- EdU, a new thymidine analogue for labelling proliferating cells in the nervous system
National Centre for Adult Stem Cell Research, Eskitis Institute for Cellular and Molecular Therapies, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD 4111, Australia
J Neurosci Methods 177:122-30. 2009
..We present here a novel thymidine analogue, ethynyl deoxyuridine (EdU) for labelling dividing cells, detected with a fluorescent azide which forms ..
- Significant human beta-cell turnover is limited to the first three decades of life as determined by in vivo thymidine analog incorporation and radiocarbon dating
Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Disease NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:E234-9. 2010
..The turnover rate of adult human β-cells remains unknown. We employed two techniques to examine adult human islet β-cell turnover and longevity in vivo...
- Efficient labeling of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe with thymidine and BUdR
Jeffrey A Hodson
Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 31:e134. 2003
..The strain co-expresses the Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (hsv-tk) and a human equilibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT1)...
- Stem cell proliferative history in tissue revealed by temporal halogenated thymidine analog discrimination
Christopher J Vega
Department of Neuroscience, The Chicago Medical School at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, Illinois 60064, USA
Nat Methods 2:167-9. 2005
..We describe incorporation of different halogenated thymidine analogs for temporal discrimination of cell cycle in the rat...
- Molecular determinants of multi-nucleoside analogue resistance in HIV-1 reverse transcriptases containing a dipeptide insertion in the fingers subdomain: effect of mutations D67N and T215Y on removal of thymidine nucleotide analogues from blocked DNA prim
, , 28049 Madrid, Spain
J Biol Chem 279:24569-77. 2004
..Insertions are usually associated with thymidine analogue resistance mutations, such as T215Y...
- Thymidine analogs are transferred from prelabeled donor to host cells in the central nervous system after transplantation: a word of caution
Terry C Burns
Stem Cell Institute, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
Stem Cells 24:1121-7. 2006
b>Thymidine analogs, including bromodeoxyuridine, chlorodeoxyuridine, iododeoxyuridine, and tritiated thymidine, label dividing cells by incorporating into DNA during S phase of cell division and are widely employed to identify cells ..
- Thymidine analog methods for studies of adult neurogenesis are not equally sensitive
Department of Psychology, Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
J Comp Neurol 517:123-33. 2009
Adult neurogenesis is often studied by labeling new cells with the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and using immunohistochemical methods for their visualization...
- In vivo labeling of fission yeast DNA with thymidine and thymidine analogs
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
Methods 33:213-9. 2004
In vivo labeling of DNA with thymidine and thymidine analogs has long been a cornerstone of replication studies. Unfortunately, yeast lack a thymidine salvage pathway and thus do not incorporate exogenous thymidine...
- High fidelity of base pairing by 2-selenothymidine in DNA
Abdalla E A Hassan
Department of Chemistry, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303, USA
J Am Chem Soc 132:2120-1. 2010
..Via the selenium atomic probing at the 2-position of thymidine, we have investigated the wobble discrimination by manipulating the steric and electronic effects at the 2-exo ..
- Thiothymidine plus low-dose UVA kills hyperproliferative human skin cells independently of their human papilloma virus status
Cancer Research UK, Institute for Cell and Molecular Science, Skin Tumour Laboratory, 4, Newark Street, London E1 2AT, United Kingdom
Mol Cancer Ther 6:2487-95. 2007
The thymidine analogue 4-thiothymidine (S(4)TdR) is a photosensitizer for UVA radiation...
- Diminished selection for thymidine-analog mutations associated with the presence of M184V in Ethiopian children infected with HIV subtype C receiving lamivudine-containing therapy
Hadassah University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel
Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:1049-56. 2006
..studied the effect of the lamivudine-induced reverse transcription mutation M184V on selection of thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) in HIV subtype C-infected children and on clinical outcome...
- In vitro activity of pyrvinium pamoate against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis using radiolabelled thymidine incorporation and an SYBR Green I-based fluorescence assay
Autumn S Downey
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
J Antimicrob Chemother 64:751-4. 2009
..To assess the in vitro activity of the FDA-approved antihelminthic drug pyrvinium pamoate against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis...
- EdU incorporation is an alternative non-radioactive assay to [(3)H]thymidine uptake for in vitro measurement of mice T-cell proliferations
The Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and Developmental and Stem Cell Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
J Immunol Methods 350:29-35. 2009
T lymphocyte proliferations can be measured by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. However, many labs avoid this technique because of the need to use radioactive substrates...
- Effects of 5-hydroxymethyluracil and 3-aminobenzamide on the repair and toxicity of 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine in mammalian cells
R J Boorstein
Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York 10016
Cancer Res 49:1509-14. 1989
5-Hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (HmdUrd), a cytotoxic analogue of thymidine, has been proposed for use as an anticancer agent. HmdUrd is incorporated into DNA and then removed at a rate of 30-40% per day...
- Mitochondrial DNA depletion and thymidine phosphate pool dynamics in a cellular model of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy
Department of Biology, University of Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy
J Biol Chem 281:22720-8. 2006
..Patients lack a functional thymidine phosphorylase and their plasma contains high concentrations of thymidine and deoxyuridine; elevation of the ..
- N348I in reverse transcriptase provides a genetic pathway for HIV-1 to select thymidine analogue mutations and mutations antagonistic to thymidine analogue mutations
Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA, USA
AIDS 24:659-67. 2010
..g. L74V and M184V) resistance mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase are antagonistic toward thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) that confer zidovudine (ZDV) resistance...
- Effects of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase, substrate, and products in a three-dimensional model of angiogenesis
D P Stevenson
Diagnostics Research Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King s College School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom
Am J Pathol 152:1641-6. 1998
Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase (PD-ECGF/TP) is associated with angiogenesis and the progression of human breast and ovarian cancers...
- Thymidine-dependent Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variants: human pathogens that are relevant not only in cases of cystic fibrosis lung disease
Institute of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, Hospital of Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt Main, Paul Ehrlich Strasse 40, 60596 Frankfurt Main, Germany
J Clin Microbiol 46:3829-32. 2008
We report the isolation of thymidine-dependent small-colony variants (TD-SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus from unusual infection sites of patients with chronic soft tissue infection, tympanitis, bronchitis, peritonitis, and septicemia...
- Thymidine-dependent small-colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus exhibit gross morphological and ultrastructural changes consistent with impaired cell separation
Barbara C Kahl
Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Muenster Hospital and Clinics, Muenster, Germany
J Clin Microbiol 41:410-3. 2003
b>Thymidine-dependent small-colony variants (SCV) of Staphylococcus aureus exhibited unusual colony morphology with "fried-egg" or pinpoint white colonies on agar plates and pleomorphic cocci as determined by Gram staining...
- DNA tandem lesion repair by strand displacement synthesis and nucleotide excision repair
Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA
Biochemistry 47:4306-16. 2008
..These data reveal two solutions that DNA repair systems can use to counteract the formation of tandem lesions...
- Thymidine kinase, thymidylate synthase, and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase profiles of cell lines of the National Cancer Institute's Anticancer Drug Screen
J L Grem
Developmental Therapeutics Department, Medicine Branch, Division of Clinical Sciences, National Cancer Institute at the National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20889, USA
Clin Cancer Res 7:999-1009. 2001
..EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Thymidine kinase (TK) activity was assessed by conversion of [(3)H]thymidine to [(3)H]TMP...
- Thymidine-phosphorothioate oligonucleotides induce activation and apoptosis of CLL cells independently of CpG motifs or BCL-2 gene interference
J E Castro
John and Rebecca Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
Leukemia 20:680-8. 2006
..Surprisingly, we found that thymidine-containing PS-ODN, but not PO-ODN, induced activation and apoptosis of CLL cells independent of BCL-2 antisense ..
- Characterization of adducts formed in reactions of acrolein with thymidine and calf thymus DNA
Agnieszka J Pawłowicz
Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Abo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, FIN 20500 Turku Abo
Chem Biodivers 5:177-88. 2008
..In this study, we examined the reactivity of acrolein towards thymidine and calf-thymus double- and single-stranded DNA in aqueous buffered solutions...
- A two-stage one-pot enzymatic synthesis of TDP-L-mycarose from thymidine and glucose-1-phosphate
Division of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA
J Am Chem Soc 128:1432-3. 2006
This report describes a procedure combining six enzymes native to Escherichia coli or Salmonella typhi, such as thymidine kinase (TK), thymidylate kinase (TMK), nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), pyruvate kinase (PK; for ATP ..
- Heavy chain ferritin enhances serine hydroxymethyltransferase expression and de novo thymidine biosynthesis
E W Oppenheim
Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
J Biol Chem 276:19855-61. 2001
..Our data suggest that the iron regulatory pool may play an important role in regulating folate metabolism and thereby thymidine biosynthesis.
- Accumulation of thymidine-derived sugars in thymidine phosphorylase overexpressing cells
I V Bijnsdorp
VU University Medical Center, Department Medical Oncology, De Boelelaan 1117 CCA 1 42, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Biochem Pharmacol 80:786-92. 2010
b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is often overexpressed in cancer and potentially plays a role in the stimulation of angiogenesis...
- Human RECQL5 overcomes thymidine-induced replication stress
The Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
DNA Repair (Amst) 9:964-75. 2010
..We demonstrate that overexpressed RECQL5 promotes survival during thymidine-induced slowing of replication forks in human cells...
- 2-[11C]thymidine positron emission tomography as an indicator of thymidylate synthase inhibition in patients treated with AG337
Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
J Natl Cancer Inst 95:675-82. 2003
BACKGROUND: Some anticancer drugs inhibit thymidylate synthase (TS), a key enzyme for thymidine nucleotide biosynthesis. Cells can compensate for depleted thymidine levels by taking up extracellular thymidine via a salvage pathway...
- Heterogeneous cell renewal of pancreas in mice: [(3)H]-thymidine autoradiographic investigation
Fourth Department of Internal Medicine, Tokyo Medical University, 6 7 1 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 0023, Japan
Pancreas 24:153-60. 2002
..Although cell kinetics of the gastrointestinal mucosa has been extensively examined, that of the pancreas has not been fully analyzed...
- L-leucine increases [3H]-thymidine incorporation in chicken hepatocytes: involvement of the PKC, PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2, and mTOR signaling pathways
Min Young Lee
Department of Veterinary Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Biotherapy Human Resources Center BK21, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500 757, Korea
J Cell Biochem 105:1410-9. 2008
..Phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) mediated the L-leucine-induced increases in [3H]-thymidine incorporation and cyclin D1/CDK4 and cyclin E/CDK2 expression, as U73122 (a PLC inhibitor) or ..
- Thymidine phosphorylase gene mutations in MNGIE, a human mitochondrial disorder
Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Department of Neurology, 630 West 168 Street, P and S 4 443, New York, NY 10032, USA
Science 283:689-92. 1999
..Examination of 12 MNGIE probands revealed homozygous or compound-heterozygous mutations in the gene specifying thymidine phosphorylase (TP), located on chromosome 22q13.32-qter...
- Increased migration by stimulation of thymidine phosphorylase in endothelial cells of different origin
I V Bijnsdorp
Department of Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 29:482-7. 2010
b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) catalyzes the phosphorylytic cleavage of thymidine to thymine and deoxyribose-1-phosphate. The latter may be involved in the angiogenic stimulation of TP...
- Structure-guided engineering of human thymidine kinase 2 as a positron emission tomography reporter gene for enhanced phosphorylation of non-natural thymidine analog reporter probe
Dean O Campbell
Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
J Biol Chem 287:446-54. 2012
..Here we describe a new PRG-PRP system that employs, as the PRG, a mutated form of human thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) and 2'-deoxy-2'-18F-5-methyl-1-β-L-arabinofuranosyluracil (L-18F-FMAU) as the PRP...
- Therapeutic potential of the dual-targeted TAS-102 formulation in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies
Olaf H Temmink
Department of Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam 1007 MB, The Netherlands
Cancer Sci 98:779-89. 2007
..The thymidine analog trifluorothymidine (TFT) has been shown to bypass resistance pathways for 5FU derivatives (S-1, UFT, ..
- Thiothymidine combined with UVA as a potential novel therapy for bladder cancer
S W Pridgeon
Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle NE2 4HH, UK
Br J Cancer 104:1869-76. 2011
..Studies were performed to determine if the combination of S(4)TdR and UVA could be an effective treatment for bladder cancer...
- Phenotypic characterization of drug resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1 RT connection and RNase H domains and their correlation with thymidine analogue mutations
Renan B Lengruber
Departamento de Genetica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
J Antimicrob Chemother 66:702-8. 2011
..In this work, we have characterized the correlation of recently described C-terminal domain mutations with thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs), as well as their phenotypic impact on susceptibility to zidovudine and nevirapine.
- Generation of guanine-thymidine cross-links in DNA by peroxynitrite/carbon dioxide
Byeong Hwa Yun
Division of Environmental Health Sciences, Wadsworth Center, NYS Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, P O Box 509, Albany, New York 12201 0509, USA
Chem Res Toxicol 24:1144-52. 2011
..002% each) were found. It is shown that the formation of d(G*pT*) enzyme digestion product can arise only from intrastrand cross-links, whereas d(G*-T*) can arise from both interstrand and intrastrand cross-linked products...
- Hyperglycaemia inhibits thymidine incorporation and cell growth via protein kinase C, mitogen-activated protein kinases and nitric oxide in human umbilical vein endothelium
Cellular and Molecular Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, , PO Box 160-C, , Chile
Exp Physiol 88:209-19. 2003
..e. hyperglycaemia) inhibits cell proliferation and incorporation of the endogenous nucleoside thymidine into DNA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cells in their log-phase of growth (3.7 +/- 0...
- Multiple mutant of Escherichia coli synthesizing virtually thymineless DNA during limited growth
H H El-Hajj
Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109 0602
J Bacteriol 174:4450-6. 1992
..ung, which produces uracil-DNA N-glycosylase, a repair enzyme that removes uracil from DNA; deoA, which produces thymidine (deoxyuridine) phosphorylase, which would degrade exogenous deoxyuridine; and thyA, which produces thymidylate ..
- Isolation from fetal bovine serum of an apolipoprotein-H-like protein which inhibits thymidine incorporation in fetal calf erythroid cells
Q G Li
Endocrine Laboratory, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Canada
Biochem J 267:261-4. 1990
A 46 kDa heparin-binding protein which inhibits thymidine incorporation in cultures of fetal calf liver erythroid cells was isolated from fetal bovine serum by affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose, ion-exchange chromatography, ..
- Reaction of glyoxal with 2'-deoxyguanosine, 2'-deoxyadenosine, 2'-deoxycytidine, cytidine, thymidine, and calf thymus DNA: identification of DNA adducts
National Institute of Occupational Health, P.O. Box 8149 Dep, N-0033 Oslo, Norway
Chem Res Toxicol 18:730-9. 2005
..In this study, the reactions of glyoxal with 2'-deoxyguanosine, 2'-deoxyadenosine, 2'-deoxycytidine, cytidine, thymidine, and calf thymus DNA have been studied in aqueous buffered solutions...
- Excessive base excision repair of 5-hydroxymethyluracil from DNA induces apoptosis in Chinese hamster V79 cells containing mutant p53
L J Mi
Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences and The Rita and Stanley Kaplan Cancer Center, New York, NY 10016, USA
Carcinogenesis 22:179-86. 2001
..Immunochemical analysis showed that both V79 and V79mut1 cells contained mutant p53, indicating that apoptosis induced by DNA base excision repair can be independent of p53...
- Mispair-aligned N3T-alkyl-N3T interstrand cross-linked DNA: synthesis and characterization of duplexes with interstrand cross-links of variable lengths
Christopher J Wilds
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
J Am Chem Soc 126:9257-65. 2004
..alkyl interstrand cross-links, we have synthesized a cross-link that bridges the N(3) positions of a mismatched thymidine base pair...
- Gadolinium inhibits thymidine incorporation and induces apoptosis in chondrocytes
J K Greisberg
Department of Orthopaedics, Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, Providence 02903 USA
J Orthop Res 19:797-801. 2001
..Proteoglycan synthesis was measured through incorporation of radiolabeled sulfate. Uptake of radiolabeled thymidine assessed cell proliferation...
- O-[18F]fluoromethyl-L-tyrosine is a potential tracer for monitoring tumour response to chemotherapy using PET: an initial comparative in vivo study with deoxyglucose and thymidine
Department of Clinical Oncology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba Ward, Sendai 980-8575, Japan
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 33:1134-9. 2006
..amino acid, O-[18F]fluoromethyl-L-tyrosine ([18F]FMT), for monitoring cancer chemotherapy with deoxyglucose and thymidine. METHODS: [18F]FMT, [14C]deoxyglucose ([14C]DG) and [6-3H]thymidine ([3H]Thd) were applied in this study. A 2...
- Convenient method for the preparation of 2'-deoxyribosylurea by thymidine oxidation and NMR study of both anomers
Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination du CNRS, Toulouse, France
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids 20:1463-71. 2001
The synthesis of 2'-deoxyribosylurea by thymidine oxidation with potassium permanganate followed by alkaline hydrolysis of intermediates is described. The anomeric configuration of the resulting products was studied by NMR spectroscopy.
- Glucose transport and apoptosis after gene therapy with HSV thymidine kinase
Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Eur J Nucl Med 28:1690-6. 2001
..of apoptosis by gene therapy was investigated in a rat Morris hepatoma (MH3924A) model expressing the HSV thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene...
- Cloning and characterization of full-length mouse thymidine kinase 2: the N-terminal sequence directs import of the precursor protein into mitochondria
Department of Veterinary Medical Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, The Biomedical Centre, P O Box 575, SE 751 23 Uppsala, Sweden
Biochem J 351:469-76. 2000
The subcellular localization of mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) has been questioned, since no mitochondrial targeting sequences have been found in cloned human TK2 cDNAs...
- Discovery of bicyclic thymidine analogues as selective and high-affinity inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis thymidine monophosphate kinase
Laboratory for Medicinal Chemistry (FFW, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
J Med Chem 47:6187-94. 2004
b>Thymidine monophosphate kinase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TMPKmt) represents an attractive target for selectively blocking bacterial DNA synthesis...
- Thymidine phosphorylase suppresses Fas-induced apoptotic signal transduction independent of its enzymatic activity
Shin ichiro Mori
First Department of Surgery, Kagoshima University School of Medicine, 8 35 1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890, Japan
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 295:300-5. 2002
b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) has chemotactic and angiogenic activities resulting from its enzymatic activity in vitro, and it also promotes tumor growth and inhibits apoptosis in vivo...
- TGF beta-induced SMAD2 phosphorylation predicts inhibition of thymidine incorporation in CD34+ cells from healthy donors, but not from patients with AML after MDS
Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
Leukemia 15:942-9. 2001
..While TGF beta consistently inhibited thymidine incorporation of normal cells (41% of control, P < 0...
- Effect of ionizing radiation on thymidine uptake, differentiation, and VEGFR2 receptor expression in endothelial cells: the role of VEGF(165)
Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology, Louis-Charles Simard Research Center, , 1560 Sherbrooke East, , , H2L 4M1 Canada
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 50:213-20. 2001
..We investigated the effects of beta ionizing radiation on human EC viability, thymidine uptake, and differentiation...
- Altered deoxyuridine and thymidine in plasma following capecitabine treatment in colorectal cancer patients
Kong M Li
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Research, School of Medical Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Br J Clin Pharmacol 63:67-74. 2007
..To investigate the relationship between changes in plasma deoxynucleoside concentrations and response and toxicity in patients treated with capecitabine...
- Molecular analysis of the thymidine-auxotrophic small colony variant phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus
Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Krankenhaushygiene, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitat, Paul Ehrlich Strasse 40, D 60596 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Int J Med Microbiol 297:217-25. 2007
b>Thymidine-auxotrophic small colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus are frequently isolated from the chronically infected airways of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis...
- A spectroscopic investigation into the interactions of 3'-O-carboxy esters of thymidine with bovine serum albumin
Kalyan Sundar Ghosh
Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India
Biopolymers 91:737-44. 2009
Binding studies of 3'-O-carboxy esters of thymidine, reported inhibitors of ribonucleases, with bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been explored in this report...
- Unchanged thymidine triphosphate pools and thymidine metabolism in two lines of thymidine kinase 2-mutated fibroblasts
Department of Biology, University of Padova, Italy
FEBS J 276:1104-13. 2009
Mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) catalyzes the phosphorylation of thymidine in mitochondria...
- The ring fragmentation product of thymidine C5-hydrate when present in DNA is repaired by the Escherichia coli Fpg and Nth proteins
Groupe Reparation des lesions Radio et Chimio Induites, UMR 1772 CNRS, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France
Biochemistry 37:7757-63. 1998
..5R)-Thymidine C5-hydrate is one of several modified nucleosides produced from thymidine under these conditions...
- Induction of sister chromatid exchanges by the thymidine analog 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine
E R Kaufman
Department of Genetics, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago 60612
Somat Cell Mol Genet 15:563-8. 1989
The thymidine analog, 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (hmdUrd), was tested for its ability to induce sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells...
- Thymidine selectively enhances growth suppressive effects of camptothecin/irinotecan in MSI+ cells and tumors containing a mutation of MRE11
Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Sheffield, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Sheffield, United Kingdom
Clin Cancer Res 14:5476-83. 2008
..Here, we attempt to exploit the altered response of mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient colon cancer cells and tumors to camptothecin or irinotecan and thymidine by combining them to improve therapeutic response.
- Carboxypeptidase-G2, thymidine, and leucovorin rescue in cancer patients with methotrexate-induced renal dysfunction
B C Widemann
Pediatric Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1928, USA
J Clin Oncol 15:2125-34. 1997
..The pharmacologic and clinical outcome of CPDG2 rescue administered with thymidine and leucovorin in 20 patients is presented here.
- Two thymidine hydroxylases differentially regulate the formation of glucosylated DNA at regions flanking polymerase II polycistronic transcription units throughout the genome of Trypanosoma brucei
Laura J Cliffe
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
Nucleic Acids Res 38:3923-35. 2010
..We have previously characterized two thymidine-hydroxylases (TH), JBP1 and JBP2, which regulate J-biosynthesis...
- Rational design of 5'-thiourea-substituted alpha-thymidine analogues as thymidine monophosphate kinase inhibitors capable of inhibiting mycobacterial growth
Ineke Van Daele
Laboratory for Medicinal Chemistry FFW, University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
J Med Chem 50:5281-92. 2007
Recently, thymidine monophosphate kinase (TMPK) emerged as an attractive target for developing inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth. The elucidation of the X-ray structure of TMPK of M...
- Rosiglitazone improves lipoatrophy in patients receiving thymidine-sparing regimens
Cleveland Clinic, Ohio, USA
AIDS 24:1291-8. 2010
b>Thymidine reverse transcriptase inhibitors (tNRTI) are strong inhibitors of PPAR-gamma and clearly implicated as a cause of lipoatrophy...
- Glucarpidase, leucovorin, and thymidine for high-dose methotrexate-induced renal dysfunction: clinical and pharmacologic factors affecting outcome
Brigitte C Widemann
Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892 1101, USA
J Clin Oncol 28:3979-86. 2010
To assess the role of the recombinant bacterial enzyme, glucarpidase (carboxypeptidase-G(2)), leucovorin, and thymidine in the management and outcome of patients with high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX) -induced nephrotoxicity.
- Thymidine analogue mutations in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1 patients on triple therapy including either zidovudine or stavudine
Service Universitaire de Virologie, Centre Hospitalier Regional de Lille, Lille, France
J Antimicrob Chemother 53:89-94. 2004
The aims of this study were to: (i) determine the incidence of thymidine-associated mutations (TAMs) in an observational clinical cohort of naive HIV-1 patients who stopped first-line therapy including either zidovudine or stavudine; and ..
- The thymidine-dependent small-colony-variant phenotype is associated with hypermutability and antibiotic resistance in clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates
Institute of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, University Hospital of Frankfurt am Main, Paul Ehrlich Strasse 40, 60596 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:2183-9. 2008
b>Thymidine-dependent small-colony variants (TD-SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus can be isolated from the airway secretions of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) and are implicated in persistent and treatment-resistant infections...
- Incorporation of thymidine analogs for studying replication kinetics in fission yeast
Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Department, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA
Methods Mol Biol 521:509-15. 2009
Labeling DNA during in vivo replication by the incorporation of exogenous thymidine and thymidine analogs has been a mainstay of DNA replication and repair studies for decades...
- Molecular mechanisms of bidirectional antagonism between K65R and thymidine analog mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase
Urvi M Parikh
Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA
AIDS 21:1405-14. 2007
..b>Thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) confer high-level resistance to zidovudine and cross-resistance to other NRTI by ..
- Coordination of altered DNA repair and damage pathways in arsenite-exposed keratinocytes
Hisham K Hamadeh
Intramural Microarray Center, Laboratory of Molecular Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
Toxicol Sci 69:306-16. 2002
- The K65R mutation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase exhibits bidirectional phenotypic antagonism with thymidine analog mutations
Urvi M Parikh
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
J Virol 80:4971-7. 2006
..insight, we examined trends in the frequency of K65R in a large genotype database, the association of K65R with thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) and other NRTI mutations, and the viral susceptibility profile of HIV-1 with K65R alone ..
- Mice deficient for cytosolic thymidine kinase gene develop fatal kidney disease
Vasily N Dobrovolsky
National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR, USA
Mol Genet Metab 78:1-10. 2003
The thymidine kinase (Tk) gene codes for a cytosolic protein involved in the pyrimidine nucleotide salvage pathway...
- ATM is required for the cellular response to thymidine induced replication fork stress
Institute for Cancer Studies, School of Medicine, University of Sheffield, UK
Hum Mol Genet 13:2937-45. 2004
..Here, we show that thymidine, which slows the progression of replication forks by depleting cellular pools of dCTP, induces a novel DNA ..
- High glucose potentiates mitogenic responses of cultured ovine coronary smooth muscle cells to platelet derived growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta1
Peter J Little
Cell Biology of Diabetes Laboratory, Baker Heart Research Institute and The Alfred Hospital, St Kilda Road Central, PO Box 6492, Melbourne, VIC 8008, Australia
Diabetes Res Clin Pract 59:93-101. 2003
..Experiments were conducted in DMEM containing 5.5 or 25 mmol/l glucose and mitogenic responses assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation...
- Contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress to cellular premature senescence induced by antiretroviral thymidine analogues
INSERM, U680, Paris, 75012 France
Antivir Ther 13:27-38. 2008
..In this regard, we examined whether NRTIs could accelerate the senescence of cultured cells...
- Replicative capacity differences of thymidine analog resistance mutations in subtype B and C human immunodeficiency virus type 1
Kimberly L Armstrong
Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases and Harvard School of Public Health AIDS Initiative, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
J Virol 83:4051-9. 2009
In order to understand the impact of zidovudine resistance and thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) on subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1, we created mutants in subtype C reverse transcriptase (RT)...
- Synthesis, physicochemical and biochemical studies of 1',2'-oxetane constrained adenosine and guanosine modified oligonucleotides, and their comparison with those of the corresponding cytidine and thymidine analogues
Pushpangadan I Pradeepkumar
Contribution from the Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Box 581, Biomedical Center, University of Uppsala, S-75123 Uppsala, Sweden
J Am Chem Soc 126:11484-99. 2004
- Activity and mechanism of action of N-methanocarbathymidine against herpesvirus and orthopoxvirus infections
Mark N Prichard
Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:1336-41. 2006
..The antiviral activity of this molecule is dependent on the type I thymidine kinase (TK) in herpes simplex virus and also appears to be dependent on the type II TK expressed by cowpox and ..
- Experimental and structural evidence that herpes 1 kinase and cellular DNA polymerase(s) discriminate on the basis of sugar pucker
Victor E Marquez
Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, National Institutes of Health, 376 Boyles St, Frederick, MD, 21702, USA
J Am Chem Soc 126:543-9. 2004
Two isomers of methanocarba (MC) thymidine (T), one an effective antiherpes agent with the pseudosugar moiety locked in the North (N) hemisphere of the pseudorotational cycle (1a, N-MCT) and the other an inactive isomer locked in the ..
- Light regulation of aptamer activity: an anti-thrombin aptamer with caged thymidine nucleobases
Kekulé Institute for Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bonn, Gerhard Domagk Str 1, 53121 Bonn, Germany
J Am Chem Soc 127:822-3. 2005
quot;Caged" derivatives of a 15 nucleotide ssDNA anti-thrombin aptamer have been synthesized in which thymidine nucleotides are modified with photolabile protecting groups...
- The nucleoside analogs 4'C-methyl thymidine and 4'C-ethyl thymidine block DNA synthesis by wild-type HIV-1 RT and excision proficient NRTI resistant RT variants
Paul L Boyer
HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
J Mol Biol 371:873-82. 2007
..an HIV-1-based vector that replicates using wild-type HIV-1 RT, but only in the presence of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV TK)...
- M184V is associated with a low incidence of thymidine analogue mutations and low phenotypic resistance to zidovudine and stavudine
International Clinical Virology Unit, UK
AIDS 16:1686-9. 2002
..The number of thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) was lower in isolates with M184V, this was independent of plasma HIV-1-RNA level and ..
- Valine, not methionine, is amino acid 106 in human cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1). Impact on oligomerization, stability, and kinetic properties
Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Roskilde University, DK 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
J Biol Chem 275:32187-92. 2000
Cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1) cDNA from human lymphocytes was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized with respect to the ATP effect on thymidine affinity and oligomerization...
- Tritiated thymidine ([3H]-TdR) and immunocytochemical tracing of cellular fate within the asexually dividing cestode Mesocestoides vogae (syn. M. corti)
A G Smith
Cancer and Ageing Research Group, University of Ulster at Coleraine, Co Londonderry, Northern Ireland
Parasitology 121:105-10. 2000
This report documents the presence of an active thymidine kinase (TK) system within Mesocestoides vogae tetrathyridia as quantified by tritiated thymidine ([3H]-TdR) incorporation using liquid scintillation counting...
- Mutagenesis of non-conserved active site residues improves the activity and narrows the specificity of human thymidine kinase 2
Monica L Gerth
Chemistry Department, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 354:802-7. 2007
Human thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) is critical for the nucleotide salvage pathway and phosphorylation of nucleoside analog prodrugs in vivo; however, it remains poorly studied because of difficulties in expressing it heterologously...
- Conformationally constrained 2'-N,4'-C-ethylene-bridged thymidine (aza-ENA-T): synthesis, structure, physical, and biochemical studies of aza-ENA-T-modified oligonucleotides
Oommen P Varghese
Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Box 581, Biomedical Center, Uppsala University, SE-75123 Uppsala, Sweden
J Am Chem Soc 128:15173-87. 2006
The 2'-deoxy-2'-N,4'-C-ethylene-bridged thymidine (aza-ENA-T) has been synthesized using a key cyclization step involving 2'-ara-trifluoromethylsufonyl-4'-cyanomethylene 11 to give a pair of 3',5'-bis-OBn-protected diastereomerically ..
- Modulation of both endogenous folates and thymidine enhance the therapeutic efficacy of thymidylate synthase inhibitors
C L van der Wilt
Department of Medical Oncology, University Hospital Vrije Universiteit, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Cancer Res 61:3675-81. 2001
Plasma levels of folates and thymidine in mice are about 10-fold higher than in humans and may influence the therapeutic efficacy of thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitors, such as 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and the antifolates pemetrexed (MTA) ..
- Synthesis and thermodynamic studies of oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing tandem lesions of thymidine glycol and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine
Department of Chemistry, University of California at Riverside, 92521-0403, USA
Chem Res Toxicol 19:837-43. 2006
b>Thymidine glycol (Tg), which is also known as 5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymidine, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) are two major types of DNA damage products induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
- Stereo-selectivity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase toward isomers of thymidine-5'-O-1-thiotriphosphate
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, S817 Scaife Hall, PA 15261, USA
Protein Sci 14:1929-33. 2005
The first pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of the stereo-selective incorporation of Rp- and Sp-isomers of thymidine-5'-O-1-thiotriphosphate (TTPalphaS) by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is reported...
- Bradykinin B2 receptor-mediated proliferation via activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/MAPK pathway in rat vascular smooth muscle cells
Chuen Mao Yang
Department of Physiology Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC
J Biomed Sci 10:208-18. 2003
..Both [(3)H]thymidine incorporation and p42/p44 MAPK phosphorylation were activated by BK in time- and concentration-dependent manners...
- Monitoring tumor cell proliferation by targeting DNA synthetic processes with thymidine and thymidine analogs
Jeffrey L Schwartz
Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195 6069, USA
J Nucl Med 44:2027-32. 2003
The use of radiolabeled thymidine (TdR) and thymidine analogs as PET-based tracers of tumor growth rate is based on the assumption that measurement of uptake of these nucleosides, a function primarily of thymidine kinase-1 (TK(1)) ..
- Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of the RUNX2 transcription factor by cdc2 regulates endothelial cell proliferation
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
J Biol Chem 281:7118-28. 2006
..Cells were synchronized at the G(1)/S boundary with excess thymidine or in mitosis (M phase) with nocodazole...
- [The blocking of the proliferation of the human endothelial cells in culture by beta-irradiation from internal and external sources of the radiation. S-block is induced by the 3H2O beta-particles]
L V Konevega
Radiats Biol Radioecol 47:151-7. 2007
Recently we shown that low doses (0.12-0.46 Gy) of (methyl-3H)-thymidine incorporated into human endothelial cells induce the accumulation cells in G2-phase of the cell cycle...
- Muscarinic receptors autoantibodies purified from mammary adenocarcinoma-bearing mice sera stimulate tumor progression
, , Universidad de Buenos Aires, , CP 1417, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Int Immunopharmacol 6:1323-30. 2006
- IGF-I stimulates human intestinal smooth muscle cell growth by regulation of G1 phase cell cycle proteins
John F Kuemmerle
Department of Medicine, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, PO Box 980711, Richmond, VA 23298 0711, USA
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 286:G412-9. 2004
..cycle progression measured by using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and by incorporation of [(3)H]thymidine. Studies using a microarray-based approach were used initially to identify genes expressed in human intestinal ..
- Endoreplication and polyploidy in primary culture of rat hepatic stellate cells
Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, , Robert-Koch Strasse 40, , Germany
Cell Tissue Res 313:301-11. 2003
..In activated HSCs DNA synthesis seems to be associated with polyploidy and increase in cell volume, while DNA synthesis is followed by mitosis in rMFs...
- Effects of tacrolimus or sirolimus on proliferation of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells
Christian M Matter
Cardiovascular Research, Institute of Physiology, Zurich University and CardioVascular Center, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 48:286-92. 2006
..b>Thymidine incorporation was determined in growth factor-stimulated VSMC and EC...
- Constitutive activation of the neuregulin-1/ErbB receptor signaling pathway is essential for the proliferation of a neoplastic Schwann cell line
Paul W Frohnert
Department of Pathology, Division of Neuropathology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
Glia 43:104-18. 2003
..The absence of EGFR expression in JS1 cells suggests that constitutive activation of the NRG-1/erbB signaling pathway is an alternative means of inducing Schwann cell neoplasia...
- Nuclear factor YY1 inhibits transforming growth factor beta- and bone morphogenetic protein-induced cell differentiation
Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Biomedical Center, SE 751 24 Uppsala, Sweden
Mol Cell Biol 23:4494-510. 2003
..In conclusion, YY1 represses Smad transcriptional activities in a gene-specific manner and thus regulates cell differentiation induced by TGF-beta superfamily pathways...
- Clusterin enhances proliferation of primary astrocytes through extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation
Department of Pharmacology and BK21 Program for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea
Neuroreport 17:1871-5. 2006
..These results suggest that clusterin might play an important role in astrogliosis by stimulating the proliferation of astrocytes through activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway...
- [The cloning and expression of rat insulin-like growth factor I gene]
Dong Chun Liang
Institute of Endocrinology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China
Yi Chuan Xue Bao 29:1063-7. 2002
..The bioactivity of purified IGF-I was detected with cultured NIH3T3 cell. The recombinant rat IGF-I can promote cell proliferation, shown by the elevation of 3H-TdR incorporation...
- Methylmercury elicits rapid inhibition of cell proliferation in the developing brain and decreases cell cycle regulator, cyclin E
Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
Neurotoxicology 27:970-81. 2006
..In aggregate, our observations identify the G1/S transition as an early target of MeHg toxicity and raise the possibility that cyclin E degradation contributes to both decreased proliferation and eventual cell death...