glucagon

Summary

Summary: A pancreatic peptide hormone of about 29 amino acids secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS. It has an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Glycemic control in mice with targeted disruption of the glucagon receptor gene
    Janice C Parker
    Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton Laboratories, Groton, Connecticut 06340, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 290:839-43. 2002
  2. ncbi Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into insulin, somatostatin, and glucagon expressing cells
    Katharina Timper
    Department of Research, University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 341:1135-40. 2006
  3. pmc Insulin signaling in alpha cells modulates glucagon secretion in vivo
    Dan Kawamori
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Cell Metab 9:350-61. 2009
  4. ncbi A role for glucagon-like peptide-1 in the central regulation of feeding
    M D Turton
    Department of Medicine, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    Nature 379:69-72. 1996
  5. pmc Conversion of adult pancreatic alpha-cells to beta-cells after extreme beta-cell loss
    Fabrizio Thorel
    Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University of Geneva Faculty of Medicine, 1 rue Michel Servet, CH 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Nature 464:1149-54. 2010
  6. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is involved in learning and neuroprotection
    Matthew J During
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 86716, New Zealand
    Nat Med 9:1173-9. 2003
  7. ncbi The glucagon-like peptides
    T J Kieffer
    Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    Endocr Rev 20:876-913. 1999
  8. ncbi A meta-analysis of the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide on ad libitum energy intake in humans
    C Verdich
    Research Department of Human Nutrition, Centre for Food, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:4382-9. 2001
  9. pmc Glucagon receptor knockout prevents insulin-deficient type 1 diabetes in mice
    Young Lee
    Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA
    Diabetes 60:391-7. 2011
  10. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1 and exendin-4 stimulate beta-cell neogenesis in streptozotocin-treated newborn rats resulting in persistently improved glucose homeostasis at adult age
    C Tourrel
    Laboratory of Physiopathology of Nutrition, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique ESA 7059, Université Paris7 Denis Diderot, 2 place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Diabetes 50:1562-70. 2001

Detail Information

Publications293 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Glycemic control in mice with targeted disruption of the glucagon receptor gene
    Janice C Parker
    Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton Laboratories, Groton, Connecticut 06340, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 290:839-43. 2002
    The action of glucagon in the liver is mediated by G-coupled receptors. To examine the role of glucagon in glucose homeostasis, we have generated mice in which the glucagon receptor was inactivated (GR(-/-) mice)...
  2. ncbi Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into insulin, somatostatin, and glucagon expressing cells
    Katharina Timper
    Department of Research, University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 341:1135-40. 2006
    ..Using quantitative PCR a down-regulation of ABCG2 and up-regulation of pancreatic developmental transcription factors Isl-1, Ipf-1, and Ngn3 were observed together with induction of the islet hormones insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin.
  3. pmc Insulin signaling in alpha cells modulates glucagon secretion in vivo
    Dan Kawamori
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Cell Metab 9:350-61. 2009
    b>Glucagon plays an important role in glucose homeostasis by regulating hepatic glucose output in both normo- and hypoglycemic conditions...
  4. ncbi A role for glucagon-like peptide-1 in the central regulation of feeding
    M D Turton
    Department of Medicine, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    Nature 379:69-72. 1996
    The sequence of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (GLP-1) is completely conserved in all mammalian species studied, implying that it plays a critical physiological role...
  5. pmc Conversion of adult pancreatic alpha-cells to beta-cells after extreme beta-cell loss
    Fabrizio Thorel
    Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University of Geneva Faculty of Medicine, 1 rue Michel Servet, CH 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Nature 464:1149-54. 2010
    ..Lineage-tracing to label the glucagon-producing alpha-cells before beta-cell ablation tracked large fractions of regenerated beta-cells as deriving ..
  6. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is involved in learning and neuroprotection
    Matthew J During
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 86716, New Zealand
    Nat Med 9:1173-9. 2003
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut peptide that, together with its receptor, GLP-1R, is expressed in the brain. Here we show that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v...
  7. ncbi The glucagon-like peptides
    T J Kieffer
    Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    Endocr Rev 20:876-913. 1999
  8. ncbi A meta-analysis of the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide on ad libitum energy intake in humans
    C Verdich
    Research Department of Human Nutrition, Centre for Food, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:4382-9. 2001
    Seven studies have now been published pertaining to the acute effect of iv administration of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide on ad libitum energy intake...
  9. pmc Glucagon receptor knockout prevents insulin-deficient type 1 diabetes in mice
    Young Lee
    Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA
    Diabetes 60:391-7. 2011
    To determine the role of glucagon action in the metabolic phenotype of untreated insulin deficiency.
  10. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1 and exendin-4 stimulate beta-cell neogenesis in streptozotocin-treated newborn rats resulting in persistently improved glucose homeostasis at adult age
    C Tourrel
    Laboratory of Physiopathology of Nutrition, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique ESA 7059, Université Paris7 Denis Diderot, 2 place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Diabetes 50:1562-70. 2001
    ..model), a recognized model of beta-cell regeneration, we investigated the capacity of early treatment with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) or exendin-4 to promote beta-cell regeneration and thereby improve islet function in the ..
  11. pmc Beta-cell uncoupling protein 2 regulates reactive oxygen species production, which influences both insulin and glucagon secretion
    Christine A Robson-Doucette
    Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Diabetes 60:2710-9. 2011
    ..To investigate the function of UCP2 in the β-cell, β-cell-specific UCP2 knockout mice (UCP2BKO) were generated and characterized...
  12. ncbi Hypoglycaemia: the limiting factor in the glycaemic management of Type I and Type II diabetes
    P E Cryer
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Diabetologia 45:937-48. 2002
    ..Insulin concentrations do not decrease and glucagon and epinephrine concentrations do not increase normally as glucose concentrations decrease...
  13. ncbi Effects of exenatide versus sitagliptin on postprandial glucose, insulin and glucagon secretion, gastric emptying, and caloric intake: a randomized, cross-over study
    Ralph A DeFronzo
    University of Texas Health Science Center, Department of Medicine, Diabetes Division MSC 7886, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229 3900, USA
    Curr Med Res Opin 24:2943-52. 2008
    This study evaluated the effects of exenatide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, and sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, on 2-h postprandial glucose (PPG), insulin and glucagon secretion, gastric emptying, and caloric intake in T2D patients.
  14. ncbi Glucagon-like peptides: regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis
    Daniel J Drucker
    Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Banting and Best Diabetes Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada M5G 2C4
    Mol Endocrinol 17:161-71. 2003
    ..The glucagon-like peptides, GLP-1 and GLP-2 are prototype peptide hormones released from gut endocrine cells in response to ..
  15. ncbi Recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 increases myocardial glucose uptake and improves left ventricular performance in conscious dogs with pacing-induced dilated cardiomyopathy
    Lazaros A Nikolaidis
    Department of Medicine, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA
    Circulation 110:955-61. 2004
    ..b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a naturally occurring incretin with potent insulinotropic effects the action of which ..
  16. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide 1 inhibits cell apoptosis and improves glucose responsiveness of freshly isolated human islets
    Loredana Farilla
    Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes and Metabolism, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8723 Alden Drive, SSB 290, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA
    Endocrinology 144:5149-58. 2003
    The peptide hormone, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), has been shown to increase glucose-dependent insulin secretion, enhance insulin gene transcription, expand islet cell mass, and inhibit beta-cell apoptosis in animal models of diabetes...
  17. pmc Glucagonocentric restructuring of diabetes: a pathophysiologic and therapeutic makeover
    Roger H Unger
    Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 8854, USA
    J Clin Invest 122:4-12. 2012
    The hormone glucagon has long been dismissed as a minor contributor to metabolic disease. Here we propose that glucagon excess, rather than insulin deficiency, is the sine qua non of diabetes...
  18. ncbi Generation of insulin-producing islet-like clusters from human embryonic stem cells
    Jianjie Jiang
    Cell Therapy Research, Geron Corporation, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
    Stem Cells 25:1940-53. 2007
    ..The hESC-derived ILCs contained 2%-8% human C-peptide-positive cells, as well as glucagon- and somatostatin-positive cells...
  19. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1 relaxes rat conduit arteries via an endothelium-independent mechanism
    Thomas Nystrom
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Internal Medicine, Stockholm South Hospital SE 118 83 Stockholm, Sweden
    Regul Pept 125:173-7. 2005
    A lot of interest has engendered in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) as an emerging new drug in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 exerts several effects that reduce glycemia in type 2 diabetes patients...
  20. pmc Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide: a bifunctional glucose-dependent regulator of glucagon and insulin secretion in humans
    Mikkel Christensen
    Diabetes Research Division, Department of Internal Medicine F, Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Diabetes 60:3103-9. 2011
    To evaluate the glucose dependency of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) effects on insulin and glucagon release in 10 healthy male subjects ([means ± SEM] aged 23 ± 1 years, BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m(2), and HbA(1c) 5.5 ± 0.1%).
  21. doi Atypical antipsychotic drugs induce derangements in glucose homeostasis by acutely increasing glucagon secretion and hepatic glucose output in the rat
    G C Smith
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology and Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand
    Diabetologia 51:2309-17. 2008
    ..We hypothesised that, in addition to the insulin resistance associated with the obesity, the SGAs might have acute effects on glucose metabolism that could contribute to the derangements in glucose metabolism...
  22. ncbi The role of dysregulated glucagon secretion in type 2 diabetes
    D D'ALESSIO
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Cincinnati and Cincinnati VA Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0547, USA
    Diabetes Obes Metab 13:126-32. 2011
    ..However, a case can be made that glucagon also plays a role in dysregulated hepatic glucose production and abnormal glucose homeostasis...
  23. ncbi Incretin secretion in relation to meal size and body weight in healthy subjects and people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus
    T Vilsbøll
    Department of Internal Medicine F, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:2706-13. 2003
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are incretin hormones secreted in response to meal ingestion, thereby enhancing postprandial insulin secretion...
  24. ncbi GLP-1 inhibits and adrenaline stimulates glucagon release by differential modulation of N- and L-type Ca2+ channel-dependent exocytosis
    Yang Z De Marinis
    Lund University Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, SE20502 Malmö, Sweden
    Cell Metab 11:543-53. 2010
    b>Glucagon secretion is inhibited by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and stimulated by adrenaline. These opposing effects on glucagon secretion are mimicked by low (1-10 nM) and high (10 muM) concentrations of forskolin, respectively...
  25. ncbi Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 in patients with acute myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction after successful reperfusion
    Lazaros A Nikolaidis
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA
    Circulation 109:962-5. 2004
    ..b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a naturally occurring incretin with both insulinotropic and insulinomimetic properties ..
  26. pmc Lower blood glucose, hyperglucagonemia, and pancreatic alpha cell hyperplasia in glucagon receptor knockout mice
    R W Gelling
    Department of Diabetes Biology, Pharmacological Research 2, Novo Nordisk AS, DK 2880 Bagsvaerd, Denmark
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:1438-43. 2003
    b>Glucagon, the counter-regulatory hormone to insulin, is secreted from pancreatic alpha cells in response to low blood glucose...
  27. ncbi Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients with stable coronary artery disease
    Thomas Nystrom
    Dept of Internal Medicine, Stockholm South Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm SE 118 83, Sweden
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 287:E1209-15. 2004
    GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion, suppresses glucagon secretion, delays gastric emptying, and inhibits small bowel motility, all actions contributing to the anti-diabetogenic peptide effect...
  28. ncbi Direct effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on myocardial contractility and glucose uptake in normal and postischemic isolated rat hearts
    Tingcun Zhao
    Department of Pediatrics, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 317:1106-13. 2006
    Recent evidence suggests that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) enhances recovery of left ventricular (LV) function after transient coronary artery occlusion...
  29. ncbi Glucose inhibition of glucagon secretion from rat alpha-cells is mediated by GABA released from neighboring beta-cells
    Anna Wendt
    Department of Physiological Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
    Diabetes 53:1038-45. 2004
    ..Confocal immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of GABA(A) receptors in glucagon-secreting alpha-cells but not in beta- and delta-cells...
  30. pmc Leptin therapy in insulin-deficient type I diabetes
    May Yun Wang
    Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:4813-9. 2010
    ..The results imply that leptin administration may have multiple short- and long-term advantages over insulin monotherapy for type 1 diabetes...
  31. ncbi Oligofructose promotes satiety in rats fed a high-fat diet: involvement of glucagon-like Peptide-1
    Patrice D Cani
    Université Catholique de Louvain Unité de Pharmacocinétique, Metabolisme, Nutrition et Toxicologie 7369, 73 Avenue Mounier, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    Obes Res 13:1000-7. 2005
    ..To analyze the putative interest of oligofructose (OFS) in the modulation of food intake after high-fat diet in rats and to question the relevance of the expression and secretion of intestinal peptides in that context...
  32. ncbi Fatty acids decrease IDX-1 expression in rat pancreatic islets and reduce GLUT2, glucokinase, insulin, and somatostatin levels
    S Gremlich
    Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Lausanne, 27, Rue du Bugnon, CH 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 272:30261-9. 1997
    ..Insulin and somatostatin mRNA expression was also decreased by 40 and 60%, whereas glucagon mRNA expression was not modified...
  33. ncbi Vildagliptin enhances islet responsiveness to both hyper- and hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Bo Ahren
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:1236-43. 2009
    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors act by increasing plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 and suppressing excessive glucagon secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes...
  34. ncbi ATP-sensitive K+ channel-dependent regulation of glucagon release and electrical activity by glucose in wild-type and SUR1-/- mouse alpha-cells
    Jesper Gromada
    Lilly Research Laboratories, Essener Strasse 93, D 22419 Hamburg, Germany
    Diabetes 53:S181-9. 2004
    Patch-clamp recordings and glucagon release measurements were combined to determine the role of plasma membrane ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP channels) in the control of glucagon secretion from mouse pancreatic alpha-cells...
  35. ncbi Oxyntomodulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 differentially regulate murine food intake and energy expenditure
    Laurie L Baggio
    Department of Medicine, Banting and Best Diabetes Centre, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Gastroenterology 127:546-58. 2004
    Gut-derived peptides including ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), and GLP-2 exert overlapping actions on energy homeostasis through defined G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)...
  36. ncbi The simultaneous loss of Arx and Pax4 genes promotes a somatostatin-producing cell fate specification at the expense of the alpha- and beta-cell lineages in the mouse endocrine pancreas
    Patrick Collombat
    Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Am Fassberg, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Development 132:2969-80. 2005
    ..Finally, our data provide evidence that both Arx and Pax4 act as transcriptional repressors that control the expression level of one another, thereby mediating proper endocrine fate allocation...
  37. ncbi Regulation of glucagon secretion by glucose: paracrine, intrinsic or both?
    J N Walker
    Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK
    Diabetes Obes Metab 13:95-105. 2011
    b>Glucagon secretion is regulated by glucose but the mechanisms involved remain hotly debated. Both intrinsic (within the α-cell itself) and paracrine (mediated by factors released β- and/or δ-cells) have been postulated...
  38. ncbi Glucose-dependent docking and SNARE protein-mediated exocytosis in mouse pancreatic alpha-cell
    Sofia A Andersson
    Islet Cell Exocytosis, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmo, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden
    Pflugers Arch 462:443-54. 2011
    The function of alpha-cells in patients with type 2 diabetes is often disturbed; glucagon secretion is increased at hyperglycaemia, yet fails to respond to hypoglycaemia...
  39. ncbi The effects of miglitol on glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion and appetite sensations in obese type 2 diabetics
    A Lee
    Department of Medicine, St Louis University Medical Center, and GRECC, St Louis VA Medical Center, St Louis, MO, USA
    Diabetes Obes Metab 4:329-35. 2002
    ..inhibitors (AGIs), such as voglibose or acarbose, produced exaggerated and sustained postprandial responses of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone from the enteroinsular axis, in healthy humans...
  40. ncbi Vasorelaxant effect of glucagon-like peptide-(7-36)amide and amylin on the pulmonary circulation of the rat
    H A Golpon
    Department of Internal Medicine, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldinger Strasse, 35033, Marburg, Germany
    Regul Pept 102:81-6. 2001
    The gastrointestinal peptides glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1) and amylin are currently being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of diabetes mellitus due to their effects in lowering blood glucose...
  41. pmc Membrane potential-dependent inactivation of voltage-gated ion channels in alpha-cells inhibits glucagon secretion from human islets
    Reshma Ramracheya
    Oxford Centre for Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Diabetes 59:2198-208. 2010
    To document the properties of the voltage-gated ion channels in human pancreatic alpha-cells and their role in glucagon release.
  42. ncbi Oxyntomodulin differentially affects glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor beta-arrestin recruitment and signaling through Galpha(s)
    Rasmus Jorgensen
    7TM Pharma A S, 2970 Horsholm, Denmark
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 322:148-54. 2007
    The glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor is a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity, and there is great interest in characterizing the pharmacology of the GLP-1 receptor and its ligands...
  43. ncbi The origin and function of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/glucagon superfamily
    N M Sherwood
    Department of Biology, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
    Endocr Rev 21:619-70. 2000
    The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/ glucagon superfamily includes nine hormones in humans that are related by structure, distribution (especially the brain and gut), function (often by activation of cAMP), and ..
  44. ncbi Glucagon and regulation of glucose metabolism
    Guoqiang Jiang
    Department of Metabolic Disorders and Molecular Endocrinology, Merck Research Laboratory, Rahway, New Jersey 07065, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 284:E671-8. 2003
    As a counterregulatory hormone for insulin, glucagon plays a critical role in maintaining glucose homeostasis in vivo in both animals and humans...
  45. ncbi Brain uptake of the glucagon-like peptide-1 antagonist exendin(9-39) after intranasal administration
    William A Banks
    Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, Missouri, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 309:469-75. 2004
    Exendin, a member of the glucagon-like peptide-1 family, and its antagonist exendin(9-39) affect cognition and neuronal survival after their intranasal delivery...
  46. pmc Somatostatin secreted by islet delta-cells fulfills multiple roles as a paracrine regulator of islet function
    Astrid C Hauge-Evans
    Beta Cell Development and Function Group, Division of Reproduction and Endocrinology, King s College London, London, UK
    Diabetes 58:403-11. 2009
    ..SST receptors have been identified on alpha- and beta-cells, and exogenous SST inhibits insulin and glucagon secretion, consistent with a role for SST in regulating alpha- and beta-cell function...
  47. pmc Adrenaline stimulates glucagon secretion in pancreatic A-cells by increasing the Ca2+ current and the number of granules close to the L-type Ca2+ channels
    J Gromada
    Department of Islet Cell Physiology, Novo Nordisk A S, The Symbion Science Park, DK 2100 Copenhagen
    J Gen Physiol 110:217-28. 1997
    We have monitored electrical activity, voltage-gated Ca2+ currents, and exocytosis in single rat glucagon-secreting pancreatic A-cells...
  48. ncbi Effect of 6-week course of glucagon-like peptide 1 on glycaemic control, insulin sensitivity, and beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes: a parallel-group study
    Mette Zander
    Department of Medical Physiology, Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Lancet 359:824-30. 2002
    b>Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been proposed as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. We have investigated the long-term effects of continuous administration of this peptide hormone in a 6-week pilot study.
  49. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1 promotes islet cell growth and inhibits apoptosis in Zucker diabetic rats
    Loredana Farilla
    Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA
    Endocrinology 143:4397-408. 2002
    ..In this study, we investigated the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in Zucker diabetic rats, an animal model in which the onset of diabetes occurs when the ..
  50. ncbi Inulin-type fructans modulate gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation (glucagon-like peptide-1 and ghrelin) in rats
    Patrice D Cani
    Unit of Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Nutrition and Toxicology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universite Catholique de Louvain, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    Br J Nutr 92:521-6. 2004
    ..dietary fructans are able to modulate gastrointestinal peptides involved in the control of food intake, namely glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 (7-36) amide and ghrelin...
  51. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1 prevents beta cell glucolipotoxicity
    J Buteau
    Molecular Nutrition Unit, Department of Nutrition, University of Montreal, CR CHUM, Pavillon de Sève, Montreal, PQ, Canada
    Diabetologia 47:806-15. 2004
    We have provided evidence that glucagon-like peptide-1, a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of diabetes, activates phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B signalling in the pancreatic beta cell...
  52. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide 1 can directly protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury
    Amal K Bose
    The Hatter Institute for Cardiovascular Studies, University College London Hospital and Medical School, Grafton Way, London WC1E, UK
    Diabetes 54:146-51. 2005
    b>Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a gut incretin hormone that stimulates insulin secretion, also activates antiapoptotic signaling pathways such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase in pancreatic and insulinoma ..
  53. pmc Embryonic endocrine pancreas and mature beta cells acquire alpha and PP cell phenotypes upon Arx misexpression
    Patrick Collombat
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Gottingen, Germany Department of Developmental Biology, Hagedorn Research Institute, Gentofte, Denmark
    J Clin Invest 117:961-70. 2007
    ..in adult mice, the misexpression of Arx, rather than its overexpression, promotes a conversion of beta cells into glucagon- or PP-producing cells in vivo...
  54. ncbi Mice deficient for glucagon gene-derived peptides display normoglycemia and hyperplasia of islet {alpha}-cells but not of intestinal L-cells
    Yoshitaka Hayashi
    Department of Genetics, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Japan
    Mol Endocrinol 23:1990-9. 2009
    Multiple bioactive peptides, including glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and GLP-2, are derived from the glucagon gene (Gcg)...
  55. doi Insulin as a physiological modulator of glucagon secretion
    Pritpal Bansal
    Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295:E751-61. 2008
    Glucose homeostasis is regulated primarily by the opposing actions of insulin and glucagon, hormones that are secreted by pancreatic islets from beta-cells and alpha-cells, respectively...
  56. pmc Glucose suppression of glucagon secretion: metabolic and calcium responses from alpha-cells in intact mouse pancreatic islets
    Sylvain J Le Marchand
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:14389-98. 2010
    b>Glucagon is released from alpha-cells present in intact pancreatic islets at glucose concentrations below 4 mm, whereas higher glucose levels inhibit its secretion...
  57. pmc Production of functional glucagon-secreting α-cells from human embryonic stem cells
    Alireza Rezania
    BetaLogics Venture, Centocor Research and Development, Skillman, New Jersey, USA
    Diabetes 60:239-47. 2011
    ..Here we describe an efficient differentiation protocol for the in vitro conversion of hES cells to functional glucagon-producing α- cells.
  58. ncbi Paradoxical stimulation of glucagon secretion by high glucose concentrations
    Albert Salehi
    Department of Clinical Science, Clinical Research Center, Malmo University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden
    Diabetes 55:2318-23. 2006
    Hypersecretion of glucagon contributes to the dysregulation of glucose homeostasis in diabetes...
  59. pmc neurogenin3 is required for the development of the four endocrine cell lineages of the pancreas
    G Gradwohl
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Université Louis Pasteur, F 67404 Illkirch, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:1607-11. 2000
    ..We show herein that ngn3-positive cells coexpress neither insulin nor glucagon, suggesting that ngn3 marks early precursors of pancreatic endocrine cells...
  60. pmc The ectopic expression of Pax4 in the mouse pancreas converts progenitor cells into alpha and subsequently beta cells
    Patrick Collombat
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg, D 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Cell 138:449-62. 2009
    ..This results in a glucagon deficiency that provokes a compensatory and continuous glucagon+ cell neogenesis requiring the re-expression of ..
  61. pmc Insulin reciprocally regulates glucagon secretion in humans
    Benjamin A Cooperberg
    Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipid Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Diabetes 59:2936-40. 2010
    We tested the hypothesis that an increase in insulin per se, i.e., in the absence of zinc, suppresses glucagon secretion during euglycemia and that a decrease in insulin per se stimulates glucagon secretion during hypoglycemia in humans.
  62. pmc Making insulin-deficient type 1 diabetic rodents thrive without insulin
    Xinxin Yu
    Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 8854, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:14070-5. 2008
    ..suggest that leptin reverses the catabolic consequences of total lack of insulin, potentially by suppressing glucagon action on liver and enhancing the insulinomimetic actions of IGF-1 on skeletal muscle, and suggest strategies for ..
  63. pmc The glucagonostatic and insulinotropic effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 contribute equally to its glucose-lowering action
    Kristine J Hare
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Diabetes 59:1765-70. 2010
    b>Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) exerts beneficial antidiabetic actions via effects on pancreatic beta- and alpha-cells...
  64. ncbi Protection and reversal of excitotoxic neuronal damage by glucagon-like peptide-1 and exendin-4
    TracyAnn Perry
    Section of Drug Design and Development, Laboratory of Neuroscience, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging NIH, 5600 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 302:881-8. 2002
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)-amide (GLP-1) is an endogenous insulinotropic peptide that is secreted from the L cells of the gastrointestinal tract in response to food...
  65. ncbi Both GLP-1 and GIP are insulinotropic at basal and postprandial glucose levels and contribute nearly equally to the incretin effect of a meal in healthy subjects
    Tina Vilsbøll
    Department of Internal Medicine F, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Regul Pept 114:115-21. 2003
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are both incretin hormones regulating postprandial insulin secretion...
  66. doi A local glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) system in human pancreatic islets
    P Marchetti
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, Pisa, Italy
    Diabetologia 55:3262-72. 2012
    b>Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a major incretin, mainly produced by the intestinal L cells, with beneficial actions on pancreatic beta cells...
  67. pmc Minireview: Glucagon in the pathogenesis of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia in diabetes
    Philip E Cryer
    Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Lipid Research, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Endocrinology 153:1039-48. 2012
    Pancreatic islet α-cell glucagon secretion is critically dependent on pancreatic islet β-cell insulin secretion...
  68. doi Glutamate is a positive autocrine signal for glucagon release
    Over Cabrera
    Diabetes Research Institute, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA
    Cell Metab 7:545-54. 2008
    An important feature of glucose homeostasis is the effective release of glucagon from the pancreatic alpha cell. The molecular mechanisms regulating glucagon secretion are still poorly understood...
  69. ncbi Glucagon like peptide-1 is protective against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury when given either as a preconditioning mimetic or at reperfusion in an isolated rat heart model
    Amal K Bose
    The Hatter Institute and Centre for Cardiology, University College London Hospital and Medical School, London, UK
    Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 19:9-11. 2005
  70. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1 decreases endogenous amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) levels and protects hippocampal neurons from death induced by Abeta and iron
    TracyAnn Perry
    Section of Drug Design and Development, Laboratory of Neuroscience, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurosci Res 72:603-12. 2003
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)-amide (GLP-1) is an endogenous insulinotropic peptide that is secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to food...
  71. ncbi Persistent improvement of type 2 diabetes in the Goto-Kakizaki rat model by expansion of the beta-cell mass during the prediabetic period with glucagon-like peptide-1 or exendin-4
    Cécile Tourrel
    LPPN, CNRS UMR 7059, Universite Paris 7, Paris, France
    Diabetes 51:1443-52. 2002
    ..We investigated in GK females the short- and the long-term effects of a treatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) or its long-acting analog exendin-4 (Ex-4) during the first postnatal week (during the ..
  72. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide 1 abolishes the postprandial rise in triglyceride concentrations and lowers levels of non-esterified fatty acids in humans
    J J Meier
    Department of Medicine I, St Josef Hospital, Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany
    Diabetologia 49:452-8. 2006
    ..Exogenous glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) lowers postprandial glycaemia predominantly by slowing gastric emptying...
  73. ncbi Patients with neuroglycopenia after gastric bypass surgery have exaggerated incretin and insulin secretory responses to a mixed meal
    A B Goldfine
    Joslin Diabetes Center, One Joslin Place, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:4678-85. 2007
    ..The etiology of the syndrome and metabolic characteristics remain incompletely understood. Recent studies suggest that levels of incretin hormones are increased after GB and may promote excessive beta-cell function and/or growth...
  74. ncbi Glutamine potently stimulates glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion from GLUTag cells
    F Reimann
    Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Wellcome Trust MRC Building, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 2XY, UK
    Diabetologia 47:1592-601. 2004
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) are secreted from enteroendocrine L cells in response to nutrient ingestion...
  75. ncbi Direct and indirect mechanisms regulating secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-like peptide-2
    Patricia L Brubaker
    Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, ON, Canada
    Can J Physiol Pharmacol 81:1005-12. 2003
    The proglucagon-derived peptide family consists of three highly related peptides, glucagon and the glucagon-like peptides GLP-1 and GLP-2...
  76. pmc Glucagon-like peptide 1 (1-37) converts intestinal epithelial cells into insulin-producing cells
    Atsushi Suzuki
    Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 8575, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:5034-9. 2003
    b>Glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1 is produced through posttranslational processing of proglucagon and acts as a regulator of various homeostatic events...
  77. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1 plasmid construction and delivery for the treatment of type 2 diabetes
    Suna Choi
    Center for Controlled Chemical Delivery, Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Utah, 30 South 2000 East, Biochemical Polymer Research Building RM201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 5820, USA
    Mol Ther 12:885-91. 2005
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a 30-amino-acid hormone produced by intestinal L cells...
  78. pmc Characterization and functional role of voltage gated cation conductances in the glucagon-like peptide-1 secreting GLUTag cell line
    F Reimann
    Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Wellcome Trust MRC Building, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK
    J Physiol 563:161-75. 2005
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is released from intestinal L-cells in response to nutrient ingestion. It is currently under therapeutic evaluation because it enhances insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes...
  79. ncbi Divergent tissue-specific and developmental expression of receptors for glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 in the mouse
    R V Campos
    Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Endocrinology 134:2156-64. 1994
    ..The receptors for two of these peptides, glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), have recently been identified, but only limited information is available ..
  80. pmc Novel use of glucagon in a closed-loop system for prevention of hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes
    Jessica R Castle
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA
    Diabetes Care 33:1282-7. 2010
    To minimize hypoglycemia in subjects with type 1 diabetes by automated glucagon delivery in a closed-loop insulin delivery system.
  81. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-2 inhibits antral emptying in man, but is not as potent as glucagon-like peptide-1
    C F Nagell
    Dept of Surgical Gastroenterology, Glostrup University Hospital, Denmark
    Scand J Gastroenterol 39:353-8. 2004
    GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) and GLP-2 (glucagon-like peptide-2) are released in equimolar amounts in response to meal ingestion...
  82. pmc Elevated plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 and 2 concentrations in ileum resected short bowel patients with a preserved colon
    P B Jeppesen
    Department of Medicine CA 2121, Section of Gastroenterology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    Gut 47:370-6. 2000
    The glucagon-like peptides (GLP) 1 and 2 are secreted postprandially from L cells located mainly in the ileum. Both hormones prolong intestinal transit and GLP-2 is intestinotrophic in rodents...
  83. pmc Glucagon signaling modulates sweet taste responsiveness
    Amanda E T Elson
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 20 S Penn St, Rm S251, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    FASEB J 24:3960-9. 2010
    ..We report that glucagon, which plays important roles in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, enhances sweet taste responsiveness ..
  84. ncbi Localization and regulation of glucagon receptors in the chick eye and preproglucagon and glucagon receptor expression in the mouse eye
    Marita P Feldkaemper
    Section of Neurobiology of the Eye, University Eye Hospital Tuebingen, Calwerstrasse 7 1, 72076, Germany
    Exp Eye Res 79:321-9. 2004
    ..that are released by the retina to control axial eye growth in the animal model of the chicken revealed that glucagon-immunoreactive amacrine cells are involved in the retinal image processing that controls the growth of the sclera...
  85. ncbi CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta is required for activation of genes for ornithine cycle enzymes by glucocorticoids and glucagon in primary-cultured hepatocytes
    T Kimura
    Department of Molecular Genetics, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Japan
    FEBS Lett 494:105-11. 2001
    Transcription of genes for enzymes of the ornithine cycle is activated by hormones such as glucocorticoids and glucagon. Promoters and enhancers of several genes for the enzymes interact with the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) ..
  86. ncbi Regulation of the pancreatic pro-endocrine gene neurogenin3
    J C Lee
    Hormone Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Diabetes 50:928-36. 2001
    ..Together with previous genetic data, these results suggest a model in which the ngn3 gene is activated by the coordinated activities of several pancreatic transcription factors and inhibited by Notch signaling through HES1...
  87. pmc Mixed-meal tolerance test versus glucagon stimulation test for the assessment of beta-cell function in therapeutic trials in type 1 diabetes
    Carla J Greenbaum
    TrialNet Publications, The Biostatistics Center, Rockville, Maryland, USA
    Diabetes Care 31:1966-71. 2008
    ..is commonly measured by C-peptide response to a secretagogue in either a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) or a glucagon stimulation test (GST)...
  88. pmc Liver enzymes are associated with hepatic insulin resistance, insulin secretion, and glucagon concentration in healthy men and women
    Fabrice Bonnet
    Service endocrinologie diabétologie, Centre Hospitalo Universitaire CHU Rennes, University Rennes 1, Inserm UMR 991, Rennes, France
    Diabetes 60:1660-7. 2011
    ..We explored the association of liver enzymes with peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance, insulin secretion, insulin clearance, and glucagon concentration.
  89. ncbi Distribution of pancreatic endocrine cells including IAPP-expressing cells in non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic cases
    Katsumichi Iki
    UNMC Eppley Cancer Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 6805, USA
    J Histochem Cytochem 55:111-8. 2007
    ..immunohistochemical study was performed to obtain information on the distribution of cells expressing insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and IAPP in the pancreases of non-diabetic (n=4) and diabetic ..
  90. ncbi The effect of physiological levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 on appetite, gastric emptying, energy and substrate metabolism in obesity
    A Flint
    Research Department of Human Nutrition, Center for Food Research, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Rolighedsvej 30, DK 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25:781-92. 2001
    Peripheral infusions of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in humans have been shown to inhibit gastrointestinal motility and decrease hunger and energy intake. However, these investigations used supraphysiological doses...
  91. ncbi A novel neurotrophic property of glucagon-like peptide 1: a promoter of nerve growth factor-mediated differentiation in PC12 cells
    TracyAnn Perry
    Section of Drug, Design, and Development, Laboratory of Neuroscience, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 300:958-66. 2002
    The insulinotropic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)-amide (GLP-1) has potent effects on glucose-dependent insulin secretion, insulin gene expression, and pancreatic islet cell formation and is presently in clinical trials as a ..
  92. ncbi Glucagon represses signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin in rat liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase
    Scot R Kimball
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:54103-9. 2004
    The opposing actions of glucagon and insulin on glucose metabolism within the liver are essential mechanisms for maintaining plasma glucose concentrations within narrow limits...
  93. ncbi Bile acids promote glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion through TGR5 in a murine enteroendocrine cell line STC-1
    Susumu Katsuma
    Bioinformatics Center, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611 0011, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 329:386-90. 2005
    ..In this study, we show that bile acids promote glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion through TGR5 in a murine enteroendocrine cell line STC-1...
  94. ncbi Active metabolite of GLP-1 mediates myocardial glucose uptake and improves left ventricular performance in conscious dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy
    Lazaros A Nikolaidis
    Dept of Medicine, Allegheny General Hospital, 320 E North Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 289:H2401-8. 2005
    We have shown previously that the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-(7-36) amide increases myocardial glucose uptake and improves left ventricular (LV) and systemic hemodynamics in both conscious dogs with pacing-induced dilated ..
  95. ncbi A novel glucagon receptor antagonist inhibits glucagon-mediated biological effects
    Sajjad A Qureshi
    Department of Metabolic Disorder and Molecular Endocrinology, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, New Jersey, USA
    Diabetes 53:3267-73. 2004
    b>Glucagon maintains glucose homeostasis during the fasting state by promoting hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Hyperglucagonemia and/or an elevated glucagon-to-insulin ratio have been reported in diabetic patients and animals...
  96. ncbi Adult insulin- and glucagon-producing cells differentiate from two independent cell lineages
    P L Herrera
    Department of Morphology, University of Geneva Medical School, rue Michel Servet, Switzerland
    Development 127:2317-22. 2000
    ..Adult glucagon alpha and insulin beta cells are shown to derive from cells that have never transcribed insulin or glucagon, ..
  97. doi Chronic administration of voglibose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, increases active glucagon-like peptide-1 levels by increasing its secretion and decreasing dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity in ob/ob mice
    Yusuke Moritoh
    Pharmacology Research Laboratories I, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Yodogawa ku, Osaka, Japan
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 329:669-76. 2009
    Administration of an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, voglibose, increases the secretion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, a key modulator of pancreatic islet hormone secretion and glucose homeostasis...
  98. ncbi Short-term administration of glucagon-like peptide-2. Effects on bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in short-bowel patients with no colon
    K V Haderslev
    Dept of Gastroenterology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark
    Scand J Gastroenterol 37:392-8. 2002
    b>Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a newly discovered intestinotrophic hormone. We have recently reported that a 5-week GLP-2 treatment improved the intestinal absorptive capacity of short-bowel patients with no colon...
  99. doi Alpha cell-specific Men1 ablation triggers the transdifferentiation of glucagon-expressing cells and insulinoma development
    JieLi Lu
    Laboratoire Génétique Moléculaire, Signalisation et Cancer, Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, UMR5201, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, Centre Leon Berard, Lyon, France
    Gastroenterology 138:1954-65. 2010
    ..The purpose of the current study was to address this issue in relation to islet tumor histogenesis...
  100. ncbi Exendin-4 stimulates both beta-cell replication and neogenesis, resulting in increased beta-cell mass and improved glucose tolerance in diabetic rats
    G Xu
    Elliott P Joslin Research Laboratories, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Diabetes 48:2270-6. 1999
    ..Earlier, we reported that the intestinal hormone glucagon-like peptide I (GLP-I) effectively augments glucose-stimulated insulin secretion...
  101. pmc Opposite effects of glucagon and insulin on compensation for spectacle lenses in chicks
    Xiaoying Zhu
    Department of Biology, City College, CUNY, New York, New York 10031, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:24-36. 2009
    Chick eyes compensate for the defocus imposed by positive or negative spectacle lenses. Glucagon may signal the sign of defocus...

Research Grants134 found, 100 shown here

  1. PANCREAS AND ISLET TRANSPLANTATION IN HUMANS
    R Robertson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..to beta cells; and developing a better understanding of the failure of the intrahepatic alpha cell to secrete glucagon during hypoglycemia. The Specific Aims for this proposal are: Specific Aim # 1...
  2. Discovery metabolite profiling of the prolyl peptidases
    Alan Saghatelian; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Furthermore, the application of DMP to peptidases will demonstrate the generality of this approach for the future characterization of medically relevant enzymes and signaling pathways. ..
  3. Pathobiology of Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes in a Ferret Model
    Zoe Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..effectiveness of pancreatic CFTR gene replacement in the CFTR-/- ferrets by evaluating serum glucose, insulin, glucagon, endocrine pancreatic function, and pancreatic duct cell physiology...
  4. Surgical amelioration of type 2 diabetes: Hormones, microbiota and mitochondria
    PETER J contact HAVEL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..nutrients with the mucosa of the distal small intestine resulting in increased secretion of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide-YY (PYY)...
  5. Surgical amelioration of type 2 diabetes: Hormones, microbiota and mitochondria
    Peter Havel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..nutrients with the mucosa of the distal small intestine resulting in increased secretion of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide-YY (PYY)...
  6. Beta-cell Proliferation
    Fredric E Wondisford; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates murine pancreatic [unreadable]-cell proliferation...
  7. Potential Mechanisms of Glucagon-like peptide-1 in Fatty Liver Disease
    Frank A Anania; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..At present there is limited therapy for fatty liver disease. Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) is a naturally occurring gut peptide secreted by the L cells of the small intestine...
  8. Regulation of Bile Acid Synthesis by Nuclear Receptors
    John Y L Chiang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Aim 2 will study the crosstalk of bile acid, cytokine, insulin, glucagon and PMA signaling pathways in regulating CYP7A1/CYP8B1 gene transcription...
  9. Beta-cell Proliferation
    Fredric E Wondisford; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates murine pancreatic [unreadable]-cell proliferation...
  10. Link of beta cell proliferation and type 2 diabetes to epigenetic regulation
    Xianxin Hua; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our recent findings suggest that menin interplays with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) signaling pathway, which promotes beta cell regeneration, to regulate gene transcription...
  11. Link of beta cell proliferation and type 2 diabetes to epigenetic regulation
    Xianxin Hua; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our recent findings suggest that menin interplays with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) signaling pathway, which promotes beta cell regeneration, to regulate gene transcription...
  12. Role of inflammation and cellular stress in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes
    Liangyou Rui; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Blood glucose levels are determined by a balance between insulin and counterregulatory hormones (e.g. glucagon and catecholamines);however, potential effects of inflammation on glucagon and catecholamine sensitivity have not ..
  13. A PROOF-OF-CONCEPT CLINICAL TRIAL OF XENIN-25 IN THE TREATMENT OF TYPE 2 DIABETES
    KENNETH POLONSKY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Modulating the action or plasma concentrations of Glucagon- Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1), an intestinal peptide produced by intestinal L cells, is the basis for the action of two ..
  14. A PROOF-OF-CONCEPT CLINICAL TRIAL OF XENIN-25 IN THE TREATMENT OF TYPE 2 DIABETES
    Burton M Wice; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Modulating the action or plasma concentrations of Glucagon- Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1), an intestinal peptide produced by intestinal L cells, is the basis for the action of two ..
  15. Neuroendocrinology of Energy Balance Control
    Matthew R Hayes; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The proposed research focuses on the neuropeptide glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its role in controlling for food intake and body weight through action in the central nervous system (CNS)...
  16. Ligand Interaction of Glucagon Receptor by Structural and Functional Analyses
    FAI YIU SIU; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The goal of this proposal is to reveal important details regarding the activation mechanisms of the glucagon receptor by determining the structure of the full-length class-B human glucagon receptor bound to its ligand ..
  17. Link of beta cell proliferation and type 2 diabetes to epigenetic regulation.
    Xianxin Hua; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our recent findings suggest that menin interplays with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) signaling pathway, which promotes beta cell regeneration, to regulate gene transcription...
  18. Gluconeogenesis and Glycogenolysis - Role and Regulation
    Alan D Cherrington; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will be used when required to disable the endocrine pancreas, along with intraportal infusion of insulin and glucagon at the rates required by the experimental design...
  19. Mechanisms of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in fatty liver disease
    Frank A Anania; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have found that the naturally occurring hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has the capacity to significantly reduce hepatocyte steatosis in human cells...
  20. Regulation of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by the CREB:TORC2 Pathway
    Marc R Montminy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    During fasting, elevations in circulating pancreatic glucagon promote hepatic glucose output through induction of the gluconeogenic program by the CREB coactivator TORC2...
  21. Transcriptional Regulation of Metabolic and Hepatic Homeostasis by FoxO Signaling
    Shaodong Guo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Elevated blood glucagon levels and defective insulin action in patients with type 2 diabetes are responsible for hyperglycemia, but the ..
  22. Cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 in obesity/metabolic syndrome
    Johnathan D Tune; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on the heart have been recently recognized, but little is known regarding the cardiovascular physiology of this incretin hormone...
  23. Cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 in obesity/metabolic syndrome
    Johnathan D Tune; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on the heart have been recently recognized, but little is known regarding the cardiovascular physiology of this incretin hormone...
  24. Intestinal Triacylglycerol Metabolism and Energy Balance
    Chi Liang Eric Yen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, their postprandial levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are lower, whereas glucagon-like peptide1 (GLP1) levels are higher than in controls. Both gut hormones can affect energy balance...
  25. Control of cAMP Mediated Glucagon Response by Bile Acids
    Norman H Lee; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..and 80% of cirrhotic patients display glucose intolerance associated with a decreased gluconeogenic response to glucagon. This decreased glucagon-induced hepatocellular glucose production is due to a significant hepatic resistance to ..
  26. Motivational Changes for Nutritionally Relevant Tastes after Gastric Bypass
    Alan C Spector; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..After RYGB, circulating levels of key anorexogenic gastrointestinal hormones such as peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 increase...
  27. Role of the Acetyl-CoA Carboxylases in Energy Metabolism
    SALIH JAWAD WAKIL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Insulin and glucagon are hormones that coordinate these processes...
  28. The role of phosphorylation in regulating the antidiabetic effects of O3FAR-1
    Nader H Moniri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..has generated considerable interest due to its ability to stimulate intestinal secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1), which stimulates pancreatic b-cells leading to insulin secretion and subsequently, ..
  29. A Drosophila Model for Genetic Studies of Metabolism
    Carl S Thummel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..levels, such as the adipose triglyceride lipase gene or the adipokinetic hormone receptor gene (which acts like glucagon to drive lipolysis)...
  30. A Drosophila Model for Genetic Studies of Metabolism
    CARL THUMMEL; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..levels, such as the adipose triglyceride lipase gene or the adipokinetic hormone receptor gene (which acts like glucagon to drive lipolysis)...
  31. Physiology and regulation of T2R bitter taste receptors in enteroendocrine cells
    Timothy F Osborne; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of intestinal T2R signaling leads to an increase in secretion of polypeptide hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) from enteroendocrine cells and two major actions of CCK are to limit food intake and slow ..
  32. Genome maintenance functions of CREB/ATF transcription factors
    RANDAL SCOT TIBBETTS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It has long been known that CREB plays an important role in the metabolic regulation-where glucagon stimulates CREB-dependent transcriptional programs that promote gluconeogenesis-and the brain, where CREB ..
  33. Intestinal satiation in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass rats: brain mechanisms and sex d
    Thomas Alexander Lutz; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..e., into the jejunum, thus leading to increased release of the gut hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)...
  34. Intestinal satiation in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass rats: brain mechanisms and sex d
    Thomas Alexander Lutz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e., into the jejunum, thus leading to increased release of the gut hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)...
  35. Changes in neural response to eating after bariatric surgery: MRI results
    THOMAS A contact WADDEN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Furthermore, postprandial increases in the satiety factors, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY3-36), are significantly increased after RYGB, compared with LAGB...
  36. Changes in neural response to eating after bariatric surgery: MRI results
    Thomas A Wadden; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, postprandial increases in the satiety factors, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY3-36), are significantly increased after RYGB, compared with LAGB...
  37. Mechanism for Reduced Adrenomedullary Epinephrine Release in Type 1 Diabetes
    BRANLY OSVALDO ORBAN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Release of glucagon, a principal hormone underlying the normal counter-regulatory response (CRR) to acute hypoglycemia is largely absent in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)...
  38. HORMONAL REGULATION OF ENERGY METABOLISM
    Tarun Patel; Fiscal Year: 1990
    The mechanisms by which hormones such as glucagon regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis are fairly well established...
  39. HORMONAL REGULATION OF ENERGY METABOLISM
    Tarun Patel; Fiscal Year: 1993
    The mechanisms by which hormones such as glucagon regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis are fairly well established...
  40. Effect of exendin-(9-39) on glucose metabolism in subjects with hyperinsulinism
    DIVA DE LEON; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..in (-cells, recent studies suggest that the KATP channels may play a role in glucose sensing and secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) by intestinal L-cells...
  41. NEURAL SUBSTRATES OF PEPTIDE INDUCED SATIETY
    Robert C Ritter; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..is to define the neural mechanisms through which gastrointestinal hormones, especially cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-related peptide (CCK), control food intake and to appreciate how these substrates are involved in the physiology ..
  42. NEURAL SUBSTRATES OF PEPTIDE INDUCED SATIETY
    Robert Ritter; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..is to define the neural mechanisms through which gastrointestinal hormones, especially cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-related peptide (CCK), control food intake and to appreciate how these substrates are involved in the physiology ..
  43. CATECHOLAMINE REGULATION OF KETOGENESIS IN DIABETES
    David Schade; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Phase I will examine the contribution of catecholamine-induced glucagon secretion to norepinephrine's overall ketogenic activity...
  44. Liver Glycogen in Control of Plasma Glucose
    Katarina Borer; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..and after exercise is responsible for EAAF and is mediated by increased secretion of insulinotropic gut peptides glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), that increase insulin/glucagon ratio ..
  45. HORMONAL REGULATION OF ENERGY METABOLISM
    Tarun Patel; Fiscal Year: 1990
    Regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis by hormones such as glucagon, insulin, epinephrine, vasopressin and angiotensin is well established...
  46. 8th International Symposium for VIP, PACAP & Related Peptides
    Victor May; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..amino acid homology with the other related peptides, including growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), secretin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), GLP-2, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) is more distant but ..
  47. DUAL PACKAGING AND POLARIZED RELEASE OF GI PEPTIDES
    GREGORY APONTE; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and oxyntomodulin-(enteroglucagon)-like peptides (GLP) from the GI mucosa, and glucagon and glucagon like peptide-1 6- 37(NH2) from the pancreatic islets will be examined as model systems...
  48. PANCREAS AND ISLET TRANSPLANTATION IN HUMANS
    R Robertson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..to beta cells; and developing a better understanding of the failure of the intrahepatic alpha cell to secrete glucagon during hypoglycemia. The Specific Aims for this proposal are: Specific Aim # 1...
  49. PANCREAS AND ISLET TRANSPLANTATION IN HUMANS
    R Robertson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..to beta cells; and developing a better understanding of the failure of the intrahepatic alpha cell to secrete glucagon during hypoglycemia. The Specific Aims for this proposal are: Specific Aim # 1...
  50. PANCREAS AND ISLET TRANSPLANTATION IN HUMANS
    R Robertson; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..to beta cells; and developing a better understanding of the failure of the intrahepatic alpha cell to secrete glucagon during hypoglycemia. The Specific Aims for this proposal are: Specific Aim # 1...
  51. ORAL PROTEIN EFFECTS ON LIVER GLYCOGEN METABOLISM
    Mary Gannon; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Protein ingestion results in an increase in insulin and glucagon concentrations, two hormones having opposing effects on liver metabolism, but little effect on glucose ..
  52. Role of GLP-1 in Congenital Hyperinsulinism
    DIVA DEL CARMEN DE LEON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Project Summary/Abstract Description This is a translational research study of the role of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), the most frequent cause of persistent hypoglycemia in children...
  53. Role of GLP-1 in Congenital Hyperinsulinism
    DIVA DE LEON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Project Summary/Abstract Description This is a translational research study of the role of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), the most frequent cause of persistent hypoglycemia in children...
  54. MOLECULAR ANALYSES OF NEUROENDOCRINE PEPTIDE RECEPTORS
    Sunil Sreedharan; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Neuropeptides such as secretin, glucagon, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are structurally related peptides which regulate digestive processes ..
  55. IN VIVO REGULATION OF PROTEIN TURNOVER BY HORMONES
    K Nair; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..urinary nitrogen excretion, and even though hypoaminoacidemia is characteristic of patients with glucagonoma, glucagon's effect on protein synthesis and degradation remains incompletely defined...
  56. Control of cAMP-mediated glucagon response by bile acids
    Bernard Bouscarel; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..80 percent of cirrhotic patients display glucose intolerance associated with decreased gluconeogenic response to glucagon. Regulation of helpatocellular metabolism by glucagon is in part through increased cAMP synthesis...
  57. Control of cAMP-mediated glucagon response by bile acids
    Bernard Bouscarel; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..80 percent of cirrhotic patients display glucose intolerance associated with decreased gluconeogenic response to glucagon. Regulation of helpatocellular metabolism by glucagon is in part through increased cAMP synthesis...
  58. Control of cAMP-mediated glucagon response by bile acids
    Bernard Bouscarel; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..80 percent of cirrhotic patients display glucose intolerance associated with decreased gluconeogenic response to glucagon. Regulation of helpatocellular metabolism by glucagon is in part through increased cAMP synthesis...
  59. Control of cAMP-mediated glucagon response by bile acids
    Bernard Bouscarel; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..80 percent of cirrhotic patients display glucose intolerance associated with decreased gluconeogenic response to glucagon. Regulation of helpatocellular metabolism by glucagon is in part through increased cAMP synthesis...
  60. Control of cAMP-mediated glucagon response by bile acids
    Bernard Bouscarel; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..80 percent of cirrhotic patients display glucose intolerance associated with decreased gluconeogenic response to glucagon. Regulation of helpatocellular metabolism by glucagon is in part through increased cAMP synthesis...
  61. Control of cAMP Mediated Glucagon Response by Bile Acids
    Bernard Bouscarel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..and 80% of cirrhotic patients display glucose intolerance associated with a decreased gluconeogenic response to glucagon. This decreased glucagon-induced hepatocellular glucose production is due to a significant hepatic resistance to ..
  62. Potential Mechanisms of Glucagon-like peptide-1 in Fatty Liver Disease
    Frank Anania; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..At present there is limited therapy for fatty liver disease. Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) is a naturally occurring gut peptide secreted by the L cells of the small intestine...
  63. Potential Mechanisms of Glucagon-like peptide-1 in Fatty Liver Disease
    Frank Anania; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..At present there is limited therapy for fatty liver disease. Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) is a naturally occurring gut peptide secreted by the L cells of the small intestine...
  64. SPLANCHNIC HEMODYNAMICS IN PORTAL HYPERTENSION
    JAMES SITZMANN; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..Evidence now supports the idea that prostacyclin (PGI2) or glucagon (potent splanchnic vasodilators) may be involved in the increase flow phenomenon...
  65. REGULATION OF HEPATIC GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN INFECTION
    Owen McGuinness; Fiscal Year: 1992
    Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism are under tight hormonal control by insulin, glucagon and the autonomic nervous system...