azurin

Summary

Summary: A bacterial protein from Pseudomonas, Bordetella, or Alcaligenes which operates as an electron transfer unit associated with the cytochrome chain. The protein has a molecular weight of approximately 16,000, contains a single copper atom, is intensively blue, and has a fluorescence emission band centered at 308nm.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Reorganization energy of the CuA center in purple azurin: impact of the mixed valence-to-trapped valence state transition
    Ole Farver
    Institute of Analytical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Phys Chem B 111:6690-4. 2007
  2. ncbi A cell penetrating peptide derived from azurin inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth by inhibiting phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, FAK and Akt
    Rajeshwari R Mehta
    Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, UIC College of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Angiogenesis 14:355-69. 2011
  3. pmc Structural insights into electron transfer in caa3-type cytochrome oxidase
    Joseph A Lyons
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland
    Nature 487:514-8. 2012
  4. ncbi A peptide fragment of azurin induces a p53-mediated cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells
    Tohru Yamada
    Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 8:2947-58. 2009
  5. ncbi Noncationic peptides obtained from azurin preferentially enter cancer cells
    Brad N Taylor
    Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Cancer Res 69:537-46. 2009
  6. ncbi Characterization of two type 1 Cu sites of Hyphomicrobium denitrificans nitrite reductase: a new class of copper-containing nitrite reductases
    Kazuya Yamaguchi
    Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560 0043, Japan
    Biochemistry 43:14180-8. 2004
  7. ncbi Preclinical pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and toxicity of azurin-p28 (NSC745104) a peptide inhibitor of p53 ubiquitination
    Lee Jia
    Developmental Therapeutics Program, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20852, USA
    Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 68:513-24. 2011
  8. ncbi Cupredoxin-cancer interrelationship: azurin binding with EphB2, interference in EphB2 tyrosine phosphorylation, and inhibition of cancer growth
    Anita Chaudhari
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Biochemistry 46:1799-810. 2007
  9. ncbi Internalization of bacterial redox protein azurin in mammalian cells: entry domain and specificity
    Tohru Yamada
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, 60612, USA
    Cell Microbiol 7:1418-31. 2005
  10. ncbi Unique complex between bacterial azurin and tumor-suppressor protein p53
    David Apiyo
    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77251, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 332:965-8. 2005

Research Grants

  1. Engineering de novo oxidoreductases
    Anne Jones; Fiscal Year: 2006
  2. Electron Transfer in Iron and Copper Proteins
    Jay R Winkler; Fiscal Year: 2013
  3. Tyrosinase Model Complexes using Imidazole Ligands
    JOHN BRANNON GARY; Fiscal Year: 2013
  4. Synthesis and Screening of Peptide and Protein Based Rhenium Carbonyl Compounds a
    Christopher J Ziegler; Fiscal Year: 2012
  5. Study of copper oxidoreductases through metalloprotein engineering
    Steven M Berry; Fiscal Year: 2012
  6. Tyrosine Assisted Electron Transfer in Modified Azurins
    JEFFREY JOHN WARREN; Fiscal Year: 2012
  7. Single-Molecule Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy of Surface-Tethered Proteins
    SHELLEY ANN CLARIDGE; Fiscal Year: 2011
  8. THEORETICAL STUDY OF BIOLOGICAL ELECTRON TRANSFER
    ALEXEI STUCHEBRUKHOV; Fiscal Year: 2000
  9. MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF AGENT ORANGE
    Ananda Chakrabarty; Fiscal Year: 2004
  10. ISEB-2004-Chicago International Conference
    Ananda Chakrabarty; Fiscal Year: 2004

Detail Information

Publications207 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Reorganization energy of the CuA center in purple azurin: impact of the mixed valence-to-trapped valence state transition
    Ole Farver
    Institute of Analytical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Phys Chem B 111:6690-4. 2007
    ..we report measurements of reorganization energies of a binuclear CuA center engineered into Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin that exhibits a reversible transition between a totally delocalized MV state at pH 8...
  2. ncbi A cell penetrating peptide derived from azurin inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth by inhibiting phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, FAK and Akt
    Rajeshwari R Mehta
    Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, UIC College of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Angiogenesis 14:355-69. 2011
    Amino acids 50-77 (p28) of azurin, a 128 aa cupredoxin isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is essentially responsible for azurin's preferential penetration of cancer cells...
  3. pmc Structural insights into electron transfer in caa3-type cytochrome oxidase
    Joseph A Lyons
    Department of Chemical and Environmental Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland
    Nature 487:514-8. 2012
    ..Support for an alternative to the classical proton gate characteristic of this HCO class is presented...
  4. ncbi A peptide fragment of azurin induces a p53-mediated cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells
    Tohru Yamada
    Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Mol Cancer Ther 8:2947-58. 2009
    We report that amino acids 50 to 77 of azurin (p28) preferentially enter the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, ZR-75-1, and T47D through a caveolin-mediated pathway...
  5. ncbi Noncationic peptides obtained from azurin preferentially enter cancer cells
    Brad N Taylor
    Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Cancer Res 69:537-46. 2009
    b>Azurin, a member of the cupredoxin family of copper containing redox proteins, preferentially penetrates human cancer cells and exerts cytostatic and cytotoxic (apoptotic) effects with no apparent activity on normal cells...
  6. ncbi Characterization of two type 1 Cu sites of Hyphomicrobium denitrificans nitrite reductase: a new class of copper-containing nitrite reductases
    Kazuya Yamaguchi
    Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560 0043, Japan
    Biochemistry 43:14180-8. 2004
    ..This suggests that the type 1 Cu(C) in the C-terminal domain is essential for the enzyme functions of HdNIR...
  7. ncbi Preclinical pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and toxicity of azurin-p28 (NSC745104) a peptide inhibitor of p53 ubiquitination
    Lee Jia
    Developmental Therapeutics Program, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20852, USA
    Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 68:513-24. 2011
    ..the preclinical pharmacokinetics, metabolic profile, multi-species toxicology, and antitumor efficacy of azurin-p28 (NSC 745104), an amphipathic, 28 amino acid fragment (aa 50-77) of the copper containing redox protein azurin ..
  8. ncbi Cupredoxin-cancer interrelationship: azurin binding with EphB2, interference in EphB2 tyrosine phosphorylation, and inhibition of cancer growth
    Anita Chaudhari
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Biochemistry 46:1799-810. 2007
    b>Azurin is a member of a family of metalloproteins called cupredoxins...
  9. ncbi Internalization of bacterial redox protein azurin in mammalian cells: entry domain and specificity
    Tohru Yamada
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, 60612, USA
    Cell Microbiol 7:1418-31. 2005
    b>Azurin is a member of a group of copper-containing redox proteins called cupredoxins. Different cupredoxins are produced by different aerobic bacteria as agents of electron transfer...
  10. ncbi Unique complex between bacterial azurin and tumor-suppressor protein p53
    David Apiyo
    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77251, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 332:965-8. 2005
    ..Recent work suggests that Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin, as the only bacterial protein known to date, can enter cancer cells and interact with p53 promoting cell death...
  11. pmc Role of protein frame and solvent for the redox properties of azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Michele Cascella
    Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Laboratory of Computational Chemistry and Biochemistry, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:19641-6. 2006
    ..a grand-canonical scheme, to calculate the in situ redox potential of the Cu(2+) + e(-) --> Cu(+) half reaction in azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
  12. pmc Basic requirements for a metal-binding site in a protein: the influence of loop shortening on the cupredoxin azurin
    Chan Li
    Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:7258-63. 2006
    The main active-site loop of the copper-binding protein azurin (a cupredoxin) has been shortened from C(112)TFPGH(117)SALM(121) to C(112)TPH(115)PFM(118) (the native loop from the cupredoxin amicyanin) and also to C(112)TPH(115)PM(117)...
  13. pmc Transforming a blue copper into a red copper protein: engineering cysteine and homocysteine into the axial position of azurin using site-directed mutagenesis and expressed protein ligation
    Kevin M Clark
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 132:10093-101. 2010
    ..Here we show that replacing Met121 in azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa with Cys caused an increased ratio (R(L)) of absorption at 447 nm over that at 621 nm...
  14. ncbi [Cytotoxicity and apoptosis of human osteosarcoma U2OS cells induced by recombinant soluble AZURIN]
    Xu Dong Miao
    Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009, China
    Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 34:384-9. 2005
    To investigate the effects of recombinant AZURIN protein of P. aeruginosa on growth and apoptosis of U2OS cells.
  15. pmc A first-in-class, first-in-human, phase I trial of p28, a non-HDM2-mediated peptide inhibitor of p53 ubiquitination in patients with advanced solid tumours
    M A Warso
    UIC Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Br J Cancer 108:1061-70. 2013
    This first-in-human, phase I clinical trial of p28 (NSC745104), a 28-amino-acid fragment of the cupredoxin azurin, investigated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and preliminary activity of p28 in patients with p53(+) metastatic ..
  16. ncbi [Selective inducement effect of bacterial redox protein azurin on apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cell line U2OS]
    Zhao ming Ye
    Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310009, P R China
    Ai Zheng 24:298-304. 2005
    Bacterial redox protein azurin can selectively inhibit proliferation, and induce apoptosis in various human cancer cells. These in vitro findings have been confirmed in vivo in nude mice bearing tumor xenograft...
  17. ncbi Calculation of the redox potential of the protein azurin and some mutants
    Marieke van den Bosch
    Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC Leiden, The Netherlands
    Chembiochem 6:738-46. 2005
    b>Azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a small 128-residue, copper-containing protein. Its redox potential can be modified by mutating the protein...
  18. ncbi Optical spectra of Cu(II)-azurin by hybrid TDDFT-molecular dynamics simulations
    Michele Cascella
    Laboratory of Computational Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, FSB ISIC BCH 4109 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Phys Chem B 111:10248-52. 2007
    The ground state electronic structure of oxidized azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its optical response have been investigated by combining hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations with time-dependent density ..
  19. pmc p28, a first in class peptide inhibitor of cop1 binding to p53
    T Yamada
    Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA
    Br J Cancer 108:2495-504. 2013
    A 28 amino-acid (aa) cell-penetrating peptide (p28) derived from azurin, a redox protein secreted from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, produces a post-translational increase in p53 in cancer cells by inhibiting its ..
  20. ncbi Top-down FTICR MS for the identification of fluorescent labeling efficiency and specificity of the Cu-protein azurin
    Simone Nicolardi
    Biomolecular Mass Spectrometry Unit, Leiden University Medical Center, P O Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
    Anal Chem 84:2512-20. 2012
    ..For this purpose, we have labeled the Cu-protein azurin with the fluorescent label ATTO 655-N-hydroxysuccinimide(NHS)-ester and fractionated the sample using anion ..
  21. ncbi Induction of apoptosis of azurin synthesized from P. aeruginosa MTCC 2453 against Dalton's lymphoma ascites model
    Sankar Ramachandran
    School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India
    Biomed Pharmacother 65:461-6. 2011
    b>Azurin derived from P. aeruginosa MTCC 2453 were reported to be an important modulator in cancer regression which leads it to develop as a therapeutic drugs. Earlier studies reported that azurin derived from P...
  22. pmc A novel and rapid LC/MS/MS assay for bioanalysis of Azurin p28 in serum and its pharmacokinetics in mice
    Greg S Gorman
    Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL 35205, USA
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 53:991-6. 2010
    b>Azurin p28 (NSC745104) is a 28 amino acid peptide fragment that inhibits proliferation of human solid and hematological malignancies in vitro and in vivo by reducing proteasomal degradation of oncogene p53...
  23. ncbi Multi-bit biomemory consisting of recombinant protein variants, azurin
    Ajay Kumar Yagati
    Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu dong, Mapo gu, Seoul 121 742, Republic of Korea
    Biosens Bioelectron 24:1503-7. 2009
    In this study a protein-based multi-bit biomemory device consisting of recombinant azurin with its cysteine residue modified by site-directed mutagenesis method has been developed...
  24. pmc Interaction of an anticancer peptide fragment of azurin with p53 and its isolated domains studied by atomic force spectroscopy
    Anna Rita Bizzarri
    Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, CNISM, Facolta di Scienze, Universita della Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy
    Int J Nanomedicine 6:3011-9. 2011
    p28 is a 28-amino acid peptide fragment of the cupredoxin azurin derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa that preferentially penetrates cancerous cells and arrests their proliferation in vitro and in vivo...
  25. ncbi Reduction potential variations in azurin through secondary coordination sphere phenylalanine incorporations
    Steven M Berry
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, MN 55812, USA
    J Inorg Biochem 104:1071-8. 2010
    ..of four phenylalanine residues into the secondary coordination sphere of the small soluble blue copper protein azurin. The locations for placement of these residues in azurin were based on the structure of the highly hydrophobic ..
  26. pmc Fundamental signatures of short- and long-range electron transfer for the blue copper protein azurin at Au/SAM junctions
    Dimitri E Khoshtariya
    Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Erlangen Nurnberg, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:2757-62. 2010
    The blue copper protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, azurin, immobilized at gold electrodes through hydrophobic interaction with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of the general type [-S-(CH(2))(n)-CH(3)] (n = 4, 10, and 15) ..
  27. ncbi Structural, dynamical and functional aspects of the inner motions in the blue copper protein azurin
    Bruno Rizzuti
    Laboratorio Licryl CNR INFM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Ponte P Bucci, 87036 Rende, Italy
    Biophys Chem 125:532-9. 2007
    Molecular dynamics was applied to dissect out the internal motions of azurin, a copper protein performing electron transfer. Simulations of 16...
  28. ncbi Optimized biorecognition of cytochrome c 551 and azurin immobilized on thiol-terminated monolayers assembled on Au(111) substrates
    B Bonanni
    Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, CNISM, and CNR INFM, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita della Tuscia, Largo dell Universita, I 01100 Viterbo, Italy
    J Phys Chem B 110:14574-80. 2006
    Molecular recognition between two redox partners, azurin and cytochrome c 551, is studied at the single-molecule level by means of atomic force spectroscopy, after optimizing azurin adsorption on gold via sulfhydryl-terminated alkanethiol ..
  29. ncbi In vivo studies disprove an obligatory role of azurin in denitrification in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and show that azu expression is under control of rpoS and ANR
    E Vijgenboom
    Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, The Netherlands
    Microbiology 143:2853-63. 1997
    The role of the blue copper protein azurin and cytochrome C551 as the possible electron donors to nitrite reductase in the dissimilatory nitrate reduction pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been investigated...
  30. ncbi Characterization and crystal structure of zinc azurin, a by-product of heterologous expression in Escherichia coli of Pseudomonas aeruginosa copper azurin
    H Nar
    Max Planck Institut fur Biochemie, Abteilung für Strukturforschung, Martinsried, Federal Republic of Germany
    Eur J Biochem 205:1123-9. 1992
    b>Azurin*, a by-product of heterologous expression of the gene encoding the blue copper protein azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Escherichia coli, was characterized by chemical analysis and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, ..
  31. ncbi Effects of a novel disulfide bond and engineered electrostatic interactions on the thermostability of azurin
    Anna Tigerström
    Department of Chemistry, Lundberg Institute, Goteborg University, Box 462, SE 405 30 Goteborg, Sweden
    Biochemistry 43:12563-74. 2004
    ..a novel disulfide bond and engineered electrostatic interactions with respect to the thermostability of holo azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
  32. pmc Translocation of a thioether-bridged azurin peptide fragment via the sec pathway in Lactococcus lactis
    Anneke Kuipers
    BiOMaDe Technology Foundation, Nijenborgh, AG Groningen, The Netherlands
    Appl Environ Microbiol 75:3800-2. 2009
    This study demonstrates for the first time that a thioether-containing peptide, an azurin fragment, can be translocated via the Sec pathway. This methyl-lanthionine was introduced by the nisin modification enzymes...
  33. pmc Apoptosis or growth arrest: Modulation of tumor suppressor p53's specificity by bacterial redox protein azurin
    Tohru Yamada
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:4770-5. 2004
    ..We have previously reported that a bacterial redox protein azurin induces apoptosis in J774 cell line-derived macrophages whereas a site-directed mutant M44KM64E azurin shows very ..
  34. pmc Azurin of pathogenic Neisseria spp. is involved in defense against hydrogen peroxide and survival within cervical epithelial cells
    Hsing Ju Wu
    The School of Molecular and Microbial Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
    Infect Immun 73:8444-8. 2005
    Laz, a lipid-modified azurin of the human pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis, is involved in defense against oxidative stress and copper toxicity; laz mutant strains are hypersensitive to hydrogen peroxide and ..
  35. ncbi Reduction potential tuning of the blue copper center in Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin by the axial methionine as probed by unnatural amino acids
    Dewain K Garner
    Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 128:15608-17. 2006
    The conserved axial ligand methionine 121 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin (Az) has been replaced by isostructural unnatural amino acid analogues, oxomethionine (OxM), difluoromethionine (DFM), trifluoromethionine (TFM), ..
  36. ncbi Modeling the interaction between the N-terminal domain of the tumor suppressor p53 and azurin
    Monia Taranta
    Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, CNISM, Facolta di Scienze, Universita della Tuscia, Largo dell Università 01100, Viterbo, Italy
    J Mol Recognit 22:215-22. 2009
    ..that the half life of the tumor suppressor p53 can be increased by the interaction with the bacterial protein azurin, resulting in an enhanced anti-tumoral activity...
  37. ncbi Azurin, Plasmodium falciparum malaria and HIV/AIDS: inhibition of parasitic and viral growth by Azurin
    Anita Chaudhari
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA
    Cell Cycle 5:1642-8. 2006
    b>Azurin, a member of a family of copper-containing proteins involved in electron transfer called cupredoxins, demonstrates structural features similar to the variable domains of the immunoglobulin superfamily members...
  38. ncbi Bacterial cupredoxin azurin and its interactions with the tumor suppressor protein p53
    Vasu Punj
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois, College of Medicine, 835 South Wolcott Avenue, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 312:109-14. 2003
  39. pmc Probing the influence on folding behavior of structurally conserved core residues in P. aeruginosa apo-azurin
    K Cecilia Engman
    Department of Chemistry, Goteborg University, Box 465, SE 405 30 Goteborg, Sweden
    Protein Sci 13:2706-15. 2004
    The effects on folding kinetics and equilibrium stability of core mutations in the apo-mutant C112S of azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were studied...
  40. pmc High-potential C112D/M121X (X = M, E, H, L) Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurins
    Kyle M Lancaster
    Beckman Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    Inorg Chem 48:1278-80. 2009
    Site-directed mutagenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin C112D at the M121 position has afforded a series of proteins with elevated Cu(II/I) reduction potentials relative to the Cu(II) aquo ion...
  41. ncbi Interaction of p53 with Mdm2 and azurin as studied by atomic force spectroscopy
    Gloria Funari
    Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, CNISM, Facolta di Scienze, Universita della Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy
    J Mol Recognit 23:343-51. 2010
    b>Azurin, a bacterial protein, can be internalized in cancer cells and induce apoptosis. Such anticancer effect is coupled to the formation of a complex with the tumour-suppressor p53...
  42. ncbi Bacterial cupredoxin azurin as an inducer of apoptosis and regression in human breast cancer
    Vasu Punj
    Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 840 South Wood Street, M C 820, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Oncogene 23:2367-78. 2004
    b>Azurin, a copper-containing redox protein released by the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is highly cytotoxic to the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, but is less cytotoxic toward p53-negative (MDA-MB-157) or nonfunctional ..
  43. ncbi Azurin modulates the association of Mdm2 with p53: SPR evidence from interaction of the full-length proteins
    Fabio Domenici
    Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, CNISM, Facolta di Scienze, Universita della Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy
    J Mol Recognit 24:707-14. 2011
    ..The bacterial protein Azurin has been shown to bind p53, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation likely through a post-translational increasing of ..
  44. ncbi Mimicking protein-protein electron transfer: voltammetry of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin and the Thermus thermophilus Cu(A) domain at omega-derivatized self-assembled-monolayer gold electrodes
    Kyoko Fujita
    Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 126:13954-61. 2004
    ..Both azurin (P. aeruginosa) (pI = 5.6) and subunit II (Cu(A) domain) of ba(3)-type cytochrome c oxidase (T...
  45. pmc Single molecule recognition between cytochrome C 551 and gold-immobilized azurin by force spectroscopy
    B Bonanni
    Istituto Nazionale Fisica della Materia Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita della Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy
    Biophys J 89:2783-91. 2005
    ..in single molecule force spectroscopy have allowed investigating the interaction between two redox partners, Azurin and Cytochrome C 551...
  46. ncbi Modelling the interaction between the p53 DNA-binding domain and the p28 peptide fragment of Azurin
    Simona Santini
    Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, CNISM, Facolta di Scienze, Universita della Tuscia, 01100, Viterbo, Italy
    J Mol Recognit 24:1043-55. 2011
    Recent experimental data reveal that the peptide fragment of Azurin called p28, constituted by the amino acid residues from 50 to 77 of the whole protein, retains both the Azurin cellular penetration ability and antiproliferative activity...
  47. ncbi Docking study and free energy simulation of the complex between p53 DNA-binding domain and azurin
    Valentina De Grandis
    Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, CNISM, Facolta di Scienze, Universita della Tuscia, Largo dell Università I 01100 Viterbo, Italy
    J Mol Recognit 20:215-26. 2007
    Molecular interaction between p53 tumor suppressor and the copper protein azurin (AZ) has been demonstrated to enhance p53 stability and hence antitumoral function, opening new perspectives in cancer treatment...
  48. ncbi Induction of apoptosis in macrophages by Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin: tumour-suppressor protein p53 and reactive oxygen species, but not redox activity, as critical elements in cytotoxicity
    Masatoshi Goto
    Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 835 South Wolcott Avenue, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Mol Microbiol 47:549-59. 2003
    b>Azurin is a copper-containing protein involved in electron transfer during denitrification...
  49. ncbi Gated electron transfers and electron pathways in azurin: a NMR dynamic study at multiple fields and temperatures
    Anastasia V Zhuravleva
    Swedish NMR Centre, Goteborg University, Box 465, 405 30 Goteborg, Sweden
    J Mol Biol 342:1599-611. 2004
    ..blue copper cupredoxin are explored using an extensive 15N NMR relaxation study of reduced Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin at four magnetic fields (500-900 MHz) and at two temperatures chosen well below the melting point of the protein...
  50. ncbi Blue ferrocenium azurin: an organometalloprotein with tunable redox properties
    Hee Jung Hwang
    Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 127:15356-7. 2005
    A ferrocene derivative (2-[(methylsulfonyl)thio]ethylferrocene) (1) has been synthesized and incorporated into apo-azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa by covalent attachment to the highly conserved Cys112...
  51. ncbi Approaching the speed limit for Greek Key beta-barrel formation: transition-state movement tunes folding rate of zinc-substituted azurin
    Irina Pozdnyakova
    Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 5698, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1651:1-4. 2003
    b>Azurin is a blue-copper protein with a beta-barrel structure of Greek Key topology. In vitro, copper can be substituted with zinc without change in protein structure...
  52. ncbi Concerted motions in copper plastocyanin and azurin: an essential dynamics study
    C Arcangeli
    INFM, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita' della Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy
    Biophys Chem 90:45-56. 2001
    ..1 ns) of two copper containing electron transfer proteins, plastocyanin and azurin, has been performed...
  53. ncbi Phi-value analysis of apo-azurin folding: comparison between experiment and theory
    Chenghang Zong
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 0371, USA
    Biochemistry 45:6458-66. 2006
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin is a 128-residue beta-sandwich metalloprotein; in vitro kinetic experiments have shown that it folds in a two-state reaction...
  54. pmc Conformational changes in azurin from Pseudomona aeruginosa induced through chemical and physical protocols
    Lymari Fuentes
    Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931 3346
    Biophys J 87:1873-80. 2004
    b>Azurin from Pseudomona aeruginosa is a small copper protein with a single tryptophan (Trp) buried in the structure...
  55. pmc Solvation of the folding-transition state in Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin is modulated by metal: Solvation of azurin's folding nucleus
    Corey J Wilson
    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251, USA
    Protein Sci 15:843-52. 2006
    ..Apo-and zinc-forms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin both fold in two-state equilibrium and kinetic reactions; while the apo-form exhibits a polarized transition state,..
  56. ncbi Bacterial redox protein azurin induce apoptosis in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells
    Di sheng Yang
    Department of Orthopaedics, Institute of Orthopaedic Research, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hang Zhou 310009, PR China
    Pharmacol Res 52:413-21. 2005
    As a low molecular weight redox protein elaborated from the pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, azurin is one of representative bacterial products applied in the treatment of tumour...
  57. ncbi Probing the interaction between p53 and the bacterial protein azurin by single molecule force spectroscopy
    Monia Taranta
    Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, CNISM, Facolta di Scienze, Universita della Tuscia, Largo dell Universita, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
    J Mol Recognit 21:63-70. 2008
    ..Recent works have demonstrated the bacterial redox protein azurin to enter cancer cells and induce apoptosis through p53 stabilization, resulting in a tumour growth regression...
  58. pmc The bacterial redox protein azurin induces apoptosis in J774 macrophages through complex formation and stabilization of the tumor suppressor protein p53
    Tohru Yamada
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago 60612, USA
    Infect Immun 70:7054-62. 2002
    Two redox proteins, azurin and cytochrome c(551) elaborated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, demonstrate significant cytotoxic activity towards macrophages...
  59. ncbi A combined atomic force microscopy imaging and docking study to investigate the complex between p53 DNA binding domain and Azurin
    Anna Rita Bizzarri
    Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, CNISM, Facolta di Scienze, Universita della Tuscia, I 01100 Viterbo, Italy
    J Mol Recognit 22:506-15. 2009
    The tumor suppressor p53 interacts with the redox copper protein Azurin (AZ) forming a complex which is of some relevance in biomedicine and cancer therapy...
  60. ncbi Atomic force spectroscopy in biological complex formation: strategies and perspectives
    Anna Rita Bizzarri
    Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, CNISM, Facolta di Scienze, Universita della Tuscia, Largo dell Universita, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
    J Phys Chem B 113:16449-64. 2009
    ..Through this, we outline that AFS can be successfully used both to investigate complexes having very different affinities and also to reveal competitive binding mechanisms, thus gaining deeper information about molecular interactions...
  61. pmc Thermodynamic equilibrium between blue and green copper sites and the role of the protein in controlling function
    Somdatta Ghosh
    Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:4969-74. 2009
    ..In contrast to the NiRs, the classic blue copper sites in plastocyanin and azurin show no temperature-dependent behavior, indicating that a single species is present at all temperatures...
  62. pmc The bacterial protein azurin enhances sensitivity of oral squamous carcinoma cells to anticancer drugs
    Jeong Hae Cho
    Department of Oral Anatomy and Cell Biology School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Yangsan, Korea
    Yonsei Med J 52:773-8. 2011
    ..The bacterial protein azurin is known to selectively enter cancer cells and induce apoptosis...
  63. ncbi Thermodynamic analysis of the contributions of the copper ion and the disulfide bridge to azurin stability: synergism among multiple depletions
    Danilo Milardi
    Istituto di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini CNR, Sezione di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, Italy
    Arch Biochem Biophys 414:121-7. 2003
    The stabilizing potential of the copper ion and the disulfide bridge in azurin has been explored with the aim of inspecting the ways in which these two factors influence one another...
  64. pmc Bacterial redox protein azurin, tumor suppressor protein p53, and regression of cancer
    Tohru Yamada
    Department of Microbiology, and Surgical Oncology, University of Illinois, 835 South Wolcott Avenue, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:14098-103. 2002
    ..We report the use of a purified bacterial redox protein, azurin, that enters human cancer (melanoma UISO-Mel-2) cells and induces apoptosis...
  65. ncbi Role of cofactors in folding of the blue-copper protein azurin
    Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede
    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology and Department of Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251, USA
    Inorg Chem 43:7926-33. 2004
    ..In this review, I will discuss the role of cofactors in folding of the blue-copper protein Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin. In the case of both copper (Cu(II) and Cu(I)) and zinc (Zn(II)), the metal can bind to unfolded azurin...
  66. ncbi Localization of a conserved epitope and an azurin-like domain in the H.8 protein of pathogenic Neisseria
    T H Kawula
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27514
    Mol Microbiol 1:179-85. 1987
    ..The remainder of the predicted amino acid sequence shows extensive homology to azurins, which are small blue copper-binding proteins found in a limited number of species of pathogenic bacteria...
  67. ncbi Electronic characterization of the oxidized state of the blue copper protein rusticyanin by 1H NMR: is the axial methionine the dominant influence for the high redox potential?
    A Donaire
    Departamento de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Cardenal Herrera CEU, Avda, Seminario s n, 46113 Montcada, Valencia, Spain
    Biochemistry 40:837-46. 2001
    ..A comparison of the present results with those previously obtained for cobalt(II)azurin [Donaire, A., Salgado, J., Moratal, J. M...
  68. ncbi Spin-density distribution in the copper site of azurin
    Maria Fittipaldi
    Department of Molecular Physics, Huygens Laboratory, Leiden University, P O Box 9504, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
    Chemphyschem 7:1286-93. 2006
    A 95 GHz pulsed deuterium ENDOR study has been performed on single crystals of azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa selectively deuterated at the C(beta) position of the copper-coordinating cysteine 112...
  69. pmc Effects of sucrose on the internal dynamics of azurin
    Patrizia Cioni
    Istituto di Biofisica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa, Italy
    Biophys J 88:4213-22. 2005
    ..spectroscopy, examined the influence of molar concentrations of sucrose on the flexibility of metal-free azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
  70. ncbi Optical investigation of the electron transfer protein azurin-gold nanoparticle system
    Ines Delfino
    Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, CNISM, Facolta di Scienze, Universita della Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy
    Biophys Chem 139:1-7. 2009
    The hybrid system obtained by conjugating the protein azurin, which is a very stable and well-described protein showing a unique interplay among its electron transfer and optical properties, with 20-nm sized gold nanoparticles has been ..
  71. ncbi Density functional study of EPR parameters and spin-density distribution of azurin and other blue copper proteins
    Christian Remenyi
    Institut fur Anorganische Chemie, Universitat Wurzburg, Am Hubland, D 97074 Wurzburg, Germany
    J Phys Chem B 111:8290-304. 2007
    ..have been used to study spin-density distribution, g tensors, as well as Cu and ligand hyperfine tensors for azurin models, for two more blue copper proteins plastocyanin and stellacyanin, and for small model complexes...
  72. ncbi Influence of loop shortening on the metal binding site of cupredoxin pseudoazurin
    Milko Velarde
    Abteilung Proteomics und Signaltransduktion, Max Planck Institut fur Biochemie, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Germany
    Biochemistry 46:9981-91. 2007
    ..The structure of PAZAMI demonstrates the importance of loop-scaffold interactions for metal sites in proteins...
  73. ncbi X-ray structure determination and characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin mutant Met121Glu
    B G Karlsson
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Goteborg University, Sweden
    Biochemistry 36:4089-95. 1997
    The Met121Glu azurin mutant has been crystallized and the structure determined at a resolution of 2.3 A. In the crystal structure a carboxyl oxygen of Met121Glu is coordinated to the metal at a distance of 2.2 A...
  74. ncbi Tryptophan-accelerated electron flow through proteins
    Crystal Shih
    Beckman Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Science 320:1760-2. 2008
    ..residue can facilitate electron transfer between distant metal redox centers in a mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin. Cu(I) oxidation by a photoexcited Re(I)-diimine at position 124 on a histidine(124)-glycine(123)-tryptophan(122)-..
  75. ncbi Sensitive detection of the redox state of copper proteins using fluorescence
    Ralf Schmauder
    Leiden Institute of Physics Huygens Laboratory, Leiden University, P O Box 9504, 2300, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Biol Inorg Chem 10:683-7. 2005
    The blue copper protein azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been covalently labelled with the fluorescing dye Cy5. The optical spectrum of the azurin changes markedly with its redox state...
  76. ncbi Pi-pi interaction between aromatic ring and copper-coordinated His81 imidazole regulates the blue copper active-site structure
    Rehab F Abdelhamid
    Institute of Applied Beam Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki, 310 8512, Japan
    J Biol Inorg Chem 12:165-73. 2007
    ....
  77. ncbi X-ray crystal structure of the two site-specific mutants His35Gln and His35Leu of azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    H Nar
    Max Planck Institut fur Biochemie, Abteilung Strukturforschung Martinsried b München, Germany
    J Mol Biol 218:427-47. 1991
    The three-dimensional structures of two site-specific mutants of the blue copper protein azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been solved by a combination of isomorphous replacement and Patterson search techniques, and refined by ..
  78. ncbi High resolution structural studies of mutants provide insights into catalysis and electron transfer processes in copper nitrite reductase
    Michael A Hough
    Molecular Biophysics Group, CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD, UK
    J Mol Biol 350:300-9. 2005
    ..The alteration of Cys to Ala results in loss of T1Cu and enzyme inactivation with azurin as electron donor despite the mutant enzyme retaining full nitrite-binding capacity...
  79. ncbi Axial methionine has much less influence on reduction potentials in a CuA center than in a blue copper center
    Hee Jung Hwang
    Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Illinois 61801, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 127:7274-5. 2005
    The role of the highly conserved axial methionine of the purple CuA center in an engineered CuA azurin on modulating the reduction potentials of the copper center was investigated by a systematic replacement of the methionine with ..
  80. pmc Catalytic and spectroscopic analysis of blue copper-containing nitrite reductase mutants altered in the environment of the type 2 copper centre: implications for substrate interaction
    M Prudencio
    Department of Biological Chemistry, John Innes Centre, Colney Lane, Norwich NR4 7UH, U K
    Biochem J 353:259-66. 2001
    ..Remarkably, when the physiological electron donor reduced azurin I was used, both mutant proteins exhibited restoration of enzyme activity...
  81. ncbi A crystallographic model for azurin a 3 A resolution
    E T Adman
    J Mol Biol 123:35-47. 1978
  82. ncbi Using metal-catalyzed oxidation reactions and mass spectrometry to identify amino acid residues within 10 A of the metal in Cu-binding proteins
    Juma D Bridgewater
    Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA
    J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 17:1552-9. 2006
    ..Because this method can identify amino acids around Cu that have low solvent accessibility, it should complement other radical-based protein surface-mapping techniques...
  83. ncbi Structure of Alcaligenes faecalis nitrite reductase and a copper site mutant, M150E, that contains zinc
    M E Murphy
    Department of Biological Structure, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 7420, USA
    Biochemistry 34:12107-17. 1995
    ..A number of negatively charged surface residues create an electrostatic field whose shape suggests that it may serve to direct incoming negatively charged nitrite as well as to dock the electron donor partner, pseudoazurin...
  84. ncbi The role of hydrogen bonding at the active site of a cupredoxin: the Phe114Pro azurin variant
    Sachiko Yanagisawa
    Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, United Kingdom
    Biochemistry 45:8812-22. 2006
    The Phe114Pro mutation to the cupredoxin azurin (AZ) leads to a number of structural changes at the active site attributed to deletion of one of the hydrogen bonds to the Cys112 ligand, removal of the bulky phenyl group from the ..
  85. ncbi Water effects on electron transfer in azurin dimers
    Agostino Migliore
    National Center on Nanostructures and Biosystems at Surfaces S3 of INFM CNR, Modena, Italy
    J Phys Chem B 110:23796-800. 2006
    ..Here, we study the effects of intervening water molecules on the electron self-exchange reaction of azurin (Az) by using a newly developed ab-initio method to calculate transfer integrals between molecular sites...
  86. ncbi The CuA domain of Thermus thermophilus ba3-type cytochrome c oxidase at 1.6 A resolution
    P A Williams
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nat Struct Biol 6:509-16. 1999
    ..Combined sequence-structure alignment of amino acid sequences reveals conserved interactions between cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II...
  87. ncbi Water-mediated electron transfer between protein redox centers
    Agostino Migliore
    National Center on Nanostructures and Biosystems at Surfaces S3 of INFM CNR, Modena, Italy
    J Phys Chem B 111:3774-81. 2007
    ..Here we study the effects of intervening water molecules on the electron self-exchange reaction of azurin (Az), by performing a conformational sampling on the water medium and by using a newly developed ab initio method ..
  88. ncbi The metal site of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin, revealed by a crystal structure determination of the Co(II) derivative and Co-EPR spectroscopy
    N Bonander
    Department of Biochemistry, Goteborg University, Sweden
    Proteins 27:385-94. 1997
    The crystal structure of cobalt-substituted azurin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been determined to final crystallographic R value of 0.175 at 1.9 A resolution...
  89. ncbi Atomic resolution crystal structures, EXAFS, and quantum chemical studies of rusticyanin and its two mutants provide insight into its unusual properties
    Mark L Barrett
    School of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, UK
    Biochemistry 45:2927-39. 2006
    ..The structural and energetic effects of mutating the equatorial cysteine to serine, yet to be studied experimentally, are predicted to be considerable by our calculations...
  90. ncbi The role of ligand-containing loops at copper sites in proteins
    Christopher Dennison
    Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    Nat Prod Rep 25:15-24. 2008
    ..Given the widespread occurrence of -barrel domains in nature, and the array of metal sites in proteins composed of loop regions, the studies described on this model system have implications for a variety of metalloproteins...
  91. ncbi Structure of the M148Q mutant of rusticyanin at 1.5 A: a model for the copper site of stellacyanin
    M A Hough
    CLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD, England
    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 57:355-60. 2001
    ..potential approximately 260 mV) and, owing to the absence in rusticyanin of the fifth, carbonyl ligand present in azurin, may provide a better model for the R...
  92. ncbi Probing copper ligands in denatured Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin: unfolding His117Gly and His46Gly mutants
    I Pozdnyakova
    Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA
    J Biol Inorg Chem 6:182-8. 2001
    b>Azurin is a single-domain beta-barrel protein with a redox-active copper cofactor...
  93. ncbi Active site modeling in copper azurin molecular dynamics simulations
    Bruno Rizzuti
    Dipartimento di Fisica and Unità INFM, Laboratorio di Biofisica Molecolare, Universita della Calabria, Ponte P Bucci, Cubo 30C, 87030 Rende CS, Italy
    J Mol Model 10:25-31. 2004
    Active site modeling in molecular dynamics simulations is investigated for the reduced state of copper azurin. Five simulation runs (5 ns each) were performed at room temperature to study the consequences of a mixed electrostatic/..
  94. ncbi A new molecular mechanics force field for the oxidized form of blue copper proteins
    Peter Comba
    Anorganisch Chemisches Institut, Universitat Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 270, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    J Comput Chem 23:697-705. 2002
    ..The quality of the correlation, using the computed structures, is higher than that with the X-ray structures, and this indicates that the computed structures are meaningful...
  95. ncbi Metal-ligand interactions in perturbed blue copper sites: a paramagnetic (1)H NMR study of Co(II)-pseudoazurin
    Claudio O Fernandez
    LANAIS RMN 300, University of Buenos Aires CONICET, Junin 956, C1113AAD Buenos Aires, Argentina
    J Biol Inorg Chem 8:75-82. 2003
    ..reflecting an altered conformation for the Met-Co(II)-Cys moiety in both proteins, compared to Co(II)-azurin, amicyanin and stellacyanin...
  96. ncbi Electron tunneling in single crystals of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurins
    B R Crane
    Beckman Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 123:11623-31. 2001
    ..6-0.8 eV) determined experimentally for the reaction in solution. Our work suggests that outer-sphere protein reorganization is the dominant activation component required for electron tunneling...
  97. ncbi A quantitative description of the ground-state wave function of Cu(A) by X-ray absorption spectroscopy: comparison to plastocyanin and relevance to electron transfer
    S DeBeer George
    Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 123:5757-67. 2001
    ..ground-state wave function of the mixed-valence (MV) binuclear Cu(A) center engineered into Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin has been developed, using a combination of S K-edge and Cu L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopies (XAS)...
  98. ncbi Crystal structures of the Met148Leu and Ser86Asp mutants of rusticyanin from Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: insights into the structural relationship with the cupredoxins and the multi copper proteins
    Lalji D Kanbi
    Faculty of Applied Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, UK
    J Mol Biol 320:263-75. 2002
    ..We confirm that rusticyanin is in the same class as nitrite reductase domain 2, laccase domain 3 and ceruloplasmin domains 2, 4 and 6...
  99. ncbi The selenocysteine-substituted blue copper center: spectroscopic investigations of Cys112SeCys Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin
    Martina Ralle
    Department of Environmental and Biomolecular Systems, OGI School of Science and Engineering, Oregon Health and Science University, 20000 NW Walker Road, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 126:7244-56. 2004
    b>Azurin is a small electron-transfer protein belonging to the cupredoxin family...
  100. ncbi Electron tunneling in rhenium-modified Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurins
    Jeremiah E Miller
    Beckman Institute, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1655:59-63. 2004
    ..Cu(I) to "Re(II)" electron tunneling in Re(H107) azurin occurs in the microsecond range...
  101. ncbi Copper-containing nitrite reductase from Pseudomonas chlororaphis DSM 50135
    Dora Pinho
    REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Portugal
    Eur J Biochem 271:2361-9. 2004
    ..Electrochemical experiments show that azurin from the same organism can donate electrons to this enzyme.

Research Grants16

  1. Engineering de novo oxidoreductases
    Anne Jones; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The knowledge gained in this study will become the building blocks for designing novel, de novo oxidoreductases. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  2. Electron Transfer in Iron and Copper Proteins
    Jay R Winkler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Several azurin mutants in which tryptophan residues lie between the Cu active site and a surface-attached photosensitizer will be ..
  3. Tyrosinase Model Complexes using Imidazole Ligands
    JOHN BRANNON GARY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..involved in redox catalysis performing a wide array biological functions such as electron carrier proteins (azurin, plastocyanin), oxygenase activity (tyrosinase, methane monooxygenase, galactose oxidase, cyctochrome c oxidase), ..
  4. Synthesis and Screening of Peptide and Protein Based Rhenium Carbonyl Compounds a
    Christopher J Ziegler; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..zinc sites with ReI(CO)3 (insulin and carbonic anhydrase) and the engineering of a ReI(CO)3 binding site (azurin). This work will be carried out primarily in the laboratories of Prof. Christopher J...
  5. Study of copper oxidoreductases through metalloprotein engineering
    Steven M Berry; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..model the di-copper centers of PHM, dopamine ?-monooxygenase (DBM), and nitrite reductase (NiR) using the protein azurin as the ligand or scaffold...
  6. Tyrosine Assisted Electron Transfer in Modified Azurins
    JEFFREY JOHN WARREN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..apos;This research will examine the factors that influence hopping through Y in artificial blue-copper azurin model systems...
  7. Single-Molecule Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy of Surface-Tethered Proteins
    SHELLEY ANN CLARIDGE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..aeruginosa azurin, as a model for the class of metalloproteins, 2) serotonin 5-HT1 receptor proteins specifically bound to their ..
  8. THEORETICAL STUDY OF BIOLOGICAL ELECTRON TRANSFER
    ALEXEI STUCHEBRUKHOV; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Systems that will be studied include modified cytochromes, such as Ru(bpy)2im(his X)-cyt-c, azurin, myoglobin, and some other metalloproteins in which a Ru complex is bound to genetically engineered histidines on ..
  9. MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF AGENT ORANGE
    Ananda Chakrabarty; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The progress achieved and the ways we intend to meet our goals are detailed in this proposal ..
  10. ISEB-2004-Chicago International Conference
    Ananda Chakrabarty; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..This sort of broad-based conference is extremely rare and ISEB-2004-Chicago is possibly the first of its kind to bring to focus such diverse issues. ..
  11. Structure and Mechanism of Myo-Inositol Oxygenase
    JOSEPH M BOLLINGER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..By so doing, we hope to provide the necessary tools for rational design of MIOX inhibitors that could be useful in combating complications from diabetes mellitus. ..
  12. Photogeneration of Protein Radicals for Enzyme Catalysis
    STEPHEN CONTAKES; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The method will be extended to perform photocatalysis of amine oxidation under anaerobic conditions. ..
  13. COFACTOR ROLE IN BETA-SHEET PROTEIN FOLDING
    Pernilla Wittung Stafshede; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The targeted proteins are azurin, a b-barrel protein with a copper-ion cofactor, flavodoxin, a protein with an a/b doubly-wound topology ..
  14. Monotonously Ordered Peptide Elements
    Fred Stevens; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..In general, the proposed studies are designed to begin to evaluate the prospects of future studies to determine the physiological roles of particular MOPE-class proteins. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..