-41. 2000..Antibodies that are able to interact with the core of the putative fusion-active gp41 may be useful in further unveiling the mechanism of HIV-induced membrane fusion...
- A limited number of antibody specificities mediate broad and potent serum neutralization in selected HIV-1 infected individualsLaura M Walker
Department of Immunology and Microbial Science and IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 6:e1001028. 2010..In approximately half of the donors, key N-linked glycans were critical for expression of the epitopes recognized by the bNAb specificities in the sera...
- Role of hydrophobic residues in the central ectodomain of gp41 in maintaining the association between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein subunits gp120 and gp41Joanne York
Montana Biotechnology Center, The University of Montana, Missoula, Montana 59812, USA
J Virol 78:4921-6. 2004..These envelope glycoproteins readily shed their gp120 and are unable to mediate cell-cell fusion. These findings suggest an important role for the conserved bulky hydrophobic residues in stabilizing the gp120-gp41 complex...
- Neutralizing antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 gp120 induce envelope glycoprotein subunit dissociationP Poignard
Centre d immunologie de Marseille Luminy, France
J Exp Med 183:473-84. 1996....
- Structural characterization of HIV gp41 with the membrane-proximal external regionWuxian Shi
Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
J Biol Chem 285:24290-8. 2010....
- Distinct conformational states of HIV-1 gp41 are recognized by neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodiesGary Frey
Division of Molecular Medicine, Children s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Nat Struct Mol Biol 17:1486-91. 2010..These results have important implications for gp41-based vaccine design...
- Epitope specificities of broadly neutralizing plasmas from HIV-1 infected subjectsD Noah Sather
Seattle Biomedical Research Institute, Seattle, WA 98109, United States
Vaccine 28:B8-12. 2010..Overall, our study indicates that more than one pathway leads to the development of broad cross-reactive NAbs during HIV-infection...
- Crystal structure of HIV-1 gp41 including both fusion peptide and membrane proximal external regionsVictor Buzon
Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions UMI 3265, Université Joseph Fourier EMBL CNRS, Grenoble, France
PLoS Pathog 6:e1000880. 2010....
- HIV-1 resistance to CCR5 antagonists associated with highly efficient use of CCR5 and altered tropism on primary CD4+ T cellsJennifer M Pfaff
Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
J Virol 84:6505-14. 2010....
- Membrane expression of HIV envelope glycoproteins triggers apoptosis in CD4 cellsA G Laurent-Crawford
Institut Pasteur, Department of AIDS and Retroviruses, UA CNRS 1157, Paris, France
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 9:761-73. 1993..Therefore, cell death during HIV infection in CD4+ lymphocyte cultures is due to a specific event triggered by the gp120-gp41 heterodimer complex programming death in metabolically active cells...
- In-solution virus capture assay helps deconstruct heterogeneous antibody recognition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1Daniel P Leaman
Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
J Virol 84:3382-95. 2010..Heterogeneity in Env from endogenous and exogenous sources might also subvert humoral immunity to HIV-1, so in-solution VCAs may help to dissect this heterogeneity for vaccine design purposes...
- A V3 loop-dependent gp120 element disrupted by CD4 binding stabilizes the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein trimerShi Hua Xiang
Dana Farber Cancer Institute, 44 Binney Street, CLS 1010, Boston, MA 02115, USA
J Virol 84:3147-61. 2010..CD4 binding dismantles this element, altering the gp120-gp41 relationship and rendering the hydrophobic patch in the V3 tip available for chemokine receptor binding...
- Endocytosis of endogenously synthesized HIV-1 envelope protein. Mechanism and role in processing for association with class II MHCJ F Rowell
Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
J Immunol 155:473-88. 1995....
- Induction of mucosal and systemic neutralizing antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by oral immunization with bovine Papillomavirus-HIV-1 gp41 chimeric virus-like particlesHongtao Zhang
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL 60153, USA
J Virol 78:8342-8. 2004..Importantly, the sera and fecal extracts from mice orally immunized with the CVLPs neutralized HIV-1(MN) in vitro. Thus, BPV-HIV-1 gp41 CVLPs may be used to prevent and to treat HIV-1 infection...
- Genotype and phenotype patterns of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance to enfuvirtide during long-term treatmentStefano Menzo
Istituto di Microbiologia e Scienze Biomediche, , Ancona, Italy
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3253-9. 2004....
- Broad neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mediated by plasma antibodies against the gp41 membrane proximal external regionElin S Gray
AIDS Virus Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa
J Virol 83:11265-74. 2009..Nevertheless, the identification of three novel antibody specificities within the MPER supports its further study as a promising target for vaccine design...
- Profiling the specificity of neutralizing antibodies in a large panel of plasmas from patients chronically infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes B and CJames M Binley
Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, California 92121, USA
J Virol 82:11651-68. 2008....
- Redox-triggered infection by disulfide-shackled human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pseudovirionsJames M Binley
Departments of Immunology and Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
J Virol 77:5678-84. 2003..Overall, this disulfide-shackled virus is a unique tool with potential utility in vaccine design, drug discovery, and elucidation of the HIV-1 entry process...
- Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibodies 2F5 and 4E10 require surprisingly few crucial residues in the membrane-proximal external region of glycoprotein gp41 to neutralize HIV-1Michael B Zwick
Department of Immunology IMM 2, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
J Virol 79:1252-61. 2005..Neutralization experiments showing synergy between and T20 and 4E10 against HIV-1 are also presented. The data presented may aid in the design of antigens that better present the MPER of gp41 to the immune system...
- Nature of nonfunctional envelope proteins on the surface of human immunodeficiency virus type 1Penny L Moore
Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
J Virol 80:2515-28. 2006..We hypothesize that these nonfunctional forms of Env on particle surfaces serve to divert the antibody response, helping the virus to evade neutralization...
- HR-2 mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 restore fusion kinetics delayed by HR-1 mutations that cause clinical resistance to enfuvirtideNeelanjana Ray
Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
J Virol 83:2989-95. 2009..However, in most cases, HR-1 mutations in ENF-treated patients evolve in a manner that preserves pretreatment neutralization sensitivity so as to evade the pressures of the immune system...
- Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activates the classical pathway of complement by direct C1 binding through specific sites in the transmembrane glycoprotein gp41C F Ebenbichler
Institut fur Hygiene, Innsbruck, Austria
J Exp Med 174:1417-24. 1991..These data provide the first experimental evidence of a direct interaction between the C1 complex and HIV-1, and indicate that C1 binding and activation are mediated by specific sites in gp41...
- Interruption of enfuvirtide in HIV-1 infected adults with incomplete viral suppression on an enfuvirtide-based regimenSteven G Deeks
University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
J Infect Dis 195:387-91. 2007..Although enfuvirtide resistance mutations are associated with significant fitness defects in vivo, the clinical significance of these mutations remains undefined...
- HIV entry inhibitorsJose A Este
Retrovirology Laboratory irsiCaixa, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Badalona, Spain
Lancet 370:81-8. 2007..Here, we review the development of new HIV entry inhibitors, their performance in clinical trials, and their possible role in anti-HIV therapy...
- Transmembrane protein polymorphisms and resistance to T-20 (Enfuvirtide, Fuzeon) in HIV-1 infected therapy-naive seroconverters and AIDS patients under HAART-T-20 therapyVladimir A Morozov
HIV Variabilitat und moleculare Epidemiologie P11, Robert Koch Institut, 20 Nordufer, 13353, Berlin, Germany
Virus Genes 35:167-74. 2007..After onset of T-20 therapy only resistant viruses were identified in plasma from the patients. As shown by clonal analysis of plasma from one patient, treatment interruption results in viruses reverting to a T-20-sensitive genotype...
- HIV-1 gp41 heptad repeat 2 (HR2) possesses an amino acid domain that resembles the allergen domain in Aspergillus fumigatus Asp f1 protein: review, hypothesis and implicationsYechiel Becker
Department of Molecular Virology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
Virus Genes 34:233-40. 2007....
- Design of helical, oligomeric HIV-1 fusion inhibitor peptides with potent activity against enfuvirtide-resistant virusJohn J Dwyer
Trimeris Inc, 3500 Paramount Parkway, Morrisville, NC 27560, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:12772-7. 2007..The potent antiviral activity against resistant viruses, the difficulty in generating resistant virus, and the extended half-life in vivo make this class of fusion inhibitor peptide attractive for further development...
- TORO: ninety-six-week virologic and immunologic response and safety evaluation of enfuvirtide with an optimized background of antiretroviralsJacques Reynes
Hopital Gui de Chauliac, CHU Montpellier, France
AIDS Patient Care STDS 21:533-43. 2007..In conclusion, these data demonstrate durable efficacy and safety of ENF over 96 weeks and that early use of ENF in combination with other agents for the treatment of antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected subjects is beneficial...
- Combined tipranavir and enfuvirtide use associated with higher plasma tipranavir concentrations but not with increased hepatotoxicity: sub-analysis from RESISTFrancois Raffi
University of Nantes, Nantes, France
AIDS 21:1977-80. 2007..Observed increases in plasma tipranavir concentrations thus had no apparent effect on the risk of hepatotoxicity...
- Tipranavir/T20-based salvage regimens highly effective and durable against HIV-1 with evidence for genotypic predictability of response in clinical practiceR K Gupta
Barts and The London NHS Trust, London, UK
Int J STD AIDS 18:630-2. 2007..02). TPV-containing regimens showed impressive efficacy and tolerability in this heavily experienced cohort...
- Dynamics of drug-resistant HIV-1 in plasma and peripheral blood cells in patients during and after enfuvirtide therapyEva Poveda
Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 23:1078-82. 2007....
- gp41 sequence variability in HIV type 1 non-B subtypes infected patients undergoing enfuvirtide pressureRoberta D'Arrigo
Spallanzani Institute for Infectious Diseases, Rome, Italy
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 23:1296-302. 2007....
- HIV-1 drug-resistance and drug-dependenceChris Baldwin
Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Retrovirology 4:78. 2007..Second, a compensatory mutation that repairs the protein function, but in the presence of the drug, which becomes an intrinsic part of the mechanism. The clinical relevance of drug-dependent HIV-1 variants is also discussed...
- Analysis of HIV type 1 gp41 sequences in diverse HIV type 1 strainsSusan H Eshleman
Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 23:1593-8. 2007..The gp41 HIV-1 research reagents developed by Celera are useful tools for genotyping analysis of the gp41 region in diverse HIV-1 strains...
- Selection of T1249-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variantsDirk Eggink
Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, P O Box 22700, 1100 DE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
J Virol 82:6678-88. 2008..Furthermore, substitutions at position 38 do not provide resistance to the third-generation inhibitor T2635, while substitution at positions 79 and 90 do, suggesting different resistance mechanisms...
- Potent HIV fusion inhibitors against Enfuvirtide-resistant HIV-1 strainsYuxian He
Lindsley F Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, NY 10065, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:16332-7. 2008..These findings suggest that CP32M can be further developed as an antiviral therapeutic against multidrug resistant HIV-1...
- Assay of HIV gp41 amino acid sequence to identify baseline variation and mutation development in patients with virologic failure on enfuvirtideM R Loutfy
University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont, Canada
Antiviral Res 75:58-63. 2007..Further study is required to determine the clinical relevance of the clade related polymorphisms and the new mutations identified in the patients with virologic failure...
- Enfuvirtide binding domain is highly conserved in non-B HIV type 1 strains from Cameroon, West Central AfricaAvelin Fobang Aghokeng
, Yaound, Cameroon
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 21:430-3. 2005..The N42S polymorphism was present in 148 (80.4%) strains. Analysis of the HR2 domain, from which the peptide is derived, indicated a much greater genetic variability as compared to HR1...
- Durable efficacy of enfuvirtide over 48 weeks in heavily treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients in the T-20 versus optimized background regimen only 1 and 2 clinical trialsMark Nelson
Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, United Kingdom
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 40:404-12. 2005....
- Safety of enfuvirtide in combination with an optimized background of antiretrovirals in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected adults over 48 weeksBenoit Trottier
Clinique Médicale l Actuel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 40:413-21. 2005..The T-20 Versus Optimized Background Regimen Only (TORO) studies assessed the safety and efficacy of enfuvirtide in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients...
- [New therapeutic strategies in HIV infection-immune reconstitution and virus suppression]Christian Herzmann
EPIMED GmbH, c/o Vivantes Auguste-Viktoria-Klinikum, Berlin
Med Klin (Munich) 99:323-5. 2004..CASE REPORT: The course of a 106-week therapy in a patient infected with a multiresistant virus is described. CONCLUSION: Fusion inhibitor Fuzeon represents a new option for patients having multiple resistance against HAART...
- Dynamics of enfuvirtide resistance in HIV-infected patients during and after long-term enfuvirtide salvage therapyEva Poveda
Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid 28029, Spain
J Clin Virol 34:295-301. 2005..Both genotypic and phenotypic resistance to ENF rapidly disappeared after discontinuation of the drug, suggesting that ENF-resistant viruses may have an impaired replicative capacity...
- Determinants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 baseline susceptibility to the fusion inhibitors enfuvirtide and T-649 reside outside the peptide interaction siteMarintha L Heil
Department of Microbiology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-2170, USA
J Virol 78:7582-9. 2004..We hypothesize that both gp120 gene- and gp41 gene-encoded determinants that minimize the window of opportunity for PFI to bind provide a growth advantage and possibly a predisposition to resistance to this new class of drugs in vivo...
- HIV-1 tropism for the central nervous system: Brain-derived envelope glycoproteins with lower CD4 dependence and reduced sensitivity to a fusion inhibitorJULIO MARTIN-GARCIA
Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Virology 346:169-79. 2006..Interestingly, we note the presence of envelopes more resistant to a fusion inhibitor in the brain of an untreated, HIV-1-infected individual...
- Long-term monitoring of genotypic and phenotypic resistance to T20 in treated patients infected with HIV-1L Perez-Alvarez
Area de Patogenia Viral, Centro Nacional de Microbiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain
J Med Virol 78:141-7. 2006....
- Group o human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection that escaped detection in two immmunoassaysSaid Zouhair
Department of Biology, Hopital de Versailles, 177 rue de Versailles, Le Chesnay 78150, France
J Clin Microbiol 44:662-5. 2006..The sera were strongly reactive to the V3 peptide of group O but not to the gp41 immunodominant epitope. Gp41 was sequenced, confirming that this virus belonged to group O...
- HIV entry inhibitors: mechanisms of action and resistance pathwaysVeronica Briz
Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Carlos III, Calle Sinesio Delgado 10, Madrid, Spain
J Antimicrob Chemother 57:619-27. 2006..For other entry inhibitors, multiple changes in different gp120 domains (V1, V2, V3, C2 and C4) have been associated with loss of susceptibility to these agents, although in most cases with limited cross-resistance...
- Functional impact of HIV coreceptor-binding site mutationsMark J Biscone
Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, 225 Johnson Pavilion, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Virology 351:226-36. 2006..Thus, mutations that reduce coreceptor binding and enhance susceptibility to coreceptor inhibitors can affect fusion and enfuvirtide susceptibility in an Env context-dependent manner...
- The temperature arrested intermediate of virus-cell fusion is a functional step in HIV infectionHamani I Henderson
University of Illinois Chicago, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
Virol J 3:36. 2006..In the virion-cell TAS, CD4 has been engaged, the heptad repeats of gp41 are exposed and the complex is kinetically predisposed to interact with coreceptor to complete the fusion event leading to infection...
- Kinetic factors control efficiencies of cell entry, efficacies of entry inhibitors, and mechanisms of adaptation of human immunodeficiency virusEmily J Platt
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239 3098, USA
J Virol 79:4347-56. 2005....
- Health-related quality of life with enfuvirtide (ENF; T-20) in combination with an optimized background regimenCalvin J Cohen
Community Research Initiative of New England, Boston, MA 02215, USA
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 37:1140-6. 2004..Enfuvirtide in addition to an OB regimen does not adversely affect and may improve HRQoL when self-administered for up to 24 weeks by treatment-experienced, HIV-1-infected individuals...
- Virus isolates during acute and chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection show distinct patterns of sensitivity to entry inhibitorsPeter Rusert
Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, Ramistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
J Virol 79:8454-69. 2005..Activities of these MAbs correlated significantly with each other, suggesting that common features of the viral envelope modulate their potencies...
- T20-insensitive HIV-1 from naive patients exhibits high viral fitness in a novel dual-color competition assay on primary cellsThomas Neumann
Department of Virology, Hygiene-Institute, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Virology 333:251-62. 2005....
- Resistance and replicative capacity of HIV-1 strains selected in vivo by long-term enfuvirtide treatmentS Menzo
Istituto di Microbiologia, , Ancona, Italia
New Microbiol 27:51-61. 2004..The phenotypic data from this study suggest that the secondary additional mutations, could be associated with improved resistance or recovery of replicative capacity (compensatory mutations)...
- Mutations conferring resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 fusion inhibitors are restricted by gp41 and Rev-responsive element functionsDaisuke Nameki
Laboratory of Virus Immunology, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoin Kawaramachi, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan
J Virol 79:764-70. 2005..However, since this region also encoded the RRE, additional mutations were required to maintain viral replication. These results suggest that HIV fusion is one of the attractive targets for HIV chemotherapy...
- [Strategies for combating resistances in HIV therapy--an exemplifying case]A Stoehr
MMW Fortschr Med 146:70-1. 2004
- [Fusion inhibitors. One year therapy with T-20--initial evaluation]F D Goebel
MMW Fortschr Med 146:42-3. 2004
- In vitro generation of HIV type 1 subtype C isolates resistant to enfuvirtideTonie Cilliers
AIDS Virus Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 21:776-83. 2005..In general, mutational patterns for subtype C were similar to those described for subtype B, suggesting that the mechanism of action for ENF is similar for HIV-1 subtype B and C isolates...
- Penetration of enfuvirtide, tenofovir, efavirenz, and protease inhibitors in the genital tract of HIV-1-infected menJade Ghosn
Laboratoire de Virologie, , France
AIDS 18:1958-61. 2004..These are worrying findings, because suboptimal semen drug concentrations may enhance the risk of sexually transmitted drug-resistant HIV variants...
Research Grants142 found, 100 shown here
- Preventing the Establishment of Enfuvirtide-resistance in the Latent ReservoirSteven Deeks; Fiscal Year: 2007..Also, we believe that insights regarding the mechanisms operative in elite controllers will prove to be highly informative for future efforts aimed at preventing HIV infection and eradicating virus in those already infected. ..
- Coreceptor Modulation of TCR-MHC InteractionsS Alam; Fiscal Year: 2003..abstract_text> ..
- VIRAL EVASION AND HIV ENTRY-BLOCKING STRATEGIESDennis Burton; Fiscal Year: 2004..The studies will reveal how HIV-1 can evade entry-blocking strategies, and may provide important information for vaccine design. ..
- Novel Vaccine Targeting the Sugar Coat of HIV-1Lai Xi Wang; Fiscal Year: 2004..The synthetic conjugate-vaccine will be used to immunize mice. The immune responses will be analyzed using ELISAs and virus neutralization assays. ..
- NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODIES AGAINST ORTHOPOX VIRUSESDennis Burton; Fiscal Year: 2004..To examine the impact of passive immunization in immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy of a smallpox-like disease in a non-human primate model, we will use an experimental model of monkeypox virus infection ..
- Multivalent gp41 Peptides as Novel ImmunogensLai Xi Wang; Fiscal Year: 2004..The structure-immunogenicity relationships will be evaluated. It is expected that the proposed studies will yield important new data with significant relevance to the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. ..
- THE ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF ANTIBODIES TO A FILOVIRUSDennis Burton; Fiscal Year: 2004....
- ANTIBODIES AGAINST HIV-1 gp41: TOOLS FOR VACCINE DESIGNMichael Zwick; Fiscal Year: 2005..A panel of mAbs against the described epitopes on gp41 will provide valuable tools to aid in HIV-1 vaccine design. ..
- IMMUNOFOCUSING TO A NEUTRALIZING EPITOPE ON GP120Dennis Burton; Fiscal Year: 2007..Immunization with this molecule should, in principle, be akin to immunizing with the footprint of b12. ..
- ANTIBODY EFFECTOR FUNCTION IN PROTECTION AGAINST HIV-1Dennis Burton; Fiscal Year: 2007..The results will help clarify how antibodies protect against HIV and may have implications for vaccine design and microbicide development. ..
- Convergent Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Glycopeptides and GlycoproteinsLai Xi Wang; Fiscal Year: 2007..The knowledge gained from the proposed research will eventually facilitate the development of glycoprotein-based therapeutics. ..
- HIV-1 Glycopeptides as ImmunogensLai Xi Wang; Fiscal Year: 2007..The proposed research attempts to raise broadly neutralizing antibodies through novel immunogen design. The research will yield important new data with direct relevance to HIV-1 vaccine development. ..
- Enzymatic Transglycosylation for N-Glycopeptide SynthesisLai Xi Wang; Fiscal Year: 2007..In the long term, the proposed studies will contribute to the development of glycoprotein-based drugs. ..
- Targeting neutralizing antibody-defined sites on HIV gp41 for vaccine designMichael Zwick; Fiscal Year: 2007..In these ways, antibody access to the MPER and NHR region of gp41 will be precisely evaluated, which in turn should lead to improved gp41-based immunogens that will elicit more potent neutralizing Abs against HIV-1. ..
- HUMAN ANTIBODIES TO HIV-1 BY REPERTOIRE CLONINGDennis Burton; Fiscal Year: 2007..This project aims to understand how to best trigger a neutralizing antibody response to HIV. There is widespread agreement that an HIV vaccine will need to trigger such a response to be fully effective. ..
- COOPERATIVE HUMORAL & CELLULAR IMMUNITY AGAINST HIV/SIVDennis Burton; Fiscal Year: 2005..This will provide us with the first opportunity to look at the effects of potent human mAbs on established infection in the presence of functional T cells. ..
- Targeting neutralizing antibody-defined sites on HIV gp41 for vaccine designMichael B Zwick; Fiscal Year: 2010..In these ways, antibody access to the MPER and NHR region of gp41 will be precisely evaluated, which in turn should lead to improved gp41-based immunogens that will elicit more potent neutralizing Abs against HIV-1. ..
- ANTI-HIV ANTIBODY IMMUNOTHERAPY IN HUPBL-SCIDDennis Burton; Fiscal Year: 2001..The emerging results should assist in the design of immunotherapeutic strategies using neutralizing antibodies and illuminate areas of potential concern such as neutralization escape. ..
- HUMAN ANTIBODIES TO HIV-1 BY REPERTOIRE CLONINGDennis Burton; Fiscal Year: 2009..Both aims are focused on providing the tools that will eventually allow us to generate or design immunogens that reliably elicit broadly neutralizing Abs. ..
- HUMAN ANTIBODIES TO HIV-1 BY REPERTOIRE CLONINGDennis Burton; Fiscal Year: 1993..The research will provide opportunities to explore the mechanism(s) responsible for virus neutralization and some of the rules governing antibody recognition of viral antigens...
- Probing the antibody response to HCV to facilitate rational immunogen designDennis R Burton; Fiscal Year: 2010..We propose to develop antibody-inducing vaccine candidates against HCV. A key feature of our work is the rational design of vaccine candidates based on countering some of the tricks that this virus uses to evade antibodies. ..
- THE HUMAN ANTIBODY RESPONSE TO METAPNEUMOVIRUS: PROPHYLAXIS AND VACCINE DESIGNDennis R Burton; Fiscal Year: 2010..Such antibodies will be positioned for immediate clinical development as passive prophylactic agents for the prevention of HMPV disease in vulnerable patient cohorts. ..
- HUMAN ANTIBODIES TO HIV-1 BY REPERTOIRE CLONINGDennis R Burton; Fiscal Year: 2010..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: An optimal HIV vaccine will likely elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies. This application seeks to understand broad neutralization at the molecular level to permit the design of such a vaccine. ..
- UAB AIEDRP: Immune Control and Escape in Acute InfectionJOHN KILBY; Fiscal Year: 2006..Finally, our proposal involves collaborations with other AIEDRP units where an important exchange of patient specimens, scientific expertise, technology, and data will continue. ..
- HIV-1 Gene Suppression by CD8+T CellGeorgia Tomaras; Fiscal Year: 2005..These studies will further our understanding of this potent means of virologic control and promote the development of this host cellular immune response in future therapeutic and vaccination strategies. ..
- NCRR FACSAria Cell SorterBarton Haynes; Fiscal Year: 2004..Advisory committees, institutional support, financial support for continued maintenance, and management plans are in place to insure that the instrument will be fully and appropriately utilized. ..
- ANTIGENIC PROPERTIES OF THE V1/V2 DOMAIN OF HIV-1 GP120Abraham Pinter; Fiscal Year: 2009....
- Broad Neutralization of HIV-1 from Rhinoviruses Displaying gp41 MPER SequencesGAIL ARNOLD; Fiscal Year: 2007....
- Impact of maternal HAART on HIV-infected breastfeeding infants: MalawiSusan H Eshleman; Fiscal Year: 2010..We will determine whether initiation of treatment in breastfeeding women poses any risk to breastfeeding infants who are HIV-infected, by inducing resistance to antiretroviral drugs in the infant's virus. ..
- ANTIGENIC PROPERTIES OF THE V1/V2 DOMAIN OF HIV-1 GP120Abraham Pinter; Fiscal Year: 2010....
- HIV Prevention Trials Network: Network LaboratorySusan Eshleman; Fiscal Year: 2007..Therefore, our agenda is complementary to long-term investments (finding a cure, vaccine, or microbicide). ..
- Long-Acting HIV Therapy for Injection Drug UsersJeffrey M Jacobson; Fiscal Year: 2010..We propose a novel treatment strategy involving systemic administration of long-acting antiretroviral therapy as a means to ensure effective drug delivery and viral suppression in HIV-infected populations prone to poor drug-adherence. ..
- HIV-1 Glycopeptides as ImmunogensLai Xi Wang; Fiscal Year: 2009..Theproposed research attempts to raise broadly neutralizing antibodies through novel immunogen design. Theresearch willyield important new data with direct relevance to HIV-1 vaccine development. ..
- CSF & Lymphocyte Dynamics in HIV InfectionRichard Price; Fiscal Year: 2009..Beyond its immediate implications for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Neuro-AIDS, it bears on the understanding other immune, inflammatory and degenerative neurological diseases. ..
- The impact of early antiretroviral therapy on HIV persistence and inflammationSTEVEN GRANT DEEKS; Fiscal Year: 2010..Our work may also provide important insights in the role of chronic inflammation in driving viral persistence, and hence may lead to the development of novel interventions. ..
- Induction of HIV-specific Immune ResponsesRajesh T Gandhi; Fiscal Year: 2010..By understanding the mechanisms by which immune responses against HIV can be augmented, this may lead to improved ways of treating this disease and may help in developing a vaccine to prevent this infection. ..
- Structure, Assembly, and Function of Outer Membrane ProteinsLukas K Tamm; Fiscal Year: 2010..e. a clinically important pathogen in hospital-induced infections and complications of cystic fibrosis. The research may ultimately contribute to better treatments of these infections. ..
- Invasion of C. neoformans into brain endothelial cellsAmbrose Y Jong; Fiscal Year: 2010..neoformans internalizes into the HBMEC. The information derived from the studies is expected to be helpful in the development of novel strategies to prevent cryptococcal meningitis and its associated morbidity. ..
- CSF HIV & LYMPHOCYTE DYNAMICS AFTER ANTIVIRAL THERAPYRichard Price; Fiscal Year: 2004....
- Treatment&Pathogenesis of Cerebrospinal Fluid HIV InfectRichard Price; Fiscal Year: 2004....
- ANTIGENIC PROPERTIES OF THE V1/V2 DOMAIN OF HIV-1 GP120Abraham Pinter; Fiscal Year: 2004..Modified V1/V2 miniproteins that induce effective neutralizing responses against clinically relevant HIV isolates would provide the basis of a V1/V2-based vaccine against HIV-1. ..
- STRUCTURE AND FOLDING OF INTEGRAL MEMBRANE PROTEINSLUKAS TAMM; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..
- INSERTION/FOLDING OF POLYTOPIC INTEGRAL MEMBRANE PROTEINLUKAS TAMM; Fiscal Year: 2000....
- MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF VIRAL MEMBRANE FUSIONLUKAS TAMM; Fiscal Year: 2001..Taken together, these studies will provide a structural and functional basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms of viral spike glyoprotein-mediated membrane fusion. ..