Genomes and Genes
Summary: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Publications231 found, 100 shown here
- Redox environment of the cell as viewed through the redox state of the glutathione disulfide/glutathione coupleF Q Schafer
Free Radical Research Institute and ESR Facility, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 1101, USA
Free Radic Biol Med 30:1191-212. 2001..We discuss how the redox state of the glutathione disulfide-glutathione couple (GSSG/2GSH) can serve as an important indicator of redox environment...
- Metabolism and functions of glutathione in brainR Dringen
Physiologisch chemisches Institut der Universität, Hoppe Seyler Str 4, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
Prog Neurobiol 62:649-71. 2000The tripeptide glutathione is the thiol compound present in the highest concentration in cells of all organs. Glutathione has many physiological functions including its involvement in the defense against reactive oxygen species...
- Glutathione metabolism and its implications for healthGuoyao Wu
Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA
J Nutr 134:489-92. 2004b>Glutathione (gamma-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) is the most abundant low-molecular-weight thiol, and GSH/glutathione disulfide is the major redox couple in animal cells...
- Glutathione dysregulation and the etiology and progression of human diseasesNazzareno Ballatori
Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
Biol Chem 390:191-214. 2009b>Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in a multitude of cellular processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, and as a result, disturbances in GSH homeostasis are implicated in the etiology and/or ..
- Roles for glutathione transferases in plant secondary metabolismDavid P Dixon
Centre for Bioactive Chemistry, School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, UK
Phytochemistry 71:338-50. 2010Plant glutathione transferases (GSTs) are classified as enzymes of secondary metabolism, but while their roles in catalysing the conjugation and detoxification of herbicides are well known, their endogenous functions are largely obscure...
- Glutathione in defense and signaling: lessons from a small thiolDale A Dickinson
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, and Center for Free Radical Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
Ann N Y Acad Sci 973:488-504. 2002..Here, we will focus on glutathione (GSH), the major endogenous low- molecular-weight nonprotein thiol synthesized de novo in mammalian cells...
- Regulation of glutathione synthesisShelly C Lu
Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, USC Research Center for Liver Diseases, USC UCLA Research Center for Alcoholic Liver and Pancreatic Diseases, Keck School of Medicine USC, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
Mol Aspects Med 30:42-59. 2009b>Glutathione (GSH) is a ubiquitous intracellular peptide with diverse functions that include detoxification, antioxidant defense, maintenance of thiol status, and modulation of cell proliferation...
- Coordinate regulation of glutathione biosynthesis and release by Nrf2-expressing glia potently protects neurons from oxidative stressAndy Y Shih
Kinsmen Laboratory of Neurological Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z3, Canada
J Neurosci 23:3394-406. 2003..number added) could protect fully cocultured naive neurons from oxidative glutamate toxicity associated with glutathione (GSH) depletion...
- Hydrogen sulfide increases glutathione production and suppresses oxidative stress in mitochondriaYuka Kimura
Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Neuroscience, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan
Antioxid Redox Signal 12:1-13. 2010..We recently showed that H(2)S protects neurons from oxidative stress by increasing the levels of glutathione (GSH), a major cellular antioxidant, by more than twice that of a control through enhancing the cystine ..
- Mechanism of metalloid-induced death in Leishmania spp.: role of iron, reactive oxygen species, Ca2+, and glutathioneAshish Mehta
National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India
Free Radic Biol Med 40:1857-68. 2006..Cellular glutathione level was reduced after antimony treatment but arsenic did not affect glutathione...
- AtOPT6 transports glutathione derivatives and is induced by primisulfuronOlivier Cagnac
, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 6161, Transport des Assimilats, Laboratoire de Physiologie, , , , France
Plant Physiol 135:1378-87. 2004..rice (Oryza sativa; OsGT1) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea; BjGT1) have been described as transporters of glutathione derivatives...
- Nrf2 activation in astrocytes protects against neurodegeneration in mouse models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosisMarcelo R Vargas
Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 2222, USA
J Neurosci 28:13574-81. 2008..Motor neuron protection depended on increased glutathione secretion from astrocytes...
- Differential metabolomics reveals ophthalmic acid as an oxidative stress biomarker indicating hepatic glutathione consumptionTomoyoshi Soga
Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Keio University, Tsuruoka, Yamagata 997 0017, Japan
J Biol Chem 281:16768-76. 2006..ophthalmate was synthesized from 2-aminobutyrate through consecutive reactions with gamma-glutamylcysteine and glutathione synthetase...
- A nuclear glutathione cycle within the cell cyclePedro Diaz Vivancos
CEBAS CSIC, Department of Plant Breeding, Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, Spain
Biochem J 431:169-78. 2010....
- Recruitment of glutathione into the nucleus during cell proliferation adjusts whole-cell redox homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana and lowers the oxidative defence shieldPedro Diaz Vivancos
Centre for Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
Plant J 64:825-38. 2010..In animals, the low-molecular-weight thiol tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is recruited into the nucleus early in the cell proliferation cycle...
- Resveratrol induces glutathione synthesis by activation of Nrf2 and protects against cigarette smoke-mediated oxidative stress in human lung epithelial cellsAruna Kode
Department of Environmental Medicine, Lung Biology and Disease Program, University of Rochester Medical Center, Box 850, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 294:L478-88. 2008..Cigarette smoke (CS) is known to cause oxidative stress and deplete glutathione (GSH) levels in alveolar epithelial cells...
- Genetically altered mice to evaluate glutathione homeostasis in health and diseaseTimothy P Dalton
Department of Environmental Health and Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, 123 East Shields Street, P O Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0056, USA
Free Radic Biol Med 37:1511-26. 2004The tripeptide glutathione (GSH) is part of an integrated antioxidant system that protects cells and tissues from oxidative damage. Oxidative stress can result from exposure to excessive amounts of endogenous and exogenous electrophiles...
- Subcellular immunocytochemical analysis detects the highest concentrations of glutathione in mitochondria and not in plastidsB Zechmann
University of Graz, Institute of Plant Sciences, Schubertstrasse 51, 8010 Graz, Austria
J Exp Bot 59:4017-27. 2008The tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant and redox buffer with multiple roles in plant metabolism...
- Apoptosis and glutathione: beyond an antioxidantR Franco
Laboratory of Signal Transduction, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
Cell Death Differ 16:1303-14. 2009..In particular, glutathione (GSH) depletion is a common feature of apoptotic cell death triggered by a wide variety of stimuli including ..
- The protective role of endogenous glutathione in carrageenan-induced pleurisy in the ratS Cuzzocrea
Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Messina, Italy
Eur J Pharmacol 372:187-97. 1999In the present study we investigated the protective role of endogenous glutathione, a known free radical scavenger, in rats subjected to carrageenan-induced pleurisy...
- Glutathione, oxidative stress and neurodegenerationJ B Schulz
Neurodegeneration Laboratory, Department of Neurology, University of Tubingen, Germany
Eur J Biochem 267:4904-11. 2000..Here, we review the evidence for a disturbance of glutathione homeostasis that may either lead to or result from oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders...
- Glutathione and its role in cellular functionsH Sies
Institut fur Physiologische Chemie I, Heinrich Heine Universitat Dusseldorf, Germany
Free Radic Biol Med 27:916-21. 1999b>Glutathione (GSH) is the major cellular thiol participating in cellular redox reactions and thioether formation...
- Regulation of protein function by S-glutathiolation in response to oxidative and nitrosative stressP Klatt
Department of Estructura y Función de Proteínas, Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, Instituto Reina Sofía de Investigaciones Nefrológicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
Eur J Biochem 267:4928-44. 2000Protein S-glutathiolation, the reversible covalent addition of glutathione to cysteine residues on target proteins, is emerging as a candidate mechanism by which both changes in the intracellular redox state and the generation of ..
- Glutathione pathways in the brainRalf Dringen
, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 4, , Germany
Biol Chem 384:505-16. 2003The antioxidant glutathione (GSH) is essential for the cellular detoxification of reactive oxygen species in brain cells...
- Glutathione in cancer biology and therapyJose M Estrela
Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 43:143-81. 2006The glutathione (GSH) content of cancer cells is particularly relevant in regulating mutagenic mechanisms, DNA synthesis, growth, and multidrug and radiation resistance...
- Schisandrin B elicits a glutathione antioxidant response and protects against apoptosis via the redox-sensitive ERK/Nrf2 pathway in H9c2 cellsPo Yee Chiu
Division of Life Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China
Mol Cell Biochem 350:237-50. 2011..authors examined the effects of (-)Sch B on MAPK and Nrf2 activation, as well as the subsequent eliciting of glutathione response and protection against apoptosis...
- Molecular characterization of dopamine-derived quinones reactivity toward NADH and glutathione: implications for mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson diseaseMarco Bisaglia
Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
Biochim Biophys Acta 1802:699-706. 2010..Our results indicate a very diverse reactivity for the different DAQ studied that may contribute to unravel the complex molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress and mitochondria dysfunction in the context of PD...
- Glutathione revisited: a vital function in iron metabolism and ancillary role in thiol-redox controlChitranshu Kumar
LSOC, DSV, iBiTecS, CEA Saclay, France
EMBO J 30:2044-56. 2011b>Glutathione contributes to thiol-redox control and to extra-mitochondrial iron-sulphur cluster (ISC) maturation...
- Impaired glutathione synthesis in schizophrenia: convergent genetic and functional evidenceRene Gysin
Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, 1008 Prilly Lausanne, Switzerland
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:16621-6. 2007..Convergent evidence has implicated oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) deficits in the pathogenesis of this disease...
- Molecular mechanisms and clinical implications of reversible protein S-glutathionylationJohn J Mieyal
Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 4965, USA
Antioxid Redox Signal 10:1941-88. 2008..prevalent form of cysteine modification is reversible formation of protein mixed disulfides (protein-SSG) with glutathione (GSH)...
- Redox imbalance in cystine/glutamate transporter-deficient miceHideyo Sato
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
J Biol Chem 280:37423-9. 2005..These results demonstrate that system x(-)(c) contributes to maintaining the plasma redox balance in vivo but is dispensable in mammalian development, although it is vitally important to cells in vitro...
- Role of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase in neuronal cell death induced by glutathione depletion in neuron/glia mesencephalic culturesS de Bernardo
, , , Madrid 28034, Spain
J Neurochem 91:667-82. 2004To date, glutathione (GSH) depletion is the earliest biochemical alteration shown in brains of Parkinson's disease patients, but the role of GSH in dopamine cell survival is debated...
- Bilirubin and glutathione have complementary antioxidant and cytoprotective rolesThomas W Sedlak
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:5171-6. 2009b>Glutathione (GSH) and bilirubin are prominent endogenous antioxidant cytoprotectants...
- Glutathione deficit during development induces anomalies in the rat anterior cingulate GABAergic neurons: Relevance to schizophreniaJan Harry Cabungcal
Center for Research in Psychiatric Neuroscience, Department of Adult Psychiatry CHUV, University of Lausanne, 1008 Prilly, Switzerland
Neurobiol Dis 22:624-37. 2006A series of studies in schizophrenic patients report a decrease of glutathione (GSH) in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and cerebrospinal fluid, a decrease in mRNA levels for two GSH synthesizing enzymes and a deficit in parvalbumin (PV) ..
- Age-related nuclear cataract-oxidation is the keyRoger J W Truscott
Australian Cataract Research Foundation, University of Wollongong, Northfields Ave, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
Exp Eye Res 80:709-25. 2005..The key factor in preventing oxidation seems to be the concentration of nuclear glutathione (GSH)...
- Mitochondrial glutathione, a key survival antioxidantMontserrat Mari
Liver Unit, Hospital Clinic, IDIBAPS CIBEK, CIBERehd, and Department of Cell Death and Proliferation, IIBB CSIC, Barcelona, Spain
Antioxid Redox Signal 11:2685-700. 2009..Among the arsenal of antioxidants and detoxifying enzymes existing in mitochondria, mitochondrial glutathione (mGSH) emerges as the main line of defense for the maintenance of the appropriate mitochondrial redox ..
- Plant homologs of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter, PfCRT, are required for glutathione homeostasis and stress responsesSpencer C Maughan
Institute of Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QT, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:2331-6. 2010In Arabidopsis thaliana, biosynthesis of the essential thiol antioxidant, glutathione (GSH), is plastid-regulated, but many GSH functions, including heavy metal detoxification and plant defense activation, depend on cytosolic GSH...
- Interplay between the NADP-linked thioredoxin and glutathione systems in Arabidopsis auxin signalingTalaat Bashandy
Laboratoire Génome et Développement des Plantes, Universite de Perpignan, Unite Mixte de Recherche, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement Université de Perpignan Via Domitia 5096, 66860 Perpignan, France
Plant Cell 22:376-91. 2010..Thioredoxin (TRX) and glutathione are key regulators of redox homeostasis, and the TRX and glutathione pathways are essential for postembryonic ..
- Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autismS Jill James
Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, and the Arkansas Children s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
Am J Clin Nutr 80:1611-7. 2004..Although abnormal metabolism of methionine and homocysteine has been associated with other neurologic diseases, these pathways have not been evaluated in persons with autism...
- Schizophrenia: glutathione deficit in cerebrospinal fluid and prefrontal cortex in vivoK Q Do
Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich and Centre for Research in Psychiatric Neuroscience, University of Lausanne, Route de Cery, CH 1008 Prilly Lausanne, Switzerland
Eur J Neurosci 12:3721-8. 2000..In cerebrospinal fluid of drug-free schizophrenic patients, a significant decrease in the level of total glutathione (GSH) by 27% (P<0...
- Alterations in the distribution of glutathione in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's diseaseR K Pearce
Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Centre, King s College, London, United Kingdom
J Neural Transm 104:661-77. 1997Depletion of reduced glutathione occurs in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease and in incidental Lewy body disease (presymptomatic Parkinson's disease) which may implicate oxidative stress in the neurodegenerative process...
- N-Acetylcysteine--a safe antidote for cysteine/glutathione deficiencyKondala R Atkuri
Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, Stanford University, B007 Beckman Center, 279 Campus Drive, Stanford University, CA 94305 5318, United States
Curr Opin Pharmacol 7:355-9. 2007b>Glutathione (GSH) deficiency is associated with numerous pathological conditions. Administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a cysteine prodrug, replenishes intracellular GSH levels...
- Glutathione--a review on its role and significance in Parkinson's diseaseHeather L Martin
School of Medical Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, Scotland, UK
FASEB J 23:3263-72. 2009..One of the earliest biochemical changes seen in PD is a reduction in the levels of total glutathione, a key cellular antioxidant...
- Differential targeting of GSH1 and GSH2 is achieved by multiple transcription initiation: implications for the compartmentation of glutathione biosynthesis in the BrassicaceaeAndreas Wachter
Heidelberg Institute of Plant Sciences HIP, INF 360, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Plant J 41:15-30. 2005The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana reveals that in this species the enzymes of glutathione biosynthesis, GSH1 and GSH2, are encoded by single genes...
- Redox and antioxidant systems of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparumSylke Muller
School of Life Sciences, Wellcome Trust Biocentre, University of Dundee, UK
Mol Microbiol 53:1291-305. 2004..defences are superoxide dismutases and thioredoxin-dependent peroxidases; however, they lack catalase and glutathione peroxidases...
- Efficacy of methylcobalamin and folinic acid treatment on glutathione redox status in children with autismS Jill James
Department of Pediatrics and Biostatistics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
Am J Clin Nutr 89:425-30. 2009..Metabolic abnormalities and targeted treatment trials have been reported for several neurobehavioral disorders but are relatively understudied in autism...
- Protective effect of ginger against alcohol-induced renal damage and antioxidant enzymes in male albino ratsK R Shanmugam
Division of Molecular Biology and Exercise Physiology, Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502, India
Indian J Exp Biol 48:143-9. 2010Superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, glutathione and uric acid levels were decreased and xanthine oxidase, glutathione-s-transferase activities were increased in alcohol treated (2 g/kg body weight, once daily for 30 days) group...
- N-methyl-aspartate receptor and neuronal nitric oxide synthase activation mediate bilirubin-induced neurotoxicityMaria A Brito
Research Institute for Medicines and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculdade de Farmacia, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
Mol Med 16:372-80. 2010..of both NO· and cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP), along with protein oxidation and depletion of glutathione. These events concurred for cell dysfunction and death and were counteracted by L-NAME...
- Schisandrin B-induced glutathione antioxidant response and cardioprotection are mediated by reactive oxidant species production in rat heartsNa Chen
Department of Biochemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong SAR, China
Biol Pharm Bull 33:825-9. 2010..presumably arising from cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-catalyzed metabolism of schisandrin B (Sch B), in triggering glutathione antioxidant response, Sch B induced reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent and ..
- Increased intracellular H₂O₂ availability preferentially drives glutathione accumulation in vacuoles and chloroplastsGuillaume Queval
Institut de Biologie des Plantes, UMR8618 CNRS, Batiment 630, Université de Paris Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France
Plant Cell Environ 34:21-32. 2011One biochemical response to increased H₂O₂ availability is the accumulation of glutathione disulphide (GSSG), the disulphide form of the key redox buffer glutathione...
- Prodrug approach for increasing cellular glutathione levelsIvana Cacciatore
Department of Drug Sciences, School of Pharmacy, G D Annunzio University, Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti, Italy
Molecules 15:1242-64. 2010Reduced glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant non-protein thiol in mammalian cells and the preferred substrate for several enzymes in xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant defense...
- Astrocyte-specific overexpression of Nrf2 protects striatal neurons from mitochondrial complex II inhibitionMarcus J Calkins
Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA
Toxicol Sci 115:557-68. 2010..Overall, these data establish that enhanced astrocytic Nrf2 response and Nrf2 preconditioning are both sufficient to protect from acute lesions from mitochondrial complex II inhibition...
- DJ-1 up-regulates glutathione synthesis during oxidative stress and inhibits A53T alpha-synuclein toxicityWenbo Zhou
Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Medicine, University Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80262, USA
J Biol Chem 280:43150-8. 2005..We have found that DJ-1 improves survival by increasing cellular glutathione levels through an increase in the rate-limiting enzyme glutamate cysteine ligase...
- Subcellular compartmentation of glutathione in dicotyledonous plantsBernd Zechmann
Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Graz, Schubertstrasse 51, 8010, Graz, Austria
Protoplasma 246:15-24. 2010This study describes the subcellular distribution of glutathione in roots and leaves of different plant species (Arabidopsis, Cucurbita, and Nicotiana)...
- A gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-independent pathway of glutathione catabolism to glutamate via 5-oxoproline in ArabidopsisNaoko Ohkama-Ohtsu
Department of Genetics, Development, and Cell Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
Plant Physiol 148:1603-13. 2008The degradation pathway of glutathione (GSH) in plants is not well understood...
- Controlled enzymatic production of astrocytic hydrogen peroxide protects neurons from oxidative stress via an Nrf2-independent pathwayRENEE E HASKEW-LAYTON
Department of Neurology and Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, The Burke Medical Research Institute, White Plains, NY 10605, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:17385-90. 2010..These findings demonstrate the utility of rgDAAO for spatially and temporally controlling intracellular H(2)O(2) concentrations to uncover unique astrocyte-dependent neuroprotective mechanisms...
- Nrf2 signaling, a mechanism for cellular stress resistance in long-lived miceScott F Leiser
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 2200, USA
Mol Cell Biol 30:871-84. 2010..exhibit many of the traits associated with enhanced activity of Nrf2/ARE, including higher levels of glutathione and resistance to plasma membrane lipid peroxidation...
- The in vivo susceptibility of Leishmania donovani to sodium stibogluconate is drug specific and can be reversed by inhibiting glutathione biosynthesisK C Carter
Department of Immunology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:1529-35. 2003..In addition, the role of glutathione in SSG resistance was investigated by determining the influence on SSG treatment of concomitant treatment with ..
- Eugenol protects nicotine-induced superoxide mediated oxidative damage in murine peritoneal macrophages in vitroSantanu Kar Mahapatra
Immunology and Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Human Physiology with Community Health, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721 102, West Bengal, India
Eur J Pharmacol 623:132-40. 2009..by decreased level of superoxide anion generation and malondialdehyde, and also increased level of reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase activity. Moreover, maximum protection was observed at the concentration of 15...
- Liposomal-glutathione provides maintenance of intracellular glutathione and neuroprotection in mesencephalic neuronal cellsGail D Zeevalk
Department of Neurology, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
Neurochem Res 35:1575-87. 2010A liposomal preparation of glutathione (GSH) was investigated for its ability to replenish intracellular GSH and provide neuroprotection in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease using paraquat plus maneb (PQMB) in rat mesencephalic ..
- Methanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum protects murine peritoneal macrophages from nicotine toxicity by decreasing free radical generation, lipid and protein damage and enhances antioxidant protectionSantanu Kar Mahapatra
Immunology and Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Human Physiology, Community Health, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal, India
Oxid Med Cell Longev 2:222-30. 2009..NADPH) oxidase activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, oxidized glutathione levels were observed in nicotine-treated group as compared to control group; those were significantly (p < 0...
- Glutathione transferase omega 1-1 (GSTO1-1) plays an anti-apoptotic role in cell resistance to cisplatin toxicitySimona Piaggi
Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 55, 56126 Pisa, Italy
Carcinogenesis 31:804-11. 2010Several lines of evidence correlate the overexpression of glutathione S-transferase omega 1-1 (GSTO1-1) with the onset of drug resistance of cancer cells; however, no direct evidence is yet available...
- Methylated bismuth, but not bismuth citrate or bismuth glutathione, induces cyto- and genotoxic effects in human cells in vitroU von Recklinghausen
Institute of Hygiene and Occupational Health, University Hospital, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen, Germany
Chem Res Toxicol 21:1219-28. 2008..monomethylbismuth(III), MeBi(III)] and two other bismuth compounds [bismuth citrate (Bi-Cit) and bismuth glutathione (Bi-GS)] in human hepatocytes, lymphocytes, and erythrocytes using ICP-MS...
- Glutathione and apoptosisMagdalena L Circu
Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Louisiana University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, Louisiana, USA
Free Radic Res 42:689-706. 2008..As a key modulator of cell functions, the most abundant non-protein thiol, glutathione (GSH), has important roles in cellular defense against oxidant aggression, redox regulation of proteins thiols ..
- Glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit deficiency and gender as determinants of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in miceLisa A McConnachie
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
Toxicol Sci 99:628-36. 2007..APAP) is bioactivated to the reactive intermediate N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine, which is scavenged by glutathione (GSH)...
- Redefining oxidative stressDean P Jones
Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Whitehead Biomedical Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
Antioxid Redox Signal 8:1865-79. 2006..Adoption of such a definition could redirect research to identify key perturbations of redox signaling and control and lead to new treatments for oxidative stress-related disease processes...
- Constitutively elevated salicylic acid signals glutathione-mediated nickel tolerance in Thlaspi nickel hyperaccumulatorsJohn L Freeman
Center for Plant Environmental Stress Physiology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA
Plant Physiol 137:1082-91. 2005..and by exogenous feeding, enhances the specific activity of serine acetyltransferase, leading to elevated glutathione and increased Ni resistance...
- Astrocyte-secreted GDNF and glutathione antioxidant system protect neurons against 6OHDA cytotoxicityJagdeep K Sandhu
Neurogenesis and Brain Repair Group, M54, Institute for Biological Sciences, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0R6
Neurobiol Dis 33:405-14. 2009..Furthermore, neurons and astrocytes expressed different components of GDNF signaling complex, suggesting that they might utilize separate pathways to mediate autocrine and paracrine effects of GDNF...
- Crystal structure of human glyoxalase II and its complex with a glutathione thiolester substrate analogueA D Cameron
Department of Molecular Biology Uppsala University Biomedical Center Box 590, S 751 24, Uppsala, Sweden Structural Biology Laboratory Department of Chemistry University of York Heslington, York, UK YO10 5DD
Structure 7:1067-78. 1999Glyoxalase II, the second of two enzymes in the glyoxalase system, is a thiolesterase that catalyses the hydrolysis of S-D-lactoylglutathione to form glutathione and D-lactic acid.
- Involvement of glutathione peroxidase and catalase in the disposal of exogenous hydrogen peroxide by cultured astroglial cellsR Dringen
Physiologisch Chemisches Institut, Eberhard Karls Universitat Tubingen, Germany
Brain Res 759:67-75. 1997..of astroglial cells with 100 microM H2O2 in the absence of glucose led to a 66% oxidation of the cellular glutathione within 30 s...
- Effect of melatonin against oxidative stress in ultraviolet-B exposed rat lensY Bardak
Department of Ophthalmology, Suleyman Demirel University Medical School, Isparta, Turkey
Curr Eye Res 20:225-30. 2000..To investigate the defensive effect of melatonin against oxidative stresses in ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation induced cataract development...
- Phosphine-induced oxidative damage in rats: role of glutathioneChing Hung Hsu
Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
Toxicology 179:1-8. 2002..PH(3) induces oxidative stress in insects, mammalian cells, animals, and humans. The involvement of glutathione (GSH) in PH(3)-induced oxidative toxicity is controversial...
- Revival of a resurrection plant correlates with its antioxidant statusIlse Kranner
Institute of Plant Physiology, University of Graz, Schubertstrasse 51, A 8010 Graz, Austria
Plant J 31:13-24. 2002..Desiccation triggered substantial increases in zeaxanthin and redox shifts of the antioxidants glutathione and ascorbate towards their oxidised forms...
- Antioxidant activities and oxidative stress byproducts in human hypertensionJosep Redon
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical School, University of Valencia, Avda Blasco Ibanez 17, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Hypertension 41:1096-101. 2003..In both, whole blood and peripheral mononuclear cells oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio and malondialdehyde was significantly higher, and the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ..
- Real-time imaging of the intracellular glutathione redox potentialMarcus Gutscher
Redox Regulation Research Group, German Cancer Research Center DKFZ A160, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Nat Methods 5:553-9. 2008..glutaredoxin-1 (Grx1) to roGFP2 facilitates specific real-time equilibration between the sensor protein and the glutathione redox couple...
- Salubrious effects of dexrazoxane against teniposide-induced DNA damage and programmed cell death in murine marrow cellsS A Bakheet
Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, PO Box 2457, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Mutagenesis 26:533-43. 2011..marker such as intracellular reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation, reduced and oxidised glutathione were assessed in bone marrow as a possible mechanism underlying this amelioration...
- Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands induce heme oxygenase-1 in lung fibroblasts by a PPARgamma-independent, glutathione-dependent mechanismHeather E Ferguson
Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Box 692, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 297:L912-9. 2009..Upregulation of HO-1 coincides with decreased intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels and can be inhibited by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a thiol antioxidant and GSH precursor...
- Ovothiol and trypanothione as antioxidants in trypanosomatidsM R Ariyanayagam
Division of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Wellcome Trust Biocentre, University of Dundee, DD 1 5EH, Scotland, Dundee, UK
Mol Biochem Parasitol 115:189-98. 2001..Although amastigotes of L. major and L. donovani contain equivalent amounts of glutathione and trypanothione, ovothiol A is present in the former but absent in the latter...
- Effect of curcumin on selenite-induced cataractogenesis in Wistar rat pupsR Manikandan
Unit of Pathobiology, Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, India
Curr Eye Res 35:122-9. 2010..The present study was aimed at investigating the possible antioxidant potential of curcumin at a dose of 75 mg/kg body weight on selenite-induced cataract in experimental rat pups...
- Neurodegenerative disorders in humans: the role of glutathione in oxidative stress-mediated neuronal deathJ S Bains
Department of Ophthalmology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
Brain Res Brain Res Rev 25:335-58. 1997..that oxidative stress-mediated neuronal loss may be initiated by a decline in the antioxidant molecule glutathione (GSH)...
- Inborn errors in the metabolism of glutathioneEllinor Ristoff
Karolinska Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, SE 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2:16. 2007b>Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of glutamate, cysteine and glycine...
- The structures of human glutathione transferase P1-1 in complex with glutathione and various inhibitors at high resolutionA J Oakley
The Ian Potter Foundation Protein Crystallography Laboratory, St Vincent s Institute of Medical Research, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia
J Mol Biol 274:84-100. 1997The human pi-class glutathione S-transferase (hGST P1-1) is a target for structure-based inhibitor design with the aim of developing drugs that could be used as adjuvants in chemotherapeutic treatment...
- Intranigral LPS administration produces dopamine, glutathione but not behavioral impairment in comparison to MPTP and 6-OHDA neurotoxin models of Parkinson's diseaseDeborah Ariza
Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Setor de Ciencias Biologicas, Av Francisco H dos Santos s n, CEP 81 531 990, Caixa Postal 19031, Curitiba, PR, Brazil
Neurochem Res 35:1620-7. 2010..6-OHDA) administrations, in the light of neurochemical, behavioral and endogenous antioxidant glutathione alterations. All the results were collected 1, 3 and 7 days after the lesions...
- Hypertonic saline increases lung epithelial lining fluid glutathione and thiocyanate: two protective CFTR-dependent thiols against oxidative injuryNeal S Gould
Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 USA
Respir Res 11:119. 2010..CFTR mutations lead to decreased levels of glutathione (GSH) and thiocyanate (SCN) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF)...
- Glutathione conjugates in the vacuole are degraded by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase GGT3 in ArabidopsisNaoko Ohkama-Ohtsu
Department of Genetics, Development and Cell Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
Plant J 49:878-88. 2007..transpeptidase (GGT) is the enzyme responsible for breaking the gamma-glutamyl bond between Glu and Cys in glutathione (GSH). We are using this gene family to study GSH degradation in plants...
- Cadmium-induced heme oxygenase-1 gene expression is associated with the depletion of glutathione in the roots of Medicago sativaWeiti Cui
College of Life Sciences, Cooperative Demonstration Laboratory of Centrifuge Technique, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, People s Republic of China
Biometals 24:93-103. 2011..Cd) induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) gene expression in alfalfa seedling roots, we now show that the decreased glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA) contents, induction of HO-1 gene expression and its protein level by Cd was ..
- Impairment of methyl cycle affects mitochondrial methyl availability and glutathione level in Down's syndromeVittoria Infantino
Department of Chemistry, University of Basilicata, 85100 Potenza, Italy
Mol Genet Metab 102:378-82. 2011..The possible role of methylation in mitochondria is discussed and some preliminary results on a possible methylation target are presented...
- Benzyl isothiocyanate-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species causes cell cycle arrest and induces apoptosis via activation of MAPK in human pancreatic cancer cellsRavi P Sahu
Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cancer Biology Center, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Suite 1103, Amarillo, TX 79106, USA
Carcinogenesis 30:1744-53. 2009..oxygen species (ROS) in Capan-2 and MiaPaCa-2 cells, which in part was orchestrated by depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) level...
- Dynamics of glutathione and ophthalmate traced with 2H-enriched body water in rats and humansRajan S Kombu
Department of Nutrition, Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine, 10900 Euclid Ave, W G48, Cleveland, OH 44106 4954, USA
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297:E260-9. 2009We developed a LC-MS-MS assay of the (2)H labeling of free glutathione (GSH) and bound glutathione [GSSR; which includes all DTT-reducible forms, primarily glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and mixed disulfides with proteins] and ophthalmate (..
- Curcumin, quercetin, and tBHQ modulate glutathione levels in astrocytes and neurons: importance of the glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunitSuzie Lavoie
Department of Psychiatry, Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
J Neurochem 108:1410-22. 2009..Our results indicate that GCLM is essential for the up-regulation of GCL activity induced by curcumin, quercetin and tBHQ...
- Synthesis of erythrocyte glutathione in healthy adults consuming the safe amount of dietary proteinAlan A Jackson
Institute of Human Nutrition, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, United Kingdom
Am J Clin Nutr 80:101-7. 2004The finding that plasma glutathione turnover decreases as dietary protein intake decreases suggests that the safe amount of dietary protein, although sufficient for maintenance of nitrogen balance, may be insufficient for maintenance of ..
- Low natural killer cell cytotoxic activity in autism: the role of glutathione, IL-2 and IL-15Aristo Vojdani
Immunosciences Lab, Inc, 10350 Santa Monica Blvd, Ste 205, Los Angeles, CA 90025, United States
J Neuroimmunol 205:148-54. 2008..of the children with autism still exhibited low NK cell activity, correlating with the intracellular level of glutathione. Finally, we cultured lymphocytes of patients with low or high NK cell activity/cell with or without ..
- Arsenic trioxide inhibits hepatitis C virus RNA replication through modulation of the glutathione redox system and oxidative stressMisao Kuroki
Department of Tumor Virology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2 5 1, Shikata cho, Okayama 700 8558, Japan
J Virol 83:2338-48. 2009..In contrast, we found that N-acetyl-cysteine, an antioxidant and glutathione precursor, completely and partially eliminated the anti-HCV activity of ATO after 24 h and 72 h of treatment, ..
- Nrf2-regulated glutathione recycling independent of biosynthesis is critical for cell survival during oxidative stressC J Harvey
Department of Environmental Health Science, Bloomberg School of Public Health, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Free Radic Biol Med 46:443-53. 2009..factor protecting cells from oxidative stress by regulating cytoprotective genes, including the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) pathway. GSH maintains cellular redox status and affects redox signaling, cell proliferation, and death...
- Role of oxidative stress and intracellular glutathione in the sensitivity to apoptosis induced by proteasome inhibitor in thyroid cancer cellsZhen Xian Du
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, China Medical University, Shenyang, PR China
BMC Cancer 9:56. 2009..Although bortezomib is known to be a selective proteasome inhibitor, the downstream mechanisms of cytotoxicity and drug resistance are poorly understood...
- Glutathione: overview of its protective roles, measurement, and biosynthesisHenry Jay Forman
School of Natural Science, University of California at Merced, P O Box 2039, Merced, CA 95344, USA
Mol Aspects Med 30:1-12. 2009This review is the introduction to a special issue concerning, glutathione (GSH), the most abundant low molecular weight thiol compound synthesized in cells...
- Cellular and mitochondrial glutathione redox imbalance in lymphoblastoid cells derived from children with autismS Jill James
Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Children s Hospital Research Institute, 1120 Marshall St, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
FASEB J 23:2374-83. 2009..derived from autistic children and unaffected controls were used to assess relative concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulfide glutathione (GSSG) in cell extracts and isolated mitochondria as a measure of ..
- Lycopene as a natural protector against gamma-radiation induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in primary culture of isolated rat hepatocytes in vitroM Srinivasan
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India
Biochim Biophys Acta 1770:659-65. 2007..indices like thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), ceruloplasmin, vitamins A, E, C and uric acid...
- Oxidative stress activates insulin-like growth factor I receptor protein expression, mediating cardiac hypertrophy induced by thyroxineA S R Araujo
Departamento Fisiologia, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Sarmento Leite, 500, 90050 170, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Mol Cell Biochem 303:89-95. 2007..An increase in lipid peroxidation (around 40%), and a decrease in total glutathione (by 20%) was induced by thyroxine and avoided by vitamin E administration...
- Protective effects of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinales Rosc.) on lindane-induced oxidative stress in ratsRafat S Ahmed
Environmental Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences and G T B Hospital, University of Delhi, Dilshad Garden, Delhi 110095, India
Phytother Res 22:902-6. 2008..free radical (OFR) scavenging enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and the status of the glutathione redox cycle antioxidants...
- Oxidative stress in brain and antioxidant activity of Ocimum sanctum in noise exposureJames Samson
Department of Physiology, Dr ALM PG Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, India
Neurotoxicology 28:679-85. 2007..15.1.1), catalase (EC 22.214.171.124), glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1...
- DETOXICATION OF XENOBIOTICS IN ERYTHROCYTESYOGESH AWASTHI; Fiscal Year: 1993..electrophilic xenobiotics and endogenously generated products of lipid peroxidation by conjugating then to glutathione (GSH), through a reaction catalyzed by glutathione S-transferases...
- Dietary Cysteine:Conceptal Response to Oxidative StressCraig Harris; Fiscal Year: 2002..Without adequate free cysteine, the ability to restore glutathione that is lost due to oxidation is compromised by inadequate glutathione synthesis where sensitive target cells ..
- The therapeutic potential of maspin in prostate cancerShijie Sheng; Fiscal Year: 2009..In the meantime, intracellular maspin has been shown also to interact with heatshock protein 90 (Hsp90) and glutathione S-transferase p isoform (GSTp)...
- Arsenic Trioxide and Acute Myeloid LeukemiaYongkui Jing; Fiscal Year: 2010..Under physiological conditions ROS generated as a byproduct of mitochondrial respiration are detoxified by glutathione-enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-s-transferase ? (GST?) and glutathione reductase (GR)...
- DETOXICATION OF XENOBIOTICS IN ERYTHROCYTESYOGESH AWASTHI; Fiscal Year: 1999..year of this project, we have characterized a transporter involved in ATP-dependent primary active transport of glutathione (GSH)-conjugates in human erythrocyte membrane and designated it as dinitrophenyl S-glutathione (Dnp-SG) ATPase ..
- Role of Glutathione S-Transferase P in Heart FailureSumanth D Prabhu; Fiscal Year: 2010..b>Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) metabolize aldehydes by catalyzing their conjugation with glutathione (GSH)...
- Inhibition of glutathione reductase and ovarian cancer drug resistance reversalXiangming Guan; Fiscal Year: 2006..An increase in intracellular glutathione (GSH) has been demonstrated to be the major factor in ovarian cancer drug resistance to the first line and ..
- LIPID PEROXIDATION IN COLORECTAL CANCERManuela Gago Dominguez; Fiscal Year: 2007..endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), catalase (CAT), glutathione S- transferase A1 (GSTA1), glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), ..
- LIPID PEROXIDATION IN COLORECTAL CANCERManuela Gago Dominguez; Fiscal Year: 2009..endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), catalase (CAT), glutathione S- transferase A1 (GSTA1), glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), ..
- The Nrf2-ARE Pathway in Amyotrophic Lateral SclerosisJeffrey A Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2010..vitro and in vivo models, this system has been shown to be effective at blocking neurotoxicity resulting from glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation, intracellular calcium overload, excitotoxins, and disruption of the ..
- The Nrf2-ARE Pathway in Amyotrophic Lateral SclerosisJeffrey Johnson; Fiscal Year: 2009..vitro and in vivo models, this system has been shown to be effective at blocking neurotoxicity resulting from glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation, intracellular calcium overload, excitotoxins, and disruption of the ..
- Glutathione and Lung FibrosisRui Ming Liu; Fiscal Year: 2010..The concentration of glutathione (GSH), the most abundant intracellular free thiol and an important antioxidant, is decreased in both ..
- DIHYDRODIOL DEHYDROGENASE AND PAH METABOLISMTREVOR PENNING; Fiscal Year: 1992..g., cysteine and glutathione) will be examined, the influence of bay-region methylation on reactivity will be determined, and structures of ..
- ENDOGENOUS MODULATION OF COCHLEAR INJURYLeonard Rybak; Fiscal Year: 2003..research seeks to address the basic question, "Can the ototoxicity of cisplatin be altered by manipulating the glutathione (GSH) content of the cochlea?" A corollary is that the GSH content of the cochlea is related to enzymes of the ..
- MECHANISM OF FLAVOPROTEIN REDUCTASESJohn Blanchard; Fiscal Year: 1993..They serve key roles in oxidative stress management in humans and bacteria (erythrocyte glutathione reductase and macrophage alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, NADH peroxidase), and in trypanosomes (trypanothione ..
- Glutathione reductase and tumor sensitivity to radiationXiangming Guan; Fiscal Year: 2003Cancer resistance to radiation is often the cause of failure in radiotherapy; intracellular glutathione (GSH) has been implicated as one of the major causes of the resistance...
- Preventing NIHL by enhancing glutathione pathwaysRichard Kopke; Fiscal Year: 2002..The primary hypothesis is that pharmacologically optimizing the glutathione pathway will ameliorate or prevent NIHL and that this protection can be obtained by either injection or by oral ..