glucagon

Summary

Summary: A pancreatic peptide hormone of about 29 amino acids secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS. It has an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)

Top Publications

  1. pmc Biguanides suppress hepatic glucagon signalling by decreasing production of cyclic AMP
    Russell A Miller
    Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Nature 494:256-60. 2013
  2. pmc Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide: a bifunctional glucose-dependent regulator of glucagon and insulin secretion in humans
    Mikkel Christensen
    Diabetes Research Division, Department of Internal Medicine F, Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Diabetes 60:3103-9. 2011
  3. pmc neurogenin3 is required for the development of the four endocrine cell lineages of the pancreas
    G Gradwohl
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Université Louis Pasteur, F 67404 Illkirch, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:1607-11. 2000
  4. pmc Conversion of adult pancreatic alpha-cells to beta-cells after extreme beta-cell loss
    Fabrizio Thorel
    Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University of Geneva Faculty of Medicine, 1 rue Michel Servet, CH 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Nature 464:1149-54. 2010
  5. ncbi Free fatty acids regulate gut incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion through GPR120
    Akira Hirasawa
    Department of Molecular, Cell Pharmacology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 3 35 31, Taishi do, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo 154 8567, Japan
    Nat Med 11:90-4. 2005
  6. ncbi A role for glucagon-like peptide-1 in the central regulation of feeding
    M D Turton
    Department of Medicine, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    Nature 379:69-72. 1996
  7. pmc Glucagonocentric restructuring of diabetes: a pathophysiologic and therapeutic makeover
    Roger H Unger
    Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 8854, USA
    J Clin Invest 122:4-12. 2012
  8. ncbi Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 in patients with acute myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction after successful reperfusion
    Lazaros A Nikolaidis
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA
    Circulation 109:962-5. 2004
  9. ncbi Adult insulin- and glucagon-producing cells differentiate from two independent cell lineages
    P L Herrera
    Department of Morphology, University of Geneva Medical School, rue Michel Servet, Switzerland
    Development 127:2317-22. 2000
  10. ncbi Reduced postprandial concentrations of intact biologically active glucagon-like peptide 1 in type 2 diabetic patients
    T Vilsbøll
    Department of Internal Medicine F, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    Diabetes 50:609-13. 2001

Detail Information

Publications325 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Biguanides suppress hepatic glucagon signalling by decreasing production of cyclic AMP
    Russell A Miller
    Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    Nature 494:256-60. 2013
    ..Here we provide a novel mechanism by which metformin antagonizes the action of glucagon, thus reducing fasting glucose levels...
  2. pmc Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide: a bifunctional glucose-dependent regulator of glucagon and insulin secretion in humans
    Mikkel Christensen
    Diabetes Research Division, Department of Internal Medicine F, Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Diabetes 60:3103-9. 2011
    To evaluate the glucose dependency of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) effects on insulin and glucagon release in 10 healthy male subjects ([means ± SEM] aged 23 ± 1 years, BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m(2), and HbA(1c) 5.5 ± 0.1%).
  3. pmc neurogenin3 is required for the development of the four endocrine cell lineages of the pancreas
    G Gradwohl
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Université Louis Pasteur, F 67404 Illkirch, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:1607-11. 2000
    ..We show herein that ngn3-positive cells coexpress neither insulin nor glucagon, suggesting that ngn3 marks early precursors of pancreatic endocrine cells...
  4. pmc Conversion of adult pancreatic alpha-cells to beta-cells after extreme beta-cell loss
    Fabrizio Thorel
    Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University of Geneva Faculty of Medicine, 1 rue Michel Servet, CH 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Nature 464:1149-54. 2010
    ..Lineage-tracing to label the glucagon-producing alpha-cells before beta-cell ablation tracked large fractions of regenerated beta-cells as deriving ..
  5. ncbi Free fatty acids regulate gut incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion through GPR120
    Akira Hirasawa
    Department of Molecular, Cell Pharmacology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, 3 35 31, Taishi do, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo 154 8567, Japan
    Nat Med 11:90-4. 2005
    ..Gut polypeptides secreted in response to food intake, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are potent incretin hormones that enhance the glucose-dependent secretion of insulin from ..
  6. ncbi A role for glucagon-like peptide-1 in the central regulation of feeding
    M D Turton
    Department of Medicine, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    Nature 379:69-72. 1996
    The sequence of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (GLP-1) is completely conserved in all mammalian species studied, implying that it plays a critical physiological role...
  7. pmc Glucagonocentric restructuring of diabetes: a pathophysiologic and therapeutic makeover
    Roger H Unger
    Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 8854, USA
    J Clin Invest 122:4-12. 2012
    The hormone glucagon has long been dismissed as a minor contributor to metabolic disease. Here we propose that glucagon excess, rather than insulin deficiency, is the sine qua non of diabetes...
  8. ncbi Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 in patients with acute myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction after successful reperfusion
    Lazaros A Nikolaidis
    Cardiovascular Research Institute, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA
    Circulation 109:962-5. 2004
    ..b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a naturally occurring incretin with both insulinotropic and insulinomimetic properties ..
  9. ncbi Adult insulin- and glucagon-producing cells differentiate from two independent cell lineages
    P L Herrera
    Department of Morphology, University of Geneva Medical School, rue Michel Servet, Switzerland
    Development 127:2317-22. 2000
    ..Adult glucagon alpha and insulin beta cells are shown to derive from cells that have never transcribed insulin or glucagon, ..
  10. ncbi Reduced postprandial concentrations of intact biologically active glucagon-like peptide 1 in type 2 diabetic patients
    T Vilsbøll
    Department of Internal Medicine F, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    Diabetes 50:609-13. 2001
    ..Using newly developed assays for intact glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), we measured plasma concentrations ..
  11. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is involved in learning and neuroprotection
    Matthew J During
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 86716, New Zealand
    Nat Med 9:1173-9. 2003
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut peptide that, together with its receptor, GLP-1R, is expressed in the brain. Here we show that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v...
  12. pmc Mechanisms of action of glucagon-like peptide 1 in the pancreas
    Maire E Doyle
    Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
    Pharmacol Ther 113:546-93. 2007
    b>Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone that is encoded in the proglucagon gene...
  13. ncbi Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients with stable coronary artery disease
    Thomas Nystrom
    Dept of Internal Medicine, Stockholm South Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm SE 118 83, Sweden
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 287:E1209-15. 2004
    GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion, suppresses glucagon secretion, delays gastric emptying, and inhibits small bowel motility, all actions contributing to the anti-diabetogenic peptide effect...
  14. ncbi A meta-analysis of the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide on ad libitum energy intake in humans
    C Verdich
    Research Department of Human Nutrition, Centre for Food, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:4382-9. 2001
    Seven studies have now been published pertaining to the acute effect of iv administration of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide on ad libitum energy intake...
  15. ncbi The Pax4 gene is essential for differentiation of insulin-producing beta cells in the mammalian pancreas
    B Sosa-Pineda
    Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Gottingen, Germany
    Nature 386:399-402. 1997
    ..The four endocrine cell types found in the adult pancreas-(alpha, beta, delta and PP-synthesize glucagon, insulin, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide, respectively...
  16. pmc Glucagon receptor knockout prevents insulin-deficient type 1 diabetes in mice
    Young Lee
    Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA
    Diabetes 60:391-7. 2011
    To determine the role of glucagon action in the metabolic phenotype of untreated insulin deficiency.
  17. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1 and exendin-4 stimulate beta-cell neogenesis in streptozotocin-treated newborn rats resulting in persistently improved glucose homeostasis at adult age
    C Tourrel
    Laboratory of Physiopathology of Nutrition, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique ESA 7059, Université Paris7 Denis Diderot, 2 place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05, France
    Diabetes 50:1562-70. 2001
    ..model), a recognized model of beta-cell regeneration, we investigated the capacity of early treatment with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) or exendin-4 to promote beta-cell regeneration and thereby improve islet function in the ..
  18. pmc Minireview: Glucagon in the pathogenesis of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia in diabetes
    Philip E Cryer
    Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Lipid Research, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Endocrinology 153:1039-48. 2012
    Pancreatic islet α-cell glucagon secretion is critically dependent on pancreatic islet β-cell insulin secretion...
  19. ncbi Acute and long-term effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on glucose metabolism in subjects with Type 2 diabetes and normal glucose tolerance
    N B Jørgensen
    Department of Endocrinology, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 303:E122-31. 2012
    ..Glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent-insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon concentrations were ..
  20. pmc Beta-cell uncoupling protein 2 regulates reactive oxygen species production, which influences both insulin and glucagon secretion
    Christine A Robson-Doucette
    Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Diabetes 60:2710-9. 2011
    ..To investigate the function of UCP2 in the β-cell, β-cell-specific UCP2 knockout mice (UCP2BKO) were generated and characterized...
  21. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide 1 can directly protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury
    Amal K Bose
    The Hatter Institute for Cardiovascular Studies, University College London Hospital and Medical School, Grafton Way, London WC1E, UK
    Diabetes 54:146-51. 2005
    b>Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a gut incretin hormone that stimulates insulin secretion, also activates antiapoptotic signaling pathways such as phosphoinositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase in pancreatic and insulinoma ..
  22. ncbi Exendin-4 stimulates both beta-cell replication and neogenesis, resulting in increased beta-cell mass and improved glucose tolerance in diabetic rats
    G Xu
    Elliott P Joslin Research Laboratories, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA
    Diabetes 48:2270-6. 1999
    ..Earlier, we reported that the intestinal hormone glucagon-like peptide I (GLP-I) effectively augments glucose-stimulated insulin secretion...
  23. ncbi The glucagon-like peptides
    T J Kieffer
    Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada
    Endocr Rev 20:876-913. 1999
  24. pmc Structure of the human glucagon class B G-protein-coupled receptor
    FAI YIU SIU
    Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Nature 499:444-9. 2013
    Binding of the glucagon peptide to the glucagon receptor (GCGR) triggers the release of glucose from the liver during fasting; thus GCGR plays an important role in glucose homeostasis...
  25. ncbi A local glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) system in human pancreatic islets
    P Marchetti
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Pisa, Via Paradisa 2, Pisa, Italy
    Diabetologia 55:3262-72. 2012
    b>Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a major incretin, mainly produced by the intestinal L cells, with beneficial actions on pancreatic beta cells...
  26. pmc The role of endogenous incretin secretion as amplifier of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes
    Hans Juergen Woerle
    Department of Internal Medicine II, Clinical Research Unit, Clinical Center of the Ludwig Maximilians University, Campus Grosshadern, Munich, Germany
    Diabetes 61:2349-58. 2012
    ..the hyperglycemic clamp technique together with duodenal nutrition perfusion and intravenous infusion of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor antagonist exendin(9-39)...
  27. ncbi Hypoglycaemia: the limiting factor in the glycaemic management of Type I and Type II diabetes
    P E Cryer
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Diabetologia 45:937-48. 2002
    ..Insulin concentrations do not decrease and glucagon and epinephrine concentrations do not increase normally as glucose concentrations decrease...
  28. pmc Gastric bypass surgery enhances glucagon-like peptide 1-stimulated postprandial insulin secretion in humans
    Marzieh Salehi
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
    Diabetes 60:2308-14. 2011
    ..Plasma levels of the incretin glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are dramatically increased after GB, suggesting that its action contributes to alteration ..
  29. ncbi Vildagliptin enhances islet responsiveness to both hyper- and hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Bo Ahren
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:1236-43. 2009
    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors act by increasing plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 and suppressing excessive glucagon secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes...
  30. ncbi Recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 increases myocardial glucose uptake and improves left ventricular performance in conscious dogs with pacing-induced dilated cardiomyopathy
    Lazaros A Nikolaidis
    Department of Medicine, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA
    Circulation 110:955-61. 2004
    ..b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a naturally occurring incretin with potent insulinotropic effects the action of which ..
  31. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide 1 inhibits cell apoptosis and improves glucose responsiveness of freshly isolated human islets
    Loredana Farilla
    Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes and Metabolism, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8723 Alden Drive, SSB 290, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA
    Endocrinology 144:5149-58. 2003
    The peptide hormone, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), has been shown to increase glucose-dependent insulin secretion, enhance insulin gene transcription, expand islet cell mass, and inhibit beta-cell apoptosis in animal models of diabetes...
  32. pmc Effect of weight loss by gastric bypass surgery versus hypocaloric diet on glucose and incretin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes
    BLANDINE LAFERRERE
    St Lukes Roosevelt Hospital, Obesity Research Center, 1111 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10025, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:2479-85. 2008
    ..Gastric bypass surgery (GBP) results in rapid weight loss, improvement of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and increase in incretins levels. Diet-induced weight loss also improves T2DM and may increase incretin levels...
  33. ncbi Glucagon and regulation of glucose metabolism
    Guoqiang Jiang
    Department of Metabolic Disorders and Molecular Endocrinology, Merck Research Laboratory, Rahway, New Jersey 07065, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 284:E671-8. 2003
    As a counterregulatory hormone for insulin, glucagon plays a critical role in maintaining glucose homeostasis in vivo in both animals and humans...
  34. ncbi Mechanism of action of exenatide to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes
    Antonio Cervera
    Division of Diabetes, Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 294:E846-52. 2008
    We examined the contributions of insulin secretion, glucagon suppression, splanchnic and peripheral glucose metabolism, and delayed gastric emptying to the attenuation of postprandial hyperglycemia during intravenous exenatide ..
  35. pmc The role of gut hormones in glucose homeostasis
    Daniel J Drucker
    Banting and Best Diabetes Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Clin Invest 117:24-32. 2007
    ..This article reviews the biological actions of gut hormones regulating glucose homeostasis, with an emphasis on mechanisms of action and the emerging therapeutic roles of gut hormones for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  36. ncbi Effects of exenatide versus sitagliptin on postprandial glucose, insulin and glucagon secretion, gastric emptying, and caloric intake: a randomized, cross-over study
    Ralph A DeFronzo
    University of Texas Health Science Center, Department of Medicine, Diabetes Division MSC 7886, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229 3900, USA
    Curr Med Res Opin 24:2943-52. 2008
    This study evaluated the effects of exenatide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, and sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, on 2-h postprandial glucose (PPG), insulin and glucagon secretion, gastric emptying, and caloric intake in T2D patients.
  37. pmc Predominant role of active versus facilitative glucose transport for glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion
    H E Parker
    Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Wellcome Trust MRC Building, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Box 139, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK
    Diabetologia 55:2445-55. 2012
    Several glucose-sensing pathways have been implicated in glucose-triggered secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from intestinal L cells...
  38. ncbi AMP-activated protein kinase regulates glucagon secretion from mouse pancreatic alpha cells
    I Leclerc
    Imperial College, London, UK
    Diabetologia 54:125-34. 2011
    ..We sought here to investigate the role of AMPK in controlling glucagon secretion from pancreatic islet alpha cells.
  39. ncbi GLP-1 inhibits and adrenaline stimulates glucagon release by differential modulation of N- and L-type Ca2+ channel-dependent exocytosis
    Yang Z De Marinis
    Lund University Diabetes Centre, Department of Clinical Sciences, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, SE20502 Malmö, Sweden
    Cell Metab 11:543-53. 2010
    b>Glucagon secretion is inhibited by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and stimulated by adrenaline. These opposing effects on glucagon secretion are mimicked by low (1-10 nM) and high (10 muM) concentrations of forskolin, respectively...
  40. ncbi Atypical antipsychotic drugs induce derangements in glucose homeostasis by acutely increasing glucagon secretion and hepatic glucose output in the rat
    G C Smith
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Pathology and Maurice Wilkins Centre for Molecular Biodiscovery, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand
    Diabetologia 51:2309-17. 2008
    ..We hypothesised that, in addition to the insulin resistance associated with the obesity, the SGAs might have acute effects on glucose metabolism that could contribute to the derangements in glucose metabolism...
  41. ncbi The role of dysregulated glucagon secretion in type 2 diabetes
    D D'ALESSIO
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Cincinnati and Cincinnati VA Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45267 0547, USA
    Diabetes Obes Metab 13:126-32. 2011
    ..However, a case can be made that glucagon also plays a role in dysregulated hepatic glucose production and abnormal glucose homeostasis...
  42. ncbi Incretin secretion in relation to meal size and body weight in healthy subjects and people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus
    T Vilsbøll
    Department of Internal Medicine F, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:2706-13. 2003
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are incretin hormones secreted in response to meal ingestion, thereby enhancing postprandial insulin secretion...
  43. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1 relaxes rat conduit arteries via an endothelium-independent mechanism
    Thomas Nystrom
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Internal Medicine, Stockholm South Hospital SE 118 83 Stockholm, Sweden
    Regul Pept 125:173-7. 2005
    A lot of interest has engendered in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) as an emerging new drug in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 exerts several effects that reduce glycemia in type 2 diabetes patients...
  44. pmc Regulation of calcium in pancreatic α- and β-cells in health and disease
    Patrik Rorsman
    Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Cell Calcium 51:300-8. 2012
    The glucoregulatory hormones insulin and glucagon are released from the β- and α-cells of the pancreatic islets...
  45. pmc Rapid tachyphylaxis of the glucagon-like peptide 1-induced deceleration of gastric emptying in humans
    Michael A Nauck
    Diabeteszentrum Bad Lauterberg, Bad Lauterberg, Germany
    Diabetes 60:1561-5. 2011
    b>Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 lowers postprandial glycemia primarily through inhibition of gastric emptying...
  46. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor signaling modulates beta cell apoptosis
    Yazhou Li
    Department of Medicine, Banting and Best Diabetes Centre, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada
    J Biol Chem 278:471-8. 2003
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates insulin secretion and augments beta cell mass via activation of beta cell proliferation and islet neogenesis...
  47. ncbi The role of alpha-cell dysregulation in fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes and therapeutic implications
    Beth Elaine Dunning
    PharmaWrite, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA
    Endocr Rev 28:253-83. 2007
    ..The hyperglycemic substance was named "glucagon," and it was subsequently determined that glucagon is a 29-amino acid peptide synthesized and released from ..
  48. ncbi Generation of insulin-producing islet-like clusters from human embryonic stem cells
    Jianjie Jiang
    Cell Therapy Research, Geron Corporation, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
    Stem Cells 25:1940-53. 2007
    ..The hESC-derived ILCs contained 2%-8% human C-peptide-positive cells, as well as glucagon- and somatostatin-positive cells...
  49. pmc Lower blood glucose, hyperglucagonemia, and pancreatic alpha cell hyperplasia in glucagon receptor knockout mice
    R W Gelling
    Department of Diabetes Biology, Pharmacological Research 2, Novo Nordisk AS, DK 2880 Bagsvaerd, Denmark
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:1438-43. 2003
    b>Glucagon, the counter-regulatory hormone to insulin, is secreted from pancreatic alpha cells in response to low blood glucose...
  50. ncbi Mice lacking the homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2.2 have diabetes due to arrested differentiation of pancreatic beta cells
    L Sussel
    Nina Ireland Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Development 125:2213-21. 1998
    ..Immunohistochemical analysis reveals that the mutant embryos lack insulin-producing beta cells and have fewer glucagon-producing alpha cells and PP cells...
  51. ncbi Glucagon-like peptides: regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis
    Daniel J Drucker
    Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Banting and Best Diabetes Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada M5G 2C4
    Mol Endocrinol 17:161-71. 2003
    ..The glucagon-like peptides, GLP-1 and GLP-2 are prototype peptide hormones released from gut endocrine cells in response to ..
  52. pmc Glucagon-like peptide I stimulates insulin gene expression and increases cyclic AMP levels in a rat islet cell line
    D J Drucker
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84:3434-8. 1987
    ..major stimulus of insulin secretion in mammals, insulin release is also modulated by amino acids, catecholamines, glucagon, and other, intestinal hormones...
  53. pmc Exaggerated glucagon-like peptide-1 and blunted glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide secretion are associated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass but not adjustable gastric banding
    Judith Korner
    Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Surg Obes Relat Dis 3:597-601. 2007
    The aim of this study was to measure the circulating levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), and glucagon in patients who had undergone adjustable gastric banding (BND) or Roux-en-Y ..
  54. ncbi Glucose inhibition of glucagon secretion from rat alpha-cells is mediated by GABA released from neighboring beta-cells
    Anna Wendt
    Department of Physiological Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
    Diabetes 53:1038-45. 2004
    ..Confocal immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of GABA(A) receptors in glucagon-secreting alpha-cells but not in beta- and delta-cells...
  55. ncbi ATP-sensitive K+ channel-dependent regulation of glucagon release and electrical activity by glucose in wild-type and SUR1-/- mouse alpha-cells
    Jesper Gromada
    Lilly Research Laboratories, Essener Strasse 93, D 22419 Hamburg, Germany
    Diabetes 53:S181-9. 2004
    Patch-clamp recordings and glucagon release measurements were combined to determine the role of plasma membrane ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP channels) in the control of glucagon secretion from mouse pancreatic alpha-cells...
  56. ncbi Fatty acids decrease IDX-1 expression in rat pancreatic islets and reduce GLUT2, glucokinase, insulin, and somatostatin levels
    S Gremlich
    Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Lausanne, 27, Rue du Bugnon, CH 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 272:30261-9. 1997
    ..Insulin and somatostatin mRNA expression was also decreased by 40 and 60%, whereas glucagon mRNA expression was not modified...
  57. ncbi Oxyntomodulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 differentially regulate murine food intake and energy expenditure
    Laurie L Baggio
    Department of Medicine, Banting and Best Diabetes Centre, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Gastroenterology 127:546-58. 2004
    Gut-derived peptides including ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), and GLP-2 exert overlapping actions on energy homeostasis through defined G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)...
  58. ncbi Oligofructose promotes satiety in rats fed a high-fat diet: involvement of glucagon-like Peptide-1
    Patrice D Cani
    Université Catholique de Louvain Unité de Pharmacocinétique, Metabolisme, Nutrition et Toxicologie 7369, 73 Avenue Mounier, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    Obes Res 13:1000-7. 2005
    ..To analyze the putative interest of oligofructose (OFS) in the modulation of food intake after high-fat diet in rats and to question the relevance of the expression and secretion of intestinal peptides in that context...
  59. ncbi Both GLP-1 and GIP are insulinotropic at basal and postprandial glucose levels and contribute nearly equally to the incretin effect of a meal in healthy subjects
    Tina Vilsbøll
    Department of Internal Medicine F, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Regul Pept 114:115-21. 2003
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are both incretin hormones regulating postprandial insulin secretion...
  60. ncbi The effects of TAK-875, a selective G protein-coupled receptor 40/free fatty acid 1 agonist, on insulin and glucagon secretion in isolated rat and human islets
    Hiroaki Yashiro
    Metabolic Disease Drug Discovery Unit, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, 17 85 Jusohonmachi 2 Chome, Yodogawa ku, Osaka 532 8686, Japan
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 340:483-9. 2012
    ..acid hemi-hydrate (TAK-875), on insulin and glucagon secretion, we performed hormone secretion assays and measured intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration ([Ca²⁺](i)) ..
  61. ncbi Immunohistochemical characterisation of cells co-producing insulin and glucagon in the developing human pancreas
    M J Riedel
    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Medicine, Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, Life Sciences Institute, 2350 Health Sciences Mall, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3
    Diabetologia 55:372-81. 2012
    In adult human islets, insulin and glucagon production is largely restricted to individual cell populations...
  62. pmc Novel use of glucagon in a closed-loop system for prevention of hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes
    Jessica R Castle
    Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA
    Diabetes Care 33:1282-7. 2010
    To minimize hypoglycemia in subjects with type 1 diabetes by automated glucagon delivery in a closed-loop insulin delivery system.
  63. ncbi The GluCre-ROSA26EYFP mouse: a new model for easy identification of living pancreatic alpha-cells
    Nicolas Quoix
    Unit of Endocrinology and Metabolism UCL 55 30, Faculty of Medicine, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 55, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    FEBS Lett 581:4235-40. 2007
    The control of glucagon secretion by pancreatic alpha-cells is poorly understood, largely because of the difficulty to recognize living alpha-cells...
  64. ncbi Effect of glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36) and exendin-4 on the vascular reactivity in streptozotocin/nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats
    Sibel Ozyazgan
    Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey
    Pharmacology 74:119-26. 2005
    We investigated the vascular effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and Exendin-4 in type 2 diabetic rat aortae. Studies were performed in a normal control group (NC) (0.2 ml i.p...
  65. pmc Glucose- and hormone-induced cAMP oscillations in α- and β-cells within intact pancreatic islets
    Geng Tian
    Department of Medical Cell Biology, Biomedical Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    Diabetes 60:1535-43. 2011
    cAMP is a critical messenger for insulin and glucagon secretion from pancreatic β- and α-cells, respectively. Dispersed β-cells show cAMP oscillations, but the signaling kinetics in cells within intact islets of Langerhans is unknown.
  66. ncbi Brain glucose sensing and neural regulation of insulin and glucagon secretion
    B Thorens
    Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Diabetes Obes Metab 13:82-8. 2011
    ..This homeostatic process is controlled by hormones, mainly glucagon and insulin, and by autonomic nervous activities that control the metabolic state of liver, muscle and fat tissue ..
  67. ncbi Both amidated and nonamidated forms of glucagon-like peptide I are synthesized in the rat intestine and the pancreas
    S Mojsov
    Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114
    J Biol Chem 265:8001-8. 1990
    ..L-cells of the intestine and the alpha-cells of the pancreas, contains within its structure the sequences of glucagon and two glucagon-like peptides (GLP-I and GLP-II) flanked at their amino and carboxyl termini by dibasic residues...
  68. ncbi Physiologic action of glucagon on liver glucose metabolism
    C J Ramnanan
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 0615, USA
    Diabetes Obes Metab 13:118-25. 2011
    b>Glucagon is a primary regulator of hepatic glucose production (HGP) in vivo during fasting, exercise and hypoglycaemia...
  69. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1, but not glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, inhibits glucagon secretion via somatostatin (receptor subtype 2) in the perfused rat pancreas
    J de Heer
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, DK 2200, Copenhagen N, Denmark
    Diabetologia 51:2263-70. 2008
    The glucose-lowering effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is based not only upon its potent insulinotropic actions but also on its ability to restrain glucagon secretion...
  70. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1 treatment delays the onset of diabetes in 8 week-old db/db mice
    Q Wang
    Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Diabetologia 45:1263-73. 2002
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 ameliorates the symptoms of diabetes through stimulation of insulin secretion and enhancement of beta-cell mass...
  71. ncbi Metformin effects on dipeptidylpeptidase IV degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1
    Simon A Hinke
    Probiodrug Research, Biocenter, Weinbergweg 22, D 06120 Halle Saale, Germany
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 291:1302-8. 2002
    ..Data indicating that metformin increases the circulating amount of active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in obese nondiabetic subjects have recently been presented, and it was proposed that ..
  72. ncbi The simultaneous loss of Arx and Pax4 genes promotes a somatostatin-producing cell fate specification at the expense of the alpha- and beta-cell lineages in the mouse endocrine pancreas
    Patrick Collombat
    Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Am Fassberg, 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Development 132:2969-80. 2005
    ..Finally, our data provide evidence that both Arx and Pax4 act as transcriptional repressors that control the expression level of one another, thereby mediating proper endocrine fate allocation...
  73. ncbi Regulation of glucagon secretion by glucose: paracrine, intrinsic or both?
    J N Walker
    Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford OX3 7LJ, UK
    Diabetes Obes Metab 13:95-105. 2011
    b>Glucagon secretion is regulated by glucose but the mechanisms involved remain hotly debated. Both intrinsic (within the α-cell itself) and paracrine (mediated by factors released β- and/or δ-cells) have been postulated...
  74. ncbi Glucose-dependent docking and SNARE protein-mediated exocytosis in mouse pancreatic alpha-cell
    Sofia A Andersson
    Islet Cell Exocytosis, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmo, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden
    Pflugers Arch 462:443-54. 2011
    The function of alpha-cells in patients with type 2 diabetes is often disturbed; glucagon secretion is increased at hyperglycaemia, yet fails to respond to hypoglycaemia...
  75. pmc Membrane potential-dependent inactivation of voltage-gated ion channels in alpha-cells inhibits glucagon secretion from human islets
    Reshma Ramracheya
    Oxford Centre for Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK
    Diabetes 59:2198-208. 2010
    To document the properties of the voltage-gated ion channels in human pancreatic alpha-cells and their role in glucagon release.
  76. ncbi The effects of miglitol on glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion and appetite sensations in obese type 2 diabetics
    A Lee
    Department of Medicine, St Louis University Medical Center, and GRECC, St Louis VA Medical Center, St Louis, MO, USA
    Diabetes Obes Metab 4:329-35. 2002
    ..inhibitors (AGIs), such as voglibose or acarbose, produced exaggerated and sustained postprandial responses of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone from the enteroinsular axis, in healthy humans...
  77. ncbi Oxyntomodulin differentially affects glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor beta-arrestin recruitment and signaling through Galpha(s)
    Rasmus Jorgensen
    7TM Pharma A S, 2970 Horsholm, Denmark
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 322:148-54. 2007
    The glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor is a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity, and there is great interest in characterizing the pharmacology of the GLP-1 receptor and its ligands...
  78. ncbi The origin and function of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/glucagon superfamily
    N M Sherwood
    Department of Biology, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
    Endocr Rev 21:619-70. 2000
    The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/ glucagon superfamily includes nine hormones in humans that are related by structure, distribution (especially the brain and gut), function (often by activation of cAMP), and ..
  79. pmc Somatostatin secreted by islet delta-cells fulfills multiple roles as a paracrine regulator of islet function
    Astrid C Hauge-Evans
    Beta Cell Development and Function Group, Division of Reproduction and Endocrinology, King s College London, London, UK
    Diabetes 58:403-11. 2009
    ..SST receptors have been identified on alpha- and beta-cells, and exogenous SST inhibits insulin and glucagon secretion, consistent with a role for SST in regulating alpha- and beta-cell function...
  80. ncbi Brain uptake of the glucagon-like peptide-1 antagonist exendin(9-39) after intranasal administration
    William A Banks
    Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Medical Center St Louis, Missouri, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 309:469-75. 2004
    Exendin, a member of the glucagon-like peptide-1 family, and its antagonist exendin(9-39) affect cognition and neuronal survival after their intranasal delivery...
  81. ncbi The changing face of glucagon fibrillation: structural polymorphism and conformational imprinting
    Jesper Søndergaard Pedersen
    Department of Life Sciences, Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsvej 49, DK 9000 Aalborg, Denmark
    J Mol Biol 355:501-23. 2006
    We have established a time-resolved fluorescence assay to study fibrillation of the 29 residue peptide hormone glucagon under a variety of different conditions in a high-throughput format. Fibrils formed at pH 2...
  82. ncbi Distribution of pre-pro-glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor messenger RNAs in the rat central nervous system
    I Merchenthaler
    Womens Health Research Institute, Wyeth Ayerst Research, Radnor, Pennsylvania 19087, USA
    J Comp Neurol 403:261-80. 1999
    b>Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is derived from the peptide precursor pre-pro-glucagon (PPG) by enzymatic cleavage and acts via its receptor, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R)...
  83. pmc Production of functional glucagon-secreting α-cells from human embryonic stem cells
    Alireza Rezania
    BetaLogics Venture, Centocor Research and Development, Skillman, New Jersey, USA
    Diabetes 60:239-47. 2011
    ..Here we describe an efficient differentiation protocol for the in vitro conversion of hES cells to functional glucagon-producing α- cells.
  84. ncbi Direct effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on myocardial contractility and glucose uptake in normal and postischemic isolated rat hearts
    Tingcun Zhao
    Department of Pediatrics, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 317:1106-13. 2006
    Recent evidence suggests that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) enhances recovery of left ventricular (LV) function after transient coronary artery occlusion...
  85. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1 promotes islet cell growth and inhibits apoptosis in Zucker diabetic rats
    Loredana Farilla
    Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA
    Endocrinology 143:4397-408. 2002
    ..In this study, we investigated the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in Zucker diabetic rats, an animal model in which the onset of diabetes occurs when the ..
  86. pmc Adrenaline stimulates glucagon secretion in pancreatic A-cells by increasing the Ca2+ current and the number of granules close to the L-type Ca2+ channels
    J Gromada
    Department of Islet Cell Physiology, Novo Nordisk A S, The Symbion Science Park, DK 2100 Copenhagen
    J Gen Physiol 110:217-28. 1997
    We have monitored electrical activity, voltage-gated Ca2+ currents, and exocytosis in single rat glucagon-secreting pancreatic A-cells...
  87. ncbi Effect of 6-week course of glucagon-like peptide 1 on glycaemic control, insulin sensitivity, and beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes: a parallel-group study
    Mette Zander
    Department of Medical Physiology, Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Lancet 359:824-30. 2002
    b>Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been proposed as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. We have investigated the long-term effects of continuous administration of this peptide hormone in a 6-week pilot study.
  88. ncbi Glucagon-like peptide-1 prevents beta cell glucolipotoxicity
    J Buteau
    Molecular Nutrition Unit, Department of Nutrition, University of Montreal, CR CHUM, Pavillon de Sève, Montreal, PQ, Canada
    Diabetologia 47:806-15. 2004
    We have provided evidence that glucagon-like peptide-1, a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of diabetes, activates phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/protein kinase B signalling in the pancreatic beta cell...
  89. ncbi Inulin-type fructans modulate gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite regulation (glucagon-like peptide-1 and ghrelin) in rats
    Patrice D Cani
    Unit of Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, Nutrition and Toxicology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universite Catholique de Louvain, B 1200 Brussels, Belgium
    Br J Nutr 92:521-6. 2004
    ..dietary fructans are able to modulate gastrointestinal peptides involved in the control of food intake, namely glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 (7-36) amide and ghrelin...
  90. ncbi Vasorelaxant effect of glucagon-like peptide-(7-36)amide and amylin on the pulmonary circulation of the rat
    H A Golpon
    Department of Internal Medicine, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldinger Strasse, 35033, Marburg, Germany
    Regul Pept 102:81-6. 2001
    The gastrointestinal peptides glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1) and amylin are currently being tested in clinical trials for the treatment of diabetes mellitus due to their effects in lowering blood glucose...
  91. pmc Leptin therapy in insulin-deficient type I diabetes
    May Yun Wang
    Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:4813-9. 2010
    ..The results imply that leptin administration may have multiple short- and long-term advantages over insulin monotherapy for type 1 diabetes...
  92. pmc Dual elimination of the glucagon and GLP-1 receptors in mice reveals plasticity in the incretin axis
    Safina Ali
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mt Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Clin Invest 121:1917-29. 2011
    Disordered glucagon secretion contributes to the symptoms of diabetes, and reduced glucagon action is known to improve glucose homeostasis...
  93. pmc Embryonic endocrine pancreas and mature beta cells acquire alpha and PP cell phenotypes upon Arx misexpression
    Patrick Collombat
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Gottingen, Germany Department of Developmental Biology, Hagedorn Research Institute, Gentofte, Denmark
    J Clin Invest 117:961-70. 2007
    ..in adult mice, the misexpression of Arx, rather than its overexpression, promotes a conversion of beta cells into glucagon- or PP-producing cells in vivo...
  94. pmc Glucose suppression of glucagon secretion: metabolic and calcium responses from alpha-cells in intact mouse pancreatic islets
    Sylvain J Le Marchand
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:14389-98. 2010
    b>Glucagon is released from alpha-cells present in intact pancreatic islets at glucose concentrations below 4 mm, whereas higher glucose levels inhibit its secretion...
  95. ncbi Insulin as a physiological modulator of glucagon secretion
    Pritpal Bansal
    Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295:E751-61. 2008
    Glucose homeostasis is regulated primarily by the opposing actions of insulin and glucagon, hormones that are secreted by pancreatic islets from beta-cells and alpha-cells, respectively...
  96. ncbi Mice deficient for glucagon gene-derived peptides display normoglycemia and hyperplasia of islet {alpha}-cells but not of intestinal L-cells
    Yoshitaka Hayashi
    Department of Genetics, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Japan
    Mol Endocrinol 23:1990-9. 2009
    Multiple bioactive peptides, including glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and GLP-2, are derived from the glucagon gene (Gcg)...
  97. pmc Making insulin-deficient type 1 diabetic rodents thrive without insulin
    Xinxin Yu
    Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 8854, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:14070-5. 2008
    ..suggest that leptin reverses the catabolic consequences of total lack of insulin, potentially by suppressing glucagon action on liver and enhancing the insulinomimetic actions of IGF-1 on skeletal muscle, and suggest strategies for ..
  98. pmc Insulin reciprocally regulates glucagon secretion in humans
    Benjamin A Cooperberg
    Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipid Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA
    Diabetes 59:2936-40. 2010
    We tested the hypothesis that an increase in insulin per se, i.e., in the absence of zinc, suppresses glucagon secretion during euglycemia and that a decrease in insulin per se stimulates glucagon secretion during hypoglycemia in humans.
  99. ncbi Paradoxical stimulation of glucagon secretion by high glucose concentrations
    Albert Salehi
    Department of Clinical Science, Clinical Research Center, Malmo University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden
    Diabetes 55:2318-23. 2006
    Hypersecretion of glucagon contributes to the dysregulation of glucose homeostasis in diabetes...
  100. pmc The glucagonostatic and insulinotropic effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 contribute equally to its glucose-lowering action
    Kristine J Hare
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Diabetes 59:1765-70. 2010
    b>Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) exerts beneficial antidiabetic actions via effects on pancreatic beta- and alpha-cells...
  101. pmc The ectopic expression of Pax4 in the mouse pancreas converts progenitor cells into alpha and subsequently beta cells
    Patrick Collombat
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg, D 37077 Gottingen, Germany
    Cell 138:449-62. 2009
    ..This results in a glucagon deficiency that provokes a compensatory and continuous glucagon+ cell neogenesis requiring the re-expression of ..

Research Grants69

  1. Discovery metabolite profiling of the prolyl peptidases
    Alan Saghatelian; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Furthermore, the application of DMP to peptidases will demonstrate the generality of this approach for the future characterization of medically relevant enzymes and signaling pathways. ..
  2. Pituitary dysfunction, behavioral symptoms, and quality of life after blast mTBI
    CHARLES WILLIAM WILKINSON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..with blast mTBI than in deployment control subjects not exposed to blast trauma;2) to determine whether the glucagon stimulation test (GST) can substitute for the (contraindicated) ITT as a provocative test for diagnosing GHD and/..
  3. Pathobiology of Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes in a Ferret Model
    Zoe Stewart; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..effectiveness of pancreatic CFTR gene replacement in the CFTR-/- ferrets by evaluating serum glucose, insulin, glucagon, endocrine pancreatic function, and pancreatic duct cell physiology...
  4. Surgical amelioration of type 2 diabetes: Hormones, microbiota and mitochondria
    PETER J contact HAVEL; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..nutrients with the mucosa of the distal small intestine resulting in increased secretion of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide-YY (PYY)...
  5. Potential Mechanisms of Glucagon-like peptide-1 in Fatty Liver Disease
    Frank A Anania; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..At present there is limited therapy for fatty liver disease. Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) is a naturally occurring gut peptide secreted by the L cells of the small intestine...
  6. Regulation of Bile Acid Synthesis by Nuclear Receptors
    John Y L Chiang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Aim 2 will study the crosstalk of bile acid, cytokine, insulin, glucagon and PMA signaling pathways in regulating CYP7A1/CYP8B1 gene transcription...
  7. Beta-cell Proliferation
    Fredric E Wondisford; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates murine pancreatic [unreadable]-cell proliferation...
  8. Link of beta cell proliferation and type 2 diabetes to epigenetic regulation
    Xianxin Hua; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our recent findings suggest that menin interplays with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) signaling pathway, which promotes beta cell regeneration, to regulate gene transcription...
  9. Role of inflammation and cellular stress in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes
    Liangyou Rui; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Blood glucose levels are determined by a balance between insulin and counterregulatory hormones (e.g. glucagon and catecholamines);however, potential effects of inflammation on glucagon and catecholamine sensitivity have not ..
  10. A PROOF-OF-CONCEPT CLINICAL TRIAL OF XENIN-25 IN THE TREATMENT OF TYPE 2 DIABETES
    Burton M Wice; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Modulating the action or plasma concentrations of Glucagon- Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1), an intestinal peptide produced by intestinal L cells, is the basis for the action of two ..
  11. CTGF promotes beta cell proliferation &revascularization in islet transplants
    Uma Gunasekaran; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..doxycycline to adult bigenic mice and analyzing islet morphology using immunohistochemistry (insulin, glucagon, proliferation markers, apoptosis markers) and islet function using perifusion and intraperitoneal glucose ..
  12. Modulation of insulin and glucagon secretion by GPCR ligands
    TARA ASHLEY SCHWETZ; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..by applicant): Glucose homeostasis is regulated by the orchestrated secretion of hormones, primarily insulin and glucagon, from the pancreatic islet of Langerhans...
  13. Link of beta cell proliferation and type 2 diabetes to epigenetic regulation.
    Xianxin Hua; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our recent findings suggest that menin interplays with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) signaling pathway, which promotes beta cell regeneration, to regulate gene transcription...
  14. Ligand Interaction of Glucagon Receptor by Structural and Functional Analyses
    FAI YIU SIU; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The goal of this proposal is to reveal important details regarding the activation mechanisms of the glucagon receptor by determining the structure of the full-length class-B human glucagon receptor bound to its ligand ..
  15. Gluconeogenesis and Glycogenolysis - Role and Regulation
    Alan D Cherrington; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..will be used when required to disable the endocrine pancreas, along with intraportal infusion of insulin and glucagon at the rates required by the experimental design...
  16. Mechanisms of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in fatty liver disease
    Frank A Anania; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have found that the naturally occurring hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has the capacity to significantly reduce hepatocyte steatosis in human cells...
  17. Regulation of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by the CREB:TORC2 Pathway
    Marc R Montminy; Fiscal Year: 2013
    During fasting, elevations in circulating pancreatic glucagon promote hepatic glucose output through induction of the gluconeogenic program by the CREB coactivator TORC2...
  18. Transcriptional Regulation of Metabolic and Hepatic Homeostasis by FoxO Signaling
    Shaodong Guo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Elevated blood glucagon levels and defective insulin action in patients with type 2 diabetes are responsible for hyperglycemia, but the ..
  19. Hepatocyte Nitric Oxide Synthase Regulation by Glucagon and Insulin
    Brian G Harbrecht; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Excessive NO from iNOS produces cellular dysfunction and hepatic injury. Glucagon and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) regulate hepatic iNOS expression in vitro and in vivo, and by doing so, ..
  20. Neurobiological mechanisms of nicotine reinforcement: Role of the nucleus tractus
    LUIS MIGUEL TUESTA; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Furthermore, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a neuropeptide involved in regulating interoceptive stress and feeding inhibition, is ..
  21. Cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 in obesity/metabolic syndrome
    Johnathan D Tune; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on the heart have been recently recognized, but little is known regarding the cardiovascular physiology of this incretin hormone...
  22. Intestinal Triacylglycerol Metabolism and Energy Balance
    Chi Liang Eric Yen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In addition, their postprandial levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are lower, whereas glucagon-like peptide1 (GLP1) levels are higher than in controls. Both gut hormones can affect energy balance...
  23. Control of cAMP Mediated Glucagon Response by Bile Acids
    Norman H Lee; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..and 80% of cirrhotic patients display glucose intolerance associated with a decreased gluconeogenic response to glucagon. This decreased glucagon-induced hepatocellular glucose production is due to a significant hepatic resistance to ..
  24. CNS Mechanisms of Acute Hypoglycemia-Associate Autonomic Failure
    DIANNE FIGLEWICZ LATTEMANN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..release;activation of the hypothalamic/pituitary/adrenal (HPA) axis and release of adrenal glucocorticoids;and glucagon (GLU) release...
  25. Role of the Acetyl-CoA Carboxylases in Energy Metabolism
    SALIH JAWAD WAKIL; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Insulin and glucagon are hormones that coordinate these processes...
  26. The role of phosphorylation in regulating the antidiabetic effects of O3FAR-1
    Nader H Moniri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..has generated considerable interest due to its ability to stimulate intestinal secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1), which stimulates pancreatic b-cells leading to insulin secretion and subsequently, ..
  27. Regulation of Hepatic Carbohydrate Metabolism by STBD1
    Alan Cheng; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..A fundamental unanswered question is: how hormones such as insulin and glucagon regulate the cellular function of these proteins, and how these novel pathways are dysregulated in metabolic ..
  28. A Drosophila Model for Genetic Studies of Metabolism
    Carl S Thummel; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..levels, such as the adipose triglyceride lipase gene or the adipokinetic hormone receptor gene (which acts like glucagon to drive lipolysis)...
  29. Physiology and regulation of T2R bitter taste receptors in enteroendocrine cells
    Timothy F Osborne; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of intestinal T2R signaling leads to an increase in secretion of polypeptide hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) from enteroendocrine cells and two major actions of CCK are to limit food intake and slow ..
  30. Genome maintenance functions of CREB/ATF transcription factors
    RANDAL SCOT TIBBETTS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It has long been known that CREB plays an important role in the metabolic regulation-where glucagon stimulates CREB-dependent transcriptional programs that promote gluconeogenesis-and the brain, where CREB ..
  31. Intestinal satiation in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass rats: brain mechanisms and sex d
    Thomas Alexander Lutz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e., into the jejunum, thus leading to increased release of the gut hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)...
  32. Changes in neural response to eating after bariatric surgery: MRI results
    Thomas A Wadden; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, postprandial increases in the satiety factors, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY3-36), are significantly increased after RYGB, compared with LAGB...
  33. Neuroendocrinology of Energy Balance Control
    Matthew R Hayes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The proposed research focuses on the neuropeptide glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its role in controlling for food intake and body weight through action in the central nervous system (CNS)...
  34. Mechanism for Reduced Adrenomedullary Epinephrine Release in Type 1 Diabetes
    BRANLY OSVALDO ORBAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Release of glucagon, a principal hormone underlying the normal counter-regulatory response (CRR) to acute hypoglycemia is largely absent in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)...
  35. Epi)Genomic drivers of primary and metastatic pancreatic islet cell carcinoma
    DOMINIC JAMES SMIRAGLIA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The predominant neoplasia observed is an islet cell carcinoma, expressing glucagon, which arises with high penetrance and exhibits symptoms and profound metastatic spread to sites representative ..
  36. Defining the Role of MafA in Islet Beta Cells
    Roland W Stein; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e. MafA, insulin) and a cell (MafB, glucagon) hormone gene transcription...
  37. Sweet taste receptors and glucose metabolism in healthy and T2DM humans
    Karen L Teff; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..because the taste signaling elements are co-expressed in the intestinal L-cells which secrete the hormone, glucagon-like peptide (GLP);during food ingestion, stimulation of the STR also elicits the release of GLP...
  38. Modulation of Taste-Related Behavior by Molecular Mediators of Appetite &Satiety
    Cedrick D Dotson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have recently reported that the gut hormone, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), can modulate sweet taste sensitivity...
  39. DIET GLYCEMIC LOAD & METABOLISM IN OBESE PREGNANT WOMEN
    Janet King; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..in regulating fuel metabolism (human chorionic somatomammotropin, progesterone, leptin, adiponectin, prolactin, glucagon, cortisol, catecholamines, and ghrelin);and 3) to determine if consuming low GL diets the last half of pregnancy ..
  40. 2-pore-domain K+ channels as novel targets for modulating islet hormone secretion
    DAVID AARON JACOBSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Insulin and glucagon secretion are disrupted in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and in animal models of the disease, which is due in part to perturbations in islet-cell membrane ..
  41. Physiological Role of CNS GLP-2 Receptor in Energy Homeostasis
    Xinfu Guan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Increasing evidence suggests that gut-secreted hormones regulate energy homeostasis. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a gut-secreted hormone, which is co-secreted with GLP-1 from endocrine L cells in the ..
  42. Regulation of Food Intake via the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor
    Julio E Ayala; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Satiety hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (Glp1) are secreted in response to feeding and activate neural processes that subsequently suppress food intake...
  43. Motivational Changes for Nutritionally Relevant Tastes after Gastric Bypass
    Alan C Spector; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..After RYGB, circulating levels of key anorexogenic gastrointestinal hormones such as peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 increase...
  44. Regulation of SREBP-1c Processing by Insulin and Cyclic-AMP
    Marshall B Elam; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Conversely, cAMP (a surrogate for glucagon) prevents processing of SREBP-1c...
  45. TORC2-dependent regulation of gluconeogensis
    MICHAEL DALE CONKRIGHT; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Insulin and glucagon are central hormone regulators of glucose homeostasis...
  46. Metabolic and Endocrine Effects of Bariatric Surgery
    Judith Korner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Subjects will also be followed at 1 year. In AIM TWO, glucagon suppression and maximal islet cell function will be measured by a graded glucose infusion and arginine ..
  47. MOLECULAR BASIS OF ANTIDIABETOGENIC HORMONE ACTION
    George G Holz; Fiscal Year: 2010
    An emerging theme in experimental therapeutics concerns the use of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36)- amide (GLP-1) and its synthetic peptide analogs (the "incretin mimetics") to lower levels of blood glucose in Type 2 diabetic subjects...
  48. Understanding the role of bile as a mechanism for improved glucose homeostasis fo
    APRIL DAWN STRADER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..interposition of the ileum results in dramatically enhanced secretion of two important ileal produced hormones, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide- YY (PYY), the former believed to be critical in the euglycemic effect...
  49. Protease Operated Depot for Delivery of GLP-1
    Ashutosh Chilkoti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..It has been estimated that type-2 diabetes will soon assume a pandemic status globally. An analog of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), Exenatide, is an approved drug to treat type-2 diabetes in humans...
  50. Mechanisms of Glycemic Improvement Following Gastrointestinal Surgery
    David R Flum; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..improves T2DM by creating an intestinal shortcut to enhance nutrient delivery to the distal bowel, stimulating glucagon- like peptide-1...
  51. Sniffer Biosensors Based on Ion Channel-GPCR Chimeras and Polylipid Membranes
    STEVEN SCOTT SAAVEDRA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..c) Sensors based on ICCRs containing the D2 dopamine and glucagon receptors will be prepared and evaluated for selectively measuring dopamine and glucagon secretion, respectively, ..
  52. Regulation of Food Intake and Body Weight by GLP-1
    ROGER REIDELBERGER; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..b>Glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)-amide (called GLP-1) is a so-amino acid peptide produced by endocrine cells along the gut ..
  53. Nkx2.2 in Pancreatic Development: The Role of the NK2-SD Domain
    JOSHUA ADAM LEVINE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Several cell types comprise the islets and include glucagon-producing ...
  54. REDUCIBLE POLYAMIDO ETHYLENIMINE FOR GLP-1 PLASMID DELIVERY
    Sung Wan Kim; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..It has been reported that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) administration completely normalized blood glucose in type 2 diabetic patients...
  55. A multicenter outpatient trial of a bihormonal bionic pancreas
    Steven J Russell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..runs our control algorithm and coordinates communication between a G4 Platinum CGM (DexCom) and two (insulin/glucagon) t:slim insulin pumps (Tandem Diabetes Care)...
  56. Pancreatic endocrine network control of glucagon counterregulation
    Anthony L McCall; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Hypoglycemia can cause coma, seizures, accidents or even death. Glucagon counterregulation (GCR) is a key protection against hypoglycemia that is compromised in patients with type 1 ..
  57. The Role of Ghrelin to Regulate Insulin Secretion in Health and Diabetes.
    Jenny Tong; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In contrast, ghrelin induces hyperglycemia with hyperinsulinemia and increased glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion following an orally ingested test meal...
  58. The role of innervation for hormone secretion in human islets
    ALEJANDRO CAICEDO VIERKANT; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..mouse islets the autonomic nervous system modulates insulin secretion via parasympathetic cholinergic fibers and glucagon secretion via sympathetic noradrenergic fibers, but that for human islet function this innervation and its in ..
  59. MLL3/4-complexes in nuclear receptor-mediated metabolism
    Jae W Lee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..thyroid hormone activating enzyme type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase'(D2) and to enhance secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an insulin secretagogue, thereby resulting in enhanced energy expenditure and improved ..
  60. Regulation of Intestinal PYY cell function
    Diego V Bohórquez; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Two of those hormones are at the forefront of diabetes and obe- sity research: 1) the insulin-stimulating glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1);and, 2) the satiety-inducing peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)...
  61. PANCREAS AND ISLET TRANSPLANTATION IN HUMANS
    RODERICK PAUL ROBERTSON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and non-hepatic sites through use of measures of islet secretion by stimulation of insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon responses to intravenous (IV) glucose and arginine;functional beta-cell mass by glucose potentiation of arginine-..
  62. GLOMERULAR AND TUBULAR FUNCTION IN THE DIABETIC KIDNEY
    Scott C Thomson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A more novel effector of proximal reabsorption is the incretin, glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1), which has outstanding potential as a proximal diuretic...
  63. HORMONAL REGULATION OF ENERGY METABOLISM
    Tarun Patel; Fiscal Year: 1993
    The mechanisms by which hormones such as glucagon regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis are fairly well established...
  64. Liver Glycogen in Control of Plasma Glucose
    Katarina Borer; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..and after exercise is responsible for EAAF and is mediated by increased secretion of insulinotropic gut peptides glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), that increase insulin/glucagon ratio ..
  65. 8th International Symposium for VIP, PACAP & Related Peptides
    Victor May; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..amino acid homology with the other related peptides, including growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), secretin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), GLP-2, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) is more distant but ..
  66. HORMONAL REGULATION OF ENERGY METABOLISM
    Tarun Patel; Fiscal Year: 1991
    Regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis by hormones such as glucagon, insulin, epinephrine, vasopressin and angiotensin is well established...
  67. Role of GLP-1 in Congenital Hyperinsulinism
    DIVA DEL CARMEN DE LEON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Project Summary/Abstract Description This is a translational research study of the role of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), the most frequent cause of persistent hypoglycemia in children...
  68. SPLANCHNIC HEMODYNAMICS IN PORTAL HYPERTENSION
    JAMES SITZMANN; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..Evidence now supports the idea that prostacyclin (PGI2) or glucagon (potent splanchnic vasodilators) may be involved in the increase flow phenomenon...
  69. BIOSYNTHESIS AND SECRETION OF PEPTIDE HORMONES
    HOWARD TAGER; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Emphasis in this application is placed on the bioactive peptides of the endocrine pancreas (insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide) and on the precedents that may be gleaned by the study of these ..