alpha msh

Summary

Summary: A 13-amino acid peptide derived from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND in man and from the pars intermedia in lower vertebrates. Its amino acid sequence is identical to the first 13 amino acids of ACTH. It influences the formation of deposition of MELANIN in the body.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Fibroblasts play a regulatory role in the control of pigmentation in reconstructed human skin from skin types I and II
    Susan J Hedley
    University Section of Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield, UK
    Pigment Cell Res 15:49-56. 2002
  2. pmc Melanocortin-4 receptor mutations are a frequent and heterogeneous cause of morbid obesity
    C Vaisse
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UPRES A 8090, Institute of Biology of Lille, Lille, France
    J Clin Invest 106:253-62. 2000
  3. ncbi Inactivation of the mouse melanocortin-3 receptor results in increased fat mass and reduced lean body mass
    A S Chen
    Department of Obesity Research, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey, USA
    Nat Genet 26:97-102. 2000
  4. ncbi Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone reduces impact of proinflammatory cytokine and peroxide-generated oxidative stress on keratinocyte and melanoma cell lines
    J W Haycock
    University Section of Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield S5 7AU, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 275:15629-36. 2000
  5. ncbi Regulation of melanocortin-4 receptor signaling: agonist-mediated desensitization and internalization
    Hiroshi Shinyama
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Endocrinology 144:1301-14. 2003
  6. ncbi Effects of acute and chronic administration of the melanocortin agonist MTII in mice with diet-induced obesity
    Dominique D Pierroz
    Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Diabetes 51:1337-45. 2002
  7. ncbi Antimicrobial effects of alpha-MSH peptides
    M Cutuli
    3rd Division of Internal Medicine, IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore, Milano, Italy
    J Leukoc Biol 67:233-9. 2000
  8. ncbi Genetics of hair and skin color
    Jonathan L Rees
    Systems Group, Dermatology, University of Edinburgh, Lauriston Buildings, Lauriston Place, Edinburgh, EH3 9YW, United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Genet 37:67-90. 2003
  9. ncbi AgRP(83-132) acts as an inverse agonist on the human-melanocortin-4 receptor
    W A Nijenhuis
    Molecular Neuroscience Rudolf Magnus Institute for Neurosciences University Medical Center Utrecht Utrecht, the Netherlands 3584 CG
    Mol Endocrinol 15:164-71. 2001
  10. ncbi Role of melanocortinergic neurons in feeding and the agouti obesity syndrome
    W Fan
    The Vollum Institute for Advanced Biomedical Research, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    Nature 385:165-8. 1997

Detail Information

Publications251 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Fibroblasts play a regulatory role in the control of pigmentation in reconstructed human skin from skin types I and II
    Susan J Hedley
    University Section of Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield, UK
    Pigment Cell Res 15:49-56. 2002
    ..Neither alpha-MSH nor cholera toxin induced pigmentation in this model despite the fact that melanocytes clearly had the ability to synthesize pigment...
  2. pmc Melanocortin-4 receptor mutations are a frequent and heterogeneous cause of morbid obesity
    C Vaisse
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UPRES A 8090, Institute of Biology of Lille, Lille, France
    J Clin Invest 106:253-62. 2000
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that MC4-R mutations are a frequent but heterogeneous genetic cause of morbid obesity...
  3. ncbi Inactivation of the mouse melanocortin-3 receptor results in increased fat mass and reduced lean body mass
    A S Chen
    Department of Obesity Research, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey, USA
    Nat Genet 26:97-102. 2000
    ..Mice lacking both Mc3r and Mc4r become significantly heavier than Mc4r(-/-) mice. We conclude that Mc3r and Mc4r serve non-redundant roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis...
  4. ncbi Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone reduces impact of proinflammatory cytokine and peroxide-generated oxidative stress on keratinocyte and melanoma cell lines
    J W Haycock
    University Section of Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield S5 7AU, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 275:15629-36. 2000
    ..The rapidity and potency of the response to alpha-MSH in pigmentary and nonpigmentary cells suggest this to be a central role of this peptide in cutaneous cells...
  5. ncbi Regulation of melanocortin-4 receptor signaling: agonist-mediated desensitization and internalization
    Hiroshi Shinyama
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Endocrinology 144:1301-14. 2003
    ..Our data demonstrate that, through PKA-, GRK-, beta-arrestin-, and dynamin-dependent processes, MC4R undergoes internalization in response to agonist, thereby providing novel insights into the regulation of MC4R signaling...
  6. ncbi Effects of acute and chronic administration of the melanocortin agonist MTII in mice with diet-induced obesity
    Dominique D Pierroz
    Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Diabetes 51:1337-45. 2002
    ..In conclusion, treatment with a melanocortin agonist is a promising therapeutic approach to DIO and associated insulin resistance...
  7. ncbi Antimicrobial effects of alpha-MSH peptides
    M Cutuli
    3rd Division of Internal Medicine, IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore, Milano, Italy
    J Leukoc Biol 67:233-9. 2000
    ..alpha-MSH peptides that combine antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects could be useful in treatment of disorders in which infection and inflammation coexist...
  8. ncbi Genetics of hair and skin color
    Jonathan L Rees
    Systems Group, Dermatology, University of Edinburgh, Lauriston Buildings, Lauriston Place, Edinburgh, EH3 9YW, United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Genet 37:67-90. 2003
    ..It is argued that given advances in model systems, increases in technical facility, and the lower cost of genotype assessment, the lack of standardized phenotype assessment is now a major limit on advance...
  9. ncbi AgRP(83-132) acts as an inverse agonist on the human-melanocortin-4 receptor
    W A Nijenhuis
    Molecular Neuroscience Rudolf Magnus Institute for Neurosciences University Medical Center Utrecht Utrecht, the Netherlands 3584 CG
    Mol Endocrinol 15:164-71. 2001
    ..These findings form a basis to further investigate the relevance of constitutive activity of the MC4R and of inverse agonism of AgRP for the regulation of body weight...
  10. ncbi Role of melanocortinergic neurons in feeding and the agouti obesity syndrome
    W Fan
    The Vollum Institute for Advanced Biomedical Research, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    Nature 385:165-8. 1997
    ..Our data show that melanocortinergic neurons exert a tonic inhibition of feeding behaviour. Chronic disruption of this inhibitory signal is a likely explanation of the agouti obesity syndrome...
  11. ncbi alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, MSH 11-13 KPV and adrenocorticotropic hormone signalling in human keratinocyte cells
    Richard J Elliott
    Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, UK
    J Invest Dermatol 122:1010-9. 2004
    ..Stable transfection of Chinese hamster ovary cells with the MC-1 receptor showed that alpha-MSH and the KPV peptides elevated intracellular calcium...
  12. ncbi Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibits allergic airway inflammation
    Ulrike Raap
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany
    J Immunol 171:353-9. 2003
    ..This study provides evidence for a novel function of alpha-MSH linking neuroimmune functions in allergic airway inflammation...
  13. ncbi Molecular cloning, pharmacological characterization, and brain mapping of the melanocortin 4 receptor in the goldfish: involvement in the control of food intake
    Jose Miguel Cerdá-Reverter
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E9 Canada
    Endocrinology 144:2336-49. 2003
    ....
  14. ncbi The role of melanocortin-3 and -4 receptor in regulating appetite, energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine function in the pig
    C R Barb
    USDA ARS, Russell Research Center, PO Box 5677, Athens, Georgia 30604, USA
    J Endocrinol 181:39-52. 2004
    ..It is possible that the MC4-R mutation alters function and this may explain the failure to demonstrate MC3/4-R involvement in modulating feeding behavior and LH and GH secretion in the pig...
  15. ncbi Obesity in the mouse model of pro-opiomelanocortin deficiency responds to peripheral melanocortin
    L Yaswen
    Unit on Molecular Genetics, Clinical Neuroscience Branch, NIMH, 49 Convent Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Med 5:1066-70. 1999
    ..Our results identify the POMC-null mutant mouse as a model for studying the human POMC-null syndrome, and indicate the therapeutic use of peripheral melanocortin in the treatment of obesity...
  16. ncbi The role of the melanocortin system and the melanocortin-4 receptor in ring dove (Streptopelia risoria) feeding behavior
    April D Strader
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA
    Brain Res 960:112-21. 2003
    ..These data support a role for the melanocortin system and the melanocortin-4 receptor in the ring dove feeding behavior...
  17. ncbi Long-term orexigenic effects of AgRP-(83---132) involve mechanisms other than melanocortin receptor blockade
    M M Hagan
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267 0559, USA
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 279:R47-52. 2000
    ....
  18. ncbi Human melanocortin 1 receptor variants, receptor function and melanocyte response to UV radiation
    M Cathy Scott
    Department of Dermatology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, PO Box 670592, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267 0592, USA
    J Cell Sci 115:2349-55. 2002
    ..We conclude that loss-of-function mutations in the MC1R gene sensitize human melanocytes to the DNA damaging effects of UV radiation, which may increase skin cancer risk...
  19. ncbi Cyclic AMP promotes a peripheral distribution of melanosomes and stimulates melanophilin/Slac2-a and actin association
    Thierry Passeron
    INSERM U597, Biologie et Pathologie des Celllules Mélanocytaires, Faculte de Medecine, Nice, France
    FASEB J 18:989-91. 2004
    ..Thus, we propose that the stimulation of the interaction between melanophilin/Slac2-a and actin would allow the rapid accumulation of melanosomes in the actin-rich region of the dendrite extremities...
  20. ncbi Intracerebroventricular administration of melanotan II increases insulin sensitivity of glucose disposal in mice
    A C Heijboer
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
    Diabetologia 48:1621-6. 2005
    ..The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of central administration of melanotan II (MTII), a melanocortin-3/4 receptor agonist, on hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity, independent of food intake and body weight...
  21. ncbi The central melanocortin system and the integration of short- and long-term regulators of energy homeostasis
    Kate L J Ellacott
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239 3098, USA
    Recent Prog Horm Res 59:395-408. 2004
    ....
  22. ncbi Peptide and small molecules rescue the functional activity and agonist potency of dysfunctional human melanocortin-4 receptor polymorphisms
    Zhimin Xiang
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
    Biochemistry 46:8273-87. 2007
    ..Thus, these ligands could generically rescue the potency and stimulatory response of the abnormally functioning hMC4Rs studied and may provide tools to further clarify the molecular mechanism(s) involving these receptor modifications...
  23. ncbi alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in leukocytes by modulating protein kinase A, p38 kinase, and nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathways
    Sun Woo Yoon
    Proteome Research Lab, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejon 305 600, Korea
    J Biol Chem 278:32914-20. 2003
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that stimulation of PKA by alpha-MSH causes inhibition of LPS-induced activation of p38 kinase and NF kappa B to block TNF-alpha production...
  24. pmc Anti-inflammatory and anti-invasive effects of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in human melanoma cells
    P Eves
    University Section of Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield S5 7AU, UK
    Br J Cancer 89:2004-15. 2003
    ..From this data, we conclude that alpha-MSH can reduce melanoma cell invasion and protect cells against proinflammatory cytokine attack in cells with the wild-type receptor (HBL)...
  25. ncbi New insights into the functions of alpha-MSH and related peptides in the immune system
    Thomas A Luger
    Department of Dermatology and Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Cell Biology and Immunobiology of the Skin, University of Munster, 48149 Munster, Germany
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 994:133-40. 2003
    ..Therefore, therapeutic application of alpha-MSH or related peptides (KPVs) as well as alpha-MSH/KPV-pulsed DCs may be a useful approach for the treatment of inflammatory, autoimmune, and allergic diseases in the future...
  26. ncbi Regulation of adipose tissue leptin secretion by alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and agouti-related protein: further evidence of an interaction between leptin and the melanocortin signalling system
    N Hoggard
    Energy Balance and Obesity Division, Aberdeen Centre for Energy Regulation and Obesity, Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, UK
    J Mol Endocrinol 32:145-53. 2004
    ..However, the physiological significance of this putative feedback probably depends upon the underlying state of energy balance, since in the fasting state low plasma alpha-MSH is paralleled by low plasma leptin...
  27. ncbi Obliteration of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone derived from POMC in pituitary and brains of PC2-deficient mice
    Ruthellen Miller
    Buck Institute for Age Research, Novato, California 94945, USA
    J Neurochem 86:556-63. 2003
    ..Overall, these studies demonstrated that the PC2 processing enzyme is critical for the in vivo production of alpha-MSH in pituitary and brain...
  28. pmc Syndecan-2 regulates the migratory potential of melanoma cells
    Jung Hyun Lee
    Department of Life Sciences, Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120 750, Korea
    J Biol Chem 284:27167-75. 2009
    ..Together, these data strongly suggest that syndecan-2 plays a crucial role in the migratory potential of melanoma cells...
  29. ncbi Molecular determinants of ligand binding to the human melanocortin-4 receptor
    Y K Yang
    Departments of General Surgery and Pediatrics, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Biochemistry 39:14900-11. 2000
    ..In addition, mutation of TM3 residue D122 or D126 decreased the binding affinity of hMC4R antagonist SHU 9119. These results provide further insight into the molecular determinants of hMC4R ligand binding...
  30. ncbi Anti-inflammatory actions of the neuroimmunomodulator alpha-MSH
    J M Lipton
    Dept of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas 75235 9040, USA
    Immunol Today 18:140-5. 1997
    ....
  31. ncbi Thr40 and Met122 are new partial loss-of-function natural mutations of the human melanocortin 1 receptor
    C Jimenez-Cervantes
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, University of Murcia, Apto 4021, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia, Spain
    FEBS Lett 508:44-8. 2001
    ..The Val122Met form failed to achieve maximal cAMP responses comparable to the wild-type or Ile40Thr receptors. Thus, the Ile40Thr and Val122Met variants are partial loss-of-function natural mutations of MC1R...
  32. ncbi Evidence that urocortin I acts as a neurohormone to stimulate alpha MSH release in the toad Xenopus laevis
    Marinella Calle
    Department of Cellular Animal Physiology, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Brain Res 1040:14-28. 2005
    ..laevis, UCN1 released from neurohemal axon terminals in the pituitary neural lobe functions as a stimulatory neurohormone for alphaMSH release from melanotrope cells of the pituitary intermediate lobe...
  33. pmc Central melanocortin receptors regulate insulin action
    S Obici
    Diabetes Research and Training Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA 10461
    J Clin Invest 108:1079-85. 2001
    ..Our findings elucidate a neuroendocrine network that is likely to play a central role in the coupling of energy intake and insulin action...
  34. ncbi ACTH and alpha-MSH inhibit leptin expression and secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: model for a central-peripheral melanocortin-leptin pathway
    Dennis Norman
    Department of Endocrinology, St Bartholomew s Hospital, London EC1A 7BE, UK
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 200:99-109. 2003
    ....
  35. ncbi Engineering the melanocortin-4 receptor to control G(s) signaling in vivo
    Supriya Srinivasan
    Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, University of California, San Francisco, California 94141, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 994:225-32. 2003
    ..The MC4R G(s) RASSL could be used to control many physiological responses associated with G(s) signaling such as heart rate, energy homeostasis, and cell proliferation...
  36. ncbi New aspects on the melanocortins and their receptors
    J E Wikberg
    Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Box 591 BMC, SE751 24, Sweden
    Pharmacol Res 42:393-420. 2000
    ..Moreover, evidence is discussed suggesting that while many of the actions of the melanocortins are mediated via melanocortin receptors, some appear to be mediated via mechanisms distinct from melanocortin receptors...
  37. ncbi Pharmacological characterization of loss of function mutations of the human melanocortin 1 receptor that are associated with red hair
    Aneta Ringholm
    Department of Neuroscience, Division of Pharmacology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    J Invest Dermatol 123:917-23. 2004
    ..The results provide important pharmacological characterization of common MC1 receptor variants in various world populations...
  38. ncbi Plasma levels of alpha-melanotropin and ACTH-like immunoreactivities do not vary by season or skin type in women from southern and central Europe
    Robert Pichler
    Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, AKH Linz, Krankenhausstr 9, A 4020 Linz, Austria
    Neuropeptides 38:325-30. 2004
    ..Our data do not support the concept of a marked involvement of melanotropins of pituitary origin in tanning, and no seasonal rhythm was observed...
  39. ncbi Solution structures of cyclic melanocortin agonists and antagonists by NMR
    Jinfa Ying
    Department of Chemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
    Biopolymers 71:696-716. 2003
    ..In addition, our results suggest that the side-chain orientations may also modulate the receptor selectivity. The information found in this study will be useful for the further design of ligands for melanocortin receptors...
  40. ncbi The central melanocortin system regulates food intake in goldfish
    Jose Miguel Cerdá-Reverter
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, T6G 2E9, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Regul Pept 115:101-13. 2003
    ..The conserved central expression pattern of POMC mRNA and role of MSH peptides in physiological regulation of food intake suggests that melanocortin functions were gained early in vertebrate evolution...
  41. ncbi One melanocortin 4 and two melanocortin 5 receptors from zebrafish show remarkable conservation in structure and pharmacology
    Aneta Ringholm
    Department of Neuroscience, Unit of Pharmacology, Uppsala University, BMC, 75 124 Uppsala, Sweden
    J Neurochem 82:6-18. 2002
    ....
  42. ncbi Characterization of melanocortin NDP-MSH agonist peptide fragments at the mouse central and peripheral melanocortin receptors
    C Haskell-Luevano
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Florida, PO Box 100485, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    J Med Chem 44:2247-52. 2001
    ..This study has also examined to importance of both N- and C-terminal NDP-MSH amino acids at the different melanocortin receptors, providing information for drug design and identification of putative ligand-receptor interactions...
  43. ncbi Structure activity studies of the melanocortin-4 receptor by in vitro mutagenesis: identification of agouti-related protein (AGRP), melanocortin agonist and synthetic peptide antagonist interaction determinants
    C Haskell-Luevano
    University of Florida, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA
    Biochemistry 40:6164-79. 2001
    ....
  44. ncbi Plasma concentrations of alpha-MSH, AgRP and leptin in lean and obese men and their relationship to differing states of energy balance perturbation
    Nigel Hoggard
    Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, UK
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 61:31-9. 2004
    ..We aimed to determine whether circulating alpha-MSH and AgRP are responsive to long-term perturbations in energy balance, in a manner consistent with their central putative functions...
  45. ncbi Anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone against rat endotoxin-induced uveitis and the time course of inflammatory agents in aqueous humor
    Tomomi Nishida
    Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, 3 9, Fukuura, Kanazawa, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236 0004, Japan
    Int Immunopharmacol 4:1059-66. 2004
    ....
  46. ncbi Minimization of MC1R selectivity by modification of the core structure of alpha-MSH-ND
    S Lim
    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea
    Chem Biol 8:857-70. 2001
    ....
  47. ncbi Differential effects of alpha-, beta- and gamma(2)-melanocyte-stimulating hormones on hypothalamic neuronal activation and feeding in the fasted rat
    G W Millington
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, UK
    Neuroscience 108:437-45. 2001
    ..The slower time course of gamma(2)-MSH- versus alpha-MSH-induced suppression of feeding provides further support for the notion that the biological responses to individual melanocortin peptides may involve distinct neuronal mechanisms...
  48. ncbi Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone suppresses antigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation in humans independently of melanocortin 1 receptor gene status
    Ashley Cooper
    Dermatopharmacology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 175:4806-13. 2005
    ....
  49. ncbi Molecular interactions of nonpeptide agonists and antagonists with the melanocortin-4 receptor
    Beth A Fleck
    Department of Pharmacology, Neurocrine Biosciences Inc, 12790 El Camino Real, San Diego, California 92130, USA
    Biochemistry 44:14494-508. 2005
    ..Furthermore, the strength of interaction with the aromatic pocket, and potentially the acidic pocket, controls the signaling efficacy of the ligand...
  50. ncbi Melanocortin 4 receptor mutations in a large cohort of severely obese adults: prevalence, functional classification, genotype-phenotype relationship, and lack of association with binge eating
    Cecile Lubrano-Berthelier
    Diabetes Center and Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 0573, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:1811-8. 2006
    ..There are conflicting reports regarding the prevalence, nature, and pathogenic effects of MC4R mutations in adults with severe late-onset obesity...
  51. ncbi Cysteine residues are involved in structure and function of melanocortin 1 receptor: Substitution of a cysteine residue in transmembrane segment two converts an agonist to antagonist
    P A Frändberg
    Division of Biological Research on Drug Dependence, Biomedical Centre, Uppsala, S 751 24, Sweden
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 281:851-7. 2001
    ....
  52. pmc Evidence of a possible role for Lys-gamma3-MSH in the regulation of adipocyte function
    Stephen C Harmer
    School of Biological Sciences, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 228, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AJ, UK
    J Endocrinol 196:149-58. 2008
    ....
  53. ncbi Substituted NDP-MSH peptides paired with mutant melanocortin-4 receptors demonstrate the role of transmembrane 6 in receptor activation
    Beth A Fleck
    Departments of Pharmacology, Neurocrine Biosciences Inc, 12790 El Camino Real, San Diego, California 92130, USA
    Biochemistry 46:10473-83. 2007
    ..51) and F284(7.35). These findings refine the molecular basis for the mechanism of ligand-stimulated hMC4R activation and will be useful for the development of hMC4R agonists and antagonists...
  54. ncbi Central neurotranspeptide, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is upregulated in patients with congestive heart failure
    Minako Yamaoka-Tojo
    Department of Cardiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara
    Intern Med 45:429-34. 2006
    ..Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), a pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) derivative, is a neuropeptide with potent anti-inflammatory properties that inhibits tissue injury in a wide array of inflammation models...
  55. pmc Contribution of the conserved amino acids of the melanocortin-4 receptor in [corrected] [Nle4,D-Phe7]-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating [corrected] hormone binding and signaling
    Min Chen
    Department of Surgery and Nutrition, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35205, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:21712-9. 2007
    ..In conclusion, our results suggest that the conserved residues in the TM2, TM3, and TM6 of the hMC4R are responsible for alpha-MSH binding and signaling...
  56. ncbi Role of the melanocortin system in inflammation
    Christian Maaser
    Department of Medicine B, University of Muenster, Albert Schweitzer Strasse 33, 48129 Muenster, Germany
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1072:123-34. 2006
    ..The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties discovered so far have led to the hypothesis that alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and its cognate receptors might present potential anti-inflammatory treatment options...
  57. ncbi Chronic stress elicits prolonged activation of alpha-MSH secretion and subsequent degeneration of melanotroph
    Tokiko Ogawa
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan
    J Neurochem 109:1389-99. 2009
    ..The present study also suggests that prolonged hyperactivation of endocrine cells could lead to disorder of secretion mechanisms and eventual degeneration...
  58. ncbi Inhibition of peripheral NF-kappaB activation by central action of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone
    T Ichiyama
    Department of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 75235 9040, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 99:211-7. 1999
    ..The pathway involves beta2-adrenergic receptors, but does not require activation of MC1R within the brain...
  59. ncbi Prevention and treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-transduced PLP139-151-specific T cells
    D Han
    Institute of Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People s Republic of China
    Gene Ther 14:383-95. 2007
    ..These data strongly suggested that local delivery of alpha-MSH by rAAV2-mediated alpha-MSH-transduced PLP139-151-specific T cells (T(PLP-alpha-MSH)) would be a desirable new approach to the treatment of autoimmune disease in the CNS...
  60. ncbi Weak functional coupling of the melanocortin-1 receptor expressed in human adipocytes
    Matthias Hoch
    Department of Biomedicine, University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
    J Recept Signal Transduct Res 28:485-504. 2008
    ....
  61. ncbi Characterization of melanocortin receptor subtype expression in murine adipose tissues and in the 3T3-L1 cell line
    B A Boston
    Department of Pediatrics, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201, USA
    Endocrinology 137:2043-50. 1996
    ..Although the agouti signaling peptide is a potent antagonist of NDP-MSH binding to the MC1 and MC4 melanocortin receptors, agouti was unable to block NDP-MSH binding in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte...
  62. ncbi Plasma alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone: sex differences and correlations with obesity
    William T Donahoo
    Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, University of Colorado Denver, P O Box 6511, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Metabolism 58:16-21. 2009
    ..The lack of correlation between peripheral alpha-MSH and parameters of adiposity suggests that endogenous plasma alpha-MSH levels are not a metric for body composition per se...
  63. ncbi Multimeric alpha-MSH has increased efficacy to activate the melanocortin MC4 receptor
    Birgitte Tiesjema
    Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Eur J Pharmacol 585:24-30. 2008
    ..Together, these data show that multimeric alpha-MSH has improved ability to activate the human melanocortin MC4 receptor in vitro...
  64. pmc Energetic responses are triggered by caudal brainstem melanocortin receptor stimulation and mediated by local sympathetic effector circuits
    Karolina P Skibicka
    Graduate Group of Psychology and Graduate Group of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Endocrinology 149:3605-16. 2008
    ....
  65. ncbi The role of melanocortins in adipocyte function
    B A Boston
    Department of Pediatrics, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 885:75-84. 1999
    ..ACTH potently stimulates cyclase with EC50 values that are consistent with the hypothesis that the murine MC2 receptor, not the MC5 receptor, mediates stress-induced lipolysis via release of ACTH from the pituitary...
  66. ncbi Peripheral effect of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone on fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle
    Juan Ji An
    Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrine Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 134 Shinchon dong, Seodaemoon Gu, Seoul 120 752, Korea
    J Biol Chem 282:2862-70. 2007
    ..Furthermore, these results suggest that alpha-MSH-induced FAO involves cAMP-protein kinase A-mediated AMP-activated protein kinase activation...
  67. ncbi Pharmacological comparison of rat and human melanocortin 3 and 4 receptors in vitro
    Helgi B Schioth
    Department of Neuroscience, Biomedical Center, Box 593, 751 24 Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    Regul Pept 106:7-12. 2002
    ..Pharmacological species difference have earlier been reported for the MC1 and MC5 receptors but this is the first report showing important differences between the rat and human MC4 receptors...
  68. ncbi Modulation of ICAM-1 expression by alpha-MSH in human melanoma cells and melanocytes
    R Morandini
    LOCE, Institut J Bordet ULB, Faculte de Medecine, Bruxelles, Belgium
    J Cell Physiol 175:276-82. 1998
    ..In conclusion, our data strongly suggest alpha-MSH as a potent inhibitor of ICAM-1 expression in malignant melanocytes acting through MSH receptor stimulation and subsequent cAMP increase...
  69. pmc Agouti-related peptide and MC3/4 receptor agonists both inhibit excitatory hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus neurons
    Li ying Fu
    Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    J Neurosci 28:5433-49. 2008
    ..Together, our data suggest that the mechanism of AgRP actions on these excitatory VMH cells appears to be independent of the actions of melanocortins on MC receptors...
  70. ncbi Structure-activity relationships of the melanocortin tetrapeptide Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH(2) at the mouse melanocortin receptors. 1. Modifications at the His position
    Jerry Ryan Holder
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    J Med Chem 45:2801-10. 2002
    ....
  71. ncbi Beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone potently reduces appetite via the hypothalamus in chicks
    M L Smith
    Department of Cellular, Molecular, and Systemic Physiology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Carbondale, IL, USA
    J Neuroendocrinol 20:220-6. 2008
    ..Based on these results, we conclude that beta-MSH causes anorexigenic effects that are likely primarily mediated via stimulation of satiety-related hypothalamic nuclei in broiler-type chicks...
  72. ncbi Structure and function of the potent cyclic and linear melanocortin analogues
    Min Kyu Cho
    Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 120 749, Republic of Korea
    J Struct Biol 150:300-8. 2005
    ....
  73. ncbi Functional role, structure, and evolution of the melanocortin-4 receptor
    Helgi B Schioth
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, BMC, 751 24, Uppsala, Sweden
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 994:74-83. 2003
    ..The MC-4 receptor has been remarkably conserved in structure and pharmacology for more than 400 million years, implying that the receptor participated in vital physiological functions early in vertebrate evolution...
  74. ncbi Melanocortin receptor ligands: new horizons for skin biology and clinical dermatology
    Markus Bohm
    Department of Dermatology and Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Cell Biology and Immunobiology of the Skin, University of Munster, Germany
    J Invest Dermatol 126:1966-75. 2006
    ..These findings should improve our understanding of skin physiology and pathophysiology and may offer novel strategies with MCs as future therapeutics for skin diseases...
  75. ncbi The role of alpha-MSH as a modulator of cutaneous inflammation
    T A Luger
    Department of Dermatology, Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Cell Biology and Immunobiology of the Skin, University of Munster, Munster, Germany
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 917:232-8. 2000
    ..These findings indicate that the production of immunosuppressing neuropeptides such as alpha-MSH by epidermal cells may play an essential role during the pathogenesis of immune and inflammatory reactions in the skin...
  76. ncbi Role of melanocortins in the central control of feeding
    A V Vergoni
    Section of Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 287, 41100, Modena, Italy
    Eur J Pharmacol 405:25-32. 2000
    ..Finally, recent evidences suggest that melanocortins could be involved in mediating the effects of leptin, and in controlling the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY)...
  77. ncbi Differential effects of melanocortin peptides on ingestive behaviour in rats: evidence against the involvement of MC(3) receptor in the regulation of food intake
    A Kask
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, 50411, Tartu, Estonia
    Neurosci Lett 283:1-4. 2000
    ..None of the three peptides inhibited fluid consumption in water-deprived (24 h) rats. It is suggested that MC(3) receptor, activated selectively by gamma(1)-MSH, is not involved in the regulation of food intake...
  78. ncbi Elevated plasma levels of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) are correlated with insulin resistance in obese men
    A Katsuki
    Third Department of Internal Medicine, Mie University School of Medicine, Japan
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24:1260-4. 2000
    ..However, circulating alpha-MSH concentrations in obese men and their relationship with clinical indicators of obesity and glucose metabolism have not as yet been evaluated...
  79. ncbi Stimulation of intracellular free calcium in GH3 cells by gamma3-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Involvement of a novel melanocortin receptor?
    L Langouche
    Laboratory of Cell Pharmacology, University of Leuven, Medical School, Campus Gasthuisberg, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    Endocrinology 142:257-66. 2001
    ..The involvement of the MC5 receptor is unlikely, but cannot definitely be excluded. The findings animate the hypothesis that there exists a second, hitherto unidentified, MC receptor that displays high affinity for gamma3MSH...
  80. ncbi Mechanisms of antiinflammatory action of alpha-MSH peptides. In vivo and in vitro evidence
    J M Lipton
    Department of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75235, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 885:173-82. 1999
    ..The latter influence may underlie the established reduction of gene expression and production of proinflammatory peptides and inducible nitric oxide by alpha-MSH peptides...
  81. pmc Crucial role of the melanocortin receptor MC1R in experimental colitis
    C Maaser
    Department of Medicine B, University of Munster, Albert Schweitzer Str 33, D 48129 Munster, Germany
    Gut 55:1415-22. 2006
    alpha-Melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha MSH) is known to exert anti-inflammatory effects, for example in murine DSS (dextran sodium sulphate induced) colitis...
  82. ncbi Melanocortin system and eating disorders
    Roger A H Adan
    Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacology and Anatomy, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 994:267-74. 2003
    ..Furthermore, we found a polymorphism, Ala67Thr AgRP, that was observed more frequently in anorexia nervosa...
  83. ncbi Past, present and future strategies to study the genetics of body weight regulation
    Benjamin G Challis
    Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, UK
    Brief Funct Genomic Proteomic 1:290-304. 2002
    ..Furthermore, applications of microarray and proteomic techniques will further refine our understanding of currently known peptides as well as identify novel pathways and molecules which are involved in energy homeostasis...
  84. pmc Reduced anorexigenic efficacy of leptin, but not of the melanocortin receptor agonist melanotan-II, predicts diet-induced obesity in rats
    Gertjan van Dijk
    Department of Animal Physiology, Biological Center, Haren, The Netherlands
    Endocrinology 146:5247-56. 2005
    ..Thus, differences in leptin but not MC signaling might underlie DIO, visceral obesity, and insulin resistance...
  85. ncbi Significance of the melanocortin 1 receptor in regulating human melanocyte pigmentation, proliferation, and survival
    Ana Luisa Kadekaro
    Department of Dermatology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 994:359-65. 2003
    ..This effect was absent in human melanocytes with loss of function MC1R mutations. We predict that the survival effect of alpha-MSH is caused by reduction of UV-induced DNA damage and contributes to the prevention of melanoma...
  86. ncbi Syndecan-3 modulates food intake by interacting with the melanocortin/AgRP pathway
    Ofer Reizes
    Procter Gamble Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Health Care Research Center, Mason, Ohio 45040, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 994:66-73. 2003
    ..Collectively, the data suggest that the modulation of melanocortin regulation of energy balance by syndecan-3 is modulated by the action of a TIMP-3-sensitive metalloprotease...
  87. ncbi alpha-MSH and desacetyl-alpha-MSH signaling through melanocortin receptors
    Kathleen G Mountjoy
    Departments of Physiology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1, New Zealand
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 994:58-65. 2003
    ....
  88. ncbi Leptin-induced leptin resistant rats exhibit enhanced responses to the melanocortin agonist MT II
    Philip J Scarpace
    Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center 182, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Gainesville, FL 32608 1197, USA
    Neuropharmacology 45:211-9. 2003
    ..We suggest that defective endogenous melanocortin activation may represent one element of leptin resistance, leading to compensatory hypersensitivity of the melanocortin pathway...
  89. ncbi Basomedial hypothalamic injections of neuropeptide Y conjugated to saporin selectively disrupt hypothalamic controls of food intake
    Kishor Bugarith
    Programs in Neuroscience, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 6520, USA
    Endocrinology 146:1179-91. 2005
    ..We found that NPY-SAP profoundly reduced NPY Y1 receptor and alpha MSH immunoreactivity, as well as NPY, Agouti gene-related protein (AGRP), and cocaine and amphetamine-related ..
  90. ncbi Increased dietary fat attenuates the anorexic effects of intracerebroventricular injections of MTII
    Deborah J Clegg
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, PO Box 670559, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0559, USA
    Endocrinology 144:2941-6. 2003
    ..These results indicate that consumption of a HF diet decreases signaling through the melanocortin system, an abnormality that could contribute to diet-induced obesity...
  91. ncbi Feeding responses to a melanocortin agonist and antagonist in obesity induced by a palatable high-fat diet
    Michelle J Hansen
    Neuroendocrine Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia
    Brain Res 1039:137-45. 2005
    ..The observation of increased responsiveness to the melanocortin agonist, in the face of a high-fat diet, suggests melanocortin analogues may have potential for the pharmacological treatment of obesity...
  92. ncbi Ac-Nle-c[Asp-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Lys]-NH2 induces penile erection via brain and spinal melanocortin receptors
    H Wessells
    Department of Urology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, 325 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
    Neuroscience 118:755-62. 2003
    ..These results provide new insight into the central melanocortinergic pathways that mediate penile erection and may allow for more efficacious melanotropin-based therapy for erectile dysfunction...
  93. ncbi Pivotal roles of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and the melanocortin 4 receptor in leptin stimulation of prolactin secretion in rats
    Hajime Watanobe
    Division of Internal Medicine, Clinical Research Center, International University of Health and Welfare, Otawara, Tochigi, Japan
    J Neurochem 85:338-47. 2003
    ..It was also suggested that the MC4-R may be the primary subtype of the MC-Rs mediating this action of alpha-MSH...
  94. ncbi Melanocortinergic modulation of cholecystokinin-induced suppression of feeding through extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in rat solitary nucleus
    Gregory M Sutton
    Neurobiology of Nutrition Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, 6400 Perkins Road, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808, USA
    Endocrinology 146:3739-47. 2005
    ..The cAMP-->ERK-->CREB cascade may thus constitute a molecular integrator for converging satiety signals from the gut and adiposity signals from the hypothalamus in the control of meal size and food intake...
  95. ncbi Effects of fluoxetine administration on hypothalamic melanocortin system in obese Zucker rats
    I Churruca
    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of the Basque Country, Paseo de la Universidad 7, Vitoria, Spain
    Neuropeptides 42:293-9. 2008
    ..These results suggest the involvement of alpha-MSH in central fluoxetine anorectic action...
  96. pmc Enterostatin inhibition of dietary fat intake is modulated through the melanocortin system
    Ling Lin
    Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, 6400 Perkins Road, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
    Peptides 28:643-9. 2007
    ..Enterostatin also reduced the expression of AgRP in the hypothalamus and amygdala and in GT1-7 cells. These data suggest enterostatin inhibits dietary fat intake through a melanocortin signaling pathway...
  97. ncbi Effects of melanocortin receptor ligands on ethanol intake and opioid peptide levels in alcohol-preferring AA rats
    Karolina Ploj
    Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Division of Pharmacology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    Brain Res Bull 59:97-104. 2002
    ..In addition, manipulation of the MC system modulates ethanol-induced changes in opioid peptide levels...
  98. ncbi Diet-induced obesity causes severe but reversible leptin resistance in arcuate melanocortin neurons
    Pablo J Enriori
    Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
    Cell Metab 5:181-94. 2007
    ..These results highlight the physiological importance of leptin sensing in the melanocortin circuits and show that their loss of leptin sensing likely contributes to the pathology of leptin resistance...
  99. ncbi Adrenalectomy alters the sensitivity of the central nervous system melanocortin system
    Deborah L Drazen
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45237, USA
    Diabetes 52:2928-34. 2003
    ..We conclude that the potent weight-reducing effects of ADX likely involve heightened responsiveness to melanocortin receptor stimulation...
  100. ncbi Melanocortinergic activation by melanotan II inhibits feeding and increases uncoupling protein 1 messenger ribonucleic acid in the developing rat
    Maria M Glavas
    Oregon National Primate Research Center, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Oregon Health and Science University, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, Oregon 97006, USA
    Endocrinology 148:3279-87. 2007
    ..These findings demonstrate that MTII can inhibit food intake and stimulate energy expenditure before the full development of hypothalamic feeding neurocircuitry. These effects do not appear to be mediated by changes in NPY expression...
  101. ncbi Identification of nesfatin-1 as a satiety molecule in the hypothalamus
    Shinsuke Oh-I
    Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa machi, Maebashi 371 8511, Japan
    Nature 443:709-12. 2006
    ..We identify nesfatin-1 as a satiety molecule that is associated with melanocortin signalling in the hypothalamus...

Research Grants62

  1. Surgical Wound Repair: Role of A Neuroendothelial Axis
    NICOLE SIMONE GIBRAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We will employ siRNA to deplete neuropeptide receptors on endothelial cells to further define neural modulation of endothelial cell inflammatory responses, migration and proliferation. ..
  2. Coleus forskohlii extract: melanization and UV protection by a natural product
    JOHN DORAZIO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our proposed research includes both in vivo and in vitro analyses of UV effects in whole skin and in melanocytes derived from our animal model, respectively. ..
  3. The role of Mc1r in melanocytic UV-induced DNA damage and repair responses
    JOHN A DORAZIO; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Together, these studies will lay the foundation for future translational studies designed to develop novel small molecule-based approaches for UV and cancer protection to prevent many cases of melanoma. ..
  4. PERINATAL METABOLIC AND HORMONAL EFFECTS
    Sherin U Devaskar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The results of our proposed investigations will fill vital gaps in our knowledge and provide the molecular and cellular basis for perinatal nutritional perturbations causing permanent changes in feeding behavior/energy expenditure. ..
  5. Appetite: Serotonin and corticotropin releasing factor
    SuJean Choi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..a functional link between serotonin (5-HT) and neuropeptides, such as CRF and melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha MSH) and their respective neurons residing within the PVN (5-HT, CRF) and the arcuate (ARC) hypothalamic nuclei (..
  6. Impact of MC1R Functional Variants on the DNA Damage Response of Human Melanocyte
    SANCY ANN LEACHMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These studies will improve risk assessment of melanoma susceptible individuals and development of effective strategies for melanoma prevention and early detection. ..
  7. Melanocortin system stress and HPA axis
    Xin Yun Lu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  8. SIGNALING PATHWAYS FOR UV-INDUCED MELANOGENIC RESPONSE
    Zalfa Abdel-Malek; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The incidence of melanoma in the U.S. and Eastern countries continues to rise with no effective treatment for advanced disease;hence the relevance of this project for public health. ..
  9. Longitudinal Population-Based Study of Vulvodynia
    Barbara D Reed; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  10. Melanocortin-4 Receptor Traffic and Signaling
    Giulia Baldini; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..It is anticipated that these studies will broaden our understanding of traffic and signaling of MC4R and of obesity- linked variants and will help find new targets for therapies against obesity. ..
  11. Response to Burn Injury: Role of the Melanocortin System in Wound Repair
    NICOLE SIMONE GIBRAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will also determine the effect of loss of function and gain of function for the melanocortin 1 receptor on fibroblast responses including proliferation, migration, differentiation, and protein synthesis. ..
  12. SKIN REACTION TO LIGHT--NORMAL, PHOTOSENSITIVITY, CANCER
    MADHUKAR PATHAK; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..In Project V, the age-related changes of SOD in humans skin biopsies and cultured human keratinocytes will be studied to demonstrated the importance of mammalian skin SOD in photoaging...
  13. Localized Vulvodynia Pathogenesis: Fibroblast, Yeast, and Melanocortin
    Richard P Phipps; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will assess an anti-inflammatory melanocortin derivative with therapeutic potential for vulvodynia and investigate the underlying molecular mechanism(s). ..
  14. Molecular Risk Assessment in Hereditary Melanoma
    Hensin Tsao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  15. Development of Topical Neuroinflammatory Inhibitors
    MANDIP SACHDEVA; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The results of these studies are intended to provide the basic information required for the development of novel skin disorders. ..
  16. OPIOMELANOCORTIN PEPTIDES AND CARDIOVASCULAR REGULATION
    George Kunos; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The results will help our understanding of anti hypertensive drug action, and will clarify the mechanism of cardiovascular regulation by POMC peptides. ..
  17. DOMINANT WHITE (I) GENE OF CHICKENS: MODEL FOR VITILIGO
    ROGER BOWERS; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The effect of this same gene on feather tyrosinase and dopachrome conversion factor activity will be analyzed...
  18. DIOXINS AND HYPOTHALAMIC APPETITE NEUROPEPTIDES
    GEORGE GREELEY; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..We intend to demonstrate that alteration in the homeostasis of neuropeptides or of neuropeptide receptors involved in hypothalamic control of feeding behavior is a mechanism underlying the anorectic action of PCAHs. ..
  19. Hypothalamic Regulation of Energy Homeostasis
    Sharon Wardlaw; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Our proposed studies of P0MG regulation and processing in the rodent should thus have implications for the regulation of food intake and body weight in the human. ..
  20. REGULATION OF SECRETION OF POMC PEPTIDES IN BRAIN
    LEONARD KAPCALA; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ....
  21. IMMUNOMODULATION OF CUTANEOUS ENDOTHELIAL CELLS BY A-MSH
    Cheryl Armstrong; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The results of these investigations will lead to a better understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in endothelial cell mediated inflammation of the skin and to improved treatment strategies for cutaneous inflammatory diseases. ..
  22. NEUROIMMUNOMODULATION WITHIN THE EYE
    Andrew Taylor; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  23. GENE THERAPY, OBESITY AND HYPOTHALAMIC SIGNALING
    Satya Kalra; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This new knowledge will be applied to the ultimate goal of site-directed gene delivery aimed at the newly identified vulnerable loci in hypothalamic signaling to curb overeating and abnormal weight gain. ..
  24. Dental Anxiety, Pain & Melanocortin-1 Receptor Mutations
    Edwin Liem; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  25. Discovery of Alpha-MSH Analogs for Skin Cancer Prevention
    Zalfa Abdel Malek; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  26. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN-RELATED PEPTIDE HORMONE GENE FUSIONS
    John Murphy; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ....
  27. Leptin and Neuroendocrine Gene Regulation in Obesity
    Judith Korner; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Leibel and Dr. Wardlaw, are experienced in basic and clinical research. They are easily accessible, enthusiastic about my projects, and will facilitate my transition to status as an independent investigator. ..
  28. POLYPEPTIDE HORMONE BIOSYNTHESIS--AMPHIBIAN MODELS
    Robert Dores; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The ACTH- related cleavage products generated by larval corticotropes will be characterized, and the effects of these products on steroid synthesis by larval adrenal cells will be determined...
  29. CYTOKINES AND HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-IMMUNE INTERACTIONS
    Sharon Wardlaw; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..An understanding of the endogenous hormonal mechanisms which regulate this inflammatory cytokine cascade is thus relevant to a broad range of human diseases [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  30. ADRENOCORTICAL HORMONES IN OBESITY-RELATED HYPERTENSION
    ALEXANDER BROWNIE; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..These studies focus on postulated hormonal changes in obesity- associated hypertension and should provide fundamental information to explain the mechanisms involved...
  31. MELANOMA RADIOTHERAPY- PEPTIDE TARGETED ALPHA-RADIATION
    Thomas Quinn; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..proposed commercial application: not available ..
  32. Melanoma Therapy via peptide targeted alpha-radiation
    Thomas Quinn; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..DOTA]-ReCCMSH targeting of Alpha-particle emitting radiation to melanoma tumors in patients with metastatic disease. ..
  33. Molecular Epidemiology of Melanoma
    Peter Kanetsky; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Analyses will be undertaken to evaluate the role of candidate genotypes and other risk factors in melanoma etiology, including genotype by environment interactions. ..
  34. Sex-Related Genetic Influences on Pain and Analgesia
    Roger Fillingim; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  35. ENDOGENOUS AND EXOGENOUS IL 10 AND RENAL INJURY
    Orson Moe; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  36. Central Serotonergic Pathways Regulating Energy Balance
    LORA HEISLER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  37. TRH Production and Regulation by Human Melanoma
    Julie Ellerhorst; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In Specific Aim #2, cell lines will be used for in vitro studies to determine if one or more of the mechanisms of hypothalamic TRH regulation are relevant to the control of TRH production by melanoma cells. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  38. Estrogen modulation of hypothalamic arcuate neurons
    Anna Malyala; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Finally, I will determine the function of the PI3K pathway in estrogen signaling in POMC arcuate neurons using whole-cell recordings. ..
  39. Leptin Action and Resistance in POMC-Neurons
    SHANE HENTGES; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  40. 19th International Pigment Cell Conference - 2005
    Zalfa Abdel Malek; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  41. STRUCTURAL DETERMINANTS OF NEUROENDOCRINE RECEPTORS
    Carrie Haskell Luevano; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..abstract_text> ..
  42. Human Melanocortin-4 Receptor Polymorphisms
    Carrie Haskell Luevano; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Understanding obesity related mechanisms may ultimately result in therapeutic agents to prevent or treat the diseases associated with over eating. ..
  43. Peptide Hormone Structure Function
    Victor J Hruby; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  44. Attractin and Mahoganoid in Spongy Neurodegeneration
    Gregory Barsh; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Investigating the biochemical, cellular, and genetic relationships between Atrn, Mahoganoid, and PrP is likely to provide general insight into the pathogenesis of spongy degeneration. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  45. Molecular determinants of ACTH receptor for ligand binding
    Yingkui Yang; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The information will serve to establish a foundation on which to build a comprehensive understanding of the signaling events that regulate ACTH mediated adrenal function in physiologic and diseased states. ..
  46. COR HONORS HIGH SCHOOL RESEARCH EDUCATION
    Joseph Dunbar; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  47. REGULATION OF ENERGY BALANCE BY MELANOCORTIN ANTAGONISTS
    Gregory Barsh; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  48. Genetics of Dark Skin in Mice
    Gregory Barsh; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  49. MELANOMA AND ALLELIC VARIATION IN THE MCIR GENE
    Peter Kanetsky; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Result from this project may provide valuable insight into the genetic predisposition to melanoma seen in some families, and may lead to more efficient mechanisms of primary prevention and clinical follow-up within these families. ..
  50. Radiolabeled RGD Peptides for Breast Cancer Imaging and Therapy
    Zhen Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The same ligands labeled with therapeutic isotopes will allow targeted internal radiotherapy of integrin positive tumors. ..
  51. REGULATORY RESPONSES TO POSITIVE ENERGY BALANCE
    Randy Seeley; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The information from this proposal will be critical to a complete picture of how energy balance is regulated and how disorders of energy balance such as obesity may be treated. ..
  52. Regulation of Drug Addiction by Feeding Related Peptides
    Soledad Cabeza de Vaca; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..It is expected that the proposed studies will elucidate neuropeptidergic mechanisms that co-regulate energy balance and vulnerability to drug addiction. ..
  53. Vulvar vestibulitis trial: Desipramine-Lidocaine
    David Foster; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..equally effective or is one superior to the other? Is there any benefit from combined local and systemic treatments? And finally, do genetic characteristics and tissue cytokine concentrations influence treatment response? ..
  54. Behavioral Mechanisms of CNS Melanocortin Action
    Stephen Benoit; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These results will expand our understanding of this critical system for the regulation of food intake and body weight and, hopefully, provide insight into important structures and systems that are downstream of the melanocortins. ..
  55. Role of CNS Insulin in Learning and Memory
    Stephen Benoit; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Ultimately, this line of investigation may offer novel therapeutic strategies for treating individuals with cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer' s disease. ..
  56. CNS GLP-1 signaling in energy and glucose homeostasis
    Randy Seeley; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Furthermore, the advent of pharmaceuticals that utilize GLP-I R signaling to treat diabetes makes understanding the physiology of GLP-I directly applicable to clinical care. ..
  57. ROLES OF ENDOGENOUS ALPHA MSH IN FEVER AND IMMUNITY
    JEFFREY TATRO; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  58. Novel regulation of adipogenesis: agouti & melanocortins
    Randall Mynatt; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  59. Roles of GM-CSF in Energy and Glucose Regulation
    Randy J Seeley; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The aims presented here are an important step in unveiling the specific roles that GM-CSF plays in the normal regulation of body weight and its potential connection to the pathology of diabetes. ..
  60. Syndecan & CNS Melanocortin Signaling in Energy Balance
    Stephen Benoit; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The results may provide important, basic insights into the control of body weight by the central melanocortin system and its recently identified co-receptor, syndecan-3. ..