thymidine

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Top Publications

  1. pmc Significant human beta-cell turnover is limited to the first three decades of life as determined by in vivo thymidine analog incorporation and radiocarbon dating
    S Perl
    Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Disease NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:E234-9. 2010
  2. ncbi High NADPH/NADP+ ratio improves thymidine production by a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strain
    Hyeon Cheol Lee
    BioNgene Co, Ltd 10 1, 1Ka, Myungryun Dong, Jongro Ku, Seoul 110 521, Republic of Korea
    J Biotechnol 149:24-32. 2010
  3. ncbi Thymidine analogues for tracking DNA synthesis
    Brenton L Cavanagh
    Health Institute and Eskitis Institute, Griffith University, Queensland 4107, Australia
    Molecules 16:7980-93. 2011
  4. pmc Different effects of bromodeoxyuridine and [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA on cell proliferation, position, and fate
    Alvaro Duque
    Department of Neurobiology, Kavli Institute for Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    J Neurosci 31:15205-17. 2011
  5. ncbi Randomized clinical trial: efficacy and safety of telbivudine and lamivudine in treatment-naïve patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis
    H L Y Chan
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    J Viral Hepat 19:732-43. 2012
  6. ncbi PET imaging with 18F-FLT and thymidine analogs: promise and pitfalls
    Anthony F Shields
    Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA
    J Nucl Med 44:1432-4. 2003
  7. pmc Dependence of substrate binding and catalysis on pH, ionic strength, and temperature for thymine DNA glycosylase: Insights into recognition and processing of G·T mispairs
    Atanu Maiti
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Greenebaum Cancer Center, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, 21201, USA
    DNA Repair (Amst) 10:545-53. 2011
  8. ncbi Radiosynthesis of 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluorothymidine: [(18)F]FLT for imaging of cellular proliferation in vivo
    J R Grierson
    Research Imaging Laboratory, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Nucl Med Biol 27:143-56. 2000
  9. pmc JBP1 and JBP2 proteins are Fe2+/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases regulating hydroxylation of thymidine residues in trypanosome DNA
    Laura J Cliffe
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 7229, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:19886-95. 2012
  10. ncbi Myopathy and neuropathy associated with nucleos(t)ide analog therapy for hepatitis B
    Russell D Fleischer
    Division of Antiviral Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA
    J Hepatol 51:787-91. 2009

Detail Information

Publications359 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Significant human beta-cell turnover is limited to the first three decades of life as determined by in vivo thymidine analog incorporation and radiocarbon dating
    S Perl
    Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Disease NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:E234-9. 2010
    ..The turnover rate of adult human β-cells remains unknown. We employed two techniques to examine adult human islet β-cell turnover and longevity in vivo...
  2. ncbi High NADPH/NADP+ ratio improves thymidine production by a metabolically engineered Escherichia coli strain
    Hyeon Cheol Lee
    BioNgene Co, Ltd 10 1, 1Ka, Myungryun Dong, Jongro Ku, Seoul 110 521, Republic of Korea
    J Biotechnol 149:24-32. 2010
    b>Thymidine is a commercially important precursor in the production of antiviral drugs, including azidothymidine for the treatment of AIDS...
  3. ncbi Thymidine analogues for tracking DNA synthesis
    Brenton L Cavanagh
    Health Institute and Eskitis Institute, Griffith University, Queensland 4107, Australia
    Molecules 16:7980-93. 2011
    ..Analogues of the pyrimidine deoxynucleoside thymidine may be inserted into replicating DNA, effectively tagging dividing cells allowing their characterisation...
  4. pmc Different effects of bromodeoxyuridine and [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA on cell proliferation, position, and fate
    Alvaro Duque
    Department of Neurobiology, Kavli Institute for Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA
    J Neurosci 31:15205-17. 2011
    As markers of DNA synthesis, [(3)H]thymidine ([(3)H]dT) and the later developed analog bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) have revolutionized our ability to identify dividing cells and follow their fate in various tissues, including the nervous ..
  5. ncbi Randomized clinical trial: efficacy and safety of telbivudine and lamivudine in treatment-naïve patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis
    H L Y Chan
    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
    J Viral Hepat 19:732-43. 2012
    ..Telbivudine compared to lamivudine was associated with a higher rate of patients with both viral suppression and ALT normalization, a trend towards a higher rate of survival and significant improvement in glomerular filtration...
  6. ncbi PET imaging with 18F-FLT and thymidine analogs: promise and pitfalls
    Anthony F Shields
    Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA
    J Nucl Med 44:1432-4. 2003
  7. pmc Dependence of substrate binding and catalysis on pH, ionic strength, and temperature for thymine DNA glycosylase: Insights into recognition and processing of G·T mispairs
    Atanu Maiti
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Greenebaum Cancer Center, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, 21201, USA
    DNA Repair (Amst) 10:545-53. 2011
    ..Our findings provide important insight into catalysis by TDG, particularly for mutagenic G·T mispairs...
  8. ncbi Radiosynthesis of 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluorothymidine: [(18)F]FLT for imaging of cellular proliferation in vivo
    J R Grierson
    Research Imaging Laboratory, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA
    Nucl Med Biol 27:143-56. 2000
    ..18)F]FLT has been designed as a new positron emission tomography imaging agent for visualizing cellular proliferation in vivo based on the metabolism of thymidine.
  9. pmc JBP1 and JBP2 proteins are Fe2+/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases regulating hydroxylation of thymidine residues in trypanosome DNA
    Laura J Cliffe
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 7229, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:19886-95. 2012
    ..In vivo analysis has indicated that base J synthesis is initiated by the hydroxylation of thymidine by proteins (JBP1 and JBP2) homologous to the Fe(2+)/2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent dioxygenase superfamily ..
  10. ncbi Myopathy and neuropathy associated with nucleos(t)ide analog therapy for hepatitis B
    Russell D Fleischer
    Division of Antiviral Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA
    J Hepatol 51:787-91. 2009
    ....
  11. ncbi Stem cell proliferative history in tissue revealed by temporal halogenated thymidine analog discrimination
    Christopher J Vega
    Department of Neuroscience, The Chicago Medical School at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, Illinois 60064, USA
    Nat Methods 2:167-9. 2005
    ..We describe incorporation of different halogenated thymidine analogs for temporal discrimination of cell cycle in the rat...
  12. ncbi Molecular determinants of multi-nucleoside analogue resistance in HIV-1 reverse transcriptases containing a dipeptide insertion in the fingers subdomain: effect of mutations D67N and T215Y on removal of thymidine nucleotide analogues from blocked DNA prim
    Tania Matamoros
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    J Biol Chem 279:24569-77. 2004
    ..Insertions are usually associated with thymidine analogue resistance mutations, such as T215Y...
  13. pmc Thymidine-dependent small-colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus exhibit gross morphological and ultrastructural changes consistent with impaired cell separation
    Barbara C Kahl
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Muenster Hospital and Clinics, Muenster, Germany
    J Clin Microbiol 41:410-3. 2003
    b>Thymidine-dependent small-colony variants (SCV) of Staphylococcus aureus exhibited unusual colony morphology with "fried-egg" or pinpoint white colonies on agar plates and pleomorphic cocci as determined by Gram staining...
  14. pmc UNG-initiated base excision repair is the major repair route for 5-fluorouracil in DNA, but 5-fluorouracil cytotoxicity depends mainly on RNA incorporation
    Henrik Sahlin Pettersen
    Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N 7489 Trondheim, Norway
    Nucleic Acids Res 39:8430-44. 2011
    ..In conclusion, UNG-initiated BER is the major route for FU-DNA repair, but cytotoxicity of FU is predominantly RNA-mediated, while DNA-mediated effects are limited to FdUrd...
  15. ncbi Embryonic folate metabolism and mouse neural tube defects
    A Fleming
    Neural Development Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Science 280:2107-9. 1998
    ..Excessive incorporation of [3H]thymidine in splotch embryos indicates a metabolic deficiency in the supply of folate for the biosynthesis of pyrimidine...
  16. ncbi In vivo labeling of fission yeast DNA with thymidine and thymidine analogs
    Sasirekha Sivakumar
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Methods 33:213-9. 2004
    In vivo labeling of DNA with thymidine and thymidine analogs has long been a cornerstone of replication studies. Unfortunately, yeast lack a thymidine salvage pathway and thus do not incorporate exogenous thymidine...
  17. ncbi Adult neurogenesis in mammals: an identity crisis
    Pasko Rakic
    Department of Neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA
    J Neurosci 22:614-8. 2002
  18. ncbi Telbivudine versus lamivudine in patients with chronic hepatitis B
    Ching Lung Lai
    University Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    N Engl J Med 357:2576-88. 2007
    ..Reducing hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication to minimal levels is emerging as a key therapeutic goal for chronic hepatitis B...
  19. ncbi Thymidine analogs are transferred from prelabeled donor to host cells in the central nervous system after transplantation: a word of caution
    Terry C Burns
    Stem Cell Institute, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Stem Cells 24:1121-7. 2006
    b>Thymidine analogs, including bromodeoxyuridine, chlorodeoxyuridine, iododeoxyuridine, and tritiated thymidine, label dividing cells by incorporating into DNA during S phase of cell division and are widely employed to identify cells ..
  20. ncbi Thymidine phosphorylase mutations cause instability of mitochondrial DNA
    Michio Hirano
    Department of Neurology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 West 168th Street, P and S 4 443, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Gene 354:152-6. 2005
    ..This disorder is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding thymidine phosphorylase (TP) a cytosolic enzyme...
  21. ncbi Autophagy inhibition due to thymidine analogues as novel mechanism leading to hepatocyte dysfunction and lipid accumulation
    Metodi V Stankov
    Department for Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
    AIDS 26:1995-2006. 2012
    ..We hypothesized that thymidine analogues might interfere with autophagy in hepatocytes, a lysosomal degradation pathway implicated in cell ..
  22. pmc Enhanced post-stationary-phase survival of a clinical thymidine-dependent small-colony variant of Staphylococcus aureus results from lack of a functional tricarboxylic acid cycle
    Indranil Chatterjee
    Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Saarland, Kirrberger Str, Building 43, Homburg Saar 66421, Germany
    J Bacteriol 189:2936-40. 2007
    ..In this study, clinical thymidine-dependent SCVs displayed altered expression of citB, clpC, and arcA genes, reduced acetate catabolization, and ..
  23. pmc Structural and kinetic characterization of human deoxycytidine kinase variants able to phosphorylate 5-substituted deoxycytidine and thymidine analogues
    Saugata Hazra
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Illinois at Chicago, 900 South Ashland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA
    Biochemistry 49:6784-90. 2010
    ..kinase (dCK) is to phosphorylate deoxynucleosides required for DNA synthesis, with the exception of thymidine. Previous structural analysis of dCK implicated steric factors, specifically the thymine methyl group at the 5-..
  24. pmc In vivo mutations of thymidylate synthase (encoded by thyA) are responsible for thymidine dependency in clinical small-colony variants of Staphylococcus aureus
    Indranil Chatterjee
    Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Institutes of Infectious Disease Medicine, University of Saarland, Homburg Saar, Germany
    J Bacteriol 190:834-42. 2008
    Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus thymidine-dependent small-colony variants (TD-SCVs) are frequently isolated from the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, often in combination with isogenic normal ..
  25. ncbi The cooperative effect of growth and differentiation factor-9 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-15 on granulosa cell function is modulated primarily through BMP receptor II
    Sara J Edwards
    AgResearch, Invermay Agricultural Centre, Puddle Alley, Private Bag 50034, Mosgiel 9053, New Zealand
    Endocrinology 149:1026-30. 2008
    ..Moreover, ovine (o) GDF9 and oBMP15 cooperate to increase both (3)H-thymidine incorporation and alpha-inhibin production and to inhibit progesterone production by rat or ovine granulosa ..
  26. ncbi Basis of FLT as a cell proliferation marker: comparative uptake studies with [3H]thymidine and [3H]arabinothymidine, and cell-analysis in 22 asynchronously growing tumor cell lines
    Jun Toyohara
    Research Center, Research and Development Division, Nihon Medi Physices, CO, Ltd, Chiba, Japan
    Nucl Med Biol 29:281-7. 2002
    The usefulness of radiolabeled 3'-fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine (FLT), a thymidine derivative with affinity to cytoplasmic thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), as a tumor proliferation marker was evaluated using [3H]FLT and 22 cultured tumor cell lines...
  27. pmc Quantification of oxidative DNA lesions in tissues of Long-Evans Cinnamon rats by capillary high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with stable isotope-dilution method
    Jin Wang
    Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 0403, United States
    Anal Chem 83:2201-9. 2011
    ....
  28. ncbi Efficacy and safety of prolonged 3-year telbivudine treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B
    Edward J Gane
    New Zealand Liver Unit, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand
    Liver Int 31:676-84. 2011
    ..In the GLOBE trial, telbivudine demonstrated superior efficacy to lamivudine at 2 years in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB)...
  29. ncbi Renewal of the rabbit corneal epithelium as investigated by autoradiography after intravitreal injection of 3H-thymidine
    A Haddad
    Departamento de Morfologia, Faculdade de Medicina, USP, Ribeirao Preto SP, Brasil
    Cornea 19:378-83. 2000
    ..To evaluate the renewal time of the rabbit corneal epithelium and to verify whether there are differences in the rate of renewal related to the topography of the cornea...
  30. pmc The phtC-phtD locus equips Legionella pneumophila for thymidine salvage and replication in macrophages
    Maris V Fonseca
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Infect Immun 82:720-30. 2014
    ..The location of the pht genes between the putative thymidine kinase (tdk) and phosphopentomutase (deoB) genes suggested that the phtC and phtD loci contribute to thymidine ..
  31. ncbi The role of thymidine phosphorylase, an angiogenic enzyme, in tumor progression
    Shin ichi Akiyama
    Department of Molecular Oncology, Course of Advanced Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890 8544
    Cancer Sci 95:851-7. 2004
    b>Thymidine phosphorylase (TP), an enzyme involved in pyrimidine metabolism, is identical with an angiogenic factor, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF)...
  32. ncbi Monitoring tumor cell proliferation by targeting DNA synthetic processes with thymidine and thymidine analogs
    Jeffrey L Schwartz
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195 6069, USA
    J Nucl Med 44:2027-32. 2003
    The use of radiolabeled thymidine (TdR) and thymidine analogs as PET-based tracers of tumor growth rate is based on the assumption that measurement of uptake of these nucleosides, a function primarily of thymidine kinase-1 (TK(1)) ..
  33. ncbi USF inhibits cell proliferation through delay in G2/M phase in FRTL-5 cells
    Hye Seung Jung
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Korea
    Endocr J 54:275-85. 2007
    ..Cyclic AMP (cAMP) production and [methyl-3H] thymidine uptake after thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) treatment were measured in FRTL-5 cells...
  34. ncbi Thymidine-phosphorothioate oligonucleotides induce activation and apoptosis of CLL cells independently of CpG motifs or BCL-2 gene interference
    J E Castro
    John and Rebecca Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Leukemia 20:680-8. 2006
    ..Surprisingly, we found that thymidine-containing PS-ODN, but not PO-ODN, induced activation and apoptosis of CLL cells independent of BCL-2 antisense ..
  35. ncbi Telbivudine versus lamivudine in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B: Results at 1 year of a randomized, double-blind trial
    Jinlin Hou
    Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, China
    Hepatology 47:447-54. 2008
    ..Viral resistance in telbivudine recipients was approximately half that observed with lamivudine; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Clinical adverse events were similar in the two treatment groups...
  36. ncbi [Blocking intrauterine infection by telbivudine in pregnant chronic hepatitis B patients]
    Li Ju Zhang
    Department of Obstetrics, Beijng Ditan Hospital, Beijing 100015, China
    Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 17:561-3. 2009
    ..To investigate the efficacy of telbivudine on intrauterine hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during the last stage of pregnancy...
  37. ncbi Heterogeneous cell renewal of pancreas in mice: [(3)H]-thymidine autoradiographic investigation
    Yasushi Magami
    Fourth Department of Internal Medicine, Tokyo Medical University, 6 7 1 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 160 0023, Japan
    Pancreas 24:153-60. 2002
    ..Although cell kinetics of the gastrointestinal mucosa has been extensively examined, that of the pancreas has not been fully analyzed...
  38. ncbi Thymidine kinase, thymidylate synthase, and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase profiles of cell lines of the National Cancer Institute's Anticancer Drug Screen
    J L Grem
    Developmental Therapeutics Department, Medicine Branch, Division of Clinical Sciences, National Cancer Institute at the National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20889, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 7:999-1009. 2001
    ..EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Thymidine kinase (TK) activity was assessed by conversion of [(3)H]thymidine to [(3)H]TMP...
  39. ncbi Synthesis and biological evaluation of bicyclic nucleosides as inhibitors of M. tuberculosis thymidylate kinase
    Ineke Van Daele
    Laboratory for Medicinal Chemistry FFW, Gent University Harelbekestraat 72, Gent, Belgium
    ChemMedChem 1:1081-90. 2006
    Herein we describe the synthesis and conformational analysis of a series of bicyclic thymidine derivatives and their evaluation as inhibitors of thymidine monophosphate kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TMPKmt), based on previously ..
  40. pmc Phenotypic characterization of drug resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1 RT connection and RNase H domains and their correlation with thymidine analogue mutations
    Renan B Lengruber
    Departamento de Genetica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    J Antimicrob Chemother 66:702-8. 2011
    ..In this work, we have characterized the correlation of recently described C-terminal domain mutations with thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs), as well as their phenotypic impact on susceptibility to zidovudine and nevirapine.
  41. ncbi On-treatment serum HBsAg level is predictive of sustained off-treatment virologic response to telbivudine in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients
    Wei Cai
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, People s Republic of China
    J Clin Virol 48:22-6. 2010
    ..Telbivudine is one of the most frequently used antiviral drug at the current stage, but its long-term effectiveness, particularly at off-treatment, is still unclear...
  42. ncbi 3'-(1,2,3-Triazol-1-yl)-3'-deoxythymidine analogs as substrates for human and Ureaplasma parvum thymidine kinase for structure-activity investigations
    Jay Lin
    Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Veterinary Medical Biochemistry, Swedish University Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
    Bioorg Med Chem 18:3261-9. 2010
    ..parvum (Up) causes opportunistic infections and relies on salvage of nucleosides for DNA synthesis and Up thymidine kinase (UpTK) provides the necessary thymidine nucleotides...
  43. pmc Inhibition of viral replication downregulates CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells and programmed death-ligand 1 in chronic hepatitis B
    Xue Ping Nan
    Center for Infectious Diseases, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi an, China
    Viral Immunol 25:21-8. 2012
    ..Our findings suggest that the antiviral effect of the nucleoside analogs may be attributable not only to their direct effect on virus suppression, but also to their immunoregulatory capabilities...
  44. ncbi Safety evaluation of telbivudine
    David Yiu Kuen But
    University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Department of Medicine, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR, China
    Expert Opin Drug Saf 9:821-9. 2010
    ..5- to 6.6-log copies/ml hepatitis B DNA reduction at 12 weeks in an early viral kinetic study, a potency comparable to entecavir. It is also one of the few drugs in the treatment of CHB under FDA pregnancy Category B...
  45. pmc Thymidine-dependent Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variants are associated with extensive alterations in regulator and virulence gene expression profiles
    Barbara C Kahl
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Clinics of Muenster, Domagkstr 10, 48149 Muenster, Germany
    Infect Immun 73:4119-26. 2005
    ..b>Thymidine-dependent trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT)-resistant S...
  46. ncbi Suppression of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase primer unblocking activity by alpha-phosphate-modified thymidine analogues
    Tania Matamoros
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    J Mol Biol 349:451-63. 2005
    ..the ATP-dependent phosphorolytic activity on primers terminated with alpha-boranophosphate derivatives of thymidine analogues...
  47. pmc Thiothymidine plus low-dose UVA kills hyperproliferative human skin cells independently of their human papilloma virus status
    Olivier Reelfs
    Cancer Research UK, Institute for Cell and Molecular Science, Skin Tumour Laboratory, 4, Newark Street, London E1 2AT, United Kingdom
    Mol Cancer Ther 6:2487-95. 2007
    The thymidine analogue 4-thiothymidine (S(4)TdR) is a photosensitizer for UVA radiation...
  48. pmc Thymidine analog methods for studies of adult neurogenesis are not equally sensitive
    Benedetta Leuner
    Department of Psychology, Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    J Comp Neurol 517:123-33. 2009
    Adult neurogenesis is often studied by labeling new cells with the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and using immunohistochemical methods for their visualization...
  49. pmc In vitro activity of pyrvinium pamoate against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis using radiolabelled thymidine incorporation and an SYBR Green I-based fluorescence assay
    Autumn S Downey
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 64:751-4. 2009
    ..To assess the in vitro activity of the FDA-approved antihelminthic drug pyrvinium pamoate against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis...
  50. ncbi Effects of 5-hydroxymethyluracil and 3-aminobenzamide on the repair and toxicity of 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine in mammalian cells
    R J Boorstein
    Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York 10016
    Cancer Res 49:1509-14. 1989
    5-Hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (HmdUrd), a cytotoxic analogue of thymidine, has been proposed for use as an anticancer agent. HmdUrd is incorporated into DNA and then removed at a rate of 30-40% per day...
  51. ncbi EdU incorporation is an alternative non-radioactive assay to [(3)H]thymidine uptake for in vitro measurement of mice T-cell proliferations
    Yongmao Yu
    The Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and Developmental and Stem Cell Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    J Immunol Methods 350:29-35. 2009
    T lymphocyte proliferations can be measured by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. However, many labs avoid this technique because of the need to use radioactive substrates...
  52. ncbi Diminished selection for thymidine-analog mutations associated with the presence of M184V in Ethiopian children infected with HIV subtype C receiving lamivudine-containing therapy
    Diana Averbuch
    Hadassah University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:1049-56. 2006
    We retrospectively studied the effect of the lamivudine-induced reverse transcription mutation M184V on selection of thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) in HIV subtype C-infected children and on clinical outcome.
  53. ncbi Homocysteine is embryotoxic but does not cause neural tube defects in mouse embryos
    Nicholas D E Greene
    Neural Development Unit, Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London, WC1N 1EH, UK
    Anat Embryol (Berl) 206:185-91. 2003
    ..Neither was there an effect on the incorporation of thymidine into DNA, a potential marker of alterations in the folate or homocysteine/methionine cycles...
  54. ncbi Yersiniophage phiR1-37 is a tailed bacteriophage having a 270 kb DNA genome with thymidine replaced by deoxyuridine
    Saija Kiljunen
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
    Microbiology 151:4093-102. 2005
    ..was subjected to HPLC-MS/MS analysis, which demonstrated that the phiR1-37 genome is composed of DNA in which thymidine (T) is >99 % replaced by deoxyuridine (dU)...
  55. pmc Efficient labeling of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe with thymidine and BUdR
    Jeffrey A Hodson
    Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 31:e134. 2003
    ..The strain co-expresses the Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (hsv-tk) and a human equilibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT1)...
  56. pmc Two thymidine hydroxylases differentially regulate the formation of glucosylated DNA at regions flanking polymerase II polycistronic transcription units throughout the genome of Trypanosoma brucei
    Laura J Cliffe
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:3923-35. 2010
    ..We have previously characterized two thymidine-hydroxylases (TH), JBP1 and JBP2, which regulate J-biosynthesis...
  57. pmc The use of thymidine analogs to improve the replication of an extra DNA base pair: a synthetic biological system
    A Michael Sismour
    Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 7200, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 33:5640-6. 2005
    ..Reported here is a solution to this problem. The solution replaces thymidine triphosphate by 2-thiothymidine triphosphate (2-thioTTP)...
  58. ncbi Mitochondrial DNA depletion and thymidine phosphate pool dynamics in a cellular model of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy
    Giovanna Pontarin
    Department of Biology, University of Padova, I 35131 Padova, Italy
    J Biol Chem 281:22720-8. 2006
    ..Patients lack a functional thymidine phosphorylase and their plasma contains high concentrations of thymidine and deoxyuridine; elevation of the ..
  59. ncbi High-throughput hacking of the methylation patterns in breast cancer by in vitro transcription and thymidine-specific cleavage mass array on MALDI-TOF silico-chip
    Ramin Radpour
    Laboratory for Prenatal Medicine and Gynecologic Oncology, Women s Hospital Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
    Mol Cancer Res 6:1702-9. 2008
    ..we developed a method that allows for the simultaneous detection of multiple target CpG residues by using thymidine-specific cleavage mass array on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight silicon chips...
  60. ncbi EdU, a new thymidine analogue for labelling proliferating cells in the nervous system
    Fatemah Chehrehasa
    National Centre for Adult Stem Cell Research, Eskitis Institute for Cellular and Molecular Therapies, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD 4111, Australia
    J Neurosci Methods 177:122-30. 2009
    ..We present here a novel thymidine analogue, ethynyl deoxyuridine (EdU) for labelling dividing cells, detected with a fluorescent azide which forms ..
  61. ncbi 2-Year GLOBE trial results: telbivudine Is superior to lamivudine in patients with chronic hepatitis B
    Yun Fan Liaw
    Liver Research Unit, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan
    Gastroenterology 136:486-95. 2009
    ..The GLOBE trial has compared the efficacy and safety of telbivudine versus lamivudine treatment over 2 years in patients with chronic hepatitis B...
  62. ncbi A spectroscopic investigation into the interactions of 3'-O-carboxy esters of thymidine with bovine serum albumin
    Kalyan Sundar Ghosh
    Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India
    Biopolymers 91:737-44. 2009
    Binding studies of 3'-O-carboxy esters of thymidine, reported inhibitors of ribonucleases, with bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been explored in this report...
  63. ncbi Molecular analysis of the thymidine-auxotrophic small colony variant phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus
    Silke Besier
    Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Krankenhaushygiene, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitat, Paul Ehrlich Strasse 40, D 60596 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
    Int J Med Microbiol 297:217-25. 2007
    b>Thymidine-auxotrophic small colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus are frequently isolated from the chronically infected airways of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis...
  64. ncbi Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase enhances apoptosis induced by arsenic trioxide in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells
    Jian Ye
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Toxicology, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Human Functional Genomics and Applied Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, PR China
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 32:1042-8. 2005
    ..cells as determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and [Methyl-3H]-thymidine incorporation...
  65. ncbi Telbivudine for the management of chronic hepatitis B virus infection
    S James Matthews
    Division of Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, Bouve College of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, 237 Mugar Hall, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Clin Ther 29:2635-53. 2007
    ....
  66. ncbi Effect of telbivudine therapy on the cellular immune response in chronic hepatitis B
    Yu Chen
    State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, PR China
    Antiviral Res 91:23-31. 2011
    ..Enhanced HBV-specific T-cell reactivity to telbivudine therapy, which peaked at treatment week 12, was confined to a subgroup of effective-treated patients who achieved greater viral suppression...
  67. ncbi Longitudinal effects of thymidine analogues on mtDNA, mtRNA and multidrug resistance (MDR-1) induction in cultured cells
    Eszter Papp
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    J Antimicrob Chemother 61:1048-52. 2008
    ..Our aim was to investigate the longitudinal effects of two thymidine analogue NRTIs, zidovudine and stavudine, on human cells, measuring their effects on the levels of mtDNA, mtRNA ..
  68. ncbi Unchanged thymidine triphosphate pools and thymidine metabolism in two lines of thymidine kinase 2-mutated fibroblasts
    Miriam Frangini
    Department of Biology, University of Padova, Italy
    FEBS J 276:1104-13. 2009
    Mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) catalyzes the phosphorylation of thymidine in mitochondria...
  69. pmc Thymidine kinase 1 as a molecular target for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors
    Rolf F Barth
    Department of Pathology, Division of Biostatistics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:17493-7. 2008
    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 3-carboranyl thymidine analogue (3CTA), 3-[5-{2-(2,3-dihydroxyprop-1-yl)-o-carboran-1-yl}pentan-1-yl] thymidine, designated N5-2OH, for boron neutron capture therapy ..
  70. ncbi High fidelity of base pairing by 2-selenothymidine in DNA
    Abdalla E A Hassan
    Department of Chemistry, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 132:2120-1. 2010
    ..Via the selenium atomic probing at the 2-position of thymidine, we have investigated the wobble discrimination by manipulating the steric and electronic effects at the 2-exo ..
  71. pmc N348I in reverse transcriptase provides a genetic pathway for HIV-1 to select thymidine analogue mutations and mutations antagonistic to thymidine analogue mutations
    Jessica Radzio
    Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA, USA
    AIDS 24:659-67. 2010
    ..g. L74V and M184V) resistance mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase are antagonistic toward thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) that confer zidovudine (ZDV) resistance...
  72. pmc Structure guided development of novel thymidine mimetics targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa thymidylate kinase: from hit to lead generation
    Jun Yong Choi
    Department of Chemistry, Scripps Florida, Jupiter, Florida 33458, United States
    J Med Chem 55:852-70. 2012
    ..a potential chemotherapeutic target because it is directly involved in the synthesis of an essential component, thymidine triphosphate, in DNA replication...
  73. pmc Structure-guided engineering of human thymidine kinase 2 as a positron emission tomography reporter gene for enhanced phosphorylation of non-natural thymidine analog reporter probe
    Dean O Campbell
    Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:446-54. 2012
    ..Here we describe a new PRG-PRP system that employs, as the PRG, a mutated form of human thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) and 2'-deoxy-2'-18F-5-methyl-1-β-L-arabinofuranosyluracil (L-18F-FMAU) as the PRP...
  74. pmc Contrasting ability to take up leucine and thymidine among freshwater bacterial groups: implications for bacterial production measurements
    Maria Teresa Perez
    Laboratory of Aquatic Photobiology and Plankton Ecology, Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
    Environ Microbiol 12:74-82. 2010
    We examined the ability of different freshwater bacterial groups to take up leucine and thymidine in two lakes...
  75. ncbi Validation of a HPLC method for the measurement of erythrocyte encapsulated thymidine phosphorylase (EE-TP) activity
    Lynette D Fairbanks
    Purine Research Laboratory, GSTS Pathology, London SE1 7EH, United Kingdom
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 76:8-12. 2013
    ..liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay has been validated for the determination of thymine as a measure of thymidine phosphorylase activity encapsulated in erythrocytes (EE-TP), a formulation which is under clinical development ..
  76. ncbi Mouse beta cell proliferation is inhibited by thymidine analogue labelling
    Mark Van De Casteele
    Diabetes Research Center, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B1090, Brussels, Belgium
    Diabetologia 56:2647-50. 2013
    Long-term labelling of mice with halogenated thymidine analogues is an established method for quantifying the contribution of beta cell proliferation to in vivo beta cell mass expansion in (re)generation models...
  77. ncbi Bystander killing of malignant cells via the delivery of engineered thymidine-active deoxycytidine kinase for suicide gene therapy of cancer
    A Neschadim
    Department of Medical Biophysics, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Cancer Gene Ther 19:320-7. 2012
    ..suicide' gene therapies for cancer have been developed and characterized, such as herpes simplex virus-derived thymidine kinase (HSV-tk)-based activation of ganciclovir, their limited success highlights the need for the development ..
  78. ncbi Rational design and 3D-pharmacophore mapping of 5'-thiourea-substituted alpha-thymidine analogues as mycobacterial TMPK inhibitors
    Carolina H Andrade
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Av Prof Lineu Prestes, 580, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 05508 900, Brazil
    J Chem Inf Model 49:1070-8. 2009
    b>Thymidine monophosphate kinase (TMPK) has emerged as an attractive target for developing inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth...
  79. ncbi Synthesis and inhibitory activity of thymidine analogues targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis thymidine monophosphate kinase
    Sara Van Poecke
    Laboratory for Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, B 9000 Ghent, Belgium
    Bioorg Med Chem 19:7603-11. 2011
    We report on Mycobacterium tuberculosis thymidine monophosphate kinase (TMPKmt) inhibitory activities of a series of new 3'- and 5'-modified thymidine analogues including α- and β-derivatives...
  80. pmc Nonpolar nucleoside mimics as active substrates for human thymidine kinases
    Sarah K Jarchow-Choy
    Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 131:5488-94. 2009
    ..nucleoside analogues of systematically varied size and shape to probe the mechanisms by which the two human thymidine kinases (TK1 and TK2) recognize and phosphorylate their substrate, thymidine...
  81. ncbi Assessment of proliferation in vivo using 2-[(11)C]thymidine positron emission tomography in advanced intra-abdominal malignancies
    Paula Wells
    Department of Cancer Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0HS, United Kingdom
    Cancer Res 62:5698-702. 2002
    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between 2-[(11)C]thymidine positron emission tomography (PET) in vivo-derived parameters and the ex vivo Ki-67 index of proliferation in human tumors...
  82. ncbi Thymidine glycol: the effect on DNA molecular structure and enzymatic processing
    Nina G Dolinnaya
    Department of Chemistry and Belozersky Institute of Physico Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1 Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow, Russia
    Biochimie 95:134-47. 2013
    ..Described here are the comparative structure and properties of other forms of pyrimidine base oxidation, as well as the role of Tg in tandem lesions...
  83. pmc Chain-terminating dinucleoside tetraphosphates are substrates for DNA polymerization by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase with increased activity against thymidine analogue-resistant mutants
    Peter R Meyer
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, P O Box 016129, Miami, FL 33101 6129, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:3607-14. 2006
    ..b>Thymidine analogue-resistant mutants of reverse transcriptase are up to 120-fold more sensitive to inhibition by these ..
  84. ncbi Kinetics of hepatitis B surface antigen decline during 3 years of telbivudine treatment in hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients
    Karsten Wursthorn
    Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
    Hepatology 52:1611-20. 2010
    ..In patients with subsequent HBsAg loss, viral antigens were already undetectable in liver biopsy samples after 1 year of treatment. This was associated with markedly enhanced antiviral T cell reactivity...
  85. ncbi 3'-[4-Aryl-(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)]-3'-deoxythymidine analogues as potent and selective inhibitors of human mitochondrial thymidine kinase
    Sara Van Poecke
    Laboratory for Medicinal Chemistry FFW, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent, Belgium
    J Med Chem 53:2902-12. 2010
    ..effort to increase the potency and selectivity of earlier identified substrate-based inhibitors of mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 (TK-2), we now describe the synthesis of new thymidine analogues containing a 4- or 5-substituted 1,2,3-..
  86. ncbi An evaluation of thymidine phosphorylase as a means of preventing thymidine rescue from the thymidylate synthase inhibitor raltitrexed
    Claire L Graham-Cole
    Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Medical School, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK
    Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 59:197-206. 2007
    The antitumour effect of thymidylate synthase inhibitors such as raltitrexed (RTX) may be reversed by salvage of thymidine (Thd)...
  87. ncbi [The degree of HBV suppression with 24 week telbivudine- or lamivudine-treatment in hepatitis B patients predicts the efficacy of the treatment at week 52]
    Ji Dong Jia
    Liver Research Center, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China
    Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 15:342-5. 2007
    ..To investigate the possibilities of an association between the degrees of HBV suppression with nucleoside treatments at week 24 and week 52 in hepatitis B patients and to find a useful predictor for treatment efficacy...
  88. doi Carrier erythrocyte entrapped thymidine phosphorylase therapy for MNGIE
    N F Moran
    Neurology, Kent and Canterbury Hospital, Ethelbert Road, Canterbury, CT1 3NG, UK
    Neurology 71:686-8. 2008
  89. ncbi 2-[11C]thymidine positron emission tomography as an indicator of thymidylate synthase inhibition in patients treated with AG337
    Paula Wells
    Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    J Natl Cancer Inst 95:675-82. 2003
    Some anticancer drugs inhibit thymidylate synthase (TS), a key enzyme for thymidine nucleotide biosynthesis. Cells can compensate for depleted thymidine levels by taking up extracellular thymidine via a salvage pathway...
  90. ncbi Measuring tumor pharmacodynamic response using PET proliferation probes: the case for 2-[(11)C]-thymidine
    Paula Wells
    Department of Radiotherapy, St Bartholomews Hospital, West Smithfield, London EC1A 7BE, UK
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1705:91-102. 2004
    ..The development of a PET proliferation probe would be a useful pharmacodynamic tool. [(11)C]-thymidine PET has been assessed in man as a specific measure of tumor proliferation...
  91. ncbi Auger electron emitter against multiple myeloma--targeted endo-radio-therapy with 125I-labeled thymidine analogue 5-iodo-4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridine
    Agnieszka Morgenroth
    Nuclear Medicine Clinic, University Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 23, D 89081 Ulm, Germany
    Nucl Med Biol 38:1067-77. 2011
    ..Here we evaluated the antimyeloma potential of the Auger electron-emitting thymidine analogue (125)I-labeled 5-iodo-4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridine ([(125)I]ITdU).
  92. ncbi Synthesis and crystallographic analysis of 5-Se-thymidine DNAs
    Abdalla E A Hassan
    Department of Chemistry, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303, USA
    Org Lett 11:2503-6. 2009
    We investigated the possibility of the interaction of 5-CH(3) of thymidine and its 5'-phosphate backbone (C-H.....
  93. ncbi Effect of thiazole orange doubly labeled thymidine on DNA duplex formation
    Yasumasa Kimura
    RIKEN Omics Science Center OSC, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1 7 22 Suehiro cho, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230 0045, Japan
    Biochemistry 51:6056-67. 2012
    ..fluorescent oligonucleotides (ECHOs) were developed as uniquely labeled DNA oligomers containing commonly one thymidine having two covalently linked thiazole orange dye moieties...
  94. ncbi Bromovinyl-deoxyuridine: A selective substrate for mitochondrial thymidine kinase in cell extracts
    Elisa Franzolin
    Department of Biology, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 344:30-6. 2006
    Cellular models of mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) deficiency require a reliable method to measure TK2 activity in whole cell extracts containing two interfering deoxyribonucleoside kinases, thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) and ..
  95. ncbi Impact of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase polymorphism F214L on virological response to thymidine analogue-based regimens in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive and ART-experienced patients
    Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein
    Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
    J Infect Dis 196:1180-90. 2007
    A negative association between the polymorphism F214L and type 1 thymidine analogue (TA) mutations (TAMs) has been observed. However, the virological response to TAs according to the detection of F214L has not been evaluated.
  96. pmc The K65R mutation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase exhibits bidirectional phenotypic antagonism with thymidine analog mutations
    Urvi M Parikh
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
    J Virol 80:4971-7. 2006
    ..insight, we examined trends in the frequency of K65R in a large genotype database, the association of K65R with thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) and other NRTI mutations, and the viral susceptibility profile of HIV-1 with K65R alone ..
  97. ncbi Evaluation of human thymidine kinase 1 substrates as new candidates for boron neutron capture therapy
    Ashraf S Al-Madhoun
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, Division of Veterinary Medical Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Biomedical Center, Uppsala, Sweden
    Cancer Res 64:6280-6. 2004
    b>Thymidine analogs containing o-carboranylalkyl groups at the 3-position were screened as potential substrates for human thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), an enzyme that is selectively expressed in a variety of rapidly proliferating cells, ..
  98. ncbi Biophysical characterization of vaccinia virus thymidine kinase substrate utilization
    Robert F Smith
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 5698, USA
    J Virol Methods 142:151-8. 2007
    ..of the kinetics and thermodynamics that underlie substrate utilization reactions of vaccinia virus thymidine kinase (VVTK) has been undertaken...
  99. ncbi Preclinical evaluation of a novel pyrimidopyrimidine for the prevention of nucleoside and nucleobase reversal of antifolate cytotoxicity
    Huw D Thomas
    Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    Mol Cancer Ther 8:1828-37. 2009
    ..has equivalent potency to dipyridamole, remains active in the presence of physiologic levels of AGP, inhibits thymidine incorporation into DNA, and prevents thymidine and hypoxanthine rescue from the multitargeted antifolate, ..
  100. ncbi Neuron loss in the mouse hippocampus following prenatal injection of tritiated thymidine or saline
    C Schmitz
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, RWTH University Aachen, Germany
    Int J Dev Neurosci 17:185-90. 1999
    To investigate possible effects of injections of tritiated thymidine ([3H]dThd) into pregnant mice or the injection procedure itself on the proliferation of neuronal precursor cells in the fetuses, pregnant mice received intraperitoneal ..
  101. ncbi Thymidine analogue mutation profiles: factors associated with acquiring specific profiles and their impact on the virological response to therapy
    Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri
    Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK
    Antivir Ther 10:791-802. 2005
    Studies have suggested that HIV-1 may develop thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) by one of two distinct pathways - the TAM1 pathway (including mutations 41L, 210W and 215Y) or the TAM2 pathway (including mutations 67N, 70R and 219E/Q) - ..

Research Grants72

  1. Regulation of HSV-1 Gene Expression and Replication by Nuclear Hormone Receptors
    SHAOCHUNG VICTOR HSIA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..genome, we identified thyroid hormone receptor responsive elements (TREs) in the regulatory regions of HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK), latency-associated transcript (LAT), and infected cell protein 0 (ICP0)...
  2. N-methanocarbathymidine (N-MCT) for the Treatment of Herpes and Pox Virus Infecti
    Aquilur Rahman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..N-MCT is activated only in virus-infected cells by the HSV thymidine kinase (TK)...
  3. DNA Methylation in Ethanol Drinking Behavior
    David P Gavin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..demethylation in neurons results from GADD45 proteins (GADD45a, b, g) recruiting cytidine deaminases (CDs) and thymidine glycosylases (TGs) to gene promoters...
  4. Mechanism of Irradiation Pulmonary Fibrosis
    Joel S Greenberger; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will use female C57BL/6J mice and HSV-TK (Herpes Simplex Virus-Thymidine Kinase)-CCSP+ transgenic mice (which have gancyclovir sensitive Clara Cell Secretory Protein positive lung stem ..
  5. Neonatal Chemoselection Following Ex Vivo Gene Transfer For Hereditary Disorders
    KARIN L GAENSLER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..HYPOTHESIS 3: HSC transduction with a positive/negative lentiviral vector incorporating MGMT and thymidine kinase (TK) will enable negative selection of proliferating alloreactive T cells...
  6. Engineering the Brain Immune System for Tumor Therapy
    Maria G Castro; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of tumor antigens to the DCs, tumor cells are killed using conditional cytotoxicity [herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (TK) plus ganciclovir (GCV)]...
  7. T-cell Therapy for B-lineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
    Laurence J N Cooper; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Beauty (SB) system has been combined with electroporation to introduce the CAR as well as co-express HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) for imaging by positron emission tomography (PET)...
  8. A Targeted Preemptive Approach to Addressing Mitochondrial Toxicity of Nucleoside
    John K Buolamwini; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..are sequentially phosphorylated starting with rate-limiting monophosphorylation by mitochondrial-specific thymidine kinase 2 (TK-2) and/or deoxyguanosine kinase (dGK)...
  9. Genetic correction of human beta-thalassemic induced pluripotent stem cells
    EIRINI PAPAPETROU; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..An Herpes Simplex Virus-thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) "suicide gene" with regulated expression by tissue-specific promoters/enhancers and/or miR- NAs ..
  10. In vivo imaging of encapsulated stem cells in mouse models of tumor resection
    Khalid A Shah; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To ensure the safety of our approach, we will ultimately engineer human MSC-Enb-TRAIL to express HSV-thymidine kinase (TK), an activatable cellular suicide gene that will allow us to selectively eradicate MSC post-GBM ..
  11. Molecular Determinants Affecting FLT-PET in Colorectal Cancer
    HENRY C MANNING; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Theoretically, [18F]-FLT serves as a surrogate marker of proliferation by reporting the activity of thymidine salvage, a complex cell cycle-driven mechanism that sequesters deoxyribonucleosides from the extracellular ..
  12. Gutless Adenovirus Mediated Gene Therapy for Glioma
    Maria G Castro; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FltSL) (to recruit DCs to the brain), and herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK) that through the phosphorylation of the prodrug GCV (GCV) induces tumor cell death, making ..
  13. Genetic correction of human beta-thalassemic induced pluripotent stem cells
    EIRINI PAPAPETROU; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..An Herpes Simplex Virus-thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) "suicide gene" with regulated expression by tissue-specific promoters/enhancers and/or miR- NAs ..
  14. Targeting Nanoparticle DNA Delivery to Prostate Tumors
    Janet A Sawicki; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..genes, a gene encoding diphtheria toxin and a fusion gene encoding cytosine deaminase + herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase to primary and metastatic prostate tumors. Our specific aims are to: 1...
  15. ASCORBATE-INDUCED RADIOSENSITIZATION IN PANCREATIC CANCER
    Joseph J Cullen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..radiosensitization and oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo;we will employ FLT-PET (fluoro-labeled thymidine positron emission tomography) as a non- invasive in vivo index of cell proliferation...
  16. Fluorescence enhanced optical tomography
    Eva M Sevick-Muraca; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..guanine ([18F]-FHBG) and optical analogs in animals with tumors stably transfected to express viral thymidine kinase (vTK) to quantify gene expression with PET and optical tomography with Dr...
  17. Enhancing Suicide Gene Therapy Through Mechanism-Based Approaches
    Donna S Shewach; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We have focused on the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK), the initial activator of the antiviral drug ganciclovir (GCV) to its cytotoxic triphosphate, ..
  18. BETR Therapy for Herpesvirus-Associated Tumors
    Martin G Pomper; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..on the metabolic concentration of a radiolabeled low molecular weight substrate in tumors mediated by the EBV thymidine kinase (TK)...
  19. IMAGING T CELLS BY POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY
    Shahriar Yaghoubi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..This will be accomplished by coexpressing a mutant of herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase (sr39tk) with the CD19-specific CAR in T cells using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon/transposase ..
  20. GFI-1 and Osteoblast Suppression in Multiple Myeloma
    GARSON DAVID ROODMAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..vivo model of MM-induced OB suppression using 5TGM1 MM cells (which we modified to express GFP for detection and thymidine kinase, which allows them to be selectively killed by ganciclovir) demonstrate a persistent inhibition of OB ..
  21. Metabolism and toxicity of NRTIs in non-replicating tissues
    Edward E McKee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..polymerase leading to mtDNA depletion;or for at least one NRTI, AZT, toxicity may be caused by the inhibition of thymidine phosphorylation with alterations of the dNTP precursor pools supporting mtDNA replication...
  22. Targeting Adenovirus for Gene Therapy of Uterine Leiomyoma
    Ayman Al-Hendy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..fibroid lesions;dominant negative estrogen receptor (DN-ER), dominant negative progesterone receptor (DN- PR) or thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (TK/GCV) approach...
  23. Lentivirus-based positive/negative selection in minimally ablative transplants
    KARIN L GAENSLER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..with tricistronic lentiviral vectors containing P140K-O6-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMTP140K), HSV-Thymidine kinase (TKHSV) and eGFP...
  24. Mechanisms of Genetic Reversion in Ichthyosis With Confetti
    Keith A Choate; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will be examined via stable expression in a human cell line which is heterozygous for a functional allele at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus, conferring sensitivity to trifluorothymidine (TFT) and allowing detection of spontaneous and ..
  25. Imaging Cellular Stress and Treatment Response Using Positron Emission Tomography
    ANTHONY FRANK SHIELDS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We have been studying thymidine and its analogs, with the initial goal of imaging cellular proliferation...
  26. Airway Goblet Cells: Friend or Foe?
    David A Stoltz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..goblet cell and mucus biology by conditionally targeting airway goblet cells with the herpes virus type 1 thymidine kinase system in wild-type and CF pigs...
  27. [F18]FMAU in Prostate Cancer
    Hossein Jadvar; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..FMAU, first developed in our laboratory, is a thymidine analog that is phosphorylated by thymidine kinase and incorporated in the DNA and therefore is useful for ..
  28. Engineering Polymers For Gene Therapy of Head Cancer
    Hamid Ghandehari; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) using adenovirus with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (Ad...
  29. The Regulatory Role of PTEN on CXCR4-mediated Metastasis in Prostate Cancer Cells
    MAHANDRANAUTH ANAND CHETRAM; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..determine whether ROS promotes CXCR4-mediated migration, proliferation and invasion by a migration assay, [[3]H] thymidine incorporation assay and invasion assay, respectively...
  30. Novel molecular imaging approaches to monitor gene and cell-based therapies
    Shahriar Yaghoubi; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our new current PRG being developed is a point mutant (N44D) of the human thymidine kinase 2 (tk2) gene. L-[18F]FMAU and L- [18F]FEAU, two hTK2-N44D substrates, are our new PRPs...
  31. Correlative Studies for NCI Study#7916: Phase I Clinical Trial of Intravenous FAU
    Patricia Mucci LoRusso; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..If successful, the proposed experiments may point the way to assays that identify patients who are more or less likely to respond to this therapy, thereby permitting individualized therapy of patients in the future. ..
  32. Oral prodrug of a novel antiviral that blocks neuronal reactivation of HSV
    George E Wright; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We have pioneered the study of selective inhibitors of the herpes virus-specific thymidine kinase (TK), the enzyme responsible both for "activation" of anti-herpes nucleoside analogs and for reactivation ..
  33. Blood Pressure Regulation by OAT3
    Volker Vallon; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We previously identified thymidine as a novel endogenous OAT3 substrate that accumulates in the plasma of Oat3-/- mice and acutely lowers blood ..
  34. Imaging Cytolytic T Cells in Cancer Patients Using PET Reporter Genes/Reporter Pr
    Sanjiv S Gambhir; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..PRP [18F]FHBG, which can be used for monitoring the trafficking of cells expressing the Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Thymidine Kinase (HSV1-TK or mutant HSV1-sr39TK)...
  35. Molecular Pathogenesis and Treatment of MNGIE
    Michio Hirano; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a fatal autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the TYMP gene encoding thymidine phosphorylase (TP)...
  36. Role of NG2 in diabetic nephropathy
    Vesselina G Cooke; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in transgenic mice in which mesangial cells are transgenically tagged with yellow fluorescent protein or viral thymidine kinase (to ablate proliferating mesangial cells at specific time points using ganciclovir) and evaluate the ..
  37. The 26S Proteasome in Cancer Stem Cells
    Frank Pajonk; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, we have used the same degron to destabilize thymidine kinase and to target it using ganciclovir, in so doing eliminating CICs from glioblastoma cell populations...
  38. PDX-1 is a Therapeutic Target for Pancreatic Cancer
    FRANCIS CHARLES BRUNICARDI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Preliminary data also demonstrate that viral thymidine kinase expression using rat insulin promoter-thymidine kinase gene therapy (RIP-TK) in PC cells in mice can be ..
  39. Molecular Imaging of Stem Cell Transplantation in the Heart
    Juri G Gelovani; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This construct will encode for a constitutively expressed "beacon" reporter gene-the truncated human thymidine kinase type two fused with red fluorescent protein (hTK2RFP)-and a "sensor" reporter gene, consisting of the ..
  40. The Role of Dynamics in Enzyme Mechanism and Inhibition
    Andrew L Lee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Thymidine biosynthesis is a critical metabolic step that, if inhibited, results in cell death...
  41. Interactions of the angiopoietin and PD-ECGF pathways in tumor angiogenesis
    Edward L Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..be studied include a novel, highly specific, orally available small molecule inhibito of the angiogenic factor thymidine phosphorylase (TP) which we have synthesized, and two highly specific peptibodies which neutralize the ..
  42. Mitochondrial Toxicity of Antiviral Nucleosides
    Edward E McKee; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In recent work form our laboratory we have shown that AZT is a potent inhibitor of thymidine phosphorylation in isolated heart, liver, and brain mitochondria, and in the isolated perfused heart...
  43. Role of Fibroblasts in Cancer
    Raghu Kalluri; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..specific ablation of FSP1+/alphaSMA- fibroblasts using transgenic mice, which harbor FSP1 promoter driven thymidine kinase protein (FSP1-tk), demonstrate that FSP1+ fibroblasts are critical for the formation of metastasis ..
  44. Human Pharmacogenetics and Human Liver Regeneration
    GARY A PELTZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To do this, a highly immunocompromised (NOG) mouse was genetically engineered to express a thymidine kinase transgene in the liver, which enabled the temporally controlled and tissue-specific ablation of mouse ..
  45. Evaluation of Recombinant Human Lactoferrin as an Osteogenic Biomaterial
    Ashley A Amini; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Proliferation of the cells encapsulated in the rhLF gels will be determined through thymidine incorporation. Alizarin Red will be utilized to study the degree of mineralization after 21 days of culture...
  46. TK-based Infection Imaging
    Martin G Pomper; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The method uses radiolabeled nucleoside analogs that are substrates of bacterial and viral thymidine kinases (TKs)...
  47. Virus-Targeted Therapy for Malignancies
    SUSAN PARK PERRINE; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..virus-infected cells can be killed by nucleoside analog antiviral drugs like ganciclovir, which target the viral thymidine kinase (TK) enzyme...
  48. Injectable reporters to image tumors and guide resection
    Roger Y Tsien; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tomography (PET), combining best available versions of far-red fluorescent protein, firefly luciferase, and thymidine kinase, expressed as separate but genetically linked proteins separated by self-cleaving viral 2A sequences...
  49. Targeted Therapy for Burkitt Lymphoma in Resource Poor Settings
    Glen N Barber; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..anti-tumor effect by both blocking a vital survival factor and inducing the EBV gene expression including viral thymidine kinase (vTK), which phosphorylates the thymidine analogue, AZT...
  50. Investigation of herpes simplex virus -1 neurotropism in SCID DRG xenografts
    Ann M Arvin; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..through the evaluation of recombinant HSV-1 strains, in particular we will examine the requirement for HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) during initial infection and persistence in DRG, and gD mutants for their capacity for viral entry;(..
  51. Boronated nucleosides for neutron capture therapy of brain tumors
    Werner Tjarks; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Subject of the present grant application is the continued development of 3-carboranyl thymidine analogues (3CTAs), a novel class of BNCT agents for the treatment of GBM...
  52. Effect of maternal care on neurogenesis and behavior
    Arie Kaffman; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In order to test this hypothesis we have generated transgenic mice that express thymidine kinase in neural stem cells (NSC) and show that exposure of NSC from these mice to Ganciclovir abolishes ..
  53. Role of beta catenin mediated neural stem cell and astrocyte proliferation in TBI
    Diana M Sama; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..cat-KO and wild-type (WT) mice will receive moderate CCI injury and injection of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU, a thymidine analog) to label dividing cells...
  54. Stable isotope-based fate mapping to quantify adipogenesis in obesity
    MATTHEW STEINHAUSER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Preliminary data suggests that stable isotope-enriched thymidine is an effective tracer to detect DNA synthesis and cellular division...
  55. Screening of inhibitors for human 5-prime-tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase (hTDP2)
    Sanjay Adhikari; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Innovation and Novelty: We have developed and statistically validated a novel assay using p- nitrophenyl-thymidine-52-phosphate (T5PNP) as a substrate...
  56. Synaptic Regulation of Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus
    Brian E Derrick; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of perforant path stimulation on GC neurogenesis is assessed by administering bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analog incorporated only in dividing cells, in conjunction with unbiased stereology and fluorescent immuno-..
  57. Clinical and Immunologic Evaluation of ProstAtak for Prostate Cancer
    Estuardo Aguilar-Cordova; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ProstAtak" is a biologic drug composed of an adenoviral vector with the Herpes thymidine-kinase gene (AdV-tk) formulated for prostate delivery followed by an oral antiherpetic prodrug...
  58. Mechanisms of thymide phosphorylase angiogenesis
    Edward L Schwartz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Sequencing of the of human PD-ECGF cDNA revealed it to be identical to human thymidine phosphorylase (TP), an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of thymidine to thymine and 2-deoxyribose-1-..
  59. Impact of uracil DNA glycosylase on lung cancer cell sensitivity to pemetrexed
    LACHELLE DAWN WEEKS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..tumor cells, pemetrexed causes genomic uracil incorporation through inhibition of enzymes involved in de novo thymidine biosynthesis...
  60. Molecular imaging of cell-based therapeutics using an engineered human enzyme.
    Arnon Lavie; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To circumvent this, we will employ a modified version of human thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) as the source for the unique enzymatic activity...
  61. Retroviral replicating vector for prodrug activator gene therapy
    Douglas J Jolly; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We have now constructed RRV expressing an optimized Herpes simplex thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) prodrug activator gene (RRV-TK in this proposal)...
  62. Identification and Characterization of Novel Replication Stress Response Proteins
    Gina M Kavanaugh; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..An immunofluorescence assay utilizing thymidine analog incorporation and the replication stress inducer hydroxyurea has been designed to uncover proteins that ..
  63. OZONE INDUCED AIRWAY EPITHELIAL HYPERPROLIFERATION
    CHRISTOPHER MURLAS; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..pathogen-free miniature swine will be routinely monitored by serial measurements of cell counts and tritiated thymidine incorporation. (As an Addendum to this proposal, culture of human AEC will also be evaluated similarly...
  64. MODELS OF IN VIVO MYOMETRIAL GENE TRANSFER
    Gregory Christman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Recently, gene transfer has been shown to be effective in vascular smooth muscle using the herpes virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV-tk/GCV) cytotoxic gene therapy approach to ablate smooth muscle proliferation following ..
  65. CELLULAR EFFECTS OF INHIBITION OF THYMIDYLATE SYNTHASE
    RICHARD MORAN; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..of normal and neoplastic stem cells to pharmacologically induced cellular deficiencies in the supply of thymidine nucleotides...
  66. PHARMACOLOGY OF DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES IN SMALL INTESTINAL
    JESSIE AU; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Examine the effects of ddNS on the levels and metabolism of endogenous pyrimidines and purines (thymidine, deoxycytidine, deoxyinosine, deoxyadenosine and adenosine), and the incorporation of DNA precursor (..
  67. Phase II SBIR: WHI-07: A Novel Dual-Function Microbicide
    OSMOND D CRUZ; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..WHI-07 was rationally designed to bypass the thymidine kinase dependency of ZDV activation in genital tract secretions...
  68. Enhancing Suicide Gene Therapy Through Mechanism-Based Approaches
    Donna Shewach; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..We have focused on the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK), the initial activator of the antiviral drug ganciclovir (GCV) to its cytotoxic triphosphate, ..
  69. Gene Therapy for Retinoblastoma
    Richard Hurwitz; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Numerous preclinical and clinical trials have shown that adenoviral vectors used to deliver the Herpes thymidine kinase gene followed by ganciclovir can be safely administered...
  70. ZIDOVUDINE METABOLISM: REBRETRON TREATED HUMAN PATIENTS
    Jose Rodriguez; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..in vivo with ZDV, diminishing the formation of ZDV intracellular metabolites (ZDV-MP and ZDV-TP), by increasing thymidine triphosphate (dTTP) intracellular concentrations which inhibits thymidine kinase 1...
  71. DLI using genetically modified T cells: Phase 1 trial
    John Dipersio; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The central hypotheses of this study are the following: Retroviral mediated transfer of a chimeric CD34-Thymidine Kinase (CD34-TK75) suicide gene into human T cells to control GvHD can be performed safely, and will result in ..
  72. ENHANCEMENT OF IUDR SENSITIZATION BY LOW ENERGY PHOTONS
    Ravinder Nath; Fiscal Year: 1992
    The thymidine analog iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) has been the subject of several recent investigations because of its potential role as a clinical radiosensitizer, especially in the treatment of rapidly proliferating, poorly radioresponsive ..