Genomes and Genes
Summary: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Publications268 found, 100 shown here
- Glutathione in defense and signaling: lessons from a small thiolDale A Dickinson
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, and Center for Free Radical Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
Ann N Y Acad Sci 973:488-504. 2002..Here, we will focus on glutathione (GSH), the major endogenous low- molecular-weight nonprotein thiol synthesized de novo in mammalian cells...
- Apoptosis and glutathione: beyond an antioxidantR Franco
Laboratory of Signal Transduction, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
Cell Death Differ 16:1303-14. 2009..In particular, glutathione (GSH) depletion is a common feature of apoptotic cell death triggered by a wide variety of stimuli including ..
- Redox environment of the cell as viewed through the redox state of the glutathione disulfide/glutathione coupleF Q Schafer
Free Radical Research Institute and ESR Facility, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 1101, USA
Free Radic Biol Med 30:1191-212. 2001..We discuss how the redox state of the glutathione disulfide-glutathione couple (GSSG/2GSH) can serve as an important indicator of redox environment...
- GlutathioneA Meister
Annu Rev Biochem 52:711-60. 1983
- Glutathione dysregulation and the etiology and progression of human diseasesNazzareno Ballatori
Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
Biol Chem 390:191-214. 2009b>Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in a multitude of cellular processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, and as a result, disturbances in GSH homeostasis are implicated in the etiology and/or ..
- Selective killing of oncogenically transformed cells through a ROS-mediated mechanism by beta-phenylethyl isothiocyanateDunyaporn Trachootham
Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
Cancer Cell 10:241-52. 2006..ROS generation and renders the malignant cells highly sensitive to PEITC, which effectively disables the glutathione antioxidant system and causes severe ROS accumulation preferentially in the transformed cells due to their ..
- The role of glutathione in disulphide bond formation and endoplasmic-reticulum-generated oxidative stressSeema Chakravarthi
The Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, The Michael Smith Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
EMBO Rep 7:271-5. 2006b>Glutathione is a ubiquitous molecule found in all parts of the cell where it fulfils a range of functions from detoxification to protection from oxidative damage...
- Metabolism and functions of glutathione in brainR Dringen
Physiologisch chemisches Institut der Universität, Hoppe Seyler Str 4, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
Prog Neurobiol 62:649-71. 2000The tripeptide glutathione is the thiol compound present in the highest concentration in cells of all organs. Glutathione has many physiological functions including its involvement in the defense against reactive oxygen species...
- Hydrogen sulfide increases glutathione production and suppresses oxidative stress in mitochondriaYuka Kimura
Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Neuroscience, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan
Antioxid Redox Signal 12:1-13. 2010..We recently showed that H(2)S protects neurons from oxidative stress by increasing the levels of glutathione (GSH), a major cellular antioxidant, by more than twice that of a control through enhancing the cystine ..
- Differential metabolomics reveals ophthalmic acid as an oxidative stress biomarker indicating hepatic glutathione consumptionTomoyoshi Soga
Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Tsuruoka, Yamagata 997 0017, Japan
J Biol Chem 281:16768-76. 2006..ophthalmate was synthesized from 2-aminobutyrate through consecutive reactions with gamma-glutamylcysteine and glutathione synthetase...
- Regulation of glutathione synthesisShelly C Lu
Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, USC Research Center for Liver Diseases, USC UCLA Research Center for Alcoholic Liver and Pancreatic Diseases, Keck School of Medicine USC, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
Mol Aspects Med 30:42-59. 2009b>Glutathione (GSH) is a ubiquitous intracellular peptide with diverse functions that include detoxification, antioxidant defense, maintenance of thiol status, and modulation of cell proliferation...
- High sensitivity of Nrf2 knockout mice to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity associated with decreased expression of ARE-regulated drug metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant genesA Enomoto
Toxicology Division II, Laboratory of Pathology, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 4321 Uchimoriya, Mitsukaido, Ibaraki 303 0043, Japan
Toxicol Sci 59:169-77. 2001..are UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT), an ARE-regulated phase-II drug-metabolizing enzyme, and glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant molecule whose synthesis depends on ARE-regulated gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (..
- Regulation of PTP1B via glutathionylation of the active site cysteine 215W C Barrett
Laboratory of Biochemistry, Section of Metabolic Regulation, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
Biochemistry 38:6699-705. 1999..48): the glutathionylation of Cys215 to a mixed protein disulfide. Treatment of PTP1B with diamide and reduced glutathione or with only glutathione disulfide (GSSG) results in a modification detected by mass spectrometry in which the ..
- Prolonged exposure to particulate pollution, genes associated with glutathione pathways, and DNA methylation in a cohort of older menJaime Madrigano
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
Environ Health Perspect 119:977-82. 2011..Exposure to particulate air pollution has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and lower blood DNA methylation has been found in processes related to cardiovascular morbidity...
- Efficacy of methylcobalamin and folinic acid treatment on glutathione redox status in children with autismS Jill James
Department of Pediatrics and Biostatistics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
Am J Clin Nutr 89:425-30. 2009..Metabolic abnormalities and targeted treatment trials have been reported for several neurobehavioral disorders but are relatively understudied in autism...
- Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autismS Jill James
Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, and the Arkansas Children s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
Am J Clin Nutr 80:1611-7. 2004..Although abnormal metabolism of methionine and homocysteine has been associated with other neurologic diseases, these pathways have not been evaluated in persons with autism...
- Roles for glutathione transferases in plant secondary metabolismDavid P Dixon
Centre for Bioactive Chemistry, School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
Phytochemistry 71:338-50. 2010Plant glutathione transferases (GSTs) are classified as enzymes of secondary metabolism, but while their roles in catalysing the conjugation and detoxification of herbicides are well known, their endogenous functions are largely obscure...
- Cellular glutathione and thiols metabolismDale A Dickinson
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Center for Free Radical Biology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue S, RPHB 317, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
Biochem Pharmacol 64:1019-26. 2002..Thioredoxin and glutathione (GSH) are two of the major small molecular weight thiol-containing compounds synthesized de novo in mammalian ..
- Glutathione, oxidative stress and neurodegenerationJ B Schulz
Neurodegeneration Laboratory, Department of Neurology, University of Tubingen, Germany
Eur J Biochem 267:4904-11. 2000..Here, we review the evidence for a disturbance of glutathione homeostasis that may either lead to or result from oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders...
- Glutathione and its role in cellular functionsH Sies
Institut fur Physiologische Chemie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Germany
Free Radic Biol Med 27:916-21. 1999b>Glutathione (GSH) is the major cellular thiol participating in cellular redox reactions and thioether formation...
- Coordinate regulation of glutathione biosynthesis and release by Nrf2-expressing glia potently protects neurons from oxidative stressAndy Y Shih
Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z3, Canada
J Neurosci 23:3394-406. 2003..number added) could protect fully cocultured naive neurons from oxidative glutamate toxicity associated with glutathione (GSH) depletion...
- Nrf2 activation in astrocytes protects against neurodegeneration in mouse models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosisMarcelo R Vargas
Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 2222, USA
J Neurosci 28:13574-81. 2008..Motor neuron protection depended on increased glutathione secretion from astrocytes...
- Molecular mechanisms and clinical implications of reversible protein S-glutathionylationJohn J Mieyal
Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 4965, USA
Antioxid Redox Signal 10:1941-88. 2008..prevalent form of cysteine modification is reversible formation of protein mixed disulfides (protein-SSG) with glutathione (GSH)...
- In vivo mapping of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized glutathione reveals chemical and regional specificity of redox homeostasisSimone C Albrecht
Division of Redox Regulation, DKFZ ZMBH Alliance, German Cancer Research Center DKFZ, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Cell Metab 14:819-29. 2011The glutathione redox couple (GSH/GSSG) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) are central to redox homeostasis and redox signaling, yet their distribution within an organism is difficult to measure...
- Unique cellular interaction of silver nanoparticles: size-dependent generation of reactive oxygen speciesC Carlson
Applied Biotechnology Branch, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio 45433, USA
J Phys Chem B 112:13608-19. 2008..In summary, a size-dependent toxicity was produced by silver nanoparticles, and one predominant mechanism of toxicity was found to be largely mediated through oxidative stress...
- Sulfur assimilation in photosynthetic organisms: molecular functions and regulations of transporters and assimilatory enzymesHideki Takahashi
RIKEN Plant Science Center, Yokohama 230 0045, Japan
Annu Rev Plant Biol 62:157-84. 2011....
- Production, detection, and adaptive responses to free radicals in exerciseSean Sachdev
Ethel Percy Andrus Gerontology Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 0191, USA
Free Radic Biol Med 44:215-23. 2008..Such free radical damage requires effective protein, lipid, and DNA repair systems, and sufficient recuperation, before exercise adaptation can recommence...
- Identification of human prostaglandin E synthase: a microsomal, glutathione-dependent, inducible enzyme, constituting a potential novel drug targetP J Jakobsson
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:7220-5. 1999..a recently recognized protein superfamily consisting of membrane associated proteins involved in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism (the MAPEG family). Previous designations of the protein are PIG12 and MGST1-L1...
- Mechanism of metalloid-induced death in Leishmania spp.: role of iron, reactive oxygen species, Ca2+, and glutathioneAshish Mehta
National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India
Free Radic Biol Med 40:1857-68. 2006..Cellular glutathione level was reduced after antimony treatment but arsenic did not affect glutathione...
- AtOPT6 transports glutathione derivatives and is induced by primisulfuronOlivier Cagnac
Unite Mixte de Recherches, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 6161, Transport des Assimilats, Laboratoire de Physiologie, Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire Végétales, Bâtiment Botanique, Poitiers Cedex, France
Plant Physiol 135:1378-87. 2004..rice (Oryza sativa; OsGT1) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea; BjGT1) have been described as transporters of glutathione derivatives...
- Glutathione revisited: a vital function in iron metabolism and ancillary role in thiol-redox controlChitranshu Kumar
LSOC, DSV, iBiTecS, CEA Saclay, France
EMBO J 30:2044-56. 2011b>Glutathione contributes to thiol-redox control and to extra-mitochondrial iron-sulphur cluster (ISC) maturation...
- Glutathione pathways in the brainRalf Dringen
Physiologisch chemisches Institut der Universität Tübingen, Hoppe Seyler Str 4, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
Biol Chem 384:505-16. 2003The antioxidant glutathione (GSH) is essential for the cellular detoxification of reactive oxygen species in brain cells...
- Redox dysregulation, neurodevelopment, and schizophreniaKim Q Do
Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital, Site de Cery, CH 1008 Prilly Lausanne, Switzerland
Curr Opin Neurobiol 19:220-30. 2009..a developmental redox dysregulation constitutes one 'hub' on which converge genetic impairments of glutathione synthesis and environmental vulnerability factors generating oxidative stress...
- Transcriptome analysis of the barley-deoxynivalenol interaction: evidence for a role of glutathione in deoxynivalenol detoxificationStephanie A Gardiner
Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
Mol Plant Microbe Interact 23:962-76. 2010..upregulation of gene transcripts encoding ABC transporters, UDP-glucosyltransferases, cytochrome P450s, and glutathione-S-transferases...
- Brain region-specific glutathione redox imbalance in autismAbha Chauhan
NYS Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, 1050 Forest Hill Road, Staten Island, NY 10314, USA
Neurochem Res 37:1681-9. 2012..However, the antioxidant status of the brain is not known in autism. Glutathione is a major endogenous antioxidant that plays a crucial role in protecting cells from exogenous and endogenous ..
- Evidence of oxidative damage and inflammation associated with low glutathione redox status in the autism brainS Rose
Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
Transl Psychiatry 2:e134. 2012..Biomarkers of oxidative stress, including reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and glutathione redox/antioxidant capacity (GSH/GSSG), were measured...
- In vitro toxicity of silica nanoparticles in human lung cancer cellsWeisheng Lin
Department of Chemistry and Environmental Research Center, University of Missouri Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409, USA
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 217:252-9. 2006..Indicators of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity, including total reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione, malondialdehyde, and lactate dehydrogenase, were quantitatively assessed...
- Silver nanoparticles induce oxidative cell damage in human liver cells through inhibition of reduced glutathione and induction of mitochondria-involved apoptosisMei Jing Piao
School of Medicine and Applied Radiological Science Research Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju 690 756, Republic of Korea
Toxicol Lett 201:92-100. 2011..AgNPs induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and suppression of reduced glutathione (GSH) in human Chang liver cells...
- Protein S-glutathionylation: a regulatory device from bacteria to humansIsabella Dalle-Donne
Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, I 20133, Milan, Italy
Trends Biochem Sci 34:85-96. 2009..is the specific post-translational modification of protein cysteine residues by the addition of the tripeptide glutathione, the most abundant and important low-molecular-mass thiol within most cell types...
- A nuclear glutathione cycle within the cell cyclePedro Diaz Vivancos
CEBAS CSIC, Department of Plant Breeding, Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, Spain
Biochem J 431:169-78. 2010....
- Recruitment of glutathione into the nucleus during cell proliferation adjusts whole-cell redox homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana and lowers the oxidative defence shieldPedro Diaz Vivancos
Centre for Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
Plant J 64:825-38. 2010..In animals, the low-molecular-weight thiol tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is recruited into the nucleus early in the cell proliferation cycle...
- The sugar-metabolic enzymes aldolase and triose-phosphate isomerase are targets of glutathionylation in Arabidopsis thaliana: detection using biotinylated glutathioneHisashi Ito
Research Institute for Biological Sciences, Okayama RIBS Okayama, 7549 1 Yoshikawa, Kayou cho, Okayama, 716 1241 Japan
Plant Cell Physiol 44:655-60. 2003..Recombinant TPI was inactivated by GSSG, and it was reactivated by GSH. The physiological roles of glutathionylation of TPI and aldolase in sugar metabolism are discussed...
- Chronic alcoholism alters systemic and pulmonary glutathione redox statusMary Y Yeh
Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 176:270-6. 2007..In clinical studies, this association has been centered on depletion of pulmonary glutathione and subsequent chronic oxidant stress.
- Regulation of protein function by S-glutathiolation in response to oxidative and nitrosative stressP Klatt
Department of Estructura y Función de Proteínas, Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Instituto Reina Sofía de Investigaciones Nefrológicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
Eur J Biochem 267:4928-44. 2000Protein S-glutathiolation, the reversible covalent addition of glutathione to cysteine residues on target proteins, is emerging as a candidate mechanism by which both changes in the intracellular redox state and the generation of ..
- Imaging dynamic redox changes in mammalian cells with green fluorescent protein indicatorsColette T Dooley
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0647, USA
J Biol Chem 279:22284-93. 2004..Alterations in the redox equilibrium are precipitated by changing either the glutathione/glutathione-disulfide ratio (GSH/GSSG) and/or the reduced/oxidized thioredoxin ratio...
- Glutathione metabolism and its implications for healthGuoyao Wu
Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA
J Nutr 134:489-92. 2004b>Glutathione (gamma-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) is the most abundant low-molecular-weight thiol, and GSH/glutathione disulfide is the major redox couple in animal cells...
- Glutathione redox state regulates mitochondrial reactive oxygen productionDongxiao Shen
Department of Environmental Health and Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P O Box 670056, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267 0056, USA
J Biol Chem 280:25305-12. 2005..These results suggest that TCDD produces an AHR-dependent oxidative stress in mitochondria, with concomitant mitochondrial DNA damage mediated, at least in part, by an increase in the mitochondrial thiol reduction state...
- Different effects of baicalein, baicalin and wogonin on mitochondrial function, glutathione content and cell cycle progression in human hepatoma cell linesWen Huei Chang
Graduate Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, R O C
Planta Med 68:128-32. 2002..the cell viabilities accompanying the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and the depletion of glutathione content. However, the influence of baicalein, baicalin or wogonin on cell cycle progression was different...
- Glutathione--a review on its role and significance in Parkinson's diseaseHeather L Martin
School of Medical Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, Scotland, UK
FASEB J 23:3263-72. 2009..One of the earliest biochemical changes seen in PD is a reduction in the levels of total glutathione, a key cellular antioxidant...
- Integrating glutathione metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction with implications for Parkinson's disease: a dynamic modelS Vali
Cell Works Group Inc, AECS Layout, Marathahalli, Bangalore 560037, India
Neuroscience 149:917-30. 2007..During early stages of PD, there is a significant depletion of the thiol antioxidant glutathione (GSH), which may lead to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ultimately neuronal cell death...
- Increased glutathione biosynthesis by Nrf2 activation in astrocytes prevents p75NTR-dependent motor neuron apoptosisMarcelo R Vargas
Departamento de Neurobiologia Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Investigaciones Biologicas Clemente Estable, Montevideo, Uruguay
J Neurochem 97:687-96. 2006..Because Nrf2 increases glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis, we investigated the role of GSH production by astrocytes on p75NTR-dependent motor neuron ..
- Biomarkers of environmental toxicity and susceptibility in autismDavid A Geier
Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA
J Neurol Sci 280:101-8. 2009..Significantly decreased plasma levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), cysteine, and sulfate were observed among study participants relative to controls...
- Resveratrol induces glutathione synthesis by activation of Nrf2 and protects against cigarette smoke-mediated oxidative stress in human lung epithelial cellsAruna Kode
Department of Environmental Medicine, Lung Biology and Disease Program, University of Rochester Medical Center, Box 850, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 294:L478-88. 2008..Cigarette smoke (CS) is known to cause oxidative stress and deplete glutathione (GSH) levels in alveolar epithelial cells...
- The protective role of endogenous glutathione in carrageenan-induced pleurisy in the ratS Cuzzocrea
Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Messina, Italy
Eur J Pharmacol 372:187-97. 1999In the present study we investigated the protective role of endogenous glutathione, a known free radical scavenger, in rats subjected to carrageenan-induced pleurisy...
- Genetically altered mice to evaluate glutathione homeostasis in health and diseaseTimothy P Dalton
Department of Environmental Health and Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, 123 East Shields Street, P O Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0056, USA
Free Radic Biol Med 37:1511-26. 2004The tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is part of an integrated antioxidant system that protects cells and tissues from oxidative damage. Oxidative stress can result from exposure to excessive amounts of endogenous and exogenous electrophiles...
- Subcellular immunocytochemical analysis detects the highest concentrations of glutathione in mitochondria and not in plastidsB Zechmann
University of Graz, Institute of Plant Sciences, Schubertstrasse 51, 8010 Graz, Austria
J Exp Bot 59:4017-27. 2008The tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant and redox buffer with multiple roles in plant metabolism...
- Cellular and mitochondrial glutathione redox imbalance in lymphoblastoid cells derived from children with autismS Jill James
Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children s Hospital Research Institute, 1120 Marshall St, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
FASEB J 23:2374-83. 2009..derived from autistic children and unaffected controls were used to assess relative concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulfide glutathione (GSSG) in cell extracts and isolated mitochondria as a measure of ..
- Decline in transcriptional activity of Nrf2 causes age-related loss of glutathione synthesis, which is reversible with lipoic acidJung H Suh
Linus Pauling Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3381-6. 2004b>Glutathione (GSH) significantly declines in the aging rat liver...
- Quantifying the global cellular thiol-disulfide statusRosa E Hansen
Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 13, DK 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:422-7. 2009..that the redox status of protein thiols is of central importance to protein structure and folding and that glutathione is an important low-molecular-mass redox regulator...
- Laboratory evolution of glutathione biosynthesis reveals natural compensatory pathwaysKarthik Veeravalli
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA
Nat Chem Biol 7:101-5. 2011The first and highly conserved step in glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis is formation of γ-glutamyl cysteine by the enzyme glutamate-cysteine ligase (GshA)...
- Reduced but not oxidized cerebrospinal fluid glutathione levels are lowered in Lewy body diseasesWalter Maetzler
Department of Neurodegeneration, Center of Neurology, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany
Mov Disord 26:176-81. 2011Reduced (GSH(R)) but not oxidized glutathione (GSSG) has been shown to be dramatically altered in the substantia nigra (SN) of Lewy body disease (LBD) patients post mortem; but up to now, there is no convincing evidence that these ..
- Impairment of methyl cycle affects mitochondrial methyl availability and glutathione level in Down's syndromeVittoria Infantino
Department of Chemistry, University of Basilicata, 85100 Potenza, Italy
Mol Genet Metab 102:378-82. 2011..The possible role of methylation in mitochondria is discussed and some preliminary results on a possible methylation target are presented...
- Metabolic imbalance associated with methylation dysregulation and oxidative damage in children with autismStepan Melnyk
Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
J Autism Dev Disord 42:367-77. 2012..Further, these results suggest a plausible mechanism by which pro-oxidant environmental stressors may modulate genetic predisposition to autism...
- Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 facilitates neuronal glutathione synthesis by upregulating neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter 3 expressionCarole Escartin
Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, and Neurology Service, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA
J Neurosci 31:7392-401. 2011Astrocytes support neuronal antioxidant capacity by releasing glutathione, which is cleaved to cysteine in brain extracellular space...
- The glutathione system and its regulation by neurohormone melatonin in the central nervous systemJorge H Limón-Pacheco
Departamento de Neurobiologia Conductual y Cognitiva, Instituto de Neurobiologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Queretaro, Mexico
Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem 10:287-97. 2010The glutathione system includes reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) forms of glutathione; the enzymes required for its synthesis and recycling, such as gamma-glutamate cysteine ligase (γ-GCL), glutathione synthetase (GS), glutathione ..
- Decreased glutathione accelerates neurological deficit and mitochondrial pathology in familial ALS-linked hSOD1(G93A) mice modelMarcelo R Vargas
Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA
Neurobiol Dis 43:543-51. 2011..mice for the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM-/-), which have a 70-80% reduction in total glutathione. Although GCLM(-/-) mice are viable and fertile, the life span of GCLM(-/-)/hSOD1(G93A) mice decreased in 55% ..
- Glutathione-related factors and oxidative stress in autism, a reviewA Ghanizadeh
Research Center for Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shiraz, Iran
Curr Med Chem 19:4000-5. 2012..In this study, we aimed to review the role of oxidative stress, plasma glutathione (GSH), and related factors as the potential sources of damage to the brain as well as the possible related ..
- Drought and salt stress tolerance of an Arabidopsis glutathione S-transferase U17 knockout mutant are attributed to the combined effect of glutathione and abscisic acidJui Hung Chen
Institute of Plant Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Plant Physiol 158:340-51. 2012Although glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are thought to play major roles in oxidative stress metabolism, little is known about the regulatory functions of GSTs...
- Schisandrin B elicits a glutathione antioxidant response and protects against apoptosis via the redox-sensitive ERK/Nrf2 pathway in H9c2 cellsPo Yee Chiu
Division of Life Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China
Mol Cell Biochem 350:237-50. 2011..authors examined the effects of (-)Sch B on MAPK and Nrf2 activation, as well as the subsequent eliciting of glutathione response and protection against apoptosis...
- Glutathione in cancer biology and therapyJose M Estrela
Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 43:143-81. 2006The glutathione (GSH) content of cancer cells is particularly relevant in regulating mutagenic mechanisms, DNA synthesis, growth, and multidrug and radiation resistance...
- Molecular characterization of dopamine-derived quinones reactivity toward NADH and glutathione: implications for mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson diseaseMarco Bisaglia
Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
Biochim Biophys Acta 1802:699-706. 2010..Our results indicate a very diverse reactivity for the different DAQ studied that may contribute to unravel the complex molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress and mitochondria dysfunction in the context of PD...
- Bilirubin and glutathione have complementary antioxidant and cytoprotective rolesThomas W Sedlak
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:5171-6. 2009b>Glutathione (GSH) and bilirubin are prominent endogenous antioxidant cytoprotectants...
- Age-related nuclear cataract-oxidation is the keyRoger J W Truscott
Australian Cataract Research Foundation, University of Wollongong, Northfields Ave, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
Exp Eye Res 80:709-25. 2005..The key factor in preventing oxidation seems to be the concentration of nuclear glutathione (GSH)...
- Redox imbalance in cystine/glutamate transporter-deficient miceHideyo Sato
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
J Biol Chem 280:37423-9. 2005..These results demonstrate that system x(-)(c) contributes to maintaining the plasma redox balance in vivo but is dispensable in mammalian development, although it is vitally important to cells in vitro...
- Role of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase in neuronal cell death induced by glutathione depletion in neuron/glia mesencephalic culturesS de Bernardo
Departamento de Investigacion, Servicio de Neurobiologia, Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid 28034, Spain
J Neurochem 91:667-82. 2004To date, glutathione (GSH) depletion is the earliest biochemical alteration shown in brains of Parkinson's disease patients, but the role of GSH in dopamine cell survival is debated...
- Impaired glutathione synthesis in schizophrenia: convergent genetic and functional evidenceRene Gysin
Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, 1008 Prilly Lausanne, Switzerland
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:16621-6. 2007..Convergent evidence has implicated oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) deficits in the pathogenesis of this disease...
- Glutathione deficit during development induces anomalies in the rat anterior cingulate GABAergic neurons: Relevance to schizophreniaJan Harry Cabungcal
Center for Research in Psychiatric Neuroscience, Department of Adult Psychiatry CHUV, University of Lausanne, 1008 Prilly, Switzerland
Neurobiol Dis 22:624-37. 2006A series of studies in schizophrenic patients report a decrease of glutathione (GSH) in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and cerebrospinal fluid, a decrease in mRNA levels for two GSH synthesizing enzymes and a deficit in parvalbumin (PV) ..
- Alterations in the distribution of glutathione in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's diseaseR K Pearce
Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Centre, King s College, London, United Kingdom
J Neural Transm 104:661-77. 1997Depletion of reduced glutathione occurs in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease and in incidental Lewy body disease (presymptomatic Parkinson's disease) which may implicate oxidative stress in the neurodegenerative process...
- Interplay between the NADP-linked thioredoxin and glutathione systems in Arabidopsis auxin signalingTalaat Bashandy
Laboratoire Génome et Développement des Plantes, Universite de Perpignan, Unite Mixte de Recherche, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement Université de Perpignan Via Domitia 5096, 66860 Perpignan, France
Plant Cell 22:376-91. 2010..Thioredoxin (TRX) and glutathione are key regulators of redox homeostasis, and the TRX and glutathione pathways are essential for postembryonic ..
- Differential targeting of GSH1 and GSH2 is achieved by multiple transcription initiation: implications for the compartmentation of glutathione biosynthesis in the BrassicaceaeAndreas Wachter
Heidelberg Institute of Plant Sciences HIP, INF 360, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Plant J 41:15-30. 2005The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana reveals that in this species the enzymes of glutathione biosynthesis, GSH1 and GSH2, are encoded by single genes...
- Schizophrenia: glutathione deficit in cerebrospinal fluid and prefrontal cortex in vivoK Q Do
Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich and Centre for Research in Psychiatric Neuroscience, University of Lausanne, Route de Cery, CH 1008 Prilly Lausanne, Switzerland
Eur J Neurosci 12:3721-8. 2000..In cerebrospinal fluid of drug-free schizophrenic patients, a significant decrease in the level of total glutathione (GSH) by 27% (P<0...
- Plant homologs of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter, PfCRT, are required for glutathione homeostasis and stress responsesSpencer C Maughan
Institute of Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QT, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:2331-6. 2010In Arabidopsis thaliana, biosynthesis of the essential thiol antioxidant, glutathione (GSH), is plastid-regulated, but many GSH functions, including heavy metal detoxification and plant defense activation, depend on cytosolic GSH...
- Mitochondrial glutathione, a key survival antioxidantMontserrat Mari
Liver Unit, Hospital Clinic, IDIBAPS CIBEK, CIBERehd, and Department of Cell Death and Proliferation, IIBB CSIC, Barcelona, Spain
Antioxid Redox Signal 11:2685-700. 2009..Among the arsenal of antioxidants and detoxifying enzymes existing in mitochondria, mitochondrial glutathione (mGSH) emerges as the main line of defense for the maintenance of the appropriate mitochondrial redox ..
- N-Acetylcysteine--a safe antidote for cysteine/glutathione deficiencyKondala R Atkuri
Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, Stanford University, B007 Beckman Center, 279 Campus Drive, Stanford University, CA 94305 5318, United States
Curr Opin Pharmacol 7:355-9. 2007b>Glutathione (GSH) deficiency is associated with numerous pathological conditions. Administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a cysteine prodrug, replenishes intracellular GSH levels...
- Protective effect of ginger against alcohol-induced renal damage and antioxidant enzymes in male albino ratsK R Shanmugam
Division of Molecular Biology and Exercise Physiology, Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502, India
Indian J Exp Biol 48:143-9. 2010Superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, glutathione and uric acid levels were decreased and xanthine oxidase, glutathione-s-transferase activities were increased in alcohol treated (2 g/kg body weight, once daily for 30 days) group...
- Astrocyte-specific overexpression of Nrf2 protects striatal neurons from mitochondrial complex II inhibitionMarcus J Calkins
Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA
Toxicol Sci 115:557-68. 2010..Overall, these data establish that enhanced astrocytic Nrf2 response and Nrf2 preconditioning are both sufficient to protect from acute lesions from mitochondrial complex II inhibition...
- Redox and antioxidant systems of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparumSylke Muller
School of Life Sciences, Wellcome Trust Biocentre, University of Dundee, UK
Mol Microbiol 53:1291-305. 2004..defences are superoxide dismutases and thioredoxin-dependent peroxidases; however, they lack catalase and glutathione peroxidases...
- Liposomal-glutathione provides maintenance of intracellular glutathione and neuroprotection in mesencephalic neuronal cellsGail D Zeevalk
Department of Neurology, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
Neurochem Res 35:1575-87. 2010A liposomal preparation of glutathione (GSH) was investigated for its ability to replenish intracellular GSH and provide neuroprotection in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease using paraquat plus maneb (PQMB) in rat mesencephalic ..
- Controlled enzymatic production of astrocytic hydrogen peroxide protects neurons from oxidative stress via an Nrf2-independent pathwayRENEE E HASKEW-LAYTON
Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, The Burke Medical Research Institute, White Plains, NY 10605, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:17385-90. 2010..These findings demonstrate the utility of rgDAAO for spatially and temporally controlling intracellular H(2)O(2) concentrations to uncover unique astrocyte-dependent neuroprotective mechanisms...
- Subcellular compartmentation of glutathione in dicotyledonous plantsBernd Zechmann
Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Graz, Schubertstrasse 51, 8010, Graz, Austria
Protoplasma 246:15-24. 2010This study describes the subcellular distribution of glutathione in roots and leaves of different plant species (Arabidopsis, Cucurbita, and Nicotiana)...
- Increased intracellular H₂O₂ availability preferentially drives glutathione accumulation in vacuoles and chloroplastsGuillaume Queval
Institut de Biologie des Plantes, UMR8618 CNRS, Batiment 630, Université de Paris Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France
Plant Cell Environ 34:21-32. 2011One biochemical response to increased H₂O₂ availability is the accumulation of glutathione disulphide (GSSG), the disulphide form of the key redox buffer glutathione...
- Eugenol protects nicotine-induced superoxide mediated oxidative damage in murine peritoneal macrophages in vitroSantanu Kar Mahapatra
Immunology and Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Human Physiology with Community Health, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721 102, West Bengal, India
Eur J Pharmacol 623:132-40. 2009..by decreased level of superoxide anion generation and malondialdehyde, and also increased level of reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase activity. Moreover, maximum protection was observed at the concentration of 15...
- N-methyl-aspartate receptor and neuronal nitric oxide synthase activation mediate bilirubin-induced neurotoxicityMaria A Brito
Research Institute for Medicines and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculdade de Farmacia, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
Mol Med 16:372-80. 2010..of both NO· and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP), along with protein oxidation and depletion of glutathione. These events concurred for cell dysfunction and death and were counteracted by L-NAME...
- The in vivo susceptibility of Leishmania donovani to sodium stibogluconate is drug specific and can be reversed by inhibiting glutathione biosynthesisK C Carter
Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:1529-35. 2003..In addition, the role of glutathione in SSG resistance was investigated by determining the influence on SSG treatment of concomitant treatment with ..
- Nrf2 signaling, a mechanism for cellular stress resistance in long-lived miceScott F Leiser
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2200, USA
Mol Cell Biol 30:871-84. 2010..exhibit many of the traits associated with enhanced activity of Nrf2/ARE, including higher levels of glutathione and resistance to plasma membrane lipid peroxidation...
- Schisandrin B-induced glutathione antioxidant response and cardioprotection are mediated by reactive oxidant species production in rat heartsNa Chen
Department of Biochemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong SAR, China
Biol Pharm Bull 33:825-9. 2010..presumably arising from cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-catalyzed metabolism of schisandrin B (Sch B), in triggering glutathione antioxidant response, Sch B induced reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent and ..
- Prodrug approach for increasing cellular glutathione levelsIvana Cacciatore
Department of Drug Sciences, School of Pharmacy, G D Annunzio University, Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti, Italy
Molecules 15:1242-64. 2010Reduced glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant non-protein thiol in mammalian cells and the preferred substrate for several enzymes in xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant defense...
- DJ-1 up-regulates glutathione synthesis during oxidative stress and inhibits A53T alpha-synuclein toxicityWenbo Zhou
Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Medicine, University Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA
J Biol Chem 280:43150-8. 2005..We have found that DJ-1 improves survival by increasing cellular glutathione levels through an increase in the rate-limiting enzyme glutamate cysteine ligase...
- A gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-independent pathway of glutathione catabolism to glutamate via 5-oxoproline in ArabidopsisNaoko Ohkama-Ohtsu
Department of Genetics, Development, and Cell Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
Plant Physiol 148:1603-13. 2008The degradation pathway of glutathione (GSH) in plants is not well understood...
- Methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum protects murine peritoneal macrophages from nicotine toxicity by decreasing free radical generation, lipid and protein damage and enhances antioxidant protectionSantanu Kar Mahapatra
Immunology and Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Human Physiology, Community Health, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal, India
Oxid Med Cell Longev 2:222-30. 2009..NADPH) oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, oxidized glutathione levels were observed in nicotine-treated group as compared to control group; those were significantly (p < 0...
- Methylated bismuth, but not bismuth citrate or bismuth glutathione, induces cyto- and genotoxic effects in human cells in vitroU von Recklinghausen
Institute of Hygiene and Occupational Health, University Hospital, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen, Germany
Chem Res Toxicol 21:1219-28. 2008..monomethylbismuth(III), MeBi(III)] and two other bismuth compounds [bismuth citrate (Bi-Cit) and bismuth glutathione (Bi-GS)] in human hepatocytes, lymphocytes, and erythrocytes using ICP-MS...
- DETOXICATION OF XENOBIOTICS IN ERYTHROCYTESYOGESH AWASTHI; Fiscal Year: 1993..electrophilic xenobiotics and endogenously generated products of lipid peroxidation by conjugating then to glutathione (GSH), through a reaction catalyzed by glutathione S-transferases...
- Dietary Cysteine:Conceptal Response to Oxidative StressCraig Harris; Fiscal Year: 2002..Without adequate free cysteine, the ability to restore glutathione that is lost due to oxidation is compromised by inadequate glutathione synthesis where sensitive target cells ..
- The therapeutic potential of maspin in prostate cancerShijie Sheng; Fiscal Year: 2009..In the meantime, intracellular maspin has been shown also to interact with heatshock protein 90 (Hsp90) and glutathione S-transferase p isoform (GSTp)...
- Arsenic Trioxide and Acute Myeloid LeukemiaYongkui Jing; Fiscal Year: 2010..Under physiological conditions ROS generated as a byproduct of mitochondrial respiration are detoxified by glutathione-enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-s-transferase ? (GST?) and glutathione reductase (GR)...
- DETOXICATION OF XENOBIOTICS IN ERYTHROCYTESYOGESH AWASTHI; Fiscal Year: 1999..year of this project, we have characterized a transporter involved in ATP-dependent primary active transport of glutathione (GSH)-conjugates in human erythrocyte membrane and designated it as dinitrophenyl S-glutathione (Dnp-SG) ATPase ..
- Role of Glutathione S-Transferase P in Heart FailureSumanth D Prabhu; Fiscal Year: 2010..b>Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) metabolize aldehydes by catalyzing their conjugation with glutathione (GSH)...
- Inhibition of glutathione reductase and ovarian cancer drug resistance reversalXiangming Guan; Fiscal Year: 2006..An increase in intracellular glutathione (GSH) has been demonstrated to be the major factor in ovarian cancer drug resistance to the first line and ..
- LIPID PEROXIDATION IN COLORECTAL CANCERManuela Gago Dominguez; Fiscal Year: 2007..endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), catalase (CAT), glutathione S- transferase A1 (GSTA1), glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), ..
- LIPID PEROXIDATION IN COLORECTAL CANCERManuela Gago Dominguez; Fiscal Year: 2009..endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), catalase (CAT), glutathione S- transferase A1 (GSTA1), glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), ..
- The Nrf2-ARE Pathway in Amyotrophic Lateral SclerosisJeffrey Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2009..vitro and in vivo models, this system has been shown to be effective at blocking neurotoxicity resulting from glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation, intracellular calcium overload, excitotoxins, and disruption of the ..
- The Nrf2-ARE Pathway in Amyotrophic Lateral SclerosisJeffrey A Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2010..vitro and in vivo models, this system has been shown to be effective at blocking neurotoxicity resulting from glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation, intracellular calcium overload, excitotoxins, and disruption of the ..
- Glutathione and Lung FibrosisRui Ming Liu; Fiscal Year: 2010..The concentration of glutathione (GSH), the most abundant intracellular free thiol and an important antioxidant, is decreased in both ..
- DIHYDRODIOL DEHYDROGENASE AND PAH METABOLISMTREVOR PENNING; Fiscal Year: 1992..g., cysteine and glutathione) will be examined, the influence of bay-region methylation on reactivity will be determined, and structures of ..
- ENDOGENOUS MODULATION OF COCHLEAR INJURYLeonard Rybak; Fiscal Year: 2003..research seeks to address the basic question, "Can the ototoxicity of cisplatin be altered by manipulating the glutathione (GSH) content of the cochlea?" A corollary is that the GSH content of the cochlea is related to enzymes of the ..
- MECHANISM OF FLAVOPROTEIN REDUCTASESJohn Blanchard; Fiscal Year: 1993..They serve key roles in oxidative stress management in humans and bacteria (erythrocyte glutathione reductase and macrophage alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, NADH peroxidase), and in trypanosomes (trypanothione ..
- Glutathione reductase and tumor sensitivity to radiationXiangming Guan; Fiscal Year: 2003Cancer resistance to radiation is often the cause of failure in radiotherapy; intracellular glutathione (GSH) has been implicated as one of the major causes of the resistance...
- Preventing NIHL by enhancing glutathione pathwaysRichard Kopke; Fiscal Year: 2002..The primary hypothesis is that pharmacologically optimizing the glutathione pathway will ameliorate or prevent NIHL and that this protection can be obtained by either injection or by oral ..