glutathione

Summary

Summary: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Glutathione in defense and signaling: lessons from a small thiol
    Dale A Dickinson
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, and Center for Free Radical Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 973:488-504. 2002
  2. doi Apoptosis and glutathione: beyond an antioxidant
    R Franco
    Laboratory of Signal Transduction, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
    Cell Death Differ 16:1303-14. 2009
  3. ncbi Redox environment of the cell as viewed through the redox state of the glutathione disulfide/glutathione couple
    F Q Schafer
    Free Radical Research Institute and ESR Facility, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 1101, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 30:1191-212. 2001
  4. ncbi Glutathione
    A Meister
    Annu Rev Biochem 52:711-60. 1983
  5. pmc Glutathione dysregulation and the etiology and progression of human diseases
    Nazzareno Ballatori
    Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Biol Chem 390:191-214. 2009
  6. ncbi Selective killing of oncogenically transformed cells through a ROS-mediated mechanism by beta-phenylethyl isothiocyanate
    Dunyaporn Trachootham
    Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Cancer Cell 10:241-52. 2006
  7. pmc The role of glutathione in disulphide bond formation and endoplasmic-reticulum-generated oxidative stress
    Seema Chakravarthi
    The Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, The Michael Smith Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
    EMBO Rep 7:271-5. 2006
  8. ncbi Metabolism and functions of glutathione in brain
    R Dringen
    Physiologisch chemisches Institut der Universität, Hoppe Seyler Str 4, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Prog Neurobiol 62:649-71. 2000
  9. doi Hydrogen sulfide increases glutathione production and suppresses oxidative stress in mitochondria
    Yuka Kimura
    Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Neuroscience, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan
    Antioxid Redox Signal 12:1-13. 2010
  10. ncbi Differential metabolomics reveals ophthalmic acid as an oxidative stress biomarker indicating hepatic glutathione consumption
    Tomoyoshi Soga
    Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Tsuruoka, Yamagata 997 0017, Japan
    J Biol Chem 281:16768-76. 2006

Detail Information

Publications271 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Glutathione in defense and signaling: lessons from a small thiol
    Dale A Dickinson
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, and Center for Free Radical Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 973:488-504. 2002
    ..Here, we will focus on glutathione (GSH), the major endogenous low- molecular-weight nonprotein thiol synthesized de novo in mammalian cells...
  2. doi Apoptosis and glutathione: beyond an antioxidant
    R Franco
    Laboratory of Signal Transduction, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
    Cell Death Differ 16:1303-14. 2009
    ..In particular, glutathione (GSH) depletion is a common feature of apoptotic cell death triggered by a wide variety of stimuli including ..
  3. ncbi Redox environment of the cell as viewed through the redox state of the glutathione disulfide/glutathione couple
    F Q Schafer
    Free Radical Research Institute and ESR Facility, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 1101, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 30:1191-212. 2001
    ..We discuss how the redox state of the glutathione disulfide-glutathione couple (GSSG/2GSH) can serve as an important indicator of redox environment...
  4. ncbi Glutathione
    A Meister
    Annu Rev Biochem 52:711-60. 1983
  5. pmc Glutathione dysregulation and the etiology and progression of human diseases
    Nazzareno Ballatori
    Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Biol Chem 390:191-214. 2009
    b>Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in a multitude of cellular processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, and as a result, disturbances in GSH homeostasis are implicated in the etiology and/or ..
  6. ncbi Selective killing of oncogenically transformed cells through a ROS-mediated mechanism by beta-phenylethyl isothiocyanate
    Dunyaporn Trachootham
    Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Cancer Cell 10:241-52. 2006
    ..ROS generation and renders the malignant cells highly sensitive to PEITC, which effectively disables the glutathione antioxidant system and causes severe ROS accumulation preferentially in the transformed cells due to their ..
  7. pmc The role of glutathione in disulphide bond formation and endoplasmic-reticulum-generated oxidative stress
    Seema Chakravarthi
    The Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, The Michael Smith Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
    EMBO Rep 7:271-5. 2006
    b>Glutathione is a ubiquitous molecule found in all parts of the cell where it fulfils a range of functions from detoxification to protection from oxidative damage...
  8. ncbi Metabolism and functions of glutathione in brain
    R Dringen
    Physiologisch chemisches Institut der Universität, Hoppe Seyler Str 4, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Prog Neurobiol 62:649-71. 2000
    The tripeptide glutathione is the thiol compound present in the highest concentration in cells of all organs. Glutathione has many physiological functions including its involvement in the defense against reactive oxygen species...
  9. doi Hydrogen sulfide increases glutathione production and suppresses oxidative stress in mitochondria
    Yuka Kimura
    Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Neuroscience, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan
    Antioxid Redox Signal 12:1-13. 2010
    ..We recently showed that H(2)S protects neurons from oxidative stress by increasing the levels of glutathione (GSH), a major cellular antioxidant, by more than twice that of a control through enhancing the cystine ..
  10. ncbi Differential metabolomics reveals ophthalmic acid as an oxidative stress biomarker indicating hepatic glutathione consumption
    Tomoyoshi Soga
    Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Tsuruoka, Yamagata 997 0017, Japan
    J Biol Chem 281:16768-76. 2006
    ..ophthalmate was synthesized from 2-aminobutyrate through consecutive reactions with gamma-glutamylcysteine and glutathione synthetase...
  11. pmc Regulation of glutathione synthesis
    Shelly C Lu
    Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, USC Research Center for Liver Diseases, USC UCLA Research Center for Alcoholic Liver and Pancreatic Diseases, Keck School of Medicine USC, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Mol Aspects Med 30:42-59. 2009
    b>Glutathione (GSH) is a ubiquitous intracellular peptide with diverse functions that include detoxification, antioxidant defense, maintenance of thiol status, and modulation of cell proliferation...
  12. ncbi Glutathione in plants: an integrated overview
    Graham Noctor
    Institut de Biologie des Plantes, UMR CNRS 8618, Université de Paris Sud 11, Orsay Cedex, France
    Plant Cell Environ 35:454-84. 2012
    Plants cannot survive without glutathione (γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine) or γ-glutamylcysteine-containing homologues...
  13. ncbi Regulation of PTP1B via glutathionylation of the active site cysteine 215
    W C Barrett
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Section of Metabolic Regulation, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Biochemistry 38:6699-705. 1999
    ..48): the glutathionylation of Cys215 to a mixed protein disulfide. Treatment of PTP1B with diamide and reduced glutathione or with only glutathione disulfide (GSSG) results in a modification detected by mass spectrometry in which the ..
  14. ncbi High sensitivity of Nrf2 knockout mice to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity associated with decreased expression of ARE-regulated drug metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant genes
    A Enomoto
    Toxicology Division II, Laboratory of Pathology, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 4321 Uchimoriya, Mitsukaido, Ibaraki 303 0043, Japan
    Toxicol Sci 59:169-77. 2001
    ..are UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT), an ARE-regulated phase-II drug-metabolizing enzyme, and glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant molecule whose synthesis depends on ARE-regulated gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (..
  15. pmc Efficacy of methylcobalamin and folinic acid treatment on glutathione redox status in children with autism
    S Jill James
    Department of Pediatrics and Biostatistics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 89:425-30. 2009
    ..Metabolic abnormalities and targeted treatment trials have been reported for several neurobehavioral disorders but are relatively understudied in autism...
  16. ncbi Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism
    S Jill James
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, and the Arkansas Children s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:1611-7. 2004
    ..Although abnormal metabolism of methionine and homocysteine has been associated with other neurologic diseases, these pathways have not been evaluated in persons with autism...
  17. doi Roles for glutathione transferases in plant secondary metabolism
    David P Dixon
    Centre for Bioactive Chemistry, School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
    Phytochemistry 71:338-50. 2010
    Plant glutathione transferases (GSTs) are classified as enzymes of secondary metabolism, but while their roles in catalysing the conjugation and detoxification of herbicides are well known, their endogenous functions are largely obscure...
  18. pmc Prolonged exposure to particulate pollution, genes associated with glutathione pathways, and DNA methylation in a cohort of older men
    Jaime Madrigano
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 119:977-82. 2011
    ..Exposure to particulate air pollution has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and lower blood DNA methylation has been found in processes related to cardiovascular morbidity...
  19. ncbi Cellular glutathione and thiols metabolism
    Dale A Dickinson
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Center for Free Radical Biology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue S, RPHB 317, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 64:1019-26. 2002
    ..Thioredoxin and glutathione (GSH) are two of the major small molecular weight thiol-containing compounds synthesized de novo in mammalian ..
  20. ncbi Glutathione, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration
    J B Schulz
    Neurodegeneration Laboratory, Department of Neurology, University of Tubingen, Germany
    Eur J Biochem 267:4904-11. 2000
    ..Here, we review the evidence for a disturbance of glutathione homeostasis that may either lead to or result from oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders...
  21. ncbi Glutathione and its role in cellular functions
    H Sies
    Institut fur Physiologische Chemie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Germany
    Free Radic Biol Med 27:916-21. 1999
    b>Glutathione (GSH) is the major cellular thiol participating in cellular redox reactions and thioether formation...
  22. ncbi Coordinate regulation of glutathione biosynthesis and release by Nrf2-expressing glia potently protects neurons from oxidative stress
    Andy Y Shih
    Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z3, Canada
    J Neurosci 23:3394-406. 2003
    ..number added) could protect fully cocultured naive neurons from oxidative glutamate toxicity associated with glutathione (GSH) depletion...
  23. pmc Molecular mechanisms and clinical implications of reversible protein S-glutathionylation
    John J Mieyal
    Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 4965, USA
    Antioxid Redox Signal 10:1941-88. 2008
    ..prevalent form of cysteine modification is reversible formation of protein mixed disulfides (protein-SSG) with glutathione (GSH)...
  24. pmc Nrf2 activation in astrocytes protects against neurodegeneration in mouse models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Marcelo R Vargas
    Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 2222, USA
    J Neurosci 28:13574-81. 2008
    ..Motor neuron protection depended on increased glutathione secretion from astrocytes...
  25. ncbi Unique cellular interaction of silver nanoparticles: size-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species
    C Carlson
    Applied Biotechnology Branch, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio 45433, USA
    J Phys Chem B 112:13608-19. 2008
    ..In summary, a size-dependent toxicity was produced by silver nanoparticles, and one predominant mechanism of toxicity was found to be largely mediated through oxidative stress...
  26. doi In vivo mapping of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized glutathione reveals chemical and regional specificity of redox homeostasis
    Simone C Albrecht
    Division of Redox Regulation, DKFZ ZMBH Alliance, German Cancer Research Center DKFZ, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell Metab 14:819-29. 2011
    The glutathione redox couple (GSH/GSSG) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) are central to redox homeostasis and redox signaling, yet their distribution within an organism is difficult to measure...
  27. ncbi Protective effects of vitamin c against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in adult rats: a dose-dependent study
    L M Antunes
    Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Cafe s/n, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, 14040-903, Brasil
    Pharmacol Res 41:405-11. 2000
    ..Cisplatin administration induced lipid peroxidation which was accompanied by a decrease in renal glutathione level in animals killed 7 days after treatments. Furthermore, an increase in serum creatinine has been observed...
  28. doi Sulfur assimilation in photosynthetic organisms: molecular functions and regulations of transporters and assimilatory enzymes
    Hideki Takahashi
    RIKEN Plant Science Center, Yokohama 230 0045, Japan
    Annu Rev Plant Biol 62:157-84. 2011
    ....
  29. doi Production, detection, and adaptive responses to free radicals in exercise
    Sean Sachdev
    Ethel Percy Andrus Gerontology Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 0191, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 44:215-23. 2008
    ..Such free radical damage requires effective protein, lipid, and DNA repair systems, and sufficient recuperation, before exercise adaptation can recommence...
  30. pmc Identification of human prostaglandin E synthase: a microsomal, glutathione-dependent, inducible enzyme, constituting a potential novel drug target
    P J Jakobsson
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:7220-5. 1999
    ..a recently recognized protein superfamily consisting of membrane associated proteins involved in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism (the MAPEG family). Previous designations of the protein are PIG12 and MGST1-L1...
  31. pmc AtOPT6 transports glutathione derivatives and is induced by primisulfuron
    Olivier Cagnac
    Unite Mixte de Recherches, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 6161, Transport des Assimilats, Laboratoire de Physiologie, Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire Végétales, Bâtiment Botanique, Poitiers Cedex, France
    Plant Physiol 135:1378-87. 2004
    ..rice (Oryza sativa; OsGT1) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea; BjGT1) have been described as transporters of glutathione derivatives...
  32. ncbi Mechanism of metalloid-induced death in Leishmania spp.: role of iron, reactive oxygen species, Ca2+, and glutathione
    Ashish Mehta
    National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India
    Free Radic Biol Med 40:1857-68. 2006
    ..Cellular glutathione level was reduced after antimony treatment but arsenic did not affect glutathione...
  33. ncbi Glutathione pathways in the brain
    Ralf Dringen
    Physiologisch chemisches Institut der Universität Tübingen, Hoppe Seyler Str 4, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Biol Chem 384:505-16. 2003
    The antioxidant glutathione (GSH) is essential for the cellular detoxification of reactive oxygen species in brain cells...
  34. pmc Glutathione revisited: a vital function in iron metabolism and ancillary role in thiol-redox control
    Chitranshu Kumar
    LSOC, DSV, iBiTecS, CEA Saclay, France
    EMBO J 30:2044-56. 2011
    b>Glutathione contributes to thiol-redox control and to extra-mitochondrial iron-sulphur cluster (ISC) maturation...
  35. ncbi Transcriptome analysis of the barley-deoxynivalenol interaction: evidence for a role of glutathione in deoxynivalenol detoxification
    Stephanie A Gardiner
    Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 23:962-76. 2010
    ..upregulation of gene transcripts encoding ABC transporters, UDP-glucosyltransferases, cytochrome P450s, and glutathione-S-transferases...
  36. doi Brain region-specific glutathione redox imbalance in autism
    Abha Chauhan
    NYS Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, 1050 Forest Hill Road, Staten Island, NY 10314, USA
    Neurochem Res 37:1681-9. 2012
    ..However, the antioxidant status of the brain is not known in autism. Glutathione is a major endogenous antioxidant that plays a crucial role in protecting cells from exogenous and endogenous ..
  37. pmc Evidence of oxidative damage and inflammation associated with low glutathione redox status in the autism brain
    S Rose
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
    Transl Psychiatry 2:e134. 2012
    ..Biomarkers of oxidative stress, including reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and glutathione redox/antioxidant capacity (GSH/GSSG), were measured...
  38. ncbi In vitro toxicity of silica nanoparticles in human lung cancer cells
    Weisheng Lin
    Department of Chemistry and Environmental Research Center, University of Missouri Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 217:252-9. 2006
    ..Indicators of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity, including total reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione, malondialdehyde, and lactate dehydrogenase, were quantitatively assessed...
  39. ncbi Redox dysregulation, neurodevelopment, and schizophrenia
    Kim Q Do
    Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital, Site de Cery, CH 1008 Prilly Lausanne, Switzerland
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 19:220-30. 2009
    ..a developmental redox dysregulation constitutes one 'hub' on which converge genetic impairments of glutathione synthesis and environmental vulnerability factors generating oxidative stress...
  40. doi Protein S-glutathionylation: a regulatory device from bacteria to humans
    Isabella Dalle-Donne
    Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, I 20133, Milan, Italy
    Trends Biochem Sci 34:85-96. 2009
    ..is the specific post-translational modification of protein cysteine residues by the addition of the tripeptide glutathione, the most abundant and important low-molecular-mass thiol within most cell types...
  41. doi A nuclear glutathione cycle within the cell cycle
    Pedro Diaz Vivancos
    CEBAS CSIC, Department of Plant Breeding, Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, Spain
    Biochem J 431:169-78. 2010
    ....
  42. doi Recruitment of glutathione into the nucleus during cell proliferation adjusts whole-cell redox homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana and lowers the oxidative defence shield
    Pedro Diaz Vivancos
    Centre for Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
    Plant J 64:825-38. 2010
    ..In animals, the low-molecular-weight thiol tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is recruited into the nucleus early in the cell proliferation cycle...
  43. doi Silver nanoparticles induce oxidative cell damage in human liver cells through inhibition of reduced glutathione and induction of mitochondria-involved apoptosis
    Mei Jing Piao
    School of Medicine and Applied Radiological Science Research Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju 690 756, Republic of Korea
    Toxicol Lett 201:92-100. 2011
    ..AgNPs induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and suppression of reduced glutathione (GSH) in human Chang liver cells...
  44. ncbi Different effects of baicalein, baicalin and wogonin on mitochondrial function, glutathione content and cell cycle progression in human hepatoma cell lines
    Wen Huei Chang
    Graduate Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, R O C
    Planta Med 68:128-32. 2002
    ..the cell viabilities accompanying the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and the depletion of glutathione content. However, the influence of baicalein, baicalin or wogonin on cell cycle progression was different...
  45. ncbi Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health
    Guoyao Wu
    Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA
    J Nutr 134:489-92. 2004
    b>Glutathione (gamma-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) is the most abundant low-molecular-weight thiol, and GSH/glutathione disulfide is the major redox couple in animal cells...
  46. ncbi Imaging dynamic redox changes in mammalian cells with green fluorescent protein indicators
    Colette T Dooley
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0647, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:22284-93. 2004
    ..Alterations in the redox equilibrium are precipitated by changing either the glutathione/glutathione-disulfide ratio (GSH/GSSG) and/or the reduced/oxidized thioredoxin ratio...
  47. ncbi The sugar-metabolic enzymes aldolase and triose-phosphate isomerase are targets of glutathionylation in Arabidopsis thaliana: detection using biotinylated glutathione
    Hisashi Ito
    Research Institute for Biological Sciences, Okayama RIBS Okayama, 7549 1 Yoshikawa, Kayou cho, Okayama, 716 1241 Japan
    Plant Cell Physiol 44:655-60. 2003
    ..Recombinant TPI was inactivated by GSSG, and it was reactivated by GSH. The physiological roles of glutathionylation of TPI and aldolase in sugar metabolism are discussed...
  48. ncbi Regulation of protein function by S-glutathiolation in response to oxidative and nitrosative stress
    P Klatt
    Department of Estructura y Función de Proteínas, Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Instituto Reina Sofía de Investigaciones Nefrológicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
    Eur J Biochem 267:4928-44. 2000
    Protein S-glutathiolation, the reversible covalent addition of glutathione to cysteine residues on target proteins, is emerging as a candidate mechanism by which both changes in the intracellular redox state and the generation of ..
  49. ncbi Glutathione redox state regulates mitochondrial reactive oxygen production
    Dongxiao Shen
    Department of Environmental Health and Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P O Box 670056, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267 0056, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:25305-12. 2005
    ..These results suggest that TCDD produces an AHR-dependent oxidative stress in mitochondria, with concomitant mitochondrial DNA damage mediated, at least in part, by an increase in the mitochondrial thiol reduction state...
  50. pmc Chronic alcoholism alters systemic and pulmonary glutathione redox status
    Mary Y Yeh
    Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 176:270-6. 2007
    ..In clinical studies, this association has been centered on depletion of pulmonary glutathione and subsequent chronic oxidant stress.
  51. ncbi Integrating glutathione metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction with implications for Parkinson's disease: a dynamic model
    S Vali
    Cell Works Group Inc, AECS Layout, Marathahalli, Bangalore 560037, India
    Neuroscience 149:917-30. 2007
    ..During early stages of PD, there is a significant depletion of the thiol antioxidant glutathione (GSH), which may lead to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ultimately neuronal cell death...
  52. ncbi Increased glutathione biosynthesis by Nrf2 activation in astrocytes prevents p75NTR-dependent motor neuron apoptosis
    Marcelo R Vargas
    Departamento de Neurobiologia Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Investigaciones Biologicas Clemente Estable, Montevideo, Uruguay
    J Neurochem 97:687-96. 2006
    ..Because Nrf2 increases glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis, we investigated the role of GSH production by astrocytes on p75NTR-dependent motor neuron ..
  53. doi Glutathione--a review on its role and significance in Parkinson's disease
    Heather L Martin
    School of Medical Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, Scotland, UK
    FASEB J 23:3263-72. 2009
    ..One of the earliest biochemical changes seen in PD is a reduction in the levels of total glutathione, a key cellular antioxidant...
  54. doi Biomarkers of environmental toxicity and susceptibility in autism
    David A Geier
    Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA
    J Neurol Sci 280:101-8. 2009
    ..Significantly decreased plasma levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), cysteine, and sulfate were observed among study participants relative to controls...
  55. ncbi Resveratrol induces glutathione synthesis by activation of Nrf2 and protects against cigarette smoke-mediated oxidative stress in human lung epithelial cells
    Aruna Kode
    Department of Environmental Medicine, Lung Biology and Disease Program, University of Rochester Medical Center, Box 850, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 294:L478-88. 2008
    ..Cigarette smoke (CS) is known to cause oxidative stress and deplete glutathione (GSH) levels in alveolar epithelial cells...
  56. ncbi Genetically altered mice to evaluate glutathione homeostasis in health and disease
    Timothy P Dalton
    Department of Environmental Health and Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, 123 East Shields Street, P O Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0056, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 37:1511-26. 2004
    The tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is part of an integrated antioxidant system that protects cells and tissues from oxidative damage. Oxidative stress can result from exposure to excessive amounts of endogenous and exogenous electrophiles...
  57. ncbi The protective role of endogenous glutathione in carrageenan-induced pleurisy in the rat
    S Cuzzocrea
    Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Messina, Italy
    Eur J Pharmacol 372:187-97. 1999
    In the present study we investigated the protective role of endogenous glutathione, a known free radical scavenger, in rats subjected to carrageenan-induced pleurisy...
  58. pmc Brusatol enhances the efficacy of chemotherapy by inhibiting the Nrf2-mediated defense mechanism
    Dongmei Ren
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:1433-8. 2011
    ..Taken together, these results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of using brusatol to combat chemoresistance and suggest that brusatol can be developed into an adjuvant chemotherapeutic drug...
  59. pmc Cellular and mitochondrial glutathione redox imbalance in lymphoblastoid cells derived from children with autism
    S Jill James
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children s Hospital Research Institute, 1120 Marshall St, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
    FASEB J 23:2374-83. 2009
    ..derived from autistic children and unaffected controls were used to assess relative concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulfide glutathione (GSSG) in cell extracts and isolated mitochondria as a measure of ..
  60. pmc Decline in transcriptional activity of Nrf2 causes age-related loss of glutathione synthesis, which is reversible with lipoic acid
    Jung H Suh
    Linus Pauling Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3381-6. 2004
    b>Glutathione (GSH) significantly declines in the aging rat liver...
  61. pmc Quantifying the global cellular thiol-disulfide status
    Rosa E Hansen
    Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 13, DK 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:422-7. 2009
    ..that the redox status of protein thiols is of central importance to protein structure and folding and that glutathione is an important low-molecular-mass redox regulator...
  62. pmc Subcellular immunocytochemical analysis detects the highest concentrations of glutathione in mitochondria and not in plastids
    B Zechmann
    University of Graz, Institute of Plant Sciences, Schubertstrasse 51, 8010 Graz, Austria
    J Exp Bot 59:4017-27. 2008
    The tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant and redox buffer with multiple roles in plant metabolism...
  63. pmc Decreased glutathione accelerates neurological deficit and mitochondrial pathology in familial ALS-linked hSOD1(G93A) mice model
    Marcelo R Vargas
    Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA
    Neurobiol Dis 43:543-51. 2011
    ..mice for the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM-/-), which have a 70-80% reduction in total glutathione. Although GCLM(-/-) mice are viable and fertile, the life span of GCLM(-/-)/hSOD1(G93A) mice decreased in 55% ..
  64. pmc Drought and salt stress tolerance of an Arabidopsis glutathione S-transferase U17 knockout mutant are attributed to the combined effect of glutathione and abscisic acid
    Jui Hung Chen
    Institute of Plant Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
    Plant Physiol 158:340-51. 2012
    Although glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are thought to play major roles in oxidative stress metabolism, little is known about the regulatory functions of GSTs...
  65. doi Impairment of methyl cycle affects mitochondrial methyl availability and glutathione level in Down's syndrome
    Vittoria Infantino
    Department of Chemistry, University of Basilicata, 85100 Potenza, Italy
    Mol Genet Metab 102:378-82. 2011
    ..The possible role of methylation in mitochondria is discussed and some preliminary results on a possible methylation target are presented...
  66. pmc Laboratory evolution of glutathione biosynthesis reveals natural compensatory pathways
    Karthik Veeravalli
    Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA
    Nat Chem Biol 7:101-5. 2011
    The first and highly conserved step in glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis is formation of γ-glutamyl cysteine by the enzyme glutamate-cysteine ligase (GshA)...
  67. ncbi The glutathione system and its regulation by neurohormone melatonin in the central nervous system
    Jorge H Limón-Pacheco
    Departamento de Neurobiologia Conductual y Cognitiva, Instituto de Neurobiologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Queretaro, Mexico
    Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem 10:287-97. 2010
    The glutathione system includes reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) forms of glutathione; the enzymes required for its synthesis and recycling, such as gamma-glutamate cysteine ligase (γ-GCL), glutathione synthetase (GS), glutathione ..
  68. doi Reduced but not oxidized cerebrospinal fluid glutathione levels are lowered in Lewy body diseases
    Walter Maetzler
    Department of Neurodegeneration, Center of Neurology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany
    Mov Disord 26:176-81. 2011
    Reduced (GSH(R)) but not oxidized glutathione (GSSG) has been shown to be dramatically altered in the substantia nigra (SN) of Lewy body disease (LBD) patients post mortem; but up to now, there is no convincing evidence that these ..
  69. pmc Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 facilitates neuronal glutathione synthesis by upregulating neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter 3 expression
    Carole Escartin
    Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, and Neurology Service, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Neurosci 31:7392-401. 2011
    Astrocytes support neuronal antioxidant capacity by releasing glutathione, which is cleaved to cysteine in brain extracellular space...
  70. pmc Metabolic imbalance associated with methylation dysregulation and oxidative damage in children with autism
    Stepan Melnyk
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
    J Autism Dev Disord 42:367-77. 2012
    ..Further, these results suggest a plausible mechanism by which pro-oxidant environmental stressors may modulate genetic predisposition to autism...
  71. ncbi Glutathione-related factors and oxidative stress in autism, a review
    A Ghanizadeh
    Research Center for Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shiraz, Iran
    Curr Med Chem 19:4000-5. 2012
    ..In this study, we aimed to review the role of oxidative stress, plasma glutathione (GSH), and related factors as the potential sources of damage to the brain as well as the possible related ..
  72. ncbi Glutathione in cancer biology and therapy
    Jose M Estrela
    Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 43:143-81. 2006
    The glutathione (GSH) content of cancer cells is particularly relevant in regulating mutagenic mechanisms, DNA synthesis, growth, and multidrug and radiation resistance...
  73. doi Schisandrin B elicits a glutathione antioxidant response and protects against apoptosis via the redox-sensitive ERK/Nrf2 pathway in H9c2 cells
    Po Yee Chiu
    Division of Life Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China
    Mol Cell Biochem 350:237-50. 2011
    ..authors examined the effects of (-)Sch B on MAPK and Nrf2 activation, as well as the subsequent eliciting of glutathione response and protection against apoptosis...
  74. ncbi Molecular characterization of dopamine-derived quinones reactivity toward NADH and glutathione: implications for mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson disease
    Marco Bisaglia
    Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1802:699-706. 2010
    ..Our results indicate a very diverse reactivity for the different DAQ studied that may contribute to unravel the complex molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress and mitochondria dysfunction in the context of PD...
  75. pmc Bilirubin and glutathione have complementary antioxidant and cytoprotective roles
    Thomas W Sedlak
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:5171-6. 2009
    b>Glutathione (GSH) and bilirubin are prominent endogenous antioxidant cytoprotectants...
  76. ncbi Age-related nuclear cataract-oxidation is the key
    Roger J W Truscott
    Australian Cataract Research Foundation, University of Wollongong, Northfields Ave, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
    Exp Eye Res 80:709-25. 2005
    ..The key factor in preventing oxidation seems to be the concentration of nuclear glutathione (GSH)...
  77. ncbi Role of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase in neuronal cell death induced by glutathione depletion in neuron/glia mesencephalic cultures
    S de Bernardo
    Departamento de Investigacion, Servicio de Neurobiologia, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid 28034, Spain
    J Neurochem 91:667-82. 2004
    To date, glutathione (GSH) depletion is the earliest biochemical alteration shown in brains of Parkinson's disease patients, but the role of GSH in dopamine cell survival is debated...
  78. ncbi Glutathione deficit during development induces anomalies in the rat anterior cingulate GABAergic neurons: Relevance to schizophrenia
    Jan Harry Cabungcal
    Center for Research in Psychiatric Neuroscience, Department of Adult Psychiatry CHUV, University of Lausanne, 1008 Prilly, Switzerland
    Neurobiol Dis 22:624-37. 2006
    A series of studies in schizophrenic patients report a decrease of glutathione (GSH) in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and cerebrospinal fluid, a decrease in mRNA levels for two GSH synthesizing enzymes and a deficit in parvalbumin (PV) ..
  79. ncbi Redox imbalance in cystine/glutamate transporter-deficient mice
    Hideyo Sato
    Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    J Biol Chem 280:37423-9. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate that system x(-)(c) contributes to maintaining the plasma redox balance in vivo but is dispensable in mammalian development, although it is vitally important to cells in vitro...
  80. pmc Impaired glutathione synthesis in schizophrenia: convergent genetic and functional evidence
    Rene Gysin
    Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, 1008 Prilly Lausanne, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:16621-6. 2007
    ..Convergent evidence has implicated oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) deficits in the pathogenesis of this disease...
  81. pmc Interplay between the NADP-linked thioredoxin and glutathione systems in Arabidopsis auxin signaling
    Talaat Bashandy
    Laboratoire Génome et Développement des Plantes, Universite de Perpignan, Unite Mixte de Recherche, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement Université de Perpignan Via Domitia 5096, 66860 Perpignan, France
    Plant Cell 22:376-91. 2010
    ..Thioredoxin (TRX) and glutathione are key regulators of redox homeostasis, and the TRX and glutathione pathways are essential for postembryonic ..
  82. pmc Plant homologs of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter, PfCRT, are required for glutathione homeostasis and stress responses
    Spencer C Maughan
    Institute of Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QT, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:2331-6. 2010
    In Arabidopsis thaliana, biosynthesis of the essential thiol antioxidant, glutathione (GSH), is plastid-regulated, but many GSH functions, including heavy metal detoxification and plant defense activation, depend on cytosolic GSH...
  83. ncbi N-Acetylcysteine--a safe antidote for cysteine/glutathione deficiency
    Kondala R Atkuri
    Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, Stanford University, B007 Beckman Center, 279 Campus Drive, Stanford University, CA 94305 5318, United States
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 7:355-9. 2007
    b>Glutathione (GSH) deficiency is associated with numerous pathological conditions. Administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a cysteine prodrug, replenishes intracellular GSH levels...
  84. ncbi Alterations in the distribution of glutathione in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease
    R K Pearce
    Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Centre, King s College, London, United Kingdom
    J Neural Transm 104:661-77. 1997
    Depletion of reduced glutathione occurs in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease and in incidental Lewy body disease (presymptomatic Parkinson's disease) which may implicate oxidative stress in the neurodegenerative process...
  85. ncbi Differential targeting of GSH1 and GSH2 is achieved by multiple transcription initiation: implications for the compartmentation of glutathione biosynthesis in the Brassicaceae
    Andreas Wachter
    Heidelberg Institute of Plant Sciences HIP, INF 360, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Plant J 41:15-30. 2005
    The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana reveals that in this species the enzymes of glutathione biosynthesis, GSH1 and GSH2, are encoded by single genes...
  86. ncbi Schizophrenia: glutathione deficit in cerebrospinal fluid and prefrontal cortex in vivo
    K Q Do
    Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich and Centre for Research in Psychiatric Neuroscience, University of Lausanne, Route de Cery, CH 1008 Prilly Lausanne, Switzerland
    Eur J Neurosci 12:3721-8. 2000
    ..In cerebrospinal fluid of drug-free schizophrenic patients, a significant decrease in the level of total glutathione (GSH) by 27% (P<0...
  87. pmc Mitochondrial glutathione, a key survival antioxidant
    Montserrat Mari
    Liver Unit, Hospital Clinic, IDIBAPS CIBEK, CIBERehd, and Department of Cell Death and Proliferation, IIBB CSIC, Barcelona, Spain
    Antioxid Redox Signal 11:2685-700. 2009
    ..Among the arsenal of antioxidants and detoxifying enzymes existing in mitochondria, mitochondrial glutathione (mGSH) emerges as the main line of defense for the maintenance of the appropriate mitochondrial redox ..
  88. ncbi Protective effect of ginger against alcohol-induced renal damage and antioxidant enzymes in male albino rats
    K R Shanmugam
    Division of Molecular Biology and Exercise Physiology, Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502, India
    Indian J Exp Biol 48:143-9. 2010
    Superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, glutathione and uric acid levels were decreased and xanthine oxidase, glutathione-s-transferase activities were increased in alcohol treated (2 g/kg body weight, once daily for 30 days) group...
  89. pmc A gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-independent pathway of glutathione catabolism to glutamate via 5-oxoproline in Arabidopsis
    Naoko Ohkama-Ohtsu
    Department of Genetics, Development, and Cell Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
    Plant Physiol 148:1603-13. 2008
    The degradation pathway of glutathione (GSH) in plants is not well understood...
  90. ncbi Redox and antioxidant systems of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum
    Sylke Muller
    School of Life Sciences, Wellcome Trust Biocentre, University of Dundee, UK
    Mol Microbiol 53:1291-305. 2004
    ..defences are superoxide dismutases and thioredoxin-dependent peroxidases; however, they lack catalase and glutathione peroxidases...
  91. doi Liposomal-glutathione provides maintenance of intracellular glutathione and neuroprotection in mesencephalic neuronal cells
    Gail D Zeevalk
    Department of Neurology, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Neurochem Res 35:1575-87. 2010
    A liposomal preparation of glutathione (GSH) was investigated for its ability to replenish intracellular GSH and provide neuroprotection in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease using paraquat plus maneb (PQMB) in rat mesencephalic ..
  92. pmc Subcellular compartmentation of glutathione in dicotyledonous plants
    Bernd Zechmann
    Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Graz, Schubertstrasse 51, 8010, Graz, Austria
    Protoplasma 246:15-24. 2010
    This study describes the subcellular distribution of glutathione in roots and leaves of different plant species (Arabidopsis, Cucurbita, and Nicotiana)...
  93. pmc Astrocyte-specific overexpression of Nrf2 protects striatal neurons from mitochondrial complex II inhibition
    Marcus J Calkins
    Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA
    Toxicol Sci 115:557-68. 2010
    ..Overall, these data establish that enhanced astrocytic Nrf2 response and Nrf2 preconditioning are both sufficient to protect from acute lesions from mitochondrial complex II inhibition...
  94. ncbi Schisandrin B-induced glutathione antioxidant response and cardioprotection are mediated by reactive oxidant species production in rat hearts
    Na Chen
    Department of Biochemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong SAR, China
    Biol Pharm Bull 33:825-9. 2010
    ..presumably arising from cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-catalyzed metabolism of schisandrin B (Sch B), in triggering glutathione antioxidant response, Sch B induced reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent and ..
  95. pmc Controlled enzymatic production of astrocytic hydrogen peroxide protects neurons from oxidative stress via an Nrf2-independent pathway
    RENEE E HASKEW-LAYTON
    Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, The Burke Medical Research Institute, White Plains, NY 10605, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:17385-90. 2010
    ..These findings demonstrate the utility of rgDAAO for spatially and temporally controlling intracellular H(2)O(2) concentrations to uncover unique astrocyte-dependent neuroprotective mechanisms...
  96. pmc The in vivo susceptibility of Leishmania donovani to sodium stibogluconate is drug specific and can be reversed by inhibiting glutathione biosynthesis
    K C Carter
    Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:1529-35. 2003
    ..In addition, the role of glutathione in SSG resistance was investigated by determining the influence on SSG treatment of concomitant treatment with ..
  97. doi Prodrug approach for increasing cellular glutathione levels
    Ivana Cacciatore
    Department of Drug Sciences, School of Pharmacy, G D Annunzio University, Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti, Italy
    Molecules 15:1242-64. 2010
    Reduced glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant non-protein thiol in mammalian cells and the preferred substrate for several enzymes in xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant defense...
  98. ncbi Eugenol protects nicotine-induced superoxide mediated oxidative damage in murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro
    Santanu Kar Mahapatra
    Immunology and Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Human Physiology with Community Health, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721 102, West Bengal, India
    Eur J Pharmacol 623:132-40. 2009
    ..by decreased level of superoxide anion generation and malondialdehyde, and also increased level of reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase activity. Moreover, maximum protection was observed at the concentration of 15...
  99. ncbi DJ-1 up-regulates glutathione synthesis during oxidative stress and inhibits A53T alpha-synuclein toxicity
    Wenbo Zhou
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Medicine, University Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:43150-8. 2005
    ..We have found that DJ-1 improves survival by increasing cellular glutathione levels through an increase in the rate-limiting enzyme glutamate cysteine ligase...
  100. pmc N-methyl-aspartate receptor and neuronal nitric oxide synthase activation mediate bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity
    Maria A Brito
    Research Institute for Medicines and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculdade de Farmacia, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
    Mol Med 16:372-80. 2010
    ..of both NO· and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP), along with protein oxidation and depletion of glutathione. These events concurred for cell dysfunction and death and were counteracted by L-NAME...
  101. pmc Nrf2 signaling, a mechanism for cellular stress resistance in long-lived mice
    Scott F Leiser
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2200, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 30:871-84. 2010
    ..exhibit many of the traits associated with enhanced activity of Nrf2/ARE, including higher levels of glutathione and resistance to plasma membrane lipid peroxidation...

Research Grants170 found, 100 shown here

  1. Correction of glutathione deficiency for treatment of diabetic nephropathy
    Paolo Fanti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) imbalance are major contributors to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy...
  2. Pilot and definitive studies to evaluate Insertional Mutagenesis
    LU TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Liver histopathology, glutathione, clinical pathology, hepatic RNA isolation and subsequent microarray profiling, liver proteomics and serum ..
  3. Studies to Evaluate the Toxicological Potential of Test Articles
    LU TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Liver histopathology, glutathione, clinical pathology, hepatic RNA isolation and subsequent microarray profiling, liver proteomics and serum ..
  4. Pathogenesis and Treatment of Liver Disease in Transaldolase Deficiency
    Andras Perl; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..was characterized by the accumulation of S7P, failure to recycle R5P for the oxidative PPP, depleted NADPH and glutathione levels, and increased production of lipid hydroperoxides (LPO)...
  5. Cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) and angiogenesis
    Priyabrata Mukherjee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..effect either directly or indirectly by maintaining an intricate balance among cellular homocysteine (Hcy), glutathione (GSH) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels...
  6. Peroxynitrite, nitrotyrosine and HSP90 in neuronal death
    ALVARO G ESTEVEZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..SOD can act as a non-specific one-electron oxidase, robbing electrons from antioxidants like ascorbate and glutathione that can be transferred to oxygen to produce superoxide...
  7. Enterococcus faecalis, Colorectal Cancer, and Bystander Effects
    Mark M Huycke; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) as inhibitors or promoters, respectively, of glutathione and glutathione S-transferases will be tested...
  8. N-Acetylcysteine and Milk Thistle for Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy
    Paolo Fanti; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) imbalance are major contributors to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy...
  9. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Adipose Insulin Resistance
    David A Bernlohr; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..stress challenge are new findings that describe the tumor necrosis factor 1 (TNF1) dependent down regulation of glutathione S-transferase A4 setting the stage for a molecular cascade of events that activates the c-JUN NH2-terminal ..
  10. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Adipose Insulin Resistance
    David A Bernlohr; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..stress challenge are new findings that describe the tumor necrosis factor 1 (TNF1) dependent down regulation of glutathione S-transferase A4 setting the stage for a molecular cascade of events that activates the c-JUN NH2-terminal ..
  11. Preclinical Development of JS-K, a Novel NO-Generating Prodrug for Cancer
    Paul J Shami; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..JSK Therapeutics (JSKT) has designed a class of diazeniumdiolate prodrugs that release NO upon interaction with glutathione in a reaction catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferase, which is expressed at significantly higher concentrations ..
  12. Preclinical Development of JS-K, a Novel NO-Generating Prodrug for Cancer
    Paul J Shami; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..JSK Therapeutics (JSKT) has designed a class of diazeniumdiolate prodrugs that release NO upon interaction with glutathione in a reaction catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferase, which is expressed at significantly higher concentrations ..
  13. Targeted investigation of tissue specific oxidative stress in the etiology of ALS
    Holly Van Remmen; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..of lipid hydroperoxides, a conditional knockout mouse carrying floxed alleles for phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (Gpx4flfl mice)...
  14. Biomarkers of Metabolic and Vascular Risk in Obesity
    VASAN S RAMACHANDRAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..characterized by higher levels of adaptive mediators such as adiponectin and the antioxidant enzyme erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPX1)...
  15. Molecular Mechanisms of GSTP1 Reactivation by Green Tea Polyphenols
    Sanjay Gupta; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..One such alteration is silencing of the expression of glutathione S-transferase-pi (GSTP1), a critical enzyme of carcinogen defense, through methylation of deoxycytidine residue ..
  16. The Nrf2-ARE Pathway in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
    Jeffrey A Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..vitro and in vivo models, this system has been shown to be effective at blocking neurotoxicity resulting from glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation, intracellular calcium overload, excitotoxins, and disruption of the ..
  17. A Bifunctional Katp Channel Activator and Redox Mimetic for BPD
    Kanneganti Murthy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..be analyzed for pulmonary vascular structure and growth, alveolarization, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio), peroxynitrite formation (3-nitrotyrosine), poly(ADP-ribose) formation, fibrosis (Mason ..
  18. Role of Glutathione S-Transferase P in Heart Failure
    Sumanth D Prabhu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) metabolize aldehydes by catalyzing their conjugation with glutathione (GSH)...
  19. Role of Glutathione S-Transferase P in Heart Failure
    Sumanth D Prabhu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) metabolize aldehydes by catalyzing their conjugation with glutathione (GSH)...
  20. The mechanisms by which alcohol and HIV render the lung susceptible to injury
    DAVID MARSHALL GUIDOT; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Specifically, each causes oxidative stress and depletion of the anti-oxidant glutathione within the airways...
  21. The mechanisms by which alcohol and HIV render the lung susceptible to injury
    DAVID MARSHALL GUIDOT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specifically, each causes oxidative stress and depletion of the anti-oxidant glutathione within the airways...
  22. A Novel Thioredoxin Mimetic Prodrug for Prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
    Prakash Jagtap; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cytoplasmic protein I?B[unreadable], and restored the balance of reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione. In a murine LD60 model of redox stress, induced by acute Cl2 inhalation, post-insult administration of R-901 ..
  23. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Adipose Insulin Resistance
    DAVID BERNLOHR; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..findings that describe the tumor necrosis factor [unreadable] (TNF[unreadable]) dependent down regulation of glutathione S-transferase A4 setting the stage for a molecular cascade of events that activates the c-JUN NH2-terminal ..
  24. The effect of trichloroethylene exposure on adverse pregnancy outcomes
    Iman Hassan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2) a principal bioactive metabolite of TCE, 1,3-dichlorovinyl cysteine (DCVC), decreased the antioxidant glutathione, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine release and increased expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (..
  25. Visualization of ototoxic mitochondrial dysfunction in mammalian hair cells
    Shelley A Batts; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, in the accumulation of mitochondrial ROS, in levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, an indicator of oxidative stress) and in plasma membrane integrity...
  26. The Effects of PP2A on TNF Signaling and Smoke-Induced Lung Injury
    Robert F Foronjy; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Further studies in our laboratory demonstrate that the transgenic expression of human SOD1 and glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) decreases JNK activation and AP-1 signaling within the lungs of mice...
  27. Prolactin as a Growth Factor in Breast Cancer
    Nira Ben Jonathan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..PRL protects breast cancer cells (BCC) against drugs by activating the detoxification enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as well as by increasing the expression of the anti- apoptotic protein Bcl-2...
  28. The protective role of Nrf2 in arsenic-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity
    Donna D Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..ARE) sequence present in the promoters of several antioxidant and Phase II detoxification genes including glutathione S-transferase, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase, glutamylcysteine synthetase, and heme-oxygenase...
  29. Prolactin as a Growth Factor in Breast Cancer
    Nira Ben-Jonathan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PRL protects breast cancer cells (BCC) against drugs by activating the detoxification enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as well as by increasing the expression of the anti- apoptotic protein Bcl-2...
  30. Effects of GSH +/- Arginine on Markers of Inflammation Among Adults with CVD Risk
    Christopher D Gardner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..OBJECTIVE: This study will determine whether a dietary supplement containing glutathione will lower levels of inflammatory markers, and whether the presence or absence of supplemental arginine will ..
  31. Randomized trial of PEITC as a modifier of NNK metabolism in smokers
    Jian Min Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The protective effect is confined to individuals with glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 null-null or GSTT1 null-null genotype, and is particularly evident among those with the ..
  32. The Effects of PP2A on TNF Signaling and Smoke-Induced Lung Injury
    Robert F Foronjy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Further studies in our laboratory demonstrate that the transgenic expression of human SOD1 and glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) decreases JNK activation and AP-1 signaling within the lungs of mice...
  33. Alcohol and Iron Derived Oxidant Stress Impact Epigenetic Regulation
    JOHN contact WILKINSON IV; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to exacerbate oxidant stress generation may also perturb SAMe synthesis through drawing carbon to replenish glutathione (GSH) via the transsulfuration pathway...
  34. MECHANISM OF DRUG TRANSPORT IN LUNG CANCER CELLS
    Sanjay Awasthi; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Rlip (RLIP76, RALBP1) is a stress-responsive glutathione-electrophile conjugate (GS-E) transporter which is overexpressed in a number of types of cancers (lung, ovary, prostate, skin), but not in all types (breast, liver)...
  35. DAMP-RAGE Signaling and Fetal Injury in Inflammation-Induced Preterm Birth
    Irina A Buhimschi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..maternal inflammation is associated with fetal oxidative stress and depletion of the intracellular antioxidant glutathione. In the same experimental model we further provided evidence that HMGB1 and RAGE and over-expressed in the ..
  36. Vitamin B6 Effects on One-Carbon Metabolism
    Jesse F Gregory; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, B6 nutrition is linked many vital cellular processes such as the synthesis of nucleotides and glutathione, metabolism of most amino acids, including sulfur amino acids, methylation processes, and gluconeogenesis...
  37. Vitamin B6 Effects on One-Carbon Metabolism
    Jesse F Gregory; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Thus, B6 nutrition is linked many vital cellular processes such as the synthesis of nucleotides and glutathione, metabolism of most amino acids, including sulfur amino acids, methylation processes, and gluconeogenesis...
  38. Glutathione in mitochondrial dysfunction and disease progression in ALS-models
    Marcelo R Vargas; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..employed using the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM-/-), which have a 70-80% reduction of total glutathione (GSH) when compared to wild-type littermates...
  39. Cruciferous vegetable feeding and inflammation: effect of GST genotypes
    Johanna W Lampe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Variation in metabolism of ITC may influence ITC exposure and biologic response to these agents. Glutathione S-transferase (GST)M1 and GSTT1 metabolize ITC and genotypic differences in biologic response and ITC ..
  40. Mitoenergetic Failure in Brain Aging
    Gregory J Brewer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..neurons, old neuron mitochondria are considerably depolarized, produce higher levels of ROS with lower glutathione antioxidant and maintain a more oxidized redox potential [ NAD(P)H / FAD ], all of which contribute to ..
  41. ROS, Redox Regulation and Novel Targets for Cancer Therapy
    Peng Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CLL) cells exhibited intrinsic oxidative stress and were highly dependent on cellular antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) to maintain redox balance...
  42. Phase III Study Comparing Albumin and Hetastarch Therapy in Acute Lung Injury
    Gregory S Martin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to albumin and furosemide therapy in ALI result from biochemical properties of albumin that improve pulmonary glutathione homeostasis to alter NF(B activation and thereby improve alveolar capillary barrier function, combined with ..
  43. Biomarkers of Aggressive Oral Cancer
    THEKKELNAYCKE RAJENDIRAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These metabolites included kynurenine, serine, glutathione, and glutamate/glutamic acid...
  44. Methylmercury exposure, mercury metabolism genotypes, and risk of adult glioma
    Kathleen M Egan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..There is also evidence that MeHg inhibits the antioxidant effects of glutathione and selenoproteins, enzymes which mediate most of the antioxidant functions of selenium...
  45. Transcriptional regulation: renal dopamine D1 receptors in HTN &oxidative stress
    Mustafa F Lokhandwala; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our preliminary studies showed that mice treated with L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO), a glutathione synthesis pathway inhibitor exhibited oxidative stress, high BP, renal proximal tubular D1R dysfunction and up-..
  46. Collaborations to Extend the Microphysiology Database for Multiple Organ Models,
    Martin L Yarmush; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, gluconeogenesis, bile acid extraction, ammonia detoxification to urea and glutathione-conjugation while hepatocytes in the oxygen depleted zone are efficient in glycolysis, liponeogenesis and ..
  47. Multifunctional nanoparticles to improve treatment of human glioblastoma
    Miqin Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..attached to the outer shell of the NP tht is crosslinked by disulfide linkage and can be rapidly degraded by glutathione-mediated reduction in cytosol of target cells to release the payload but not in blood...
  48. Mitochondrial Thioredoxin, Caloric Restriction, and Age-related Hearing Loss
    Shinichi Someya; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..There are two major antioxidant defense systems in mitochondria protecting cells from ROS: the glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin (TXN) systems (11)...
  49. Oxidative activation of Src in smoke-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition
    Henry Jay Forman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CSE) activates Src and causes EMT and that both are inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and glutathione precursor, or by PP2, a Src inhibitor in the human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line, H358...
  50. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacogenomic Determinants of Cisplatin Kidney Injury
    Melanie S Joy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..to demonstrate that genetic variants in kidney transporters (OCT2/SLC22A2, MATE1/SLC47A1, and MRP2/ABCC2), glutathione metabolizing enzymes (Glutathione-S-transferases, e.g. GSTP1 and GSTA1, and g-glutamyl transferase1, e.g...
  51. Endogenous Oxalate Synthesis
    Ross P Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Glyoxal is primarily converted to glycolate by its interaction with glutathione and the glyoxalase system. Activity of these pathways is contingent on glutathione and NADPH...
  52. Role of oxido-reductive stress in regulating HIV-TB coinfection
    Roy L Sutliff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It has been demonstrated that the major cellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH) either directly or indirectly modulates innate and adaptive immune mechanisms to control Mtb infection...
  53. Antioxidative role of GPX1 in transgenic mice.
    XINGEN LEI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cellular glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) is the first identified selenium-dependent protein and a major intracellular antioxidant enzyme in mammals...
  54. Developmental Pharmacology of cytosolic and mitochondrial GSTZ1-1/MAAI
    PETER WALLACE STACPOOLE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): The broad, long-term objectives of this research are to understand the properties of glutathione transferase Z1- 1 (GSTZ1-1) and its role in the elimination of haloacetic acids, particularly dichloroacetic ..
  55. Developmental Pharmacology of cytosolic and mitochondrial GSTZ1-1/MAAI
    PETER WALLACE STACPOOLE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): The broad, long-term objectives of this research are to understand the properties of glutathione transferase Z1- 1 (GSTZ1-1) and its role in the elimination of haloacetic acids, particularly dichloroacetic ..
  56. ADENOSINE AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES
    Vickram Ramkumar; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..of the cell from free radicals and comprises enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH...
  57. The therapeutic potential of maspin in prostate cancer
    Shijie Sheng; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In the meantime, intracellular maspin has been shown also to interact with heatshock protein 90 (Hsp90) and glutathione S-transferase p isoform (GSTp)...
  58. Toxicity and Detoxification of 4 Hydroxyalkenals in Heart
    ARUNI BHATNAGAR BHATNAGAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..in the activity and the levels of aldehyde-metabolizing enzymes and cellular nucleophiles such as reduced glutathione and carnosine...
  59. Novel Mechanisms of Microglial Neurotoxicity at Physiological Oxygen
    Brian M Polster; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..synergize with idebenone by 1) upregulating NQO1 and by 2) increasing the pool of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione which can prevent cysteine S-nitrosothiol modifications...
  60. Down-regulation of oxidant-induced airway inflammation though modulation of NRF2
    Michelle Hernandez; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Healthy volunteers lacking the antioxidant enzyme, Glutathione S Transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1), suffered from increased neutrophilic airway inflammation after chamber exposure to ..
  61. Protein-thiol mixed disulfide in cataractogenesis
    Marjorie F Lou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Summary: The aims of this proposal are to confirm that the thiol repair systems of glutathione (GSH)-dependent thioltransferase (TTase) and NADPH-dependent thioredoxin (TRx) protect against oxidative stress-induced cataract formation by ..
  62. NQO1: Linking Oxidant Stress to Inflammation in Airway Epithelial Cells
    Judith A Voynow; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..as determined by levels of reduced: oxidized (-tocopherol, reduced: oxidized ubiquinone and reduced: oxidized glutathione. Aim 2b: To determine whether following ozone exposure, NQO1 causes a shift in isoprostane production with a ..
  63. Immune enhancement for immunological non-responders to ART
    DAVID MARSHALL GUIDOT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..alcohol ingestion have evidence of oxidative stress (as reflected by changes in thiol anti-oxidants such as glutathione), zinc deficiency, and impaired alveolar macrophage capacity to ingest and kill bacteria...
  64. Cellular mechanisms of dietary therapy for epilepsy
    GARY I YELLEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will be used to monitor the responses, in individual cells, of specific key metabolic signals: ATP, NADH, glutathione redox, and AMP-- activated protein kinase activity...
  65. Mouse Models for Alcohol Metabolism and Tissue Injury
    Vasilis Vasiliou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..systems generates reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, and is associated with diminished glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymatic activity...
  66. Novel Protein Sensors
    Neal J Zondlo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation;tyrosine sulfation;and specific oxidation via tyrosine nitration, glutathione oxidation, and protein S-nitrosylation...
  67. Metabolic control of neuronal activity by fuel substrate switching
    GARY I YELLEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mutant neurons? We will employ fluorescent biosensors to assess the levels of key metabolic signals - ATP, ROS/glutathione redox, and NADH redox - in individual neurons and astrocytes in culture or slices, to learn the causes of KATP ..
  68. Glutaredoxin, a Critical Regulator of Parkinson Disease Pathogenesis
    Amy L Wilson-Delfosse; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..counteracts oxidative stress and maintains thiol homeostasis by catalyzing the reversible formation of protein-glutathione mixed disulfides on cysteine residues (protein-SSG)...
  69. Advanced GST Proteomics for Early Stage Organ-Specific Toxicity Screening. Phase
    Kevin M Patrie; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The cytosolic glutathione transferase (GST) family of enzymes offer a more reliable alternative as a biomarker for organ damage as they ..
  70. Mitochondrial-Targeted Therapeutics for Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury
    Patrick G Sullivan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ultimately leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and glutathione (GSH) depletion...
  71. Genetic Determinants of Lung Cancer Survival
    Ping Yang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..As an effort to meet this challenge, we have been investigating genetic variations in the human glutathione metabolic system as one of the promising candidates to predict platinum-based treatment outcomes and survival...
  72. Arsenic Trioxide and Acute Myeloid Leukemia
    Yongkui Jing; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Under physiological conditions ROS generated as a byproduct of mitochondrial respiration are detoxified by glutathione-enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-s-transferase ? (GST?) and glutathione reductase (GR)...
  73. Arsenic Trioxide and Acute Myeloid Leukemia
    Yongkui Jing; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Under physiological conditions ROS generated as a byproduct of mitochondrial respiration are detoxified by glutathione-enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-s-transferase ? (GST?) and glutathione reductase (GR)...
  74. Regulation of the Tumor Microenvironment by KSHV
    Christopher H Parsons; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..An amino acid membrane transport protein subunit, xCT, maintains intracellular glutathione stores to enhance the survival of cells producing reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and xCT was recently ..
  75. The role of GSH in cornea and lens development
    Vasilis Vasiliou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The goal of this project is to elucidate the role of glutathione (GSH) in the development of ocular surface tissues...
  76. Metabolic mechanisms of naphthalene toxicity in lung
    Laura S Van Winkle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CYP) enzymes;the reactive metabolites formed, which derive from the NA-epoxide (NA-O), can deplete cellular glutathione (GSH) and, at higher concentrations, bind covalently to tissue proteins...
  77. DETOXICATION OF XENOBIOTICS IN ERYTHROCYTES
    YOGESH AWASTHI; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..year of this project, we have characterized a transporter involved in ATP-dependent primary active transport of glutathione (GSH)-conjugates in human erythrocyte membrane and designated it as dinitrophenyl S-glutathione (Dnp-SG) ATPase ..
  78. EFFECT OF AGING ON INTERORGAN GLUTATHIONE HOMEOSTASIS
    Murad Ookhtens; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..of this proposal are to: (a) define the key parameters of intrahepatic and interorgan homeostasis of reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiol-disulfides; (b) define age-specific changes in them over life-span of Harlan Sprague-Dawley ..