Summary: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Glutathione in defense and signaling: lessons from a small thiol
    Dale A Dickinson
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, and Center for Free Radical Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 973:488-504. 2002
  2. ncbi Redox environment of the cell as viewed through the redox state of the glutathione disulfide/glutathione couple
    F Q Schafer
    Free Radical Research Institute and ESR Facility, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 1101, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 30:1191-212. 2001
  3. ncbi Glutathione
    A Meister
    Annu Rev Biochem 52:711-60. 1983
  4. doi Brain region-specific glutathione redox imbalance in autism
    Abha Chauhan
    NYS Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, 1050 Forest Hill Road, Staten Island, NY 10314, USA
    Neurochem Res 37:1681-9. 2012
  5. ncbi Selective killing of oncogenically transformed cells through a ROS-mediated mechanism by beta-phenylethyl isothiocyanate
    Dunyaporn Trachootham
    Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Cancer Cell 10:241-52. 2006
  6. pmc Glutathione synthesis
    Shelly C Lu
    Keck School of Medicine USC, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1830:3143-53. 2013
  7. ncbi Metabolism and functions of glutathione in brain
    R Dringen
    Physiologisch chemisches Institut der Universität, Hoppe Seyler Str 4, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Prog Neurobiol 62:649-71. 2000
  8. pmc Glutathione dysregulation and the etiology and progression of human diseases
    Nazzareno Ballatori
    Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Biol Chem 390:191-214. 2009
  9. pmc Evidence of oxidative damage and inflammation associated with low glutathione redox status in the autism brain
    S Rose
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
    Transl Psychiatry 2:e134. 2012
  10. doi Hydrogen sulfide increases glutathione production and suppresses oxidative stress in mitochondria
    Yuka Kimura
    Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Neuroscience, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan
    Antioxid Redox Signal 12:1-13. 2010

Detail Information

Publications346 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Glutathione in defense and signaling: lessons from a small thiol
    Dale A Dickinson
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, and Center for Free Radical Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 973:488-504. 2002
    ..Here, we will focus on glutathione (GSH), the major endogenous low- molecular-weight nonprotein thiol synthesized de novo in mammalian cells...
  2. ncbi Redox environment of the cell as viewed through the redox state of the glutathione disulfide/glutathione couple
    F Q Schafer
    Free Radical Research Institute and ESR Facility, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 1101, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 30:1191-212. 2001
    ..We discuss how the redox state of the glutathione disulfide-glutathione couple (GSSG/2GSH) can serve as an important indicator of redox environment...
  3. ncbi Glutathione
    A Meister
    Annu Rev Biochem 52:711-60. 1983
  4. doi Brain region-specific glutathione redox imbalance in autism
    Abha Chauhan
    NYS Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, 1050 Forest Hill Road, Staten Island, NY 10314, USA
    Neurochem Res 37:1681-9. 2012
    ..However, the antioxidant status of the brain is not known in autism. Glutathione is a major endogenous antioxidant that plays a crucial role in protecting cells from exogenous and endogenous ..
  5. ncbi Selective killing of oncogenically transformed cells through a ROS-mediated mechanism by beta-phenylethyl isothiocyanate
    Dunyaporn Trachootham
    Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Cancer Cell 10:241-52. 2006
    ..ROS generation and renders the malignant cells highly sensitive to PEITC, which effectively disables the glutathione antioxidant system and causes severe ROS accumulation preferentially in the transformed cells due to their ..
  6. pmc Glutathione synthesis
    Shelly C Lu
    Keck School of Medicine USC, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1830:3143-53. 2013
    b>Glutathione (GSH) is present in all mammalian tissues as the most abundant non-protein thiol that defends against oxidative stress...
  7. ncbi Metabolism and functions of glutathione in brain
    R Dringen
    Physiologisch chemisches Institut der Universität, Hoppe Seyler Str 4, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Prog Neurobiol 62:649-71. 2000
    The tripeptide glutathione is the thiol compound present in the highest concentration in cells of all organs. Glutathione has many physiological functions including its involvement in the defense against reactive oxygen species...
  8. pmc Glutathione dysregulation and the etiology and progression of human diseases
    Nazzareno Ballatori
    Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Biol Chem 390:191-214. 2009
    b>Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in a multitude of cellular processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, and as a result, disturbances in GSH homeostasis are implicated in the etiology and/or ..
  9. pmc Evidence of oxidative damage and inflammation associated with low glutathione redox status in the autism brain
    S Rose
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
    Transl Psychiatry 2:e134. 2012
    ..Biomarkers of oxidative stress, including reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and glutathione redox/antioxidant capacity (GSH/GSSG), were measured...
  10. doi Hydrogen sulfide increases glutathione production and suppresses oxidative stress in mitochondria
    Yuka Kimura
    Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Neuroscience, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan
    Antioxid Redox Signal 12:1-13. 2010
    ..We recently showed that H(2)S protects neurons from oxidative stress by increasing the levels of glutathione (GSH), a major cellular antioxidant, by more than twice that of a control through enhancing the cystine ..
  11. ncbi Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health
    Guoyao Wu
    Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA
    J Nutr 134:489-92. 2004
    b>Glutathione (gamma-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) is the most abundant low-molecular-weight thiol, and GSH/glutathione disulfide is the major redox couple in animal cells...
  12. ncbi High sensitivity of Nrf2 knockout mice to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity associated with decreased expression of ARE-regulated drug metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant genes
    A Enomoto
    Toxicology Division II, Laboratory of Pathology, Institute of Environmental Toxicology, 4321 Uchimoriya, Mitsukaido, Ibaraki 303 0043, Japan
    Toxicol Sci 59:169-77. 2001
    ..are UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT), an ARE-regulated phase-II drug-metabolizing enzyme, and glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant molecule whose synthesis depends on ARE-regulated gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (..
  13. ncbi Regulation of PTP1B via glutathionylation of the active site cysteine 215
    W C Barrett
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Section of Metabolic Regulation, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Biochemistry 38:6699-705. 1999
    ..48): the glutathionylation of Cys215 to a mixed protein disulfide. Treatment of PTP1B with diamide and reduced glutathione or with only glutathione disulfide (GSSG) results in a modification detected by mass spectrometry in which the ..
  14. pmc Regulation of glutathione synthesis
    Shelly C Lu
    Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, USC Research Center for Liver Diseases, USC UCLA Research Center for Alcoholic Liver and Pancreatic Diseases, Keck School of Medicine USC, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Mol Aspects Med 30:42-59. 2009
    b>Glutathione (GSH) is a ubiquitous intracellular peptide with diverse functions that include detoxification, antioxidant defense, maintenance of thiol status, and modulation of cell proliferation...
  15. ncbi Glutathione-related factors and oxidative stress in autism, a review
    A Ghanizadeh
    Research Center for Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shiraz, Iran
    Curr Med Chem 19:4000-5. 2012
    ..In this study, we aimed to review the role of oxidative stress, plasma glutathione (GSH), and related factors as the potential sources of damage to the brain as well as the possible related ..
  16. pmc Efficacy of methylcobalamin and folinic acid treatment on glutathione redox status in children with autism
    S Jill James
    Department of Pediatrics and Biostatistics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 89:425-30. 2009
    ..Metabolic abnormalities and targeted treatment trials have been reported for several neurobehavioral disorders but are relatively understudied in autism...
  17. doi Roles for glutathione transferases in plant secondary metabolism
    David P Dixon
    Centre for Bioactive Chemistry, School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
    Phytochemistry 71:338-50. 2010
    Plant glutathione transferases (GSTs) are classified as enzymes of secondary metabolism, but while their roles in catalysing the conjugation and detoxification of herbicides are well known, their endogenous functions are largely obscure...
  18. doi Glutathione peroxidases
    Regina Brigelius-Flohe
    Department of Biochemistry of Micronutrients, German Institute of Human Nutrition, Nuthetal, Germany
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1830:3289-303. 2013
    ..In mammals, the peroxidases inter alia comprise the 8 glutathione peroxidases (GPx1-GPx8) so far identified.
  19. ncbi The multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp1), but not Mrp5, mediates export of glutathione and glutathione disulfide from brain astrocytes
    Tobias Minich
    Institute for Biochemistry, University of Tuebingen, Germany
    J Neurochem 97:373-84. 2006
    Astrocytes play an important role in the glutathione (GSH) metabolism of the brain...
  20. ncbi Differential metabolomics reveals ophthalmic acid as an oxidative stress biomarker indicating hepatic glutathione consumption
    Tomoyoshi Soga
    Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Tsuruoka, Yamagata 997 0017, Japan
    J Biol Chem 281:16768-76. 2006
    ..ophthalmate was synthesized from 2-aminobutyrate through consecutive reactions with gamma-glutamylcysteine and glutathione synthetase...
  21. pmc Prolonged exposure to particulate pollution, genes associated with glutathione pathways, and DNA methylation in a cohort of older men
    Jaime Madrigano
    Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Environ Health Perspect 119:977-82. 2011
    ..Exposure to particulate air pollution has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and lower blood DNA methylation has been found in processes related to cardiovascular morbidity...
  22. ncbi Cellular glutathione and thiols metabolism
    Dale A Dickinson
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Center for Free Radical Biology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue S, RPHB 317, Birmingham, AL 35294 0022, USA
    Biochem Pharmacol 64:1019-26. 2002
    ..Thioredoxin and glutathione (GSH) are two of the major small molecular weight thiol-containing compounds synthesized de novo in mammalian ..
  23. ncbi Glutathione, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration
    J B Schulz
    Neurodegeneration Laboratory, Department of Neurology, University of Tubingen, Germany
    Eur J Biochem 267:4904-11. 2000
    ..Here, we review the evidence for a disturbance of glutathione homeostasis that may either lead to or result from oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders...
  24. ncbi The changing faces of glutathione, a cellular protagonist
    Alfonso Pompella
    Thiols et Fonctions Cellulaires, Université H Poincaré, 30 Rue Lionnais, 54000 Nancy, France
    Biochem Pharmacol 66:1499-503. 2003
    b>Glutathione (GSH) has been described for a long time just as a defensive reagent against the action of toxic xenobiotics (drugs, pollutants, carcinogens)...
  25. ncbi Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism
    S Jill James
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, and the Arkansas Children s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 80:1611-7. 2004
    ..Although abnormal metabolism of methionine and homocysteine has been associated with other neurologic diseases, these pathways have not been evaluated in persons with autism...
  26. pmc Nrf2 activation in astrocytes protects against neurodegeneration in mouse models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Marcelo R Vargas
    Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 2222, USA
    J Neurosci 28:13574-81. 2008
    ..Motor neuron protection depended on increased glutathione secretion from astrocytes...
  27. ncbi Coordinate regulation of glutathione biosynthesis and release by Nrf2-expressing glia potently protects neurons from oxidative stress
    Andy Y Shih
    Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z3, Canada
    J Neurosci 23:3394-406. 2003
    ..number added) could protect fully cocultured naive neurons from oxidative glutamate toxicity associated with glutathione (GSH) depletion...
  28. doi Delayed senescence of apple leaves by exogenous melatonin treatment: toward regulating the ascorbate-glutathione cycle
    Ping Wang
    State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas College of Horticulture, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China
    J Pineal Res 53:11-20. 2012
    ..Melatonin treatment led to the maintenance of higher contents of ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) but less dehydroascorbate (DHA) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) compared with the control, possibly ..
  29. doi Real-time imaging of the intracellular glutathione redox potential
    Marcus Gutscher
    Redox Regulation Research Group, German Cancer Research Center DKFZ A160, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Nat Methods 5:553-9. 2008
    ..glutaredoxin-1 (Grx1) to roGFP2 facilitates specific real-time equilibration between the sensor protein and the glutathione redox couple...
  30. ncbi Biologic and pharmacologic regulation of mammalian glutathione synthesis
    O W Griffith
    Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee 53226, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 27:922-35. 1999
    b>Glutathione (L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine, GSH) is synthesized from its constituent amino acids by the sequential action of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) and GSH synthetase...
  31. pmc Glutathione redox potential in the mitochondrial intermembrane space is linked to the cytosol and impacts the Mia40 redox state
    Kerstin Kojer
    Cellular Biochemistry, Department of Biology, University of Kaiserslautern, Germany
    EMBO J 31:3169-82. 2012
    b>Glutathione is an important mediator and regulator of cellular redox processes...
  32. doi Reduced glutathione enhances fertility of frozen/thawed C57BL/6 mouse sperm after exposure to methyl-beta-cyclodextrin
    Toru Takeo
    Division of Reproductive Engineering, Center for Animal Resources and Development, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
    Biol Reprod 85:1066-72. 2011
    ..Recently, it was reported that exposing sperm to reduced glutathione may alleviate oxidative stress in frozen/thawed mouse sperm, thereby enhancing in vitro fertilization (IVF); ..
  33. pmc Thiol redox disturbances in children with severe asthma are associated with posttranslational modification of the transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2
    Anne M Fitzpatrick
    Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 127:1604-11. 2011
    Airway thiol redox disturbances, including depletion of the antioxidant, glutathione, are differentiating features of severe asthma in children.
  34. ncbi Role of glutathione in cancer pathophysiology and therapeutic interventions
    Simendra Singh
    Department of Biotechnology, School of Engineering and Technology, Sharda University, Greater Noida, Gautam Budha Nagar, India
    J Exp Ther Oncol 9:303-16. 2012
    b>Glutathione (GSH) is an important intracellular antioxidant that instills several vital roles within a cell including maintenance of the redox state, drug detoxification, and cellular protection from damage by free radicals, peroxides ..
  35. pmc Heat shock protein 70 regulates cellular redox status by modulating glutathione-related enzyme activities
    Shuhong Guo
    Center of Biomedical Research Excellence and College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Cell Stress Chaperones 12:245-54. 2007
    ..probe, redox environment evaluation by a hydroxylamine spin probe, and redox status assessment by the glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) ratio...
  36. doi The role of glutathione in brain tumor drug resistance
    Donald S Backos
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, 80045, United States
    Biochem Pharmacol 83:1005-12. 2012
    ..of the molecular mechanisms underlying brain tumor drug resistance over the past decade, the contribution of glutathione (GSH) and the GSH-related enzymes to drug resistance in brain tumors have been largely overlooked...
  37. ncbi Glutathione in cancer biology and therapy
    Jose M Estrela
    Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 43:143-81. 2006
    The glutathione (GSH) content of cancer cells is particularly relevant in regulating mutagenic mechanisms, DNA synthesis, growth, and multidrug and radiation resistance...
  38. doi Blood levels of homocysteine, cysteine, glutathione, folic acid, and vitamin B12 in the acute phase of atherothrombotic stroke
    Giuseppe Salemi
    Section of Neurology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Palermo, Via Gaetano La Loggia 1, 90129, Palermo, Italy
    Neurol Sci 30:361-4. 2009
    Blood levels of total homocysteine (tHcy), cysteine (Cys), total and reduced glutathione (tGSH and rGSH), folic acid (FA), and vitamin B12 (B12) change during ischemic stroke as accompaniment of the tissue damage...
  39. doi Oxidative stress, glutathione status, sirtuin and cellular stress response in type 2 diabetes
    V Calabrese
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1822:729-36. 2012
    ..Systemic oxidative stress has been evaluated by measuring plasma reduced and oxidized glutathione, as well as pentosidine, protein carbonyls lipid oxidation products 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and F2-isoprostanes in ..
  40. doi Antibacterial activity of glutathione-coated silver nanoparticles against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria
    Angelo Taglietti
    Dipartimento di Chimica, Sezione di Chimica Generale, Universita di Pavia, Pavia, Italy
    Langmuir 28:8140-8. 2012
    In the present paper, we study the mechanism of antibacterial activity of glutathione (GSH) coated silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on model Gram negative and Gram positive bacterial strains...
  41. pmc Genetic variation in the glutathione synthesis pathway, air pollution, and children's lung function growth
    Carrie V Breton
    Department of Preventive Medicine, USC Keck School of Medicine, 1540 Alcazar Street, CHP 236, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 183:243-8. 2011
    b>Glutathione plays an important role in antioxidant and inflammatory processes in the lung. Alterations in glutathione metabolism are a central feature of several chronic lung diseases.
  42. pmc Molecular mechanisms and clinical implications of reversible protein S-glutathionylation
    John J Mieyal
    Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 4965, USA
    Antioxid Redox Signal 10:1941-88. 2008
    ..prevalent form of cysteine modification is reversible formation of protein mixed disulfides (protein-SSG) with glutathione (GSH)...
  43. doi In vivo mapping of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized glutathione reveals chemical and regional specificity of redox homeostasis
    Simone C Albrecht
    Division of Redox Regulation, DKFZ ZMBH Alliance, German Cancer Research Center DKFZ, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell Metab 14:819-29. 2011
    The glutathione redox couple (GSH/GSSG) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) are central to redox homeostasis and redox signaling, yet their distribution within an organism is difficult to measure...
  44. doi Unique cellular interaction of silver nanoparticles: size-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species
    C Carlson
    Applied Biotechnology Branch, Human Effectiveness Directorate, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio 45433, USA
    J Phys Chem B 112:13608-19. 2008
    ..In summary, a size-dependent toxicity was produced by silver nanoparticles, and one predominant mechanism of toxicity was found to be largely mediated through oxidative stress...
  45. ncbi PERK-dependent activation of Nrf2 contributes to redox homeostasis and cell survival following endoplasmic reticulum stress
    Sara B Cullinan
    Leonard and Madlyn Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute and Cancer Center, Department of Cancer Biology, University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center, 421 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:20108-17. 2004
    ..We now demonstrate that Nrf2 activation contributes to the maintenance of glutathione levels, which in turn functions as a buffer for the accumulation of reactive oxygen species during the unfolded ..
  46. ncbi Glutathione metabolism in brain metabolic interaction between astrocytes and neurons in the defense against reactive oxygen species
    R Dringen
    Physiologisch chemisches Institut der Universität, Tubingen, Germany
    Eur J Biochem 267:4912-6. 2000
    ..An important component of the cellular detoxification of reactive oxygen species is the antioxidant glutathione. The main focus of this short review is recent results on glutathione metabolism of brain astrocytes and ..
  47. doi Intracellular GSH depletion triggered mitochondrial Bax translocation to accomplish resveratrol-induced apoptosis in the U937 cell line
    Prasun Guha
    Department of Biochemistry, Dr B C Roy Postgraduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences and I P G M E and R, 244B, Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Road, Kolkata 700 020, India
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 336:206-14. 2011
  48. doi Sulfur assimilation in photosynthetic organisms: molecular functions and regulations of transporters and assimilatory enzymes
    Hideki Takahashi
    RIKEN Plant Science Center, Yokohama 230 0045, Japan
    Annu Rev Plant Biol 62:157-84. 2011
  49. ncbi Protective effects of vitamin c against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in adult rats: a dose-dependent study
    L M Antunes
    Departamento de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas e Bromatologicas, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Cafe s/n, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, 14040-903, Brasil
    Pharmacol Res 41:405-11. 2000
    ..Cisplatin administration induced lipid peroxidation which was accompanied by a decrease in renal glutathione level in animals killed 7 days after treatments. Furthermore, an increase in serum creatinine has been observed...
  50. pmc Identification of human prostaglandin E synthase: a microsomal, glutathione-dependent, inducible enzyme, constituting a potential novel drug target
    P J Jakobsson
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:7220-5. 1999
    ..a recently recognized protein superfamily consisting of membrane associated proteins involved in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism (the MAPEG family). Previous designations of the protein are PIG12 and MGST1-L1...
  51. doi Production, detection, and adaptive responses to free radicals in exercise
    Sean Sachdev
    Ethel Percy Andrus Gerontology Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 0191, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 44:215-23. 2008
    ..Such free radical damage requires effective protein, lipid, and DNA repair systems, and sufficient recuperation, before exercise adaptation can recommence...
  52. pmc AtOPT6 transports glutathione derivatives and is induced by primisulfuron
    Olivier Cagnac
    Unite Mixte de Recherches, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 6161, Transport des Assimilats, Laboratoire de Physiologie, Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire Végétales, Bâtiment Botanique, Poitiers Cedex, France
    Plant Physiol 135:1378-87. 2004
    ..rice (Oryza sativa; OsGT1) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea; BjGT1) have been described as transporters of glutathione derivatives...
  53. ncbi Mechanism of metalloid-induced death in Leishmania spp.: role of iron, reactive oxygen species, Ca2+, and glutathione
    Ashish Mehta
    National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India
    Free Radic Biol Med 40:1857-68. 2006
    ..Cellular glutathione level was reduced after antimony treatment but arsenic did not affect glutathione...
  54. pmc Glutaminase 2, a novel p53 target gene regulating energy metabolism and antioxidant function
    Wenwei Hu
    Cancer Institute of New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:7455-60. 2010
    ..Furthermore, GLS2 regulates antioxidant defense function in cells by increasing reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and decreasing ROS levels, which in turn protects cells from oxidative stress (e.g...
  55. ncbi Roles of the glutathione- and thioredoxin-dependent reduction systems in the Escherichia coli and saccharomyces cerevisiae responses to oxidative stress
    O Carmel-Harel
    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Annu Rev Microbiol 54:439-61. 2000
    The glutathione- and thioredoxin-dependent reduction systems are responsible for maintaining the reduced environment of the Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytosol...
  56. doi Acetylsalicylic acid-induced oxidative stress, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in human hepatoma HepG2 cells
    Haider Raza
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, POBox 17666, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
    Eur J Pharmacol 668:15-24. 2011
    ..ASA increased the production of reactive oxygen species, reduced the cellular glutathione (GSH) pool and inhibited the activities of the mitochondrial respiratory enzyme complexes, NADH-ubiquinone ..
  57. ncbi Glutathione pathways in the brain
    Ralf Dringen
    Physiologisch chemisches Institut der Universität Tübingen, Hoppe Seyler Str 4, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Biol Chem 384:505-16. 2003
    The antioxidant glutathione (GSH) is essential for the cellular detoxification of reactive oxygen species in brain cells...
  58. doi Glutathione transferases, regulators of cellular metabolism and physiology
    Philip G Board
    John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1830:3267-88. 2013
    The cytosolic glutathione transferases (GSTs) comprise a super family of proteins that can be categorized into multiple classes with a mixture of highly specific and overlapping functions.
  59. ncbi Glutathione and its role in cellular functions
    H Sies
    Institut fur Physiologische Chemie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Germany
    Free Radic Biol Med 27:916-21. 1999
    b>Glutathione (GSH) is the major cellular thiol participating in cellular redox reactions and thioether formation...
  60. ncbi Unusual inflammatory and fibrogenic pulmonary responses to single-walled carbon nanotubes in mice
    Anna A Shvedova
    Health Effects Laboratory Div, NIOSH, Morgantown, WV, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 289:L698-708. 2005
    ..lavage were found along with accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal (oxidative biomarker) and depletion of glutathione in lungs...
  61. pmc The role of glutathione in disulphide bond formation and endoplasmic-reticulum-generated oxidative stress
    Seema Chakravarthi
    The Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, The Michael Smith Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK
    EMBO Rep 7:271-5. 2006
    b>Glutathione is a ubiquitous molecule found in all parts of the cell where it fulfils a range of functions from detoxification to protection from oxidative damage...
  62. pmc Specific contribution of methionine and choline in nutritional nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: impact on mitochondrial S-adenosyl-L-methionine and glutathione
    Francisco Caballero
    Liver Unit, Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas Esther Koplowitz, Instituto Malalties Digestivas i Metaboliques, Hospital Clinic i Provincial, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
    J Biol Chem 285:18528-36. 2010
    ..choline in liver steatosis, advanced pathology and impact on mitochondrial S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) and glutathione (GSH), known regulators of disease progression, has not been specifically addressed...
  63. pmc Lower levels of glutathione in the brains of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients measured by 1H magnetic resonance chemical shift imaging at 3 T
    I Y Choi
    Hoglund Brain Imaging Center, Department of Neurology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
    Mult Scler 17:289-96. 2011
    ..In this study, the assessment of an in vivo marker of oxidative stress, cerebral glutathione (GSH), using magnetic resonance chemical shift imaging (CSI) is described, and GSH levels were compared in ..
  64. doi Glutathione system in young spontaneously hypertensive rats
    S K Lee
    Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
    J Physiol Biochem 66:321-7. 2010
    b>Glutathione (GSH) forms a part of the antioxidant system that plays a vital role in preventing oxidative stress, and an imbalance in the oxidant/antioxidant system has been linked to the pathogenesis of hypertension...
  65. pmc Nrf2-regulated glutathione recycling independent of biosynthesis is critical for cell survival during oxidative stress
    C J Harvey
    Department of Environmental Health Science, Bloomberg School of Public Health, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 46:443-53. 2009
    ..factor protecting cells from oxidative stress by regulating cytoprotective genes, including the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) pathway. GSH maintains cellular redox status and affects redox signaling, cell proliferation, and death...
  66. ncbi Two antioxidative lactobacilli strains as promising probiotics
    Tiiu Kullisaar
    Department of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, University of Tartu, Estonia
    Int J Food Microbiol 72:215-24. 2002
    ..E-3 and E-8 contain a remarkable level of glutathione, express Mn-SOD, which is important for the prevention of lipid peroxidation, and secrete hydrogen peroxide...
  67. ncbi Mechanisms of reversible protein glutathionylation in redox signaling and oxidative stress
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, and the Louis Stokes Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44106 4965, United States
    Curr Opin Pharmacol 7:381-91. 2007 situ, although potential prototypes are reported, including human GRx1 and the pi isoform of glutathione-S-transferase (GSTpi)...
  68. doi Zinc protects endothelial cells from hydrogen peroxide via Nrf2-dependent stimulation of glutathione biosynthesis
    Miriam M Cortese
    Institute of Molecular Medicine, Research Group Immunobiology, Medical Faculty of the Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Universitatsstrasse 1, D 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Free Radic Biol Med 44:2002-12. 2008
    ..of the catalytic subunit (heavy chain) of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLC) and the concentrations of glutathione (GSH)...
  69. doi The role of plasma aminothiols in the prediction of coronary microvascular dysfunction and plaque vulnerability
    Saurabh S Dhawan
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States
    Atherosclerosis 219:266-72. 2011
    ..Accordingly, we hypothesized that higher oxidative stress would be associated with abnormal coronary epicardial structure and microvascular function...
  70. doi Activation and modulation of 72kDa matrix metalloproteinase-2 by peroxynitrite and glutathione
    Serena Viappiani
    Cardiovascular Research Group, Departments of Pediatrics and Pharmacology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G2S2, Canada
    Biochem Pharmacol 77:826-34. 2009
    ..of oxidative stress, was reported to activate some full length MMP zymogens, particularly in the presence of glutathione (GSH), but whether this occurs for MMP-2 is unknown...
  71. pmc Zeta, a novel class of glutathione transferases in a range of species from plants to humans
    P G Board
    Molecular Genetics Group, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, GPO Box 34, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
    Biochem J 328:929-35. 1997
    Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis has identified a new subgroup of glutathione S-transferase (GST)-like proteins from a range of species extending from plants to humans. This group has been termed the Zeta class...
  72. doi Transcriptome analysis of the barley-deoxynivalenol interaction: evidence for a role of glutathione in deoxynivalenol detoxification
    Stephanie A Gardiner
    Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
    Mol Plant Microbe Interact 23:962-76. 2010
    ..upregulation of gene transcripts encoding ABC transporters, UDP-glucosyltransferases, cytochrome P450s, and glutathione-S-transferases...
  73. doi Redox dysregulation, neurodevelopment, and schizophrenia
    Kim Q Do
    Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital, Site de Cery, CH 1008 Prilly Lausanne, Switzerland
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 19:220-30. 2009
    ..a developmental redox dysregulation constitutes one 'hub' on which converge genetic impairments of glutathione synthesis and environmental vulnerability factors generating oxidative stress...
  74. doi Protein S-glutathionylation: a regulatory device from bacteria to humans
    Isabella Dalle-Donne
    Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, I 20133, Milan, Italy
    Trends Biochem Sci 34:85-96. 2009 the specific post-translational modification of protein cysteine residues by the addition of the tripeptide glutathione, the most abundant and important low-molecular-mass thiol within most cell types...
  75. doi Recruitment of glutathione into the nucleus during cell proliferation adjusts whole-cell redox homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana and lowers the oxidative defence shield
    Pedro Diaz Vivancos
    Centre for Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
    Plant J 64:825-38. 2010
    ..In animals, the low-molecular-weight thiol tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is recruited into the nucleus early in the cell proliferation cycle...
  76. doi A nuclear glutathione cycle within the cell cycle
    Pedro Diaz Vivancos
    CEBAS CSIC, Department of Plant Breeding, Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, Spain
    Biochem J 431:169-78. 2010
  77. ncbi Assay for quantitative determination of glutathione and glutathione disulfide levels using enzymatic recycling method
    Irfan Rahman
    Department of Environmental Medicine, Lung Biology and Disease Program, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA
    Nat Protoc 1:3159-65. 2006
    The spectrophotometric/microplate reader assay method for glutathione (GSH) involves oxidation of GSH by the sulfhydryl reagent 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) to form the yellow derivative 5'-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB), ..
  78. ncbi The importance of glutathione in human disease
    Danyelle M Townsend
    Department of Pharmacology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, 7701 Burholme Ave, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA
    Biomed Pharmacother 57:145-55. 2003
    Reduced glutathione (GSH) is the most prevalent non-protein thiol in animal cells...
  79. pmc Oxidative stress and glutathione in TGF-beta-mediated fibrogenesis
    R M Liu
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Center for Free Radical Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 48:1-15. 2010
    ..TGF-beta increases reactive oxygen species production and decreases the concentration of glutathione (GSH), the most abundant intracellular free thiol and an important antioxidant, which mediates many of the ..
  80. pmc Mitochondrial H2O2 emission and cellular redox state link excess fat intake to insulin resistance in both rodents and humans
    Ethan J Anderson
    Metabolic Institute for the Study of Diabetes and Obesity, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27834, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:573-81. 2009
  81. pmc Chronic alcoholism alters systemic and pulmonary glutathione redox status
    Mary Y Yeh
    Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 176:270-6. 2007
    ..In clinical studies, this association has been centered on depletion of pulmonary glutathione and subsequent chronic oxidant stress.
  82. ncbi Different effects of baicalein, baicalin and wogonin on mitochondrial function, glutathione content and cell cycle progression in human hepatoma cell lines
    Wen Huei Chang
    Graduate Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, R O C
    Planta Med 68:128-32. 2002
    ..the cell viabilities accompanying the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and the depletion of glutathione content. However, the influence of baicalein, baicalin or wogonin on cell cycle progression was different...
  83. ncbi The sugar-metabolic enzymes aldolase and triose-phosphate isomerase are targets of glutathionylation in Arabidopsis thaliana: detection using biotinylated glutathione
    Hisashi Ito
    Research Institute for Biological Sciences, Okayama RIBS Okayama, 7549 1 Yoshikawa, Kayou cho, Okayama, 716 1241 Japan
    Plant Cell Physiol 44:655-60. 2003
    ..Recombinant TPI was inactivated by GSSG, and it was reactivated by GSH. The physiological roles of glutathionylation of TPI and aldolase in sugar metabolism are discussed...
  84. ncbi Glutathione redox state regulates mitochondrial reactive oxygen production
    Dongxiao Shen
    Department of Environmental Health and Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P O Box 670056, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267 0056, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:25305-12. 2005
    ..These results suggest that TCDD produces an AHR-dependent oxidative stress in mitochondria, with concomitant mitochondrial DNA damage mediated, at least in part, by an increase in the mitochondrial thiol reduction state...
  85. ncbi Regulation of protein function by S-glutathiolation in response to oxidative and nitrosative stress
    P Klatt
    Department of Estructura y Función de Proteínas, Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Instituto Reina Sofía de Investigaciones Nefrológicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
    Eur J Biochem 267:4928-44. 2000
    Protein S-glutathiolation, the reversible covalent addition of glutathione to cysteine residues on target proteins, is emerging as a candidate mechanism by which both changes in the intracellular redox state and the generation of ..
  86. doi Biomarkers of environmental toxicity and susceptibility in autism
    David A Geier
    Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA
    J Neurol Sci 280:101-8. 2009
    ..Significantly decreased plasma levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), cysteine, and sulfate were observed among study participants relative to controls...
  87. ncbi Increased glutathione biosynthesis by Nrf2 activation in astrocytes prevents p75NTR-dependent motor neuron apoptosis
    Marcelo R Vargas
    Departamento de Neurobiologia Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Investigaciones Biologicas Clemente Estable, Montevideo, Uruguay
    J Neurochem 97:687-96. 2006
    ..Because Nrf2 increases glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis, we investigated the role of GSH production by astrocytes on p75NTR-dependent motor neuron ..
  88. ncbi Integrating glutathione metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction with implications for Parkinson's disease: a dynamic model
    S Vali
    Cell Works Group Inc, AECS Layout, Marathahalli, Bangalore 560037, India
    Neuroscience 149:917-30. 2007
    ..During early stages of PD, there is a significant depletion of the thiol antioxidant glutathione (GSH), which may lead to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ultimately neuronal cell death...
  89. doi Glutathione--a review on its role and significance in Parkinson's disease
    Heather L Martin
    School of Medical Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, Scotland, UK
    FASEB J 23:3263-72. 2009
    ..One of the earliest biochemical changes seen in PD is a reduction in the levels of total glutathione, a key cellular antioxidant...
  90. ncbi Genetically altered mice to evaluate glutathione homeostasis in health and disease
    Timothy P Dalton
    Department of Environmental Health and Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, 123 East Shields Street, P O Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0056, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 37:1511-26. 2004
    The tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is part of an integrated antioxidant system that protects cells and tissues from oxidative damage. Oxidative stress can result from exposure to excessive amounts of endogenous and exogenous electrophiles...
  91. ncbi The protective role of endogenous glutathione in carrageenan-induced pleurisy in the rat
    S Cuzzocrea
    Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Messina, Italy
    Eur J Pharmacol 372:187-97. 1999
    In the present study we investigated the protective role of endogenous glutathione, a known free radical scavenger, in rats subjected to carrageenan-induced pleurisy...
  92. ncbi Resveratrol induces glutathione synthesis by activation of Nrf2 and protects against cigarette smoke-mediated oxidative stress in human lung epithelial cells
    Aruna Kode
    Department of Environmental Medicine, Lung Biology and Disease Program, University of Rochester Medical Center, Box 850, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 294:L478-88. 2008
    ..Cigarette smoke (CS) is known to cause oxidative stress and deplete glutathione (GSH) levels in alveolar epithelial cells...
  93. doi Silver nanoparticles induce oxidative cell damage in human liver cells through inhibition of reduced glutathione and induction of mitochondria-involved apoptosis
    Mei Jing Piao
    School of Medicine and Applied Radiological Science Research Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju 690 756, Republic of Korea
    Toxicol Lett 201:92-100. 2011
    ..AgNPs induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and suppression of reduced glutathione (GSH) in human Chang liver cells...
  94. doi Induction of glutathione synthesis and heme oxygenase 1 by the flavonoids butein and phloretin is mediated through the ERK/Nrf2 pathway and protects against oxidative stress
    Ya Chen Yang
    Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan
    Free Radic Biol Med 51:2073-81. 2011
    ..Butein and phloretin induced both HO-1 and GCL protein and mRNA expression and increased intracellular glutathione (GSH) and total GSH content...
  95. pmc Brusatol enhances the efficacy of chemotherapy by inhibiting the Nrf2-mediated defense mechanism
    Dongmei Ren
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:1433-8. 2011
    ..Taken together, these results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of using brusatol to combat chemoresistance and suggest that brusatol can be developed into an adjuvant chemotherapeutic drug...
  96. pmc Quantifying the global cellular thiol-disulfide status
    Rosa E Hansen
    Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 13, DK 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:422-7. 2009
    ..that the redox status of protein thiols is of central importance to protein structure and folding and that glutathione is an important low-molecular-mass redox regulator...
  97. pmc Decline in transcriptional activity of Nrf2 causes age-related loss of glutathione synthesis, which is reversible with lipoic acid
    Jung H Suh
    Linus Pauling Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:3381-6. 2004
    b>Glutathione (GSH) significantly declines in the aging rat liver...
  98. pmc Subcellular immunocytochemical analysis detects the highest concentrations of glutathione in mitochondria and not in plastids
    B Zechmann
    University of Graz, Institute of Plant Sciences, Schubertstrasse 51, 8010 Graz, Austria
    J Exp Bot 59:4017-27. 2008
    The tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant and redox buffer with multiple roles in plant metabolism...
  99. pmc Glutathione metabolism and Parkinson's disease
    Michelle Smeyne
    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St Jude Children s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 62:13-25. 2013
    ..b>Glutathione is a ubiquitous thiol tripeptide that acts alone or in concert with enzymes within cells to reduce superoxide ..
  100. pmc Glutathione-dependent reductive stress triggers mitochondrial oxidation and cytotoxicity
    Huali Zhang
    Laboratory of Cardiac Disease, Redox Signaling, and Cell Regeneration, Division of Cardiology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA
    FASEB J 26:1442-51. 2012
    To investigate the effects of the predominant nonprotein thiol, glutathione (GSH), on redox homeostasis, we employed complementary pharmacological and genetic strategies to determine the consequences of both loss- and gain-of-function ..
  101. ncbi Oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by cadmium in the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line: role of glutathione in the resistance to cadmium
    Yves Nzengue
    Laboratoire Oligoéléments et Résistance au Stress Oxydant induit par les Xénobiotiques, EA 3776, LRC CEA 8M, UFR de Pharmacie, Universite Joseph Fourier, Domaine de la Merci, 38700 La Tronche, France
    Toxicology 243:193-206. 2008
    ..damage induced by cadmium to cellular macromolecules, its effect on the antioxidant systems and the role of glutathione in cell protection toward cadmium toxicity...

Research Grants101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Dietary Cysteine:Conceptal Response to Oxidative Stress
    Craig Harris; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Without adequate free cysteine, the ability to restore glutathione that is lost due to oxidation is compromised by inadequate glutathione synthesis where sensitive target cells ..
  2. Correction of glutathione deficiency for treatment of diabetic nephropathy
    Paolo Fanti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) imbalance are major contributors to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy...
  3. Pilot and definitive studies to evaluate Insertional Mutagenesis
    LU TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Liver histopathology, glutathione, clinical pathology, hepatic RNA isolation and subsequent microarray profiling, liver proteomics and serum ..
  4. Studies to Evaluate the Toxicological Potential of Test Articles
    LU TAYLOR; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Liver histopathology, glutathione, clinical pathology, hepatic RNA isolation and subsequent microarray profiling, liver proteomics and serum ..
  5. Pathogenesis and Treatment of Liver Disease in Transaldolase Deficiency
    Andras Perl; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..was characterized by the accumulation of S7P, failure to recycle R5P for the oxidative PPP, depleted NADPH and glutathione levels, and increased production of lipid hydroperoxides (LPO)...
  6. Cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) and angiogenesis
    Priyabrata Mukherjee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..effect either directly or indirectly by maintaining an intricate balance among cellular homocysteine (Hcy), glutathione (GSH) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels...
  7. Enterococcus faecalis, Colorectal Cancer, and Bystander Effects
    Mark M Huycke; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) as inhibitors or promoters, respectively, of glutathione and glutathione S-transferases will be tested...
  8. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Adipose Insulin Resistance
    David A Bernlohr; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..stress challenge are new findings that describe the tumor necrosis factor 1 (TNF1) dependent down regulation of glutathione S-transferase A4 setting the stage for a molecular cascade of events that activates the c-JUN NH2-terminal ..
  9. Preclinical Development of JS-K, a Novel NO-Generating Prodrug for Cancer
    Paul J Shami; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..JSK Therapeutics (JSKT) has designed a class of diazeniumdiolate prodrugs that release NO upon interaction with glutathione in a reaction catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferase, which is expressed at significantly higher concentrations ..
  10. A Thioredoxin Mimetic for Radiocontrast Nephropathy
    GARRY JOHN SOUTHAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of the anti-inflammatory cytoplasmic protein IkBalpha, and restore the balance of reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione. In a murine LD100 model of severe redox stress induced by acute Cl2 gas inhalation, post-insult administration ..
  11. Therapeutic Effect of a Novel Antioxidant on Degenerative Eye Disorders
    Nuran Ercal; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..oxidative stress by generating sufficient antioxidant enzymes or small molecular weight antioxidants like glutathione (GSH). Their ability to produce such antioxidants decreases with age, leading to increased oxidative damage...
  12. Arsenic Trioxide and Acute Myeloid Leukemia
    Yongkui Jing; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Under physiological conditions ROS generated as a byproduct of mitochondrial respiration are detoxified by glutathione-enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-s-transferase ? (GST?) and glutathione reductase (GR)...
  13. A Bifunctional Katp Channel Activator and Redox Mimetic for BPD
    Kanneganti Murthy; Fiscal Year: 2013 analyzed for pulmonary vascular structure and growth, alveolarization, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio), peroxynitrite formation (3-nitrotyrosine), poly(ADP-ribose) formation, fibrosis (Mason ..
  14. Role of Glutathione S-Transferase P in Heart Failure
    Sumanth D Prabhu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) metabolize aldehydes by catalyzing their conjugation with glutathione (GSH)...
  15. The mechanisms by which alcohol and HIV render the lung susceptible to injury
    DAVID MARSHALL GUIDOT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specifically, each causes oxidative stress and depletion of the anti-oxidant glutathione within the airways...
  16. A Novel Thioredoxin Mimetic Prodrug for Prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
    Prakash Jagtap; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cytoplasmic protein I?B[unreadable], and restored the balance of reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione. In a murine LD60 model of redox stress, induced by acute Cl2 inhalation, post-insult administration of R-901 ..
  17. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Adipose Insulin Resistance
    DAVID BERNLOHR; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..findings that describe the tumor necrosis factor [unreadable] (TNF[unreadable]) dependent down regulation of glutathione S-transferase A4 setting the stage for a molecular cascade of events that activates the c-JUN NH2-terminal ..
  18. N-Acetylcysteine and Milk Thistle for Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy
    Paolo Fanti; Fiscal Year: 2011
    Oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) imbalance are major contributors to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy...
  19. The effect of trichloroethylene exposure on adverse pregnancy outcomes
    Iman Hassan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2) a principal bioactive metabolite of TCE, 1,3-dichlorovinyl cysteine (DCVC), decreased the antioxidant glutathione, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine release and increased expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (..
  20. Prolactin as a Growth Factor in Breast Cancer
    Nira Ben-Jonathan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PRL protects breast cancer cells (BCC) against drugs by activating the detoxification enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as well as by increasing the expression of the anti- apoptotic protein Bcl-2...
  21. Effects of GSH +/- Arginine on Markers of Inflammation Among Adults with CVD Risk
    Christopher D Gardner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..OBJECTIVE: This study will determine whether a dietary supplement containing glutathione will lower levels of inflammatory markers, and whether the presence or absence of supplemental arginine will ..
  22. Resuscitation of smoke inhalation and burn injury with a thioredoxin mimetic
    ANDREW LURIE SALZMAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..anti-inflammatory cytoplasmic protein I?B[unreadable], and restore the balance of reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione. In a murine LD100 model of severe redox stress induced by acute chlorine gas inhalation, post-insult ..
  23. Randomized trial of PEITC as a modifier of NNK metabolism in smokers
    Jian Min Yuan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The protective effect is confined to individuals with glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 null-null or GSTT1 null-null genotype, and is particularly evident among those with the ..
  24. The Effects of PP2A on TNF Signaling and Smoke-Induced Lung Injury
    Robert F Foronjy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Further studies in our laboratory demonstrate that the transgenic expression of human SOD1 and glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) decreases JNK activation and AP-1 signaling within the lungs of mice...
    Sanjay Awasthi; Fiscal Year: 2011
    Rlip (RLIP76, RALBP1) is a stress-responsive glutathione-electrophile conjugate (GS-E) transporter which is overexpressed in a number of types of cancers (lung, ovary, prostate, skin), but not in all types (breast, liver)...
  26. Vitamin B6 Effects on One-Carbon Metabolism
    Jesse F Gregory; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Thus, B6 nutrition is linked many vital cellular processes such as the synthesis of nucleotides and glutathione, metabolism of most amino acids, including sulfur amino acids, methylation processes, and gluconeogenesis...
    SHELLY CHI LOO LU; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..applicant): S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is the principal biological methyl donor, precursor for polyamines and glutathione (GSH). SAMe biosynthesis is catalyzed by methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT)...
  28. Glutathione in mitochondrial dysfunction and disease progression in ALS-models
    Marcelo R Vargas; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..employed using the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM-/-), which have a 70-80% reduction of total glutathione (GSH) when compared to wild-type littermates...
  29. A Novel Murine Model of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontitus
    Helieh S Oz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..with distinct antioxidants, a cysteine prodrug 2-(RS)-n-propylthiazolidine- 4(R)-carboxylic acid (PTCA) and a glutathione (GSH) prodrug s-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), to interfere with molecular events elicited by ROS produced during ..
  30. Excessive Copper Levels Disrupt Hepatic Nuclear Receptor Function
    Clavia Ruth Wooton-Kee; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..reductase (HMG-CoA reductase)), biliary bile acid (bile salt export pump (Bsep, Abcb11) and glutathione conjugated- compound transport (multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, Abcc2))...
  31. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium as a Model for A
    Alfred S Lewin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mitochondrial oxidative stress by elevating a set of antioxidant enzymes, including heme oxygenase-1, glutathione transferases, and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1...
  32. The influence of selenium on biomarkers of prostate cancer risk
    KARAM E EL-BAYOUMY; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..biomarkers of risk PSA levels and testosterone metabolism, 3. biomarkers of oxidative stress blood glutathione (GSH) and protein bound GSH (bGSH), urinary 8-hydroxy- 22-deoxyguanosine levels, urinary and plasma F2-..
  33. Cyclic AMP, Cytokine Modulation and Alcoholic Liver Disease
    Craig J McClain; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..associated with an increase in oxidative stress with a concomitant decrease in cellular antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH) and importantly, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), due to subnormal synthesis...
    Richard Armstrong; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..resistance proteins with three subfamilies now called FosA, FosB and FosX that catalyze the addition of glutathione, L-cysteine and water, respectively, to the antibiotic rendering it inactive...
  35. Visualization of ototoxic mitochondrial dysfunction in mammalian hair cells
    Shelley A Batts; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, in the accumulation of mitochondrial ROS, in levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, an indicator of oxidative stress) and in plasma membrane integrity...
  36. Epidemiological Research on Autism in Jamaica
    Mohammad H Rahbar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition, we will assess the role of select polymorphisms in glutathione-S-transferase genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1), and their potential interactions with these heavy metals in relation ..
    SHELLY CHI LOO LU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Glutathione (GSH) plays a key role in xenobiotic metabolism, defends against oxidative stress and modulates pathological processes such as inflammatory response and fibrogenesis...
  38. Contribution of Gstm1 to the severity of hypertension and chronic kidney disease
    Thu H Le; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The gene product of GSTM1 is glutathione S-transferase m-1, or GSTM1 enzyme, that belongs to a superfamily of glutathione-S-transferases that metabolize ..
  39. Mitochondrial function and antifungal photodynamic therapy
    Constantine G Haidaris; Fiscal Year: 2011 be targeted is linked to maintenance of mitochondrial redox balance by thioredoxins, glutaredoxins and glutathione transferases...
    Richard C Deth; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..same conditions, we will measure drug-induced changes of intracellular thiols (reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione (GSH and GSSG), cysteine and homocysteine) as well as methylation-related metabolites methionine, S- ..
  41. Molecular Regulation of Alpha-Synuclein Misfolding and Toxicity in Two Yeast Mode
    SHUBHIK DEBBURMAN; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..will be evaluated in budding yeasts compromised for major cytoplasmic antioxidant enzymes, including catalases, glutathione regulating enzymes, and DJ1, using single knockout strains, and multiple knockouts, where available...
  42. Genetic Determinants of Lung Injury
    Beverly H Koller; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The glutathione S transferase (GST) family includes enzymes whose ability to metabolize a wide range of oxidative stress ..
  43. Alcohol &Antiretrovirals in HIV Infection, Oxidative Stress and Liver Disease
    Marianna K Baum; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Plasma antioxidants (glutathione, vitamins A and E, 1 and 2-carotenes, zinc and selenium) will also be determined...
  44. Redox Regulation of SERCA by Nitric Oxide
    Richard A Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..SERCA) in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) to be stimulated by low levels of 7NO-derived RNS that formed glutathione (GSH) adducts most abundantly on SERCA cysteine-674 (C674)...
  45. Targeted investigation of tissue specific oxidative stress in the etiology of ALS
    Holly Van Remmen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of lipid hydroperoxides, a conditional knockout mouse carrying floxed alleles for phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (Gpx4flfl mice)...
  46. Genetics of Age-Related Hearing Loss
    Kenneth R Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We recently discovered that mice with a null mutation of gamma-glutamyltransferase 1(Ggt1), which are glutathione deficient, exhibit a progressive hearing loss that is associated with a selective loss of cochlear inner hair ..
  47. Epidemiological Research on Autism in Jamaica - Phase II
    Mohammad H Rahbar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and her colleagues at the University of the West Indies (UWI) in Jamaica to investigate the role of the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) genes and five heavy metals (lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, manganese) in relation to ASD...
  48. Mitoenergetic Failure in Brain Aging
    Gregory J Brewer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..neurons, old neuron mitochondria are considerably depolarized, produce higher levels of ROS with lower glutathione antioxidant and maintain a more oxidized redox potential [ NAD(P)H / FAD ], all of which contribute to ..
  49. Dichotomous Roles of Thrombin in Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity
    ROBERT ANDREW ROTH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and hepatocyte-derived procoagulant microparticles in thrombin generation, and the role of decreased glutathione in TF activation during APAP toxicity...
  50. Chemoprevention of Tamoxifen-induced Endometrial cancer by black cohosh and red c
    BIRGIT MARIA DIETZ; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will study the ability of these botanicals to induce the detoxification enzymes, quinone reductase and glutathione-S-transferase, in the uterus and liver of adult rats...
  51. DAMP-RAGE Signaling and Fetal Injury in Inflammation-Induced Preterm Birth
    Irina A Buhimschi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..maternal inflammation is associated with fetal oxidative stress and depletion of the intracellular antioxidant glutathione. In the same experimental model we further provided evidence that HMGB1 and RAGE and over-expressed in the ..
  52. Diesel, Allergens and Gene Interaction and Child Atopy
    Grace LeMasters; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, which are deactivated primarily by enzymes in the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) family...
  53. Study on the intracellular Network of TBX3
    Taosheng Huang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..between TBX3 and HDACs by a series of in vivo and in vitro assays, including immunohistochemical analysis, Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pulldown assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP)...
  54. Genetic Susceptibility Factors in Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT)
    Karl Anderson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..human studies, that polymorphisms in phase I and phase II enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) and glutathione transferases (GSTs) may contribute to developing PCT...
  55. Timing of Exposure to Selenium and Isoflavones and Prostate Cancer Prevention
    EDWIN DOUGLAS LEPHART; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase and 5alpha-reductase activities will be assayed. AR and NF-:B activation will be determined by EMSA...
  56. Molecular Epidemiology of Chronic Liver Diseases
    Manal Hassan; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..e., catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutases, TNF- alpha, and TGF beta1, IL-11, COX2) and genes of DNA repair (i.e...
  57. ROS, Redox Regulation and Novel Targets for Cancer Therapy
    Peng Huang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CLL) cells exhibited intrinsic oxidative stress and were highly dependent on cellular antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) to maintain redox balance...
  58. Cigarette Smoke-derived Electrophilic Aldehydes and Airway Inflammation
    Albert van Der Vliet; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Also, based on recent studies indicating that acrolein is detoxified by glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and by hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a newly recognized endogenous mediator produced by (..
  59. Gene Therapy Reduction of Radiotherapy Esophagitis
    Joel S Greenberger; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..toxicity of single fraction or fractionated radiotherapy to the mouse esophagus, decreases irradiation-induced glutathione and thiol depletion, lipid peroxidation, and enhance the survival of intravenously injected esophageal stem ..
  60. Oxidative Stress: A Recipe for Anxiety
    Samina Salim; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In separate studies Regulator of G-Protein Signaling protein (RGS)-2 and two antioxidant enzymes, glutathione reductase (Gsr)-1 and glyoxalase (Glo)-1 have been postulated as modulators of anxiety...
  61. Factors for Epigenetic Silencing of Lung Cancer Genes
    Steven Belinsky; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Risk alleles for the genes encoding the NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase and glutathione-S-transferase P1 genes were significantly associated with methylation of the pl6 or MGMT genes...
  62. Chemoprevention of Pancreatic Cancer by Capsaicin
    Sanjay K Srivastava; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, we found that capsaicin significantly reduces glutathione and thioredoxin levels and activated JNK in pancreatic cancer cells, reflecting the potent alterations in ..
  63. Phase III Study Comparing Albumin and Hetastarch Therapy in Acute Lung Injury
    Gregory S Martin; Fiscal Year: 2013 albumin and furosemide therapy in ALI result from biochemical properties of albumin that improve pulmonary glutathione homeostasis to alter NF(B activation and thereby improve alveolar capillary barrier function, combined with ..
  64. Biomarkers of Aggressive Oral Cancer
    ..These metabolites included kynurenine, serine, glutathione, and glutamate/glutamic acid...
  65. Methylmercury exposure, mercury metabolism genotypes, and risk of adult glioma
    Kathleen M Egan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..There is also evidence that MeHg inhibits the antioxidant effects of glutathione and selenoproteins, enzymes which mediate most of the antioxidant functions of selenium...
  66. Transcriptional regulation: renal dopamine D1 receptors in HTN &oxidative stress
    Mustafa F Lokhandwala; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our preliminary studies showed that mice treated with L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO), a glutathione synthesis pathway inhibitor exhibited oxidative stress, high BP, renal proximal tubular D1R dysfunction and up-..
  67. Multifunctional nanoparticles to improve treatment of human glioblastoma
    Miqin Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..attached to the outer shell of the NP tht is crosslinked by disulfide linkage and can be rapidly degraded by glutathione-mediated reduction in cytosol of target cells to release the payload but not in blood...
  68. Mitochondrial Thioredoxin, Caloric Restriction, and Age-related Hearing Loss
    Shinichi Someya; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..There are two major antioxidant defense systems in mitochondria protecting cells from ROS: the glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin (TXN) systems (11)...
  69. Oxidative activation of Src in smoke-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition
    Henry Jay Forman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CSE) activates Src and causes EMT and that both are inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and glutathione precursor, or by PP2, a Src inhibitor in the human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line, H358...
  70. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacogenomic Determinants of Cisplatin Kidney Injury
    Melanie S Joy; Fiscal Year: 2013 demonstrate that genetic variants in kidney transporters (OCT2/SLC22A2, MATE1/SLC47A1, and MRP2/ABCC2), glutathione metabolizing enzymes (Glutathione-S-transferases, e.g. GSTP1 and GSTA1, and g-glutamyl transferase1, e.g...
  71. Endogenous Oxalate Synthesis
    Ross P Holmes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Glyoxal is primarily converted to glycolate by its interaction with glutathione and the glyoxalase system. Activity of these pathways is contingent on glutathione and NADPH...
  72. Role of oxido-reductive stress in regulating HIV-TB coinfection
    Roy L Sutliff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It has been demonstrated that the major cellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH) either directly or indirectly modulates innate and adaptive immune mechanisms to control Mtb infection...
  73. Antioxidative role of GPX1 in transgenic mice.
    XINGEN LEI; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cellular glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) is the first identified selenium-dependent protein and a major intracellular antioxidant enzyme in mammals...
  74. Developmental Pharmacology of cytosolic and mitochondrial GSTZ1-1/MAAI
    PETER WALLACE STACPOOLE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..provided by applicant): The broad, long-term objectives of this research are to understand the properties of glutathione transferase Z1- 1 (GSTZ1-1) and its role in the elimination of haloacetic acids, particularly dichloroacetic ..
    Vickram Ramkumar; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..of the cell from free radicals and comprises enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH...
  76. Novel Mechanisms of Microglial Neurotoxicity at Physiological Oxygen
    Brian M Polster; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..synergize with idebenone by 1) upregulating NQO1 and by 2) increasing the pool of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione which can prevent cysteine S-nitrosothiol modifications...
  77. Down-regulation of oxidant-induced airway inflammation though modulation of NRF2
    Michelle Hernandez; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Healthy volunteers lacking the antioxidant enzyme, Glutathione S Transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1), suffered from increased neutrophilic airway inflammation after chamber exposure to ..
  78. Protein-thiol mixed disulfide in cataractogenesis
    Marjorie F Lou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    Summary: The aims of this proposal are to confirm that the thiol repair systems of glutathione (GSH)-dependent thioltransferase (TTase) and NADPH-dependent thioredoxin (TRx) protect against oxidative stress-induced cataract formation by ..
  79. NQO1: Linking Oxidant Stress to Inflammation in Airway Epithelial Cells
    Judith A Voynow; Fiscal Year: 2013 determined by levels of reduced: oxidized (-tocopherol, reduced: oxidized ubiquinone and reduced: oxidized glutathione. Aim 2b: To determine whether following ozone exposure, NQO1 causes a shift in isoprostane production with a ..
  80. Immune enhancement for immunological non-responders to ART
    DAVID MARSHALL GUIDOT; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..alcohol ingestion have evidence of oxidative stress (as reflected by changes in thiol anti-oxidants such as glutathione), zinc deficiency, and impaired alveolar macrophage capacity to ingest and kill bacteria...
  81. Cellular mechanisms of dietary therapy for epilepsy
    GARY I YELLEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will be used to monitor the responses, in individual cells, of specific key metabolic signals: ATP, NADH, glutathione redox, and AMP-- activated protein kinase activity...
  82. Novel Protein Sensors
    Neal J Zondlo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation;tyrosine sulfation;and specific oxidation via tyrosine nitration, glutathione oxidation, and protein S-nitrosylation...
  83. Metabolic control of neuronal activity by fuel substrate switching
    GARY I YELLEN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..mutant neurons? We will employ fluorescent biosensors to assess the levels of key metabolic signals - ATP, ROS/glutathione redox, and NADH redox - in individual neurons and astrocytes in culture or slices, to learn the causes of KATP ..
  84. Glutaredoxin, a Critical Regulator of Parkinson Disease Pathogenesis
    Amy L Wilson-Delfosse; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..counteracts oxidative stress and maintains thiol homeostasis by catalyzing the reversible formation of protein-glutathione mixed disulfides on cysteine residues (protein-SSG)...
  85. Advanced GST Proteomics for Early Stage Organ-Specific Toxicity Screening. Phase
    Kevin M Patrie; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The cytosolic glutathione transferase (GST) family of enzymes offer a more reliable alternative as a biomarker for organ damage as they ..
  86. Genetic Determinants of Lung Cancer Survival
    Ping Yang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..As an effort to meet this challenge, we have been investigating genetic variations in the human glutathione metabolic system as one of the promising candidates to predict platinum-based treatment outcomes and survival...
  87. Metabolic mechanisms of naphthalene toxicity in lung
    Laura S Van Winkle; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CYP) enzymes;the reactive metabolites formed, which derive from the NA-epoxide (NA-O), can deplete cellular glutathione (GSH) and, at higher concentrations, bind covalently to tissue proteins...
  88. The role of GSH in cornea and lens development
    Vasilis Vasiliou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The goal of this project is to elucidate the role of glutathione (GSH) in the development of ocular surface tissues...
    Murad Ookhtens; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..of this proposal are to: (a) define the key parameters of intrahepatic and interorgan homeostasis of reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiol-disulfides; (b) define age-specific changes in them over life-span of Harlan Sprague-Dawley ..
  90. MR Metabolic Markers for Evaluation of Patients with Recurrent Glioma
    Sarah J Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of tissue samples, additional metabolites of interest in this case are myo-I, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, glutathione and 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG)...
    Sudhir Shah; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The detection of enhanced lipid peroxidation and changes in glutathione (GSH) "oxidized" glutathione, (GSSG) and the glutathione redox ratio (GSSG/GSH serve as an important marker of ..
    Henry Kaplan; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..of these drugs for this cell line will be determined and correlated with the effects that these agents have on glutathione metabolism...
  93. Inhibition of glutathione reductase and ovarian cancer drug resistance reversal
    Xiangming Guan; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..An increase in intracellular glutathione (GSH) has been demonstrated to be the major factor in ovarian cancer drug resistance to the first line and ..
    Manuela Gago Dominguez; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), catalase (CAT), glutathione S- transferase A1 (GSTA1), glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), ..
  95. Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Parkinson's Disease
    M Flint Beal; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In PD, there is an early reduction in reduced glutathione in the substantia nigra, as well as increases in markers of lipid, protein and DNA oxidation...
    R Mulcahy; Fiscal Year: 1999
    Elevations of intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels are among the earliest and most common biochemical changes associated with inmate or acquired resistance to alkylating agents, analogs of cisplatinum and doxorubicin...
  97. Selenium, Glutathione Peroxidase-1, and Homocysteine-induced Cardiac Remodeling
    Jacob Joseph; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..myocardial fibrosis, since a major cellular defense against oxidant stress is the selenium requiring enzyme glutathione peroxidase- 1 (GPx-1)...
  98. Function of thioredoxin glutathione reductase
    VADIM GLADYSHEV; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione systems are the major thiol-dependent redox systems present in cells...
  99. Glutathione reductase and tumor sensitivity to radiation
    Xiangming Guan; Fiscal Year: 2003
    Cancer resistance to radiation is often the cause of failure in radiotherapy; intracellular glutathione (GSH) has been implicated as one of the major causes of the resistance...
    Raymond Burk; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Defenses against oxidant stress such as Se (acting through glutathione peroxidase), vitamin E, glutathione, and taurine would be expected to protect the myocardium...
  101. Preventing NIHL by enhancing glutathione pathways
    Richard Kopke; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The primary hypothesis is that pharmacologically optimizing the glutathione pathway will ameliorate or prevent NIHL and that this protection can be obtained by either injection or by oral ..