cholinergic receptors

Summary

Summary: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Defective neuromuscular synaptogenesis in agrin-deficient mutant mice
    M Gautam
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University Medical School St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Cell 85:525-35. 1996
  2. ncbi Utrophin-dystrophin-deficient mice as a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy
    A E Deconinck
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    Cell 90:717-27. 1997
  3. pmc LRP4 serves as a coreceptor of agrin
    Bin Zhang
    Program of Developmental Neurobiology, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Department of Neurology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
    Neuron 60:285-97. 2008
  4. ncbi Patterning of muscle acetylcholine receptor gene expression in the absence of motor innervation
    X Yang
    Molecular Neurobiology Program, Skirball Institute, New York University Medical School, New York, NY 10011, USA
    Neuron 30:399-410. 2001
  5. ncbi The receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK is required for neuromuscular junction formation in vivo
    T M DeChiara
    Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Tarrytown, New York 10591, USA
    Cell 85:501-12. 1996
  6. pmc The features of myasthenia gravis with autoantibodies to MuSK
    D Lavrnic
    The Institute of Neurology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, 11000 Belgrade, 6 Dr Subotica Street, Serbia and Montenegro
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 76:1099-102. 2005
  7. ncbi Neuromuscular synapses can form in vivo by incorporation of initially aneural postsynaptic specializations
    Heather Flanagan-Steet
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University Medical School, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Development 132:4471-81. 2005
  8. ncbi Functional role of acetylcholine and the expression of cholinergic receptors and components in osteoblasts
    Tsuyoshi Sato
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saitama Medical University, Iruma gun, Saitama, Japan
    FEBS Lett 584:817-24. 2010
  9. ncbi Intraduodenal and intrajejunal administration of the herbal medicine, dai-kenchu-tou, stimulates small intestinal motility via cholinergic receptors in conscious dogs
    X L Jin
    Department of Surgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan
    Dig Dis Sci 46:1171-6. 2001
  10. pmc MuSK controls where motor axons grow and form synapses
    Natalie Kim
    Molecular Neurobiology Program, The Helen L and Martin S Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University Medical School, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Nat Neurosci 11:19-27. 2008

Detail Information

Publications305 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Defective neuromuscular synaptogenesis in agrin-deficient mutant mice
    M Gautam
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University Medical School St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Cell 85:525-35. 1996
    ....
  2. ncbi Utrophin-dystrophin-deficient mice as a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy
    A E Deconinck
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    Cell 90:717-27. 1997
    ..Detailed study of these mice should provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of DMD and provide an improved model for rapid evaluation of gene therapy strategies...
  3. pmc LRP4 serves as a coreceptor of agrin
    Bin Zhang
    Program of Developmental Neurobiology, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Department of Neurology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
    Neuron 60:285-97. 2008
    ..These observations indicate that LRP4 is a coreceptor of agrin that is necessary for MuSK signaling and AChR clustering and identify a potential target protein whose mutation and/or autoimmunization may cause muscular dystrophies...
  4. ncbi Patterning of muscle acetylcholine receptor gene expression in the absence of motor innervation
    X Yang
    Molecular Neurobiology Program, Skirball Institute, New York University Medical School, New York, NY 10011, USA
    Neuron 30:399-410. 2001
    ..Our results demonstrate that AChR expression is patterned in the absence of innervation, raising the possibility that similarly prepatterned muscle-derived cues restrict axon growth and initiate synapse formation...
  5. ncbi The receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK is required for neuromuscular junction formation in vivo
    T M DeChiara
    Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Tarrytown, New York 10591, USA
    Cell 85:501-12. 1996
    ....
  6. pmc The features of myasthenia gravis with autoantibodies to MuSK
    D Lavrnic
    The Institute of Neurology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, 11000 Belgrade, 6 Dr Subotica Street, Serbia and Montenegro
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 76:1099-102. 2005
    ..To determine if myasthenia gravis (MG) with antibodies to MuSK is a distinct subgroup of seronegative MG...
  7. ncbi Neuromuscular synapses can form in vivo by incorporation of initially aneural postsynaptic specializations
    Heather Flanagan-Steet
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University Medical School, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Development 132:4471-81. 2005
    ..Moreover, many AChR clusters on later-born fast muscle fibers formed at sites that had already been contacted by axons, suggesting heterogeneity in the signaling mechanisms leading to synapse formation by a single axon...
  8. ncbi Functional role of acetylcholine and the expression of cholinergic receptors and components in osteoblasts
    Tsuyoshi Sato
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saitama Medical University, Iruma gun, Saitama, Japan
    FEBS Lett 584:817-24. 2010
    ....
  9. ncbi Intraduodenal and intrajejunal administration of the herbal medicine, dai-kenchu-tou, stimulates small intestinal motility via cholinergic receptors in conscious dogs
    X L Jin
    Department of Surgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan
    Dig Dis Sci 46:1171-6. 2001
    ..Plasma motilin was not affected by dai-kenchu-to. Intraduodenal and intrajejunal dai-kenchu-to stimulates upper gastrointestinal motility at and distal to the administration sites through cholinergic receptors.
  10. pmc MuSK controls where motor axons grow and form synapses
    Natalie Kim
    Molecular Neurobiology Program, The Helen L and Martin S Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University Medical School, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Nat Neurosci 11:19-27. 2008
    ....
  11. ncbi The synaptic muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) complex: new partners, new functions
    Laure Strochlic
    Biologie Cellulaire des Membranes, Institut Jacques Monod, Paris, France
    Bioessays 27:1129-35. 2005
    ..This minireview will focus on the multiple MuSK effectors so far identified that place MuSK at the center of a multifunctional signaling complex involved in the organization of the NMJ and associated disorders...
  12. ncbi Cholinergic receptors: dual roles in transduction and plasticity
    B J Morley
    Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE 68131, USA
    Hear Res 147:104-12. 2000
    ..The ability of the alpha7 receptor to synchronize synaptic activity and stabilize synapses makes it a prime candidate as a mechanism underlying homeostatic plasticity in the auditory system...
  13. ncbi Rescue of the cardiac defect in ErbB2 mutant mice reveals essential roles of ErbB2 in peripheral nervous system development
    J K Morris
    The Salk Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Neuron 23:273-83. 1999
    ..However, these clusters are dispersed and morphologically different from those in control muscle. Our results reveal an important role for erbB2 during normal peripheral nervous system development...
  14. ncbi Clinical aspects of MuSK antibody positive seronegative MG
    D B Sanders
    Division of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    Neurology 60:1978-80. 2003
    ..All patients improved after plasma exchange, and most had a good response to selected immunotherapy. MuSK antibody status should help diagnose MG with atypical presentations and ensure appropriate patient treatment...
  15. ncbi Development of the neuromuscular junction
    Veit Witzemann
    Max Planck Institut fur medizinische Forschung, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell Tissue Res 326:263-71. 2006
    ....
  16. pmc Cholesterol and lipid microdomains stabilize the postsynapse at the neuromuscular junction
    Raffaella Willmann
    Department of Neurochemistry, Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    EMBO J 25:4050-60. 2006
    ....
  17. ncbi Acetylcholine receptors loss and postsynaptic damage in MuSK antibody-positive myasthenia gravis
    Hirokazu Shiraishi
    The First Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan
    Ann Neurol 57:289-93. 2005
    ..MuSK antibodies do not appear to cause substantial AChR loss, complement deposition, or morphological damage. Effects on MuSK function need to be explored...
  18. ncbi The role of nerve- versus muscle-derived factors in mammalian neuromuscular junction formation
    Shuo Lin
    Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH 4056 Basel, Switzerland
    J Neurosci 28:3333-40. 2008
    ..A model is proposed that explains either the neurocentric or the myocentric mode of NMJ formation depending on a balance between the levels of MuSK expression and the availability of nerve-released agrin...
  19. pmc Inhibition of synapse assembly in mammalian muscle in vivo by RNA interference
    Xian Chu Kong
    Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
    EMBO Rep 5:183-8. 2004
    ..Moreover, they show that MuSK is also required for the maintenance of the NMJ, offering a mechanistic explanation for the myasthenia gravis caused by auto-antibodies to MuSK...
  20. ncbi Identification of an element crucial for the sub-synaptic expression of the acetylcholine receptor epsilon-subunit gene
    A Duclert
    URA CNRS 0210 Neurobiologie Moleculaire, Departement des Biotechnologies, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    J Biol Chem 271:17433-8. 1996
    ..The identification of such a site opens the possibility to identify regulatory factors responsible for compartmentalized expression at the neuromuscular junction...
  21. ncbi Laminin and alpha-dystroglycan mediate acetylcholine receptor aggregation via a MuSK-independent pathway
    F Montanaro
    Centre for Research in Neuroscience, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital Research Institute, Montreal, Canada H3G 1A4
    J Neurosci 18:1250-60. 1998
    ..We hypothesize that the interaction of LN with alpha-DG contributes to the growth and/or stabilization of AChR microaggregates into macroaggregates at the developing NMJ via a MuSK-independent mechanism...
  22. pmc Acetylcholine receptor gating at extracellular transmembrane domain interface: the cys-loop and M2-M3 linker
    Archana Jha
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
    J Gen Physiol 130:547-58. 2007
    ..The M2-M3 linker appears to be the key moving part that couples gating motions at the base of the ECD with those in TMD. These interactions are distributed along an approximately 16-A border and involve about a dozen residues...
  23. pmc Identification of a DNA element determining synaptic expression of the mouse acetylcholine receptor delta-subunit gene
    S Koike
    Unite de Recherche Associee, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique UAD 1284, Departement des Biotechnologies, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:10624-8. 1995
    ....
  24. ncbi Fewer thymic changes in MuSK antibody-positive than in MuSK antibody-negative MG
    Maria Isabel Leite
    Neurosciences Group, Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom
    Ann Neurol 57:444-8. 2005
    ..However, approximately 75% MuSK- samples showed lymph node-type infiltrates similar to those in AChR+ patients, but with fewer germinal centers. These variations may explain some apparent differences in responses to thymectomy in SNMG...
  25. ncbi Maintenance of acetylcholine receptor number by neuregulins at the neuromuscular junction in vivo
    A W Sandrock
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 276:599-603. 1997
    ..Thus, the density of AChRs in the postsynaptic membrane depends on immunoglobulin-containing neuregulin isoforms throughout the life of the animal...
  26. pmc Expression of mutant Ets protein at the neuromuscular synapse causes alterations in morphology and gene expression
    Alban de Kerchove d'Exaerde
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Moléculaire, CNRS URA 2182 Récepteurs et Cognition Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
    EMBO Rep 3:1075-81. 2002
    ..They further show that Ets-independent mechanisms control the synaptic expression of a distinct set of synaptic genes...
  27. ncbi Clinical correlates with anti-MuSK antibodies in generalized seronegative myasthenia gravis
    Amelia Evoli
    Department of Neuroscience, Catholic University, Roma, Italy
    Brain 126:2304-11. 2003
    ....
  28. ncbi Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin
    L V Borovikova
    The Picower Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA
    Nature 405:458-62. 2000
    ..Direct electrical stimulation of the peripheral vagus nerve in vivo during lethal endotoxaemia in rats inhibited TNF synthesis in liver, attenuated peak serum TNF amounts, and prevented the development of shock...
  29. ncbi Rapid and reversible effects of activity on acetylcholine receptor density at the neuromuscular junction in vivo
    M Akaaboune
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Science 286:503-7. 1999
    ..The rapid and reversible alterations in AChR density at the neuromuscular junction in vivo parallel changes thought to occur in the central nervous system at synapses undergoing potentiation and depression...
  30. pmc Distinct domains of MuSK mediate its abilities to induce and to associate with postsynaptic specializations
    H Zhou
    Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Cell Biol 146:1133-46. 1999
    ..These interactions allow MuSK not only to induce a multimolecular AChR-containing complex, but also to localize that complex to a primary scaffold in the postsynaptic membrane...
  31. ncbi Agrin acts via a MuSK receptor complex
    D J Glass
    Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Tarrytown, New York 10591, USA
    Cell 85:513-23. 1996
    ..Here we demonstrate that agrin acts via a receptor complex that includes MuSK as well as a myotube-specific accessory component...
  32. pmc Identification of an agrin mutation that causes congenital myasthenia and affects synapse function
    Caroline Huze
    Equipe Différenciation Neuromusculaire, UMR 5239, Ecole Normale Supérieure Lyon, CNRS, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon, France
    Am J Hum Genet 85:155-67. 2009
    ..These results indicate that the mutation does not interfere with the ability of agrin to induce postsynaptic structures but that it dramatically perturbs the maintenance of the neuromuscular junction...
  33. ncbi Expression and distribution of cholinergic receptors in the human urothelium
    Thomas Bschleipfer
    Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, Justus Liebig University, Rudolf Buchheim Str 7, D 35385 Giessen, Germany
    Life Sci 80:2303-7. 2007
    ..In view of the multiplicity of pathways to which different cholinergic receptor subtypes are coupled, we propose that this layer-specific distribution serves to stratify cholinergic regulation of human urothelial function...
  34. ncbi Combined blockade of cholinergic receptors shifts the brain from stimulus encoding to memory consolidation
    Björn H Rasch
    University of Lubeck, Germany
    J Cogn Neurosci 18:793-802. 2006
    ....
  35. pmc 14-3-3 gamma associates with muscle specific kinase and regulates synaptic gene transcription at vertebrate neuromuscular synapse
    Laure Strochlic
    Biologie Cellulaire des Membranes, Institut Jacques Monod, Unite Mixte de Recherche 7592, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universités Paris 6 et 7, 75251 Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:18189-94. 2004
    ..Our data extend the notion that, apart from its well documented role in AChR clustering, the MuSK complex might also be involved in the regulation of synaptic gene expression at the NMJ...
  36. ncbi Synapse disassembly and formation of new synapses in postnatal muscle upon conditional inactivation of MuSK
    Boris A Hesser
    Max Planck Institut fur medizinische Forschung, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Mol Cell Neurosci 31:470-80. 2006
    ..Thus, MuSK and AChR together maintain the functional and structural integrity of the postsynaptic architecture and prevent axon growth...
  37. pmc Postsynaptic abnormalities at the neuromuscular junctions of utrophin-deficient mice
    A E Deconinck
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Cell Biol 136:883-94. 1997
    ..Defects of utrophin could underlie some forms of congenital myasthenic syndrome in which a reduction of postsynaptic folds is observed...
  38. ncbi Structure and gating mechanism of the acetylcholine receptor pore
    Atsuo Miyazawa
    RIKEN Harima Institute, 1 1 1 Kouto, Mikazuki cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679 5148, Japan
    Nature 423:949-55. 2003
    ..These rotations are communicated through the inner helices, and open the pore by breaking the girdle apart...
  39. ncbi Dok-7 mutations underlie a neuromuscular junction synaptopathy
    David Beeson
    Neurosciences Group, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    Science 313:1975-8. 2006
    ..We showed that recessive inheritance of mutations in Dok-7, which result in a defective structure of the neuromuscular junction, is a cause of CMS with proximal muscle weakness...
  40. ncbi Pre- and postsynaptic maturation of the neuromuscular junction during neonatal synapse elimination depends on protein kinase C
    Maria A Lanuza
    Unitat d Histologia i Neurobiologia UHN, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain
    J Neurosci Res 67:607-17. 2002
    ..PKC may act primarily to influence AChR clusters and not axons, insofar as phorbol ester activation of PKC accelerated changes in receptor aggregates but produced relatively little axon loss...
  41. ncbi Crystal structure of the MuSK tyrosine kinase: insights into receptor autoregulation
    Jeffrey H Till
    Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine and Department of Pharmacology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Structure 10:1187-96. 2002
    ..These studies provide a molecular basis for understanding the regulation of MuSK catalytic activity and suggest that an additional in vivo component may contribute to regulation via the juxtamembrane region...
  42. ncbi Involvement of nitric oxide in depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition in hippocampal pyramidal cells during activation of cholinergic receptors
    Judit K Makara
    Department of Cellular and Network Neurobiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H 1083 Budapest, Hungary
    J Neurosci 27:10211-22. 2007
    ..Here we show that, during activation of cholinergic receptors, retrograde signaling by NO controls CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R)-dependent depolarization-induced ..
  43. ncbi Blockade of central cholinergic receptors impairs new learning and increases proactive interference in a word paired-associate memory task
    Alireza Atri
    Boston University, Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Behav Neurosci 118:223-36. 2004
    Experimental data and computational models suggest that blockade of muscarinic cholinergic receptors impairs paired-associate learning and increases proactive interference (E. DeRosa & M. E. Hasselmo, 2000; M. E. Hasselmo & J. M...
  44. ncbi Chronic aspartame affects T-maze performance, brain cholinergic receptors and Na+,K+-ATPase in rats
    Brandon Christian
    Department of Pharmacology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 78:121-7. 2004
    ..Using [(3)H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) (1 nM) to label muscarinic cholinergic receptors and atropine (10(-6) M) to determine nonspecific binding in whole-brain preparations, aspartame-treated ..
  45. ncbi Laminin and alpha7beta1 integrin regulate agrin-induced clustering of acetylcholine receptors
    D J Burkin
    Department of Cell and Structural Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    J Cell Sci 113:2877-86. 2000
    ....
  46. ncbi Syne-1, a dystrophin- and Klarsicht-related protein associated with synaptic nuclei at the neuromuscular junction
    E D Apel
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology and Department of Pediatrics, Washington University Medical School, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Biol Chem 275:31986-95. 2000
    ..Finally, we identify a homologous gene, syne-2, that is expressed in an overlapping but distinct pattern...
  47. pmc Mutation causing severe myasthenia reveals functional asymmetry of AChR signature cystine loops in agonist binding and gating
    Xin Ming Shen
    Department of Neurology and Neuromuscular Research Laboratory, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    J Clin Invest 111:497-505. 2003
    ..The overall findings reveal functional asymmetry between cys-loops of the different AChR subunits in contributing to ACh binding and channel gating...
  48. ncbi Structure and function of the neuromuscular junction in young adult mdx mice
    P R Lyons
    Muscular Dystrophy Group Laboratories, Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    J Neurocytol 20:969-81. 1991
    ....
  49. pmc Agrin isoforms with distinct amino termini: differential expression, localization, and function
    R W Burgess
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University Medical School, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Cell Biol 151:41-52. 2000
    ..Thus, basal lamina-associated LN-agrin is required for neuromuscular synaptogenesis, whereas cell-associated SN-agrin may play distinct roles in the central nervous system...
  50. ncbi Effect of sera from AChR-antibody negative myasthenia gravis patients on AChR and MuSK in cell cultures
    Maria Elena Farrugia
    Neurosciences Group, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, UK
    J Neuroimmunol 185:136-44. 2007
    ..Thus, although these results have, disappointingly, demonstrated little effect of MuSK antibodies on AChR expression, they do imply that SNMG antibodies act on AChR-associated pathways...
  51. ncbi Distinct roles of nerve and muscle in postsynaptic differentiation of the neuromuscular synapse
    W Lin
    The Salk Institute, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 410:1057-64. 2001
    ..In contrast, the subsequent stages of synaptic growth and maintenance require nerve-derived agrin, and a second nerve-derived signal that disperses ectopic postsynaptic apparatus...
  52. ncbi Mapping the conformational wave of acetylcholine receptor channel gating
    C Grosman
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, 14214, USA
    Nature 403:773-6. 2000
    ....
  53. ncbi End-plate acetylcholine receptor deficiency due to nonsense mutations in the epsilon subunit
    A G Engel
    Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Ann Neurol 40:810-7. 1996
    ..No channel activity could be recorded from HEK cells expressing epsilon 1293insG-AChR. Expression of gamma-AChR at the EPs may serve as the means of phenotypic rescue from potentially fatal nonsense mutations in the epsilon-subunit gene...
  54. ncbi Identification of two amino acid residues in the epsilon subunit that promote mammalian muscle acetylcholine receptor assembly in COS cells
    Y Gu
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143 0444
    Neuron 6:879-87. 1991
    ....
  55. ncbi Regulation of neuregulin-mediated acetylcholine receptor synthesis by protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2
    M Tanowitz
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA
    J Neurosci 19:9426-35. 1999
    ..These results demonstrate a negative role of SHP2 in the neuregulin signal that leads to AChR gene expression at the NMJ...
  56. ncbi A mechanism for acetylcholine receptor clustering distinct from agrin signaling
    W A Grow
    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
    Dev Neurosci 21:436-43. 1999
    ..We propose that VVA lectin increases the frequency of AChR clustering through a mechanism that is distinct from agrin signaling, and that may involve alpha-dystroglycan...
  57. ncbi Acetylcholine receptor M3 domain: stereochemical and volume contributions to channel gating
    H L Wang
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    Nat Neurosci 2:226-33. 1999
    ..Thus, we demonstrate a functional role for the M3 domain as a key component of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channel-gating mechanism...
  58. ncbi Distinct phenotypes of mutant mice lacking agrin, MuSK, or rapsyn
    M Gautam
    Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmacology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 114:171-8. 1999
    ..We propose that agrin works through MuSK to determine a synaptogenic region within which synaptic differentiation occurs...
  59. pmc Effects of purified recombinant neural and muscle agrin on skeletal muscle fibers in vivo
    G Bezakova
    Department of Physiology, University of Oslo, 0317 Oslo, Norway
    J Cell Biol 153:1441-52. 2001
    ..Thus, the present approach provides a novel, simple, and efficient method for studying the effects of agrin on muscle under controlled conditions in vivo...
  60. pmc Impaired synaptic vesicle release and immaturity of neuromuscular junctions in spinal muscular atrophy mice
    Lingling Kong
    Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
    J Neurosci 29:842-51. 2009
    ..Together these results indicate that impaired synaptic vesicle release at NMJs in severe SMA is likely to contribute to failed postnatal maturation of motor units and muscle weakness...
  61. pmc An 83-nucleotide promoter of the acetylcholine receptor epsilon-subunit gene confers preferential synaptic expression in mouse muscle
    A Duclert
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 0210, Departement des Biotechnologies, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:3043-7. 1993
    ..Comparison of in vivo and in vitro results reveals that the elements important for in vivo localization at the synapse and in vitro expression in cultured muscle cells may differ...
  62. pmc An amino-terminal extension is required for the secretion of chick agrin and its binding to extracellular matrix
    A J Denzer
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Basel, Switzerland
    J Cell Biol 131:1547-60. 1995
    ..In conclusion, the cDNAs described here code for chick agrin that has all the characteristics previously allocated to endogenous agrin...
  63. ncbi Dimerization of the muscle-specific kinase induces tyrosine phosphorylation of acetylcholine receptors and their aggregation on the surface of myotubes
    C Hopf
    , Abteilung Biochemie, Spemannstrasse 35, , Germany
    J Biol Chem 273:6467-73. 1998
    ..Dimerization of this molecule appears to activate an additional signal, most likely by organizing a scaffold for other postsynaptic proteins...
  64. pmc MAGI-1c: a synaptic MAGUK interacting with muSK at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction
    L Strochlic
    Biologie Cellulaire des Membranes, Institut Jacques Monod, UMR 7592 CNRS, , 75251 Paris, France
    J Cell Biol 153:1127-32. 2001
    ..Our data suggest that a protein from the MAGUK family is involved in the MuSK signaling pathway at the vertebrate NMJ...
  65. pmc Induction of multiple signaling loops by MuSK during neuromuscular synapse formation
    C Moore
    Department of Physiology, University of Basel, 4051 Basel, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:14655-60. 2001
    ..In this way, MuSK activation leads to the establishment of a neuregulin-1-dependent signaling complex that maintains MuSK, ErbB, and AChR expression at the synapse of electrically active muscle fibers...
  66. ncbi Lithocholyltaurine interacts with cholinergic receptors on dispersed chief cells from guinea pig stomach
    J P Raufman
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205 7199, USA
    Am J Physiol 274:G997-1004. 1998
    ..Half-maximal inhibition of [3H]NMS binding was observed with approximately 0.5 mM carbachol and 1 mM LCT. These results indicate that the bile acid LCT is a partial agonist for muscarinic cholinergic receptors on gastric chief cells.
  67. ncbi Acetylcholine receptor clustering and triton solubility: neural effect
    T R Podleski
    Section of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853
    J Neurobiol 19:167-85. 1988
    ....
  68. ncbi The Agrin/MuSK signaling pathway is spatially segregated from the neuregulin/ErbB receptor signaling pathway at the neuromuscular junction
    J C Trinidad
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Neurosci 20:8762-70. 2000
    ..The differential distributions of the neuregulin and agrin signaling pathways argue against neuregulin and erbB receptors being localized to the NMJ via direct interactions with either agrin or MuSK...
  69. ncbi The expression and biological role of the non-neuronal cholinergic system in the ovary
    Artur Mayerhofer
    Anatomisches Institut der Universität München, Biedersteiner Strasse 29, D 80802 München, Germany
    Life Sci 72:2039-45. 2003
    ..We propose that an as yet unexplored intraovarian cholinergic system exists, which contributes to physiological ovarian tissue remodeling by stimulation of cell proliferation...
  70. ncbi Morphine-induced place preference: involvement of cholinergic receptors of the ventral tegmental area
    Ameneh Rezayof
    School of Biology, University College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
    Eur J Pharmacol 562:92-102. 2007
    ..We conclude that muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the ventral tegmental area may critically mediate the rewarding effects of morphine...
  71. ncbi Interaction of chlorphenvinphos with cholinergic receptors in the rabbit hypothalamus
    S Gralewicz
    Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Laboratory of Neurotoxicity Evaluation, Lodz, Poland
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 17:289-95. 1995
    ..to find out whether chlorphenvinphos (CVP), an organophosphorous pesticide, interacts with the muscarinic cholinergic receptors in CNS...
  72. ncbi The role of the dorsal raphe-serotonergic system and cholinergic receptors in the modulation of working memory
    S Ruotsalainen
    A I Virtanen Institute, University of Kuopio, Finland
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 22:21-31. 1998
    ..significantly impair the choice accuracy or interfere with motor activity of rats; (ii) the blockade of cholinergic receptors does not impair working memory per se, but disrupts motor activity, and (iii) pCA lesion of serotonergic ..
  73. ncbi A stepwise mechanism for acetylcholine receptor channel gating
    Prasad Purohit
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214, USA
    Nature 446:930-3. 2007
    ..The core of the channel serves both as a gate that regulates ion flow and as a hub that directs the propagation of the gating isomerization through the membrane domain of the acetylcholine receptor...
  74. ncbi Detection and characterization of MuSK antibodies in seronegative myasthenia gravis
    John McConville
    Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine and Department of Clinical Neurology, Oxford, UK
    Ann Neurol 55:580-4. 2004
    ..They bind to the extracellular Ig-like domains of soluble or native MuSK. Surprisingly they are predominantly in the IgG4 subclass. MuSK-antibody associated MG may be different in etiological and pathological mechanisms...
  75. ncbi In vivo imaging of preferential motor axon outgrowth to and synaptogenesis at prepatterned acetylcholine receptor clusters in embryonic zebrafish skeletal muscle
    Jessica A Panzer
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Neurosci 26:934-47. 2006
    ..Thus, during initial synaptogenesis, postsynaptic differentiation precedes presynaptic differentiation, and prepatterned neurotransmitter clusters mark sites destined for synapse formation...
  76. pmc Agrin-induced phosphorylation of the acetylcholine receptor regulates cytoskeletal anchoring and clustering
    L S Borges
    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T5, Canada
    J Cell Biol 153:1-12. 2001
    ....
  77. pmc A speed limit for conformational change of an allosteric membrane protein
    Sudha Chakrapani
    Center for Single Molecule Biophysics and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:87-92. 2005
    ..86 mus(-1). One possibility is that this limit is the rate of conformational change in the absence of an overall activation barrier and thus reflects the kinetic prefactor for the acetylcholine receptor opening isomerization...
  78. ncbi Aberrant patterning of neuromuscular synapses in choline acetyltransferase-deficient mice
    Eugene P Brandon
    Laboratory of Genetics and Peptide Biology Laboratories, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Neurosci 23:539-49. 2003
    ..These results indicate that ChAT is uniquely essential for the patterning and formation of mammalian neuromuscular synapses...
  79. ncbi Agrin-induced activation of acetylcholine receptor-bound Src family kinases requires Rapsyn and correlates with acetylcholine receptor clustering
    P Mittaud
    Brain Research Institute, , Winterthurerstrasse 190, , Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 276:14505-13. 2001
    ..Second, this activation intimately correlates with AChR clustering, suggesting that these kinases may play a role in agrin-induced AChR aggregation by forming an AChR-bound signaling cascade...
  80. ncbi Assembly of the postsynaptic membrane at the neuromuscular junction: paradigm lost
    Terrance T Kummer
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, 7 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 16:74-82. 2006
    ..These recent studies challenge the widely-held paradigms, although not the results that led to them, and suggest a new model for neuromuscular synaptogenesis...
  81. ncbi Cooperative regulation by Rac and Rho of agrin-induced acetylcholine receptor clustering in muscle cells
    Christi Weston
    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:6450-5. 2003
    ..These results establish that Rac and Rho play distinct but complementary roles in the mechanism of agrin-induced AChR clustering...
  82. pmc A role of tyrosine phosphatase in acetylcholine receptor cluster dispersal and formation
    Z Dai
    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy and the Curriculum in Neurobiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7090, USA
    J Cell Biol 141:1613-24. 1998
    ....
  83. ncbi Agrin regulates rapsyn interaction with surface acetylcholine receptors, and this underlies cytoskeletal anchoring and clustering
    Martijn Moransard
    Department of Neurochemistry, Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 278:7350-9. 2003
    ..Thus, we propose that neural agrin controls postsynaptic aggregation of the AChR by enhancing rapsyn interaction with surface AChRs and inducing cytoskeletal anchoring and that this is an important precursor step for AChR clustering...
  84. pmc Tyrosine phosphatases such as SHP-2 act in a balance with Src-family kinases in stabilization of postsynaptic clusters of acetylcholine receptors
    Alain A Camilleri
    Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    BMC Neurosci 8:46. 2007
    ..This suggests that a balance between protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) such as those of the Src-family may be essential in stabilizing clusters of AChRs...
  85. ncbi Chimaeric mice deficient in dystroglycans develop muscular dystrophy and have disrupted myoneural synapses
    P D Côté
    Centre for Neuroscience Research, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital Research Institute, Quebec, Canada
    Nat Genet 23:338-42. 1999
    ....
  86. ncbi Antinociception of intrathecal cholinesterase inhibitors and cholinergic receptors in rats
    M H Yoon
    Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Chonnam National University, Medical School, Gwangju, Korea
    Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 47:1079-84. 2003
    ..inhibitors have been shown to have an antinociceptive effect which is mediated through the spinal cholinergic receptors, mainly muscarinic receptor...
  87. ncbi A synaptic balancing act: local and global signaling in the clustering of ACh receptors at vertebrate neuromuscular junctions
    Raghavan Madhavan
    Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, P R China
    J Neurocytol 32:685-96. 2003
    ..Here we review some of the recent findings that indicate important roles for the actin cytoskeleton and tyrosine phosphatases in mediating these processes...
  88. ncbi From plaque to pretzel: fold formation and acetylcholine receptor loss at the developing neuromuscular junction
    M J Marques
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurosci 20:3663-75. 2000
    ..This view provides a mechanical explanation for gutters, folds, and the location of folds at sites of neurotransmitter release...
  89. pmc MuSK induces in vivo acetylcholine receptor clusters in a ligand-independent manner
    A Sander
    Abteilung Zellphysiologie, Max Planck Institut fur medizinische Forschung, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Cell Biol 155:1287-96. 2001
    ..Thus, the kinase activity of MuSK initiates signals that are sufficient to induce the formation of AChR clusters. This process does not require additional determinants located in the ectodomain...
  90. pmc Tyrosine-phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated isoforms of alpha-dystrobrevin: roles in skeletal muscle and its neuromuscular and myotendinous junctions
    R Mark Grady
    Dept of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, Pediatric Research Bldg, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Cell Biol 160:741-52. 2003
    ..More generally, alphaDB may play multiple roles in muscle by means of differential distribution of isoforms with distinct signaling or structural properties...
  91. ncbi Zebrafish unplugged reveals a role for muscle-specific kinase homologs in axonal pathway choice
    Jing Zhang
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6058, USA
    Nat Neurosci 7:1303-9. 2004
    ..Our results demonstrate a new role for MuSK homologs in axonal pathway selection...
  92. pmc The in vitro and in vivo phosphotyrosine map of activated MuSK
    A Watty
    Molecular Neurobiology Program, Skirball Institute, New York University Medical School, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:4585-90. 2000
    ..Our biochemical data are consistent with results from functional experiments and establish a good correlation between tyrosine residues that are phosphorylated in activated MuSK and tyrosines that are required for MuSK signaling...
  93. ncbi Impaired off-line consolidation of motor memories after combined blockade of cholinergic receptors during REM sleep-rich sleep
    Björn Rasch
    Department of Neuroendocrinology, University of Lubeck, Lubeck, Germany
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:1843-53. 2009
    ..Taken together, these results identify high cholinergic activity during late, REM sleep-rich sleep as an essential factor promoting sleep-dependent consolidation of motor skills...
  94. ncbi The relationship between perlecan and dystroglycan and its implication in the formation of the neuromuscular junction
    H B Peng
    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599 7090, USA
    Cell Adhes Commun 5:475-89. 1998
    ..This competition may result in the presentation of perlecan-bound growth factors such as HB-GAM to effect synaptic induction...
  95. pmc A mammalian homolog of Drosophila tumorous imaginal discs, Tid1, mediates agrin signaling at the neuromuscular junction
    Jenny Linnoila
    Molecular Pharmacology Graduate Training Program, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    Neuron 60:625-41. 2008
    ..These results demonstrate that Tid1 is an essential component of the agrin signaling pathway, crucial for synaptic development...
  96. ncbi Congenital myasthenic syndrome caused by decreased agonist binding affinity due to a mutation in the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit
    K Ohno
    Muscle Research Laboratory, Department of Neurology, Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA
    Neuron 17:157-70. 1996
    ..Studies of the engineered epsilon P121L AChR revealed a markedly decreased rate of channel opening, little change in affinity of the resting state for ACh, but reduced affinity of the open channel and desensitized states...
  97. ncbi Seronegative myasthenia gravis: disease severity and prognosis
    F Romi
    Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
    Eur J Neurol 12:413-8. 2005
    ..With proper treatment, especially early thymectomy for seropositive MG, the outcome and long-term prognosis is good in patients with and without AChR antibodies...
  98. ncbi Molecular regulation of postsynaptic differentiation at the neuromuscular junction
    Raghavan Madhavan
    Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
    IUBMB Life 57:719-30. 2005
    ..In this review we discuss how regulation of AChR re-distribution by multiple factors ensures aggregation of AChRs exclusively at NMJs...
  99. ncbi Selective muscarinic receptor agonist xanomeline as a novel treatment approach for schizophrenia
    Anantha Shekhar
    Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, 1111 West 10th St, Suite 313, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 165:1033-9. 2008
    ..The authors studied xanomeline, a relatively selective muscarinic type 1 and type 4 (M(1) and M(4)) receptor agonist, to determine if this agent is effective in the treatment of schizophrenia...
  100. ncbi Unravelling the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis
    Angela Vincent
    Neurosciences Group, Department of Clinical Neurology, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK
    Nat Rev Immunol 2:797-804. 2002
    ....
  101. ncbi Cholinergic systems in progressive supranuclear palsy
    N M Warren
    Institute for Ageing and Health, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    Brain 128:239-49. 2005
    ..Symptomatic treatment using cholinergic drugs may thus be improved by more specific targeting of cholinergic receptors or nuclei. There is also evidence that cholinergic agents may have disease-modifying effects...

Research Grants62

  1. Cholinergic Receptors as Targets for Accelerated Anthelmintic Discovery
    MICHAEL JOHN KIMBER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Academic laboratories will identify and describe potential drug targets in the worms, and Pfizer Animal Health will screen vast libraries of compounds across these targets. ..
  2. Diet, Insulin, Dopamine, and Reward.
    Margaret E Rice; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  3. Nicotine Modulation of Parasympathetic Cardiac Neurons
    David Mendelowitz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..neurons, these reflex pathways are endogenously and differentially modulated by nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors, determine where in this reflex pathway this modulation occurs, and finally whether fetal exposure to ..
  4. Persistent Attenuation of Cocaine-Reinforced Behavior
    KENNETH W GRASING; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aversive effects of cocaine will be assessed by allowing rats to make mutually-exclusive choices for drug or food reinforcement and measuring their proximity to levers used to obtain either reinforcer. ..
  5. Tacrine Effects on Cocaine Self-Administration and Pharmacokinetic Measures
    KENNETH W GRASING; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Activation of cholinergic receptors on the cell bodies of these neurons can enhance DA release...
  6. Unconventional Synaptic Modulation at the Vertebrate Neuromuscular Junction
    Clark A Lindgren; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It will also provide basic knowledge that may better inform our understanding of muscular dystrophy and numerous other diseases that are caused by the dysfunction of glial cells or the peptide N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG). ..
  7. Drug Discovery for Cognitive Impairment Associated with Drugs of Abuse
    Alvin V Terry; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..new compounds evoke their pharmacological actions by a unique mechanism: desensitization of nicotinic cholinergic receptors without the antecedent activation...
  8. Regulation of Cholinergic Transmission and Theta Rhythms by Endocannabinoids
    DANIEL ALAN NAGODE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the hippocampus that co-express the neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK+ interneurons), also highly express cholinergic receptors, can release endocannabinoids, and may be intermediaries through which septal cholinergic neurons drive ..
  9. Pope-Presynaptic modulation of anticholinesterase toxicity
    Carey N Pope; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..leading to acetylcholine accumulation at cholinergic synapses, excessive stimulation of cholinergic receptors and signs of acute toxicity (e.g., tremors, excessive secretions, seizures)...
  10. Alpha5 Subunits in Alpha4beta2 Nicotinic Receptors: Assembly and Function
    CRYSTAL N DILWORTH; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Roughly 400,000 Americans and roughly 4,000,000 people worldwide die annually of the sequelae to nicotine dependence. This project attempts to explain nicotine dependence. ..
  11. Cholinergic receptors on the nematode pharynx: an unexploited drug target
    Alan P Robertson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..3. Characterize the pharyngeal cholinergic receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes using voltage- &patch-clamp techniques...
  12. The Impact of Genetic Variability on Human Susceptibility to Chlorpyrifos
    ALICE LANGFORD CRANE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  13. Synaptic Mechanisms of Vestibular Efferent Responses
    JOSEPH CHRISTOPHER HOLT; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Deciphering how and when the vestibular efferent system modifies the initial stages of vestibular processing are crucial to understanding its role in vestibular physiology. ..
  14. EPITHELIAL ACETYLCHOLINE IN ORAL BIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY
    Sergei A Grando; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..abstract_text> ..
  15. Auditory Cortex: Synaptic organization and plasticity
    Paul B Manis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cholinergic systems has been shown to enhance map plasticity in vivo, and we find that activation of cholinergic receptors in auditory cortex affects spike timing-dependent plasticity...
  16. Fullerenes Counteracting Organophosphorus Threats
    Marion F Ehrich; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Contemporary treatment relies on blocking cholinergic receptors, removing OP compounds from AChE, and treating symptoms...
  17. GENETICS OF NICOTINE TOLERANCE: ROLE OF RECEPTORS
    Michael J Marks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The initial sites of action of nicotine are the nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChR), for which the native neurotransmitter is acetylcholine...
  18. Studies with Nicotinic Null Mutant Mice
    Michael J Marks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Neuronal nicotinic cholinergic receptors are expressed throughout the brain, in the spinal cord, and in the autonomic ganglia...
  19. Cholinergic Receptors in Aging and Alzheimers Disease Ligand Neuroimaging
    David Sultzer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..studies to identify very early cholinergic changes in AD, measure change over time, evaluate associations with other AD neuropathologies, assess response to therapeutic interventions, and provide a target for new medication development ..
  20. Alpha6* nAChRs in Dopamine Transmission and Nicotine Dependence
    RYAN MICHAEL DRENAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The knowledge that will be produced by this research may be useful in designing and testing better drug therapies for these or other related disorders. ..
  21. Nicotinic receptors: Role in hippocampal synaptic function
    Edson X Albuquerque; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..levels are increased in the brain of patients with AD and schizophrenia, inhibits a subtype of nicotinic cholinergic receptors - the a7* receptors...
  22. Chronic Nicotine Effects on Receptor Subtypes
    Norman H Lee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..by applicant): The CNS effects of nicotine are mediated by multiple subtypes of neuronal nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs)...
  23. RGS Protein Regulation of G Protein Coupled Receptors
    John R Hepler; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..linked signaling proteins RGS2, Gq-alpha (Gqa), alpha-1A-adrenergic (a1A-AR) and m1 muscarininc cholinergic receptors (M1 AChR) in regulation of vascular hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, sympathetic control of cardiac ..
  24. Direct nicotinic excitation of layer 5 neocortical pyramidal neurons
    Jack Waters; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  25. Characterizing a cue-vulnerable pharmaco-responsive endophenotype in smokers
    Teresa R Franklin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Varenicline, which is twice as effective as other agents, acts on nicotinic cholinergic receptors to modulate the DA system...
  26. Neural pathway of REM sleep atonia
    Jun Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this grant, we will use a novel technique DREADD in which modified G coupled cholinergic receptors are inserted into the neurons that are only activated by activate clozapine-N-oxide (CNO)...
  27. Synaptic mechanisms of auditory memory
    Stanislav S Zakharenko; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ACx;instead, it acquires gating mechanisms during postnatal development that can be released by activating cholinergic receptors on presynaptic terminals of TC projections...
  28. Alpha6* nAChRs in Dopamine Transmission and Nicotine Dependence
    RYAN MICHAEL DRENAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..abstract_text> ..
  29. Design and Synthesis of New Neuronal nAChR Silent Desensitizers for Drug Abuse
    Mikell Paige; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs) may be an important target for the treatment of multiple addictions, not just nicotine...
  30. Rivastigmine and Huperzine A as Potential Treatments for Cocaine Addiction
    Richard De La Garza; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..To this end, we propose a human laboratory research study to evaluate the effects of rivastigmine or huperzine A on craving and reinforcing effects produced by administration of cocaine. ..
  31. Nicotinic Guidance of Neural Network Construction
    Darwin K Berg; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These results will represent a major step forward in understanding nervous system development and identifying key vulnerabilities. ..
  32. Cholinergic Enhancement as Treatment for Nicotine Addiction
    Andrew J Waters; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Acetylcholine is the endogenous neurotransmitter for the nicotinic and muscarinic type cholinergic receptors. GAL also directly potentiates the activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors...
  33. Alcohol and Dopamine Release: Cellular and Synaptic Mechanisms
    David Sulzer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..terminating within the nAc, possibly due to the differential presence of presynaptic GABAergic and/or cholinergic receptors. 3) To study the effects of alcohol on the activity of a population of cholinergic interneurons the in nAc ..
  34. Central Cholinergic System, Its History &Current Status
    ALEXANDER KARCZMAR; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..complementary topics such as cholinesterases and anticholinesterases, cholinergic ontogeny and pathways, cholinergic receptors, second messenger phenomena, acetylcholine and choline metabolism and the pertinent molecular biology ..
  35. Allosteric and orthosteric agonists differentially activate M1 Ach receptors
    GREGORY JULIAN DIGBY; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ....
  36. Studies of Neuromuscular Synaptogenesis Using Microfluidcs
    Albert Folch; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We seek to continue these investigations by studying the dynamics and spatial patterns of various AChR-specific responses upon (competitive, synergistic, or combinatorial) stimulation with agrin, neuregulin, and ACh. ..
  37. Neurovascular coupling during spontaneous and sensory evoked activity
    PATRICK JAMES DREW; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will be dissected by measuring neural activity and blood flow in transgenic mice lacking muscarinic cholinergic receptors on either blood vessels or cortical neurons...
  38. CHOLINERGIC PHARMACOLOGY OF BASAL FOREBRAIN NEURONS
    Susan Robinson; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Multiple types of cholinergic receptors with differing regional distributions have been identified in the central nervous system...
  39. RAT MODEL OF FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME
    ASA BLACK; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Stimlation of these muscarinic cholinergic receptors causes increases in cyclic GMP, a seoond messenger involved in synaptic transmission...
  40. DERMAL CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS AND ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
    HELENA RYER; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..To this end, any changes found in dermal cholinergic function will be evaluated for the degree to which they are correlated with the severity of dementia found in AD subjects or are associated with early or late onset AD...
  41. TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF INSECT ACH-RECEPTORS
    AMIRA ELDEFRAWI; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ....
  42. Receptor Selective Spinal Analgesia
    James Eisenach; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This grant has in the past examined spinal a2- adrenergic, adenosine, and cholinergic receptors in pain and analgesia, and in the last cycle began the study of spinal prostaglandins, using the ..
  43. Nicotine Addiction: ACh Receptors and Secretion
    Aaron Fox; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This new aim is extremely exciting to us and is only possible because of the discovery of this remarkable cell line...
  44. CONGENITAL MYASTHENIC SYNDROMES
    ANDREW GEORGE ENGEL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Strategies for therapy are based on determining the molecular defect caused by the mutation and whether the identified defect increases or decreases the synaptic response to ACh. ..
  45. CHOLINERGIC MECHANISMS OF REM SLEEP GENERATION
    HELEN BAGHDOYAN; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..This proposal further aims to extend the foregoing cholinergic hypothesis by examining the role of central cholinergic receptors in the generation of non-REM (NREM) sleep...
  46. CHLORPYRIFOS NEUROTOXICITY: NEUROCHEMISTRY AND COGNITION
    DAVID JETT; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..measures from the Morris task will be correlated to cholinesterase activity and the density of brain cholinergic receptors. Much of the current information on learning and memory in mammals has come from studies with the Morris ..
  47. PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CENTRAL SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION
    SOLOMON ERULKAR; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..If the hypothesis holds true for the cells tested, it would strongly suggest that the gonadal steroids play a major role in the modulation and regulation of neuronal and muscular activity...
  48. MOLECULAR ACTION OF LOCAL ANESTHETIC ON CHANNEL PEPTIDES
    Mauricio Montal; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..the nature and the site of the blocking action of LA on voltage-dependent sodium channels and nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Our approach is to characterize the action of a series of LA on be single channel properties of synthetic ..
  49. Nicotinic Receptors in Cochlear Hair Cell Physiology
    Paul Fuchs; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..electrophysiological and molecular genetic experiments to elucidate the properties and function of these cholinergic receptors in hair cell physiology...
  50. PHARMACOLOGY OF VESTIBULAR NEUROTRANSMISSION
    Paul Guth; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Also, while vestibular physiology is of interest in its own right, the process of the vestibular periphery are sufficiently similar to those of a cochlea that knowledge gained may be applied to hearing disorders. ..
  51. Nicotine induced neuroplasticity in the carotid body
    Estelle Gauda; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..description): Nicotine, a major component of tobacco smoke, is a neuroteratogen that binds to nicotinic cholinergic receptors on catecholamine-containing neurons and induces neuroplasticity...
  52. RECEPTOR/G-PROTEIN COUPLING IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
    John Lee; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..treatments for AD have primarily focused on cholinomimetic compounds which either directly stimulate cholinergic receptors (e.g. bethanechol) or enhance the synaptic availability of acetylcholine (e.g. tacrine, arecept)...
  53. REGULATION OF ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS ON MUSCLE
    Paul Brehm; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..my lab have centered on establishing the respective roles of presynaptic calcium channels and postsynaptic cholinergic receptors in neuromuscular transmission...
  54. REGULATION OF NMDA RECEPTOR CLUSTERING BY EPH KINASES
    Mustafa Sahin; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In the neuromuscular junction, clustering of the cholinergic receptors is induced by a proteoglycan (agrin), which activates a receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK)...
  55. Cholinergic Circuitry in Auditory Brainstem
    SUSAN MOTTS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The vast majority of 1C cells respond to cholinergic agonists, and cholinergic receptors have been localized throughout the 1C...
  56. FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF MESOLIMBIC NICOTINIC RECEPTORS
    PETER ROWELL; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..There is compelling evidence that nicotine produces its reinforcing effects by acting on nicotinic cholinergic receptors located on mesolimbic neurons in the brain which release dopamine from terminals of the nucleus accumbens...
  57. RESPONSE TO NICOTINE--MOLECULAR STUDIES OF MURINE NACHRS
    Allan Collins; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..effects of nicotine arise directly or indirectly through the specific interaction with nicotinic cholinergic receptors. The nicotinic receptor family is composed of many diverse subtypes that display different anatomical ..
  58. DOWN-REGULATION OF INSP3 RECEPTORS
    Richard Wojcikiewicz; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..on the adaptive responses that cells employ during activation of receptors (for example, muscarinic cholinergic receptors) that stimulate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) formation...
  59. MOLECULAR & CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY OF CLONED ACH RECEPTORS
    TONI CLAUDIO; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..include: are there specific subunit-subunit interactions, where are the subunits assembled and degraded, do the subunits interact with heavy chain binding protein, what role do the oligosaccharides play in AChR assembly and AChR function?..
  60. Ligand-Gated And Ca-Activated Channels in Hair Cells.
    Ana Vazquez; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These studies will provide insight in to the mechanisms of efferent control of the cochlea and may help direct the design of clinical therapies to alleviate noise-induced hearing loss. ..
  61. NICOTINIC RECEPTORS IN MAMMALIAN INTRACARDIAC NEURONS
    Javier Cuevas; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..An understanding of the properties and physiological role of the receptors is necessary to comprehend neural control of the heart. ..
  62. TEMPORAL VULNERABILITY OF DEVELOPING RAT BRAIN TO ETOH
    ASA BLACK; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Stimulation of these muscarinic cholinergic receptors causes increases in cyclic GMP, a second messenger involved in synaptic transmission in the septo-..