conjugated usp estrogens

Summary

Summary: A pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of water-soluble, conjugated estrogens derived wholly or in part from URINE of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. It contains a sodium-salt mixture of estrone sulfate (52-62%) and equilin sulfate (22-30%) with a total of the two between 80-88%. Other concomitant conjugates include 17-alpha-dihydroequilin, 17-alpha-estradiol, and 17-beta-dihydroequilin. The potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi [Hormone replacement therapy of menopause, heart and blood vessels]
    F Kuttenn
    , , 149, , 75015 Paris
    Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 94:685-9. 2001
  2. ncbi Combination treatment with estrogen and calcitriol in the prevention of age-related bone loss
    J C Gallagher
    Creighton University Medical Center, St Joseph Hospital, Omaha, Nebraska 68131, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:3618-28. 2001
  3. ncbi Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Research Group
    S Hulley
    University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    JAMA 280:605-13. 1998
  4. ncbi Estrogens and menopause: pharmacology of conjugated equine estrogens and their potential role in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's
    Bhagu R Bhavnani
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, and St Michael s Hospital Research Center, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5B 1W8
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 85:473-82. 2003
  5. ncbi Separation of pharmaceutically important estrogens by micellar electrokinetic chromatography
    S K Poole
    Zeneca/SmithKline Beecham Centre for Analytical Chemistry, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK
    J Chromatogr A 749:247-55. 1996
  6. ncbi Inhibition of glutathione S-transferase activity by the quinoid metabolites of equine estrogens
    M Chang
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy M C 781, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 833 South Wood Street, Chicago, Illinois 60612 7231, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 11:758-65. 1998
  7. ncbi LY353381 x HCl: an improved benzothiophene analog with bone efficacy complementary to parathyroid hormone-(1-34)
    M Sato
    Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Co, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA
    Endocrinology 139:4642-51. 1998
  8. ncbi The major metabolite of equilin, 4-hydroxyequilin, autoxidizes to an o-quinone which isomerizes to the potent cytotoxin 4-hydroxyequilenin-o-quinone
    F Zhang
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy M C 781, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 833 South Wood Street, Chicago, Illinois 60612 7231, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 12:204-13. 1999
  9. ncbi [Basic principles of hormone replacement therapy in the postmenopause]
    M Doren
    King s College Hospital, Dept of Family Planning, London, UK
    Ther Umsch 57:628-34. 2000
  10. ncbi Bioreductive activation of catechol estrogen-ortho-quinones: aromatization of the B ring in 4-hydroxyequilenin markedly alters quinoid formation and reactivity
    L Shen
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy M C 781, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 60612 7231, USA
    Carcinogenesis 18:1093-101. 1997

Detail Information

Publications135 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi [Hormone replacement therapy of menopause, heart and blood vessels]
    F Kuttenn
    , , 149, , 75015 Paris
    Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 94:685-9. 2001
    ..It is therefore urgent that Europeans undertake a European "HERS study" in order to investigate the possible beneficial effect of non oral estrogens (gel or patch) associated with natural progesterone...
  2. ncbi Combination treatment with estrogen and calcitriol in the prevention of age-related bone loss
    J C Gallagher
    Creighton University Medical Center, St Joseph Hospital, Omaha, Nebraska 68131, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:3618-28. 2001
    ....
  3. ncbi Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Research Group
    S Hulley
    University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    JAMA 280:605-13. 1998
    ..However, given the favorable pattern of CHD events after several years of therapy, it could be appropriate for women already receiving this treatment to continue...
  4. ncbi Estrogens and menopause: pharmacology of conjugated equine estrogens and their potential role in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's
    Bhagu R Bhavnani
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, and St Michael s Hospital Research Center, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5B 1W8
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 85:473-82. 2003
    ....
  5. ncbi Separation of pharmaceutically important estrogens by micellar electrokinetic chromatography
    S K Poole
    Zeneca/SmithKline Beecham Centre for Analytical Chemistry, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK
    J Chromatogr A 749:247-55. 1996
    ..Factors that affect selectivity and reproducibility of the above separation systems are discussed...
  6. ncbi Inhibition of glutathione S-transferase activity by the quinoid metabolites of equine estrogens
    M Chang
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy M C 781, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 833 South Wood Street, Chicago, Illinois 60612 7231, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 11:758-65. 1998
    ..In addition, hydrogen peroxide generated through redox cycling of the o-quinone and/or semiquinone radical and GSH could cause oxidative damage to GST...
  7. ncbi LY353381 x HCl: an improved benzothiophene analog with bone efficacy complementary to parathyroid hormone-(1-34)
    M Sato
    Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Co, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA
    Endocrinology 139:4642-51. 1998
    ..Therefore, LY353381 x HCl appears to be useful by itself, in combination, or in sequence with PTH to replace lost bone in postmenopausal women...
  8. ncbi The major metabolite of equilin, 4-hydroxyequilin, autoxidizes to an o-quinone which isomerizes to the potent cytotoxin 4-hydroxyequilenin-o-quinone
    F Zhang
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy M C 781, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 833 South Wood Street, Chicago, Illinois 60612 7231, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 12:204-13. 1999
    ..These results suggest that the catechol metabolites of equine estrogens have the ability to cause alkylation/redox damage in vivo primarily through formation of 4-hydroxyequilenin quinoids...
  9. ncbi [Basic principles of hormone replacement therapy in the postmenopause]
    M Doren
    King s College Hospital, Dept of Family Planning, London, UK
    Ther Umsch 57:628-34. 2000
    ..However, there are no rigid age limit when to change treatments, the selection of which is largely influenced by the preference of the individual's acceptance of withdrawal bleeding...
  10. ncbi Bioreductive activation of catechol estrogen-ortho-quinones: aromatization of the B ring in 4-hydroxyequilenin markedly alters quinoid formation and reactivity
    L Shen
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy M C 781, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 60612 7231, USA
    Carcinogenesis 18:1093-101. 1997
    ....
  11. ncbi Differential effects of estrogen and medroxyprogesterone on basal and stress-induced growth hormone release, IGF-1 levels, and cellular immunity in postmenopausal women
    W B Malarkey
    Ohio State University, Department of Internal Medicine 43210, USA
    Endocrine 7:227-33. 1997
    ..Given the extant literature on the immune-enhancing effects of GH, these data suggest that ERT may slow the decline of GH secretion with aging, an event that has been implicated in immunosenescence...
  12. ncbi A practical concept for preoperative management of patients with impaired primary hemostasis
    Juergen Koscielny
    Institute for Transfusion Medicine, Charite Humboldt University, Schumannstr 20 21, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 10:155-66. 2004
    ..Preoperative correction of impaired primary hemostasis is possible in nearly all patients affected, and results in a reduction of homologous blood transfusions...
  13. ncbi Biological effects of hormone replacement therapy in relation to serum estradiol levels
    T Yasui
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima, Tokyo, Japan
    Horm Res 56:38-44. 2001
    ....
  14. ncbi Effects of raloxifene, hormone replacement therapy, and placebo on bone turnover in postmenopausal women
    Robert S Weinstein
    Center for Osteoporosis and Metabolic Bone Diseases, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
    Osteoporos Int 14:814-22. 2003
    ....
  15. doi The bioidentical hormone debate: are bioidentical hormones (estradiol, estriol, and progesterone) safer or more efficacious than commonly used synthetic versions in hormone replacement therapy?
    Kent Holtorf
    Holtorf Medical Group, Inc, Torrance, CA 90505, USA
    Postgrad Med 121:73-85. 2009
    ..Yet according to the US Food and Drug Administration and The Endocrine Society, there is little or no evidence to support claims that bioidentical hormones are safer or more effective...
  16. ncbi Anorectal manometry before, during and after estrogen replacement therapy
    R P Schellart
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Academic Hospital Rotterdam Dijkzigt, The Netherlands
    Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 7:77-80. 1996
    ..It was concluded that estrogens have no effects on manometric parameters of the external sphincter and that anal manometry may not be the appropriate method to assess the effects of estrogens on the pelvic floor...
  17. ncbi Reduced vaginal bleeding in postmenopausal women who receive combined norethindrone acetate and low-dose ethinyl estradiol therapy versus combined conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy
    James A Simon
    Women s Health Research Center, Laurel, MD 20707, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 188:92-9. 2003
    ....
  18. ncbi Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease by age and years since menopause
    Jacques E Rossouw
    Women s Health Initiative Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    JAMA 297:1465-77. 2007
    ..The timing of initiation of hormone therapy may influence its effect on cardiovascular disease...
  19. ncbi Evidence that a metabolite of equine estrogens, 4-hydroxyequilenin, induces cellular transformation in vitro
    E Pisha
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy M C 781, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 833 South Wood Street, Chicago, Illinois 60612 7231, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 14:82-90. 2001
    ..These data suggest that oxidative stress could be partially responsible for the carcinogenic effects caused by 4-OHEN and that 4-OHEN is a more potent transforming agent than 4-OHE in vitro...
  20. ncbi Metabolism of equilenin in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells
    D C Spink
    Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201 0509, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 14:572-81. 2001
    ....
  21. ncbi A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study that assessed the endometrial effects of norethindrone acetate plus ethinyl estradiol versus ethinyl estradiol alone
    David J Portman
    Columbus Center for Women s Health Research, OH 43213, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 188:334-42. 2003
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia in subjects who receive continuous norethindrone acetate and ethinyl estradiol combinations versus unopposed ethinyl estradiol...
  22. ncbi Effects of low-dose continuous combined conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate on menopausal symptoms, body weight, bone density, and metabolism in postmenopausal women
    M Gambacciani
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pisa, Italy
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 185:1180-5. 2001
    ....
  23. ncbi The effects of estradiol valerate plus medroxyprogesterone acetate and conjugated estrogens plus medrogestone on climacteric symptoms and metabolic variables in perimenopausal women
    C Egarter
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Vienna, Austria
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 75:386-93. 1996
    ....
  24. ncbi Exercise thermoregulation with bed rest, confinement, and immersion deconditioning
    J E Greenleaf
    Laboratory for Human Environmental Physiology, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 1000, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 813:741-50. 1997
    ..Thus, the excessive rise in core temperature after deconditioning appears to be caused by decreased peripheral vasodilation in humans. Factors related to glucose metabolism may influence this mechanism...
  25. ncbi Comparative effects of tibolone and conjugated equine estrogens with and without medroxyprogesterone acetate on the reproductive tract of female cynomolgus monkeys
    J Mark Cline
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    Menopause 9:242-52. 2002
    ..To measure the effects of 2 years' treatment with tibolone on the reproductive tract of female monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in comparison with conventional hormone replacement therapy...
  26. ncbi Regulation of human apolipoprotein A-I gene expression by equine estrogens
    X Zhang
    Department of Biochemistry, Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
    J Lipid Res 42:1789-800. 2001
    ..The data indicate that Eqn can induce the promoter activity of the human apoA-I gene, leading to an increase in apoA-I mRNA levels and apoA-I protein secretion through an ER-independent pathway involving apoA-I EpRE/ARE...
  27. ncbi Effects of tibolone and conventional hormone replacement therapies on arterial and hepatic cholesterol accumulation and on circulating endothelin-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin in surgically menopausal monkeys
    Thomas C Register
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    Menopause 9:411-21. 2002
    ....
  28. doi Differential biochemical and cellular actions of Premarin estrogens: distinct pharmacology of bazedoxifene-conjugated estrogens combination
    Thomas J Berrodin
    Nuclear Receptor Biology, Women s Health and Musculoskeletal Biology, Wyeth Research, 500 Arcola Road, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, USA
    Mol Endocrinol 23:74-85. 2009
    ....
  29. ncbi Equilin, a principal component of the estrogen replacement therapy premarin, increases the growth of cortical neurons via an NMDA receptor-dependent mechanism
    R D Brinton
    USC STAR Program, University of Southern California, Los Angeles 90033, USA
    Exp Neurol 147:211-20. 1997
    ....
  30. ncbi Acute coronary vascular and myocardial perfusion effects of conjugated equine estrogen in the anesthetized dog
    N A McHugh
    State University of New Jersey, FAS Division of Life Sciences, Piscataway 08854 8083, USA
    Basic Res Cardiol 93:470-6. 1998
    ..We conclude that the acute, systemic administration of estrogen in the anesthetized dog decreases regional perfusion in the ischemic myocardium and causes significant coronary vaso-constriction when flow is controlled and limited...
  31. ncbi Postmenopausal femur bone loss: effects of a low dose hormone replacement therapy
    Marco Gambacciani
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100 Pisa, Italy
    Maturitas 45:175-83. 2003
    ..Previous studies indicate that low-dose hormone replacement therapy (LD-HRT) can relieve vasomotor symptoms and prevent spine bone loss...
  32. pmc Comparative analysis of the uterine and mammary gland effects of drospirenone and medroxyprogesterone acetate
    Christiane Otto
    TRG Women s Healthcare, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Mullerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Endocrinology 149:3952-9. 2008
    ..We hypothesize that the safety of combined hormone therapy in postmenopausal women may be associated with a dissociation between the uterine and mammary gland activities of the progestin component...
  33. ncbi Insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular risk factors in ovariectomized monkeys with estradiol alone or combined with nomegestrol acetate
    J D Wagner
    Department of Comparative Medicine, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157 1040, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:896-901. 1998
    ..In conclusion, NA, a progestin without androgenic activity, may still affect some cardiovascular risk factors differently than estrogen-only therapy. However, it seems to be less detrimental than MPA...
  34. pmc Select estrogens within the complex formulation of conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin) are protective against neurodegenerative insults: implications for a composition of estrogen therapy to promote neuronal function and prevent Alzheimer's disease
    Liqin Zhao
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Southern California, Pharmaceutical Sciences Center, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
    BMC Neurosci 7:24. 2006
    ..Further, we sought, through computer-aided modeling analyses, to investigate the potential correlation of the molecular mechanisms that conferred estrogen neuroprotection with estrogen interactions with the estrogen receptor (ER)...
  35. pmc A component of Premarin(®) enhances multiple cognitive functions and influences nicotinic receptor expression
    Joshua S Talboom
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    Horm Behav 58:917-28. 2010
    ....
  36. ncbi Short-term oral estrogen replacement therapy does not augment endothelium-independent myocardial perfusion in postmenopausal women
    L R Peterson
    Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Am Heart J 142:641-7. 2001
    ....
  37. ncbi Estrogen improves abnormal norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction in postmenopausal women
    B H Sung
    Department of Medicine, State University of New York and Millard Fillmore Hospital, Buffalo 14209, USA
    J Hypertens 17:523-8. 1999
    ..In the present study, we examined the role of estrogen in the blood pressure response to mental stress...
  38. ncbi Endometrial effects of lower doses of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate
    J H Pickar
    Clinical Research and Development, Wyeth Ayerst Research, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Fertil Steril 76:25-31. 2001
    ..To determine the endometrial safety of lower doses of continuous combined conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA)...
  39. ncbi Pharmacokinetics of 17 beta-dihydroequilin sulfate in normal postmenopausal women under steady state conditions
    Bhagu R Bhavnani
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, St Michael s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    J Soc Gynecol Investig 9:102-10. 2002
    ....
  40. ncbi A randomized controlled trial of estrogen replacement therapy in long-term users of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate
    Tim Cundy
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, University of Auckland, 1001 Auckland, New Zealand
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:78-81. 2003
    ..0%, P = 0.029). There were no major adverse events. These data support the view that the likely cause of DMPA-associated bone loss is estrogen deficiency and demonstrate that it can be arrested by estrogen replacement therapy...
  41. ncbi Body mass index does not influence response to treatment, nor does body weight change with lower doses of conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate in early postmenopausal women
    Wulf H Utian
    Rapid Medical Research, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
    Menopause 11:306-14. 2004
    ....
  42. ncbi Medroxyprogesterone acetate antagonizes inhibitory effects of conjugated equine estrogens on coronary artery atherosclerosis
    M R Adams
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 17:217-21. 1997
    ..Although the mechanism(s) remains unclear, we conclude that oral CEE inhibits the initiation and progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis and that continuously administered oral MPA antagonizes this atheroprotective effect...
  43. ncbi The Cimicifuga preparation BNO 1055 vs. conjugated estrogens in a double-blind placebo-controlled study: effects on menopause symptoms and bone markers
    W Wuttke
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Endocrinology, University of Gottingen, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    Maturitas 44:S67-77. 2003
    ..The question whether CR BNO 1055 contains substances with selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) activity will be investigated...
  44. ncbi Prevalence of menopausal symptoms in different ethnic groups of Asian women and responsiveness to therapy with three doses of conjugated estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate: the Pan-Asia Menopause (PAM) study
    Christopher J Haines
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong, PR China
    Maturitas 52:264-76. 2005
    ..To survey the prevalence of 18 menopausal symptoms in nine ethnic groups of Asian women. To evaluate responsiveness of symptoms to three estrogen/progestin doses in Asian women...
  45. ncbi Estrogens and progestins: background and history, trends in use, and guidelines and regimens approved by the US Food and Drug Administration
    Marcia L Stefanick
    Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 5705, USA
    Am J Med 118:64-73. 2005
    ....
  46. ncbi Hormone replacement therapy and 24-hour blood pressure profile of postmenopausal women
    A Butkevich
    Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute and Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York 10029, USA
    Am J Hypertens 13:1039-41. 2000
    ..048). Increase in nocturnal dipping may account, in part, for the beneficial cardiovascular effects of HRT...
  47. ncbi Lipoprotein(a) serum levels in post-menopausal women treated with oral estrogens administered at different times
    M G Caruso
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Scientific Institute for Digestive Diseases, I.R.C.C.S. S. de Bellis, Castellana G, Italy
    Horm Metab Res 26:379-82. 1994
    ....
  48. ncbi A comparison of the short-term effects of oral conjugated equine estrogens versus transdermal estradiol on C-reactive protein, other serum markers of inflammation, and other hepatic proteins in naturally menopausal women
    Jan L Shifren
    Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Boston University School of Medicine, 670 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:1702-10. 2008
    ....
  49. ncbi Addition of medroxyprogesterone acetate to conjugated equine estrogens results in insulin resistance in adipose tissue
    Melanie K Shadoan
    Department of Endocrinology, Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, The Woodlands, TX 77381, USA
    Metabolism 56:830-7. 2007
    ....
  50. ncbi Distinct lipid/lipoprotein profiles and hormonal responsiveness in nine ethnic groups of postmenopausal Asian women: the Pan-Asia Menopause (PAM) study
    N Taechakraichana
    Chulalongkorn Hospital, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Climacteric 10:225-37. 2007
    ..To add to the limited body of information currently available, we also investigated the effects of estrogen/progestin therapy on lipid/lipoprotein profiles in postmenopausal Asian women...
  51. ncbi Reprint of Are all estrogens the same?
    Herjan J T Coelingh Bennink
    Pantarhei Bioscience, Institute for Clinical Concept Research in Reproductive Medicine, Pantarhei Bioscience, Zeist, The Netherlands
    Maturitas 61:195-201. 2008
    ..Well informed and individualised choice of treatment seems the appropriate solution...
  52. ncbi Endometrial effects of lower doses of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate: two-year substudy results
    James H Pickar
    Wyeth Research, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19101 2528, USA
    Fertil Steril 80:1234-40. 2003
    ..To determine the endometrial safety of 2 years of treatment with lower doses of continuous combined conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA)...
  53. ncbi Raloxifene and hormone replacement therapy increase arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid levels in postmenopausal women
    Erik J Giltay
    Psychiatric Center GGZ Delfland, Delft, The Netherlands
    J Endocrinol 182:399-408. 2004
    ..Short term administration of raloxifene in elderly men did not affect AA or DHA. The synthesis of AA and DHA from precursors may be enhanced through an estrogen receptor-dependent pathway...
  54. ncbi Are all estrogens the same?
    Herjan J T Coelingh Bennink
    Pantarhei Bioscience, Institute for Clinical Concept Research in Reproductive Medicine, Pantarhei Bioscience, Zeist, The Netherlands
    Maturitas 47:269-75. 2004
    ..Well informed and individualised choice of treatment seems the appropriate solution...
  55. ncbi Effect of conjugated equine estrogens on oxidative metabolism in middle-aged and elderly postmenopausal women
    Mary Beth O'Connell
    Pharmacy Practice Department Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 2427, USA
    J Clin Pharmacol 46:1299-307. 2006
    ..CEE significantly influenced CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP-mediated dapsone oxidative metabolism but not CYP2C19, CYP2E1, or N-acetyltransferase 2 metabolism in postmenopausal women. Age influenced CYP2D6 metabolism and dapsone hydroxylation...
  56. ncbi Equilenin-derived DNA adducts to cytosine in DNA duplexes: structures and thermodynamics
    Shuang Ding
    Department of Chemistry, New York University, 100 Washington Square East, New York, New York 10003, USA
    Biochemistry 44:14565-76. 2005
    ..The unusual structures and the stereochemical effects underlie their biological processing as miscoding DNA lesions whose mutagenic properties may contribute to breast cancer...
  57. ncbi Alendronate: an update of its use in osteoporosis
    M Sharpe
    Adis International Limited, Mairangi Bay, Auckland, New Zealand
    Drugs 61:999-1039. 2001
    ..However, postmarketing surveillance reported a low incidence of adverse events related to the oesophagus. Specific instructions aimed at reducing the risk of upper GI adverse events have been provided by the manufacturer...
  58. ncbi Ceruloplasmin serum level in post-menopausal women treated with oral estrogens administered at different times
    C Clemente
    Laboratorio di Biochimica, I.R.C.C.S.S. de Bellis Castellana G, Bari, Italy
    Horm Metab Res 24:191-3. 1992
    ..These data reflect indirectly the presence of a circadian rhythm of hepatic responsiveness to the estrogens...
  59. ncbi [Effects of tamoxifen and estrogen replacement therapy on lipid metabolism and some other cardiovascular risk factors. A prospective study in hysterectomised women]
    F Imperato
    Dipartimento di Scienze Ginecologiche, Perinatologia e Puericultura, II Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy
    Minerva Ginecol 55:87-93. 2003
    ..The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the relationship of tamoxifen and the risk factors of cardiovascular disease in hysterectomised women...
  60. ncbi Alkylation of 2'-deoxynucleosides and DNA by the Premarin metabolite 4-hydroxyequilenin semiquinone radical
    L Shen
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy M C 781, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 60612 7231, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 11:94-101. 1998
    ..The production of these semiquinone radical-derived DNA adducts could play a role in the carcinogenic effects of Premarin estrogens...
  61. doi Bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogens for menopausal symptom treatment and osteoporosis prevention
    J V Pinkerton
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Midlife Health, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA
    Climacteric 15:411-8. 2012
    ..Based on its demonstrated efficacy and safety in women both closer to or further from menopause, BZA/CE may be an appropriate alternative to hormone therapy for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and the prevention of osteoporosis...
  62. ncbi Estrogen plus progestin and breast cancer detection by means of mammography and breast biopsy
    Rowan T Chlebowski
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
    Arch Intern Med 168:370-7; quiz 345. 2008
    ..The effect of combined hormone therapy on breast cancer detection is not established...
  63. pmc Profile of bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogens for the treatment of estrogen deficiency symptoms and osteoporosis in women at risk of fracture
    Maurizio Rossini
    Department of Medicine, Rheumatology Unit, University of Verona, Italy
    Drug Des Devel Ther 7:601-10. 2013
    ....
  64. pmc Conformational properties of equilenin-DNA adducts: stereoisomer and base effects
    Shuang Ding
    Departments of Biology and Chemistry, New York University, 100 Washington Square East, New York City, New York 10003, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 21:1064-73. 2008
    ..These differences may underlie observed differential stereoisomer and base-dependent mutagenicities and repair susceptibilities of these adducts...
  65. ncbi A comparison of the effects of raloxifene and estrogen on bone in postmenopausal women
    K M Prestwood
    Center on Aging and Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington 06030 5215, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:2197-202. 2000
    ..Thus, raloxifene is an alternative to CEE for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women...
  66. ncbi Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone, Premarin and Acolbifene on histomorphology and sex steroid receptors in the rat vagina
    L Berger
    Oncology and Molecular Endocrinology Research Center, Laval University Medical Center CHUL, 2705 Laurier Boulevard, Quebec City, Que, Canada G1V 4G2
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 96:201-15. 2005
    ..DHEA exerts both androgenic and estrogenic effects on the vaginal mucosa, thus providing a more physiological replacement therapy...
  67. doi Effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy on incident atrial fibrillation: the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trials
    MARCO V PEREZ
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA
    Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 5:1108-16. 2012
    ..Atrial fibrillation (AF) is less prevalent in women versus men, but associated with higher risks of stroke and death in women. The role hormone therapy plays in AF is not well understood...
  68. doi Hot flush symptom-free days with bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogens in postmenopausal women
    H Yu
    Pfizer Inc, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA
    Climacteric 16:252-7. 2013
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the number of hot flush symptom-free days in symptomatic postmenopausal women treated with bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogens (BZA/CE)...
  69. ncbi Short-term effects of new synthetic conjugated estrogens on biochemical markers of bone turnover
    Patrick Garnero
    INSERM Research Unit 403, Hĵpital E Herriot, Lyon, France
    J Clin Pharmacol 42:290-6. 2002
    ..Synthetic conjugated estrogens significantly decreased bone resorption and bone formation comparable to that previously reported for estrogen treatments proven efficacious in preventing postmenopausal bone loss...
  70. ncbi Free and conjugated estrogens and androgens in stallion semen
    Emmanuel Lemazurier
    Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, Universite de Caen, Caen Cedex, 14032, France
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 125:272-82. 2002
    ..The involvement of estrogens in the regulation of reproduction and equine spermatogenesis is discussed, and estrogens production and thus equine aromatase is proposed as a strong marker of testicular endocrine function...
  71. ncbi Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of free and conjugated estrogens in breast cancer patients before and after exemestane treatment
    Yuli Zhao
    Division of Analytical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2G3
    Anal Chim Acta 806:172-9. 2014
    ..8863 (n=360, P<0.0001). This study provides urinary and blood estrogen concentration profiles in breast cancer patients to demonstrate the effect of exemestane on estrogen generation, supporting inhibition of aromatase activity...
  72. ncbi Expression of steroid receptors in intact rat uterus, mammary gland, and liver treated with selective estrogen receptor modulators and conjugated equine estrogens
    Merih Bayram
    Kirikkale University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Kirikkale, Turkey
    Adv Ther 22:587-94. 2005
    ..Only ER expression in the uterus was found to be greater in the CEE-treated group than in SERM-treated groups...
  73. ncbi Influence of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy on an estrogen metabolite biomarker of risk for breast cancer
    R B Alvarez-Vasquez
    Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY 10003, USA
    Horm Metab Res 35:358-61. 2003
    ..84). The finding that the ratio of women on HRT was not decreased to or toward the ratio in women with breast cancer can be interpreted, we believe, as a suggestive item of biochemical evidence that HRT is not a risk for breast cancer...
  74. pmc Premarin improves memory, prevents scopolamine-induced amnesia and increases number of basal forebrain choline acetyltransferase positive cells in middle-aged surgically menopausal rats
    Jazmin I Acosta
    Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA
    Horm Behav 55:454-64. 2009
    ..These findings are similar to those reported previously for 17 beta-estradiol, and suggest that CEE can provide cognitive benefits on spatial learning, reference and working memory, possibly through cholinergic mechanisms...
  75. ncbi Serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations in postmenopausal women: the effect of hormone replacement therapy
    R Agrawal
    Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, The Middlesex Hospital and The Royal Free Hospital, London, United Kingdom
    Fertil Steril 73:56-60. 2000
    ..To assess serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women in relation to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and the presence or absence of a uterus...
  76. doi Relief of vasomotor symptoms with the tissue-selective estrogen complex containing bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogens: a randomized, controlled trial
    Joann V Pinkerton
    University of Virginia, Midlife Health Center and Division, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
    Menopause 16:1116-24. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of bazedoxifene (BZA)/conjugated estrogens (CE) treating moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms in the Selective Estrogen Menopause and Response to Therapy 2 trial...
  77. ncbi Hormonal replacement regimens and bleeding
    M Doren
    Department of Family Planning, King s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, UK
    Maturitas 34:S17-23. 2000
    ..There is no ideal therapy available to suit women looking for a permanently bleed-free hormonal replacement therapy today...
  78. pmc 4-hydroxyequilenin-adenine lesions in DNA duplexes: stereochemistry, damage site, and structure
    Shuang Ding
    Department of Chemistry and Department of Biology, New York University, 100 Washington Square East, New York, New York 10003
    Biochemistry 46:182-91. 2007
    ..These characteristics may manifest themselves in terms of differential nucleotide excision repair susceptibilities and mutagenic activities of the 4-OHEN-A and C adducts...
  79. ncbi Effects of lasofoxifene on bone in surgically postmenopausal cynomolgus monkeys
    Cynthia Lees
    Department of Pathology, Section on Comparative Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USA
    Menopause 14:97-105. 2007
    ..The primary endpoint of this study was biomechanical testing of animals treated for 2 years...
  80. ncbi HRT and breast cancer risk: a realistic perspective
    J C Stevenson
    Climacteric 14:633-6. 2011
    ..HRT is a benefit, not a risk, for those women requiring it...
  81. ncbi Different effects of transdermal and oral hormone replacement therapy on the renin-angiotensin system, plasma bradykinin level, and blood pressure of normotensive postmenopausal women
    Junko Ichikawa
    Department of Anesthesiology, Tokyo Women s Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
    Am J Hypertens 19:744-9. 2006
    ....
  82. ncbi Bazedoxifene and bazedoxifene combined with conjugated estrogens for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis
    E Michael Lewiecki
    New Mexico Clinical Research and Osteoporosis Center, 300 Oak Street NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106, USA
    Expert Opin Investig Drugs 16:1663-72. 2007
    ..Bazedoxifene/conjugated estrogens is a potential agent for the prevention of PMO and control of menopausal symptoms...
  83. ncbi [Low dose estrogens and synthetic estrogens. Options for hormone replacement therapy in climacteric women]
    Vitelio Velasco-Murillo
    Coordinación de Salud Reproductiva, Dirección de Prestaciones Médicas, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico
    Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 45:381-7. 2007
    ..This review aims at contributing to the analysis a possible future use of this type of hormone treatment within the institutional program with the goal of giving safer options to clinicians in managing women with menopausal symptoms...
  84. pmc Coronary heart disease in postmenopausal recipients of estrogen plus progestin therapy: does the increased risk ever disappear? A randomized trial
    Sengwee Toh
    Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, 133 Brookline Avenue, 6th Floor, Boston, MA 02215, USA
    Ann Intern Med 152:211-7. 2010
    ..Estrogen plus progestin therapy increases the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) in postmenopausal women. However, this increased risk might be limited to the first years of use and to women who start therapy late in menopause...
  85. ncbi [Hormone substitution with premarin plus. Results of an Austrian multicenter treatment study]
    T Kazar
    Wyeth Osterreich, Wien
    Wien Med Wochenschr 145:18-21. 1995
    ..Overall judgement of the results shows a very high level of efficacy and a well tolerated scheme of hormone replacement therapy with the option of individual estrogen dose adjustments...
  86. pmc NMR and computational studies of stereoisomeric equine estrogen-derived DNA cytidine adducts in oligonucleotide duplexes: opposite orientations of diastereomeric forms
    Na Zhang
    Structural Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA
    Biochemistry 48:7098-109. 2009
    ..These differences in stereoisomeric adduct conformations may play a role in the processing of these lesions in cellular environments...
  87. pmc Effects of estrogen with and without progestin and obesity on symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux
    Zongli Zheng
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Gastroenterology 135:72-81. 2008
    ..An association between female hormones and symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and may be modified by obesity is suggested but not proven. Factors affecting GERD progression, however, are largely unknown...
  88. doi Premarin can act via estrogen receptors to rescue mice from heatstroke-induced lethality
    Kun Hung Shen
    Department of Urology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan
    Shock 30:668-74. 2008
    ..The data indicate that Premarin may act via ERs to rescue mice form HS-induced lethality...
  89. ncbi Environmental health impacts of equine estrogens derived from hormone replacement therapy
    Charles R Tyler
    School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom
    Environ Sci Technol 43:3897-904. 2009
    ..These data provide evidence for the discharge of equine estrogens from HRT into the aquatic environment and highlight a strong likelihood that these compounds contribute to feminization in exposed wildlife...
  90. ncbi Health risks and benefits 3 years after stopping randomized treatment with estrogen and progestin
    Gerardo Heiss
    University of North Carolina, School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 3628, USA
    JAMA 299:1036-45. 2008
    ..The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial of estrogen plus progestin vs placebo was stopped early, after a mean 5.6 years of follow-up, because the overall health risks of hormone therapy exceeded its benefits...
  91. ncbi Effects of estrogen-only therapy on LDL oxidation in women with hysterectomy: does paraoxonase genotype play a role?
    Yasemin D Akçay
    Ege University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Bornova Izmir 35100, Turkey
    Maturitas 53:325-32. 2006
    ..PON genotypes are also evaluated considering that they may be associated with the personal differences observed in antioxidant effects induced by estrogen...
  92. doi The pairing of a selective estrogen receptor modulator, bazedoxifene, with conjugated estrogens as a new paradigm for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis prevention
    Yogendra Kharode
    Wyeth Research, Women s Health and Musculoskeletal Biology, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, USA
    Endocrinology 149:6084-91. 2008
    ..These preclinical findings showed that the appropriate dose combination of bazedoxifene/CE exhibits positive vasomotor, lipid, and skeletal responses with minimal uterine stimulation...
  93. ncbi Bone response to treatment with lower doses of conjugated estrogens with and without medroxyprogesterone acetate in early postmenopausal women
    Robert Lindsay
    Helen Hayes Hospital, Route 9 W, West Haverstraw, NY 10993, USA
    Osteoporos Int 16:372-9. 2005
    ..In summary, continued bone loss among early postmenopausal women treated with lower doses of CE or CE/MPA is uncommon...
  94. ncbi Conjugated equine estrogens reverse the effects of aging on central and peripheral allopregnanolone and beta-endorphin levels in female rats
    Andrea R Genazzani
    Department of Reproductive Medicine and Child Development, P Fioretti Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 35, 56100 Pisa, Italy
    Fertil Steril 81:757-66. 2004
    ..To compare beta-endorphin and allopregnanolone levels and their response to a 2-week oral estrogen treatment with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) in young ovariectomized (ovx) and in healthy aged female rats...
  95. ncbi Effects of low-dose, continuous combined hormone replacement therapy on sleep in symptomatic postmenopausal women
    Marco Gambacciani
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100 Pisa, Italy
    Maturitas 50:91-7. 2005
    ..Low-dose estrogen associated with low-dose micronized progesterone may especially benefit women who complain of disturbed sleep...
  96. ncbi Low-dose conjugated equine estrogens elevate circulating neurotransmitters and improve the psychological well-being of menopausal women
    Arturo Zarate
    Endocrine Research Unit, National Medical Center, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City, Mexico
    Fertil Steril 77:952-5. 2002
    ..To assess the effect of low-dose conjugated equine estrogens (E) on circulating neurotransmitters and the efficacy for the treatment of psychological symptoms...
  97. ncbi Quality of life and costs associated with micronized progesterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate in hormone replacement therapy for nonhysterectomized, postmenopausal women
    N Ryan
    Innovus Research Inc, Burlington, Ontario, Canada
    Clin Ther 23:1099-115. 2001
    ..A micronized form of natural progesterone is available that is readily absorbed and reaches peak serum concentrations from 1 to 4 hours after administration...
  98. ncbi Endometrial effects of bazedoxifene acetate, a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator, in postmenopausal women
    Sheila Ronkin
    Wyeth Research, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 105:1397-404. 2005
    ..To assess the endometrial effects of bazedoxifene acetate in healthy postmenopausal women...
  99. ncbi Conjugated equine estrogens and incidence of probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women: Women's Health Initiative Memory Study
    Sally A Shumaker
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    JAMA 291:2947-58. 2004
    ..The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) previously found increased risk for dementia and no effect on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in women treated with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA)...
  100. ncbi Comparison of tibolone and conjugated equine estrogens effects on carotid artery atherosclerosis of postmenopausal monkeys
    Thomas B Clarkson
    Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157 1040, USA
    Stroke 33:2700-3. 2002
    ....
  101. ncbi Estrogen levels do not correlate with improvement in cognition
    Leon J Thal
    Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Arch Neurol 60:209-12. 2003
    ..To investigate whether an association exists between estradiol and estrone levels and measures of cognitive functioning in women with Alzheimer disease (AD) treated with conjugated equine estrogen (Premarin; Wyeth-Ayerst, Philadelphia, Pa)...

Research Grants68

  1. SAFETY OF ESTROGEN IN LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS- NAT'L ASSESS'
    Jill Buyon; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Such approaches have already changed long-held beliefs about the risk of lupus flares during pregnancy. ..
  2. SAFETY OF ESTROGEN IN LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS- NAT'L ASSESS'
    Jill Buyon; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Such approaches have already changed long-held beliefs about the risk of lupus flares during pregnancy. ..
  3. EFFECT OF SEX HORMONES ON REGIONAL BRAIN & NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS
    Pauline Maki; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Lastly, the neuroimaging component allows us to investigate the neural underpinnings for the expected benefits in cognition. ..
  4. Novel Treatment of menopausal hot flushes with an extradiol prodrug
    Istvan Merchenthaler; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..e., the use of para-quinol of estrogen as a prodrug approach. The prodrug is converted to estrogen in brain but not uterus and breast, and as a result, it blunts hot flushes in an animal model of hot flush. ..
  5. IMMUNOPHARMACOKINETICS AND IMMUNOPHARMACODYNAMICS
    Leslie Benet; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ....
  6. IMMUNOPHARMACOKINETICS AND IMMUNOPHARMACODYNAMICS
    Leslie Benet; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ....
  7. Novel treatment of menopausal hot flushes with an estradiol prodrug
    Laszlo Prokai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition, the pro-drug approach we propose here could provide an impetus for drug discovery of other related or un-related therapies. ..
  8. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF ESTROGEN TO CARCINOGENIC QUINOIDS
    JUDY BOLTON; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..These data will determine the role of quinoids in the carcinogenic effects of estrogens and provide a basis for the development of estrogen replacement drugs devoid of carcinogenic activity. ..
  9. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF ESTROGEN TO CARCINOGENIC QUINOIDS
    JUDY BOLTON; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..These data will determine the role of quinoids in the carcinogenic effects of estrogens and provide a basis for the development of estrogen replacement drugs devoid of carcinogenic activity. ..
  10. Isomeric HRT estrogen-DNA adducts: Structure and Repair
    Nicholas Geacintov; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  11. Isomeric HRT estrogen-DNA adducts: Structure and Repair
    Nicholas Geacintov; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....
  12. Isomeric HRT estrogen-DNA adducts: Structure and Repair
    Nicholas Geacintov; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  13. Isomeric HRT estrogen-DNA adducts: Structure and Repair
    Nicholas Geacintov; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  14. Isomeric HRT estrogen-DNA adducts: Structure and Repair
    Nicholas Geacintov; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  15. Isomeric HRT estrogen-DNA adducts: Structure and Repair
    Nicholas Geacintov; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  16. VITAMIN INTERVENTION FOR STROKE PREVENTION (VISP) CLINICAL TRIAL
    M Malinow; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Mol Brain Res 53:120-129, 1998. Pecins-Thompson M, Bethea CL. Ovarian steroid regulation of serotonin-1A autoreceptor messenger RNA expression in the dorsal raphe of rhesus macaques. Neuroscience 89:267-277, 1998. ..
  17. SEX HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY AND ADOLESCENT BEHAVIOR
    HOWARD KULIN; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Such information will be useful in designing intervention strategies for improved health care to adolescents...
  18. Bone Content and Metabolism of Sex Steroid Hormones
    STEPHEN BORST; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The proposed experiments seek to determine the role played by bone metabolism in mediating the effects of testosterone on bone. The findings will help to guide the rational design of treatments to prevent osteopenia in the elderly. ..
  19. FEMORAL OSTEOPOROSIS IN ELDERLY WOMEN
    Susan Greenspan; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Data derived from this study should provide the basic for an effective intervention to stabilize or increase femoral bone mass and reserve architectural integrity in elderly women. ..
  20. RED CLOVER PHYTOESTROGENS EFFECTS ON ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    James Goodrich; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The overall objective is to advance knowledge of how to optimize the cardioprotective effects of phytoestogens and to determine if there are any associated risks to reproductive tissues. ..
  21. ER beta selective agonist coronary protection-menopause
    R Hermsmeyer; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The new ERbetaA is to be contrasted with PremPro(r) (oral conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate) which failed to provide cardiovascular protection in the Women's Health Initiative. ..
  22. ER beta selective agonist coronary protection-menopause
    R Hermsmeyer; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The new ERbetaA is to be contrasted with PremPro(r) (oral conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate) which failed to provide cardiovascular protection in the Women's Health Initiative. ..
  23. Progestin Actions in the Primate Breast and Uterus
    Charles Wood; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..This work will have immediate public health relevance to postmenopausal women seeking the safest form of hormone therapy. ..
  24. Progestin Actions in the Primate Breast and Uterus
    Charles Wood; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This work will have immediate public health relevance to postmenopausal women seeking the safest form of hormone therapy. ..
  25. Variations in Hormone Therapy: Effects on Cognition and Markers of Brain Aging
    HEATHER ALLYSON BIMONTE NELSON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These studies will help elucidate which variations in hormone therapy attenuate or exacerbate age-related changes in cognition and the brain, as well as the mechanism of progesterone's effects when given alone and with estrogen. ..
  26. Variations in Hormone Therapy: Effects on Cognition and Markers of Brain Aging
    Heather Bimonte Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These studies will help elucidate which variations in hormone therapy attenuate or exacerbate age-related changes in cognition and the brain, as well as the mechanism of progesterone's effects when given alone and with estrogen. ..
  27. Progestin Actions in the Primate Breast and Uterus
    Charles Wood; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..This work will have immediate public health relevance to postmenopausal women seeking the safest form of hormone therapy. ..
  28. Variations in Hormone Therapy: Effects on Cognition and Markers of Brain Aging
    Heather Bimonte Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies will help elucidate which variations in hormone therapy attenuate or exacerbate age-related changes in cognition and the brain, as well as the mechanism of progesterone's effects when given alone and with estrogen. ..
  29. Variations in Hormone Therapy: Effects on Cognition and Markers of Brain Aging
    Heather Bimonte Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..These studies will help elucidate which variations in hormone therapy attenuate or exacerbate age-related changes in cognition and the brain, as well as the mechanism of progesterone's effects when given alone and with estrogen. ..
  30. CARCINOGENICITY OF B RING UNSATURATED ESTROGENS
    DAVID SPINK; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..abstract_text> ..
  31. CARCINOGENICITY OF B RING UNSATURATED ESTROGENS
    DAVID SPINK; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  32. CARCINOGENICITY OF B RING UNSATURATED ESTROGENS
    DAVID SPINK; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  33. Progestin Actions in the Primate Breast and Uterus
    Charles Wood; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..This work will have immediate public health relevance to postmenopausal women seeking the safest form of hormone therapy. ..
  34. CARCINOGENICITY OF B RING UNSATURATED ESTROGENS
    DAVID SPINK; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  35. ESTROGEN MODULATION OF VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE
    Anne Martin; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..These proposed experiments will provide us with significant new information on the role of the smooth muscle cell and its myosin heavy chain isoform population in the protective effect of estrogen on the cardiovascular system...
  36. HORMONE REPLACEMENT IN MENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH EPILEPSY
    Cynthia Harden; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The outcome of this study will be determined by comparing seizure frequency in the baseline phase with the treated phase between placebo and hormone treated groups. ..
  37. TAMOXIFEN AND CORONARY HEART DISEASE
    James Williams; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ....
  38. HORMONE REPLACEMENT IN MENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH EPILEPSY
    Cynthia Harden; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The outcome of this study will be determined by comparing seizure frequency in the baseline phase with the treated phase between placebo and hormone treated groups. ..
  39. HORMONE REPLACEMENT IN MENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH EPILEPSY
    Cynthia Harden; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The outcome of this study will be determined by comparing seizure frequency in the baseline phase with the treated phase between placebo and hormone treated groups. ..
  40. Molecular progression of endometrial cancer
    David Loose; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..This panel of biomarkers may be extended for use in the future analysis of the endometrial effects of newer SERMs. ..
  41. HORMONE REPLACEMENT AND METABOLIC CARDIOVASCULAR RISK
    Cynthia Sites; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In addition, our study may allow physicians to target hormone replacement to women with specific body compositions. ..
  42. HORMONE REPLACEMENT AND METABOLIC CARDIOVASCULAR RISK
    Cynthia Sites; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..In addition, our study may allow physicians to target hormone replacement to women with specific body compositions. ..
  43. HORMONE REPLACEMENT AND METABOLIC CARDIOVASCULAR RISK
    Cynthia Sites; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..In addition, our study may allow physicians to target hormone replacement to women with specific body compositions. ..
  44. HORMONE REPLACEMENT AND METABOLIC CARDIOVASCULAR RISK
    Cynthia Sites; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..In addition, our study may allow physicians to target hormone replacement to women with specific body compositions. ..
  45. HORMONE REPLACEMENT AND METABOLIC CARDIOVASCULAR RISK
    Cynthia Sites; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..In addition, our study may allow physicians to target hormone replacement to women with specific body compositions. ..
  46. Xenoestrogens: Genomic and Non-genomic Mechanisms
    Nira Ben Jonathan; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The results of these studies should provide much needed experimental foundation for assessing the vulnerability of the pituitary gland to insults by endocrine disruptors. ..
  47. Estrogen, Inflammation and Cardiovascular Risk
    David Reuben; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These findings may provide substantial insight into why CEE appears to promote early but protect against late cardiovascular effects. ..
  48. Xenoestrogens: Genomic and Non-genomic Mechanisms
    Nira Ben Jonathan; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The results of these studies should provide much needed experimental foundation for assessing the vulnerability of the pituitary gland to insults by endocrine disruptors. ..
  49. Estrogen, Inflammation and Cardiovascular Risk
    David Reuben; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These findings may provide substantial insight into why CEE appears to promote early but protect against late cardiovascular effects. ..
  50. Xenoestrogens: Genomic and Non-genomic Mechanisms
    Nira Ben Jonathan; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The results of these studies should provide much needed experimental foundation for assessing the vulnerability of the pituitary gland to insults by endocrine disruptors. ..
  51. Xenoestrogens: Genomic and Non-genomic Mechanisms
    Nira Ben Jonathan; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The results of these studies should provide much needed experimental foundation for assessing the vulnerability of the pituitary gland to insults by endocrine disruptors. ..
  52. EXERCISE, ESTROGEN AND AGING--CARDIAC FUNCTION IN WOMEN
    ROBERT SPINA; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Blood volume will be measured by determining red cell and plasma volumes by standard radionuclide techniques. Arterial stiffness will be evaluated by measurement of pulse wave velocity. ..
  53. SEX STEROIDS AND MAMMOGRAM DENSITY IN THE POSTMENOPAUSE
    Gail Greendale; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The investigators state that this may serve as the first in a series of investigations that would allow identification of those women at higher risk of developing breast toxicity from postmenopausal supplemental hormone use. ..
  54. The effects of randomized, low-dose hormone therapy on mammographic density in KE
    Rulla M Tamimi; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  55. SEX STEROIDS AND MAMMOGRAM DENSITY IN THE POSTMENOPAUSE
    Gail Greendale; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The investigators state that this may serve as the first in a series of investigations that would allow identification of those women at higher risk of developing breast toxicity from postmenopausal supplemental hormone use. ..
  56. SEX STEROIDS AND MAMMOGRAM DENSITY IN THE POSTMENOPAUSE
    Gail Greendale; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The investigators state that this may serve as the first in a series of investigations that would allow identification of those women at higher risk of developing breast toxicity from postmenopausal supplemental hormone use. ..
  57. ESTROGEN IN THE PREVENTION OF BONE LOSS FROM THE HIP
    Michael Kleerekoper; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..We will evaluate the effect of CEE on bone mass in the lumbar spine and the forearm, and on stature. We will also examine the effect of CEE on libido and other aspects of quality of life in this age group...
  58. HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY AND BREAST CANCER
    Hans Olov Adami; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..The corresponding estimates by duration of combined treatment were 84% for each stratum of 1-6, 6-11 and 12+ years respectively...
  59. LEVORMELOXIFENE EFFECTS ON CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    James Goodrich; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The data produced by this pilot study will be used for an NIH R01 grant application for a full scale study. ..
  60. COMP ORAL ESTRADIOL 3 B GLUCOSIDE W/ MICRONIZED 17B ESTR
    Alan Malabanan; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..abstract_text> ..
  61. Hormone Therapy and Cognitive Aging in Older and Younger Postmenopausal Women: E
    Sally Shumaker; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..WHIMS-Y tests the [unreadable]window of opportunity[unreadable] hypothesis that HT shortly after menopause will confer benefit to later cognitive health. ..
  62. VASCULAR EFFECTS & MECHANISM OF ACTION OF ESTROGEN & ESTROGEN-ANDROGEN
    Lorraine Fitzpatrick; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Study enrollment will increase once all avenues of recruitment within Mayo and the communities are in place. ..
  63. POSTMENOPAUSAL ESTROGEN INFLUENCES ON OLFACTION
    RICHARD DOTY; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Third, it would lead to testable hypotheses regarding the role of reproductive hormones, and their underlying mechanisms, in the maintenance of normal olfactory function. ..
  64. POSTMENOPAUSAL ESTROGEN INFLUENCES ON OLFACTION
    RICHARD DOTY; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Third, it would lead to testable hypotheses regarding the role of reproductive hormones, and their underlying mechanisms, in the maintenance of normal olfactory function. ..
  65. MECHANISM OF INCREASED PLASMA APO A1 LEVELS BY ESTROGENS
    ERNST SCHAEFER; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The low dose estrogen (b) and the estrogen-progestin combination (c) are frequently prescribed to postmenopausal women as hormone replacement therapy, but there are metabolism and apolipoprotein kinetics. ..