essential amino acids

Summary

Summary: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.

Top Publications

  1. pmc Essential amino acids increase microRNA-499, -208b, and -23a and downregulate myostatin and myocyte enhancer factor 2C mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle
    Micah J Drummond
    Department of Physical Therapy, Division of Rehabilitation Science, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    J Nutr 139:2279-84. 2009
  2. ncbi A high proportion of leucine is required for optimal stimulation of the rate of muscle protein synthesis by essential amino acids in the elderly
    Christos S Katsanos
    Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77550, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291:E381-7. 2006
  3. pmc Infectious tolerance via the consumption of essential amino acids and mTOR signaling
    Stephen P Cobbold
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RE, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:12055-60. 2009
  4. pmc Skeletal muscle protein anabolic response to resistance exercise and essential amino acids is delayed with aging
    Micah J Drummond
    Department of Physical Therapy, Division of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555 1144, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 104:1452-61. 2008
  5. ncbi Aging is associated with diminished accretion of muscle proteins after the ingestion of a small bolus of essential amino acids
    Christos S Katsanos
    Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 82:1065-73. 2005
  6. pmc Essential amino acids are primarily responsible for the amino acid stimulation of muscle protein anabolism in healthy elderly adults
    Elena Volpi
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 78:250-8. 2003
  7. pmc Aging differentially affects human skeletal muscle microRNA expression at rest and after an anabolic stimulus of resistance exercise and essential amino acids
    Micah J Drummond
    Dept of Physical Therapy, Univ of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 1144, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295:E1333-40. 2008
  8. ncbi Comprehensive effects of supplemented essential amino acids in patients with severe COPD and sarcopenia
    R W Dal Negro
    U O C di Pneumologia, ULSS22 Regione Veneto, Ospedale Orlandi, Bussolengo, Verona, Italy
    Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 73:25-33. 2010
  9. doi The transplacental transport of essential amino acids in uncomplicated human pregnancies
    Henry L Galan
    Section of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 200:91.e1-7. 2009
  10. ncbi Nutritional supplementation with mixed essential amino acids enhances myocyte survival, preserving mitochondrial functional capacity during ischemia-reperfusion injury
    Tiziano M Scarabelli
    Division of Cardiology, St John Hospital and Medical Center, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA
    Am J Cardiol 93:35A-40A. 2004

Research Grants

  1. Nutrition and Anabolic Interventions in Cancer Cachexia
    Melinda Sheffield Moore; Fiscal Year: 2010
  2. THERAPY IN DIALYSIS HYPOALBUMINEMIA AND HOMOCYSTEINEMIA
    Joseph Eustace; Fiscal Year: 2004
  3. Severe falciparum malaria: mechanisms of hypoargininemia
    Bert Lopansri; Fiscal Year: 2006
  4. PROTEINS OF COAGULATION PATHWAYS
    John Griffin; Fiscal Year: 1999
  5. ACTIVE SITE STUDIES OF HUMAN SULFOTRANSFERASES
    Guangping Chen; Fiscal Year: 2003
  6. BRANCHED CHAIN AMINO ACID METABOLISM
    SUSAN HUTSON; Fiscal Year: 2002
  7. FETAL VELOCIMETRY AND AMINO ACID TRANSPORT IN PREGNANCY
    FREDERICK BATTAGLIA; Fiscal Year: 2000
  8. BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER LARGE NEUTRAL AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER
    William Pardridge; Fiscal Year: 2003
  9. BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER LARGE NEUTRAL AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER
    RUBEN BOADO; Fiscal Year: 2002
  10. MECHANISMS OF NEONATAL PROTEIN ACCRETION
    Scott Denne; Fiscal Year: 2000

Detail Information

Publications189 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Essential amino acids increase microRNA-499, -208b, and -23a and downregulate myostatin and myocyte enhancer factor 2C mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle
    Micah J Drummond
    Department of Physical Therapy, Division of Rehabilitation Science, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
    J Nutr 139:2279-84. 2009
    b>Essential amino acids (EAA) stimulate muscle protein synthesis in humans. However, little is known about whether microRNAs (miRNA) and genes associated with muscle growth are expressed differently following EAA ingestion...
  2. ncbi A high proportion of leucine is required for optimal stimulation of the rate of muscle protein synthesis by essential amino acids in the elderly
    Christos S Katsanos
    Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77550, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291:E381-7. 2006
    ..We conclude that increasing the proportion of leucine in a mixture of EAA can reverse an attenuated response of muscle protein synthesis in elderly but does not result in further stimulation of muscle protein synthesis in young subjects...
  3. pmc Infectious tolerance via the consumption of essential amino acids and mTOR signaling
    Stephen P Cobbold
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RE, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:12055-60. 2009
    ..within skin grafts and dendritic cells, the expression of enzymes that consume at least 5 different essential amino acids (EAAs)...
  4. pmc Skeletal muscle protein anabolic response to resistance exercise and essential amino acids is delayed with aging
    Micah J Drummond
    Department of Physical Therapy, Division of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555 1144, USA
    J Appl Physiol (1985) 104:1452-61. 2008
    ..On the other hand, essential amino acids (EAA) increase MPS equally in both young and old subjects when sufficient EAA is ingested...
  5. ncbi Aging is associated with diminished accretion of muscle proteins after the ingestion of a small bolus of essential amino acids
    Christos S Katsanos
    Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 82:1065-73. 2005
    Previous evidence suggests that aging in healthy persons does not result in decreased incorporation of muscle proteins after a bolus ingestion of 15 g essential amino acids (EAAs).
  6. pmc Essential amino acids are primarily responsible for the amino acid stimulation of muscle protein anabolism in healthy elderly adults
    Elena Volpi
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 78:250-8. 2003
    ..We have shown that balanced amino acids stimulate muscle protein anabolism in the elderly, but it is unknown whether all amino acids are necessary to achieve this effect...
  7. pmc Aging differentially affects human skeletal muscle microRNA expression at rest and after an anabolic stimulus of resistance exercise and essential amino acids
    Micah J Drummond
    Dept of Physical Therapy, Univ of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 1144, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295:E1333-40. 2008
    ..However, aging is associated with higher basal skeletal muscle primary miRNA expression and a dysregulated miRNA response after the anabolic stimulus...
  8. ncbi Comprehensive effects of supplemented essential amino acids in patients with severe COPD and sarcopenia
    R W Dal Negro
    U O C di Pneumologia, ULSS22 Regione Veneto, Ospedale Orlandi, Bussolengo, Verona, Italy
    Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 73:25-33. 2010
    Aim of the study was to investigate whether or not oral supplementation of essential amino acids (EAAs) may improve body composition, muscle metabolism, physical activity, cognitive function, and health status in a population of subjects ..
  9. doi The transplacental transport of essential amino acids in uncomplicated human pregnancies
    Henry L Galan
    Section of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 200:91.e1-7. 2009
    The purpose of this study was to assess the placental transport of the essential amino acids (EAAs) in normal pregnancies.
  10. ncbi Nutritional supplementation with mixed essential amino acids enhances myocyte survival, preserving mitochondrial functional capacity during ischemia-reperfusion injury
    Tiziano M Scarabelli
    Division of Cardiology, St John Hospital and Medical Center, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA
    Am J Cardiol 93:35A-40A. 2004
    ..Sprague-Dawley rats were fed (by enteral route) a liquid diet, with or without mixed essential amino acids (daily dose of 1 g/kg) for 30 days...
  11. ncbi Essential amino acids improve insulin activation of AKT/MTOR signaling in soleus muscle of aged rats
    V Flati
    Department of Experimental Medicine, University of LAquila, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 23:81-9. 2010
    b>Essential amino acids (EAA) improve basal muscle protein synthesis in the elderly. Nevertheless, in settings of prolonged supplementation, putative signal pathways of EAA are currently unknown...
  12. ncbi The group A streptococcal dipeptide permease (Dpp) is involved in the uptake of essential amino acids and affects the expression of cysteine protease
    A Podbielski
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Hospital Ulm, Germany
    Mol Microbiol 28:1323-34. 1998
    ..They have been found to be involved in the uptake of essential amino acids, haem production, chemotaxis and sporulation. A 5...
  13. ncbi Supplementation with essential amino acids in middle age maintains the health of rat kidney
    G Corsetti
    Division of Human Anatomy, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 23:523-33. 2010
    ..Recently, the beneficial dietary effect of a specific mixture of essential amino acids (EAA) has been studied in elderly subjects, but no data were collected from the kidney...
  14. doi Catabolism of nutritionally essential amino acids in developing porcine enterocytes
    Lixiang Chen
    Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, 410128, Changsha, Hunan, China
    Amino Acids 37:143-52. 2009
    ..model to test the hypothesis that mucosal cells of the neonatal small intestine can degrade nutritionally essential amino acids (EAA)...
  15. pmc Maternal low-protein diet or hypercholesterolemia reduces circulating essential amino acids and leads to intrauterine growth restriction
    Kum Kum S Bhasin
    Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA
    Diabetes 58:559-66. 2009
    ..We have examined maternal mechanisms for adult-onset glucose intolerance, increased adiposity, and atherosclerosis using two mouse models for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): maternal protein restriction and hypercholesterolemia...
  16. ncbi Hypercortisolemia alters muscle protein anabolism following ingestion of essential amino acids
    Douglas Paddon-Jones
    Department of Surgery, University of Texas Medical Branch and Metabolism Unit, Shriners Burns Hospital, 815 Market Street, Galveston, TX 77550, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 284:E946-53. 2003
    ..hypercortisolemia alters muscle protein metabolism following ingestion of a potent anabolic stimulus: essential amino acids (EAA). A 27-h infusion (80 microg. kg(-1)...
  17. ncbi Improving the levels of essential amino acids and sulfur metabolites in plants
    Gad Galili
    Department of Plant Sciences, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Biol Chem 386:817-31. 2005
    ..Among the essential amino acids needed in human diets, Lys, Met, Thr and Trp are considered as the most important because they are present ..
  18. ncbi AtCAT6, a sink-tissue-localized transporter for essential amino acids in Arabidopsis
    Ulrich Z Hammes
    Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, 975 North Warson Road, St Louis, MO 63122, USA
    Plant J 48:414-26. 2006
    ..Our data suggest that AtCAT6 plays a role in supplying amino acids to sink tissues of plants and nematode-induced feeding structures...
  19. pmc Jasmonate-inducible plant enzymes degrade essential amino acids in the herbivore midgut
    Hui Chen
    Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan Proteome Consortium, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:19237-42. 2005
    ..sexta midgut to catabolize the essential amino acids Arg and Thr, respectively. Transgenic plants that overexpress arginase were more resistant to M...
  20. ncbi Functional properties of whey, whey components, and essential amino acids: mechanisms underlying health benefits for active people (review)
    Ewan Ha
    Functional Ingredients Research, Inc, Twin Falls, Idaho, USA
    J Nutr Biochem 14:251-8. 2003
    ..This paper will review the recent literature that describes functional properties of essential amino acids, whey proteins, whey-derived minerals and other compounds and the mechanisms by which they may confer ..
  21. ncbi Toward a feline-optimized culture medium: impact of ions, carbohydrates, essential amino acids, vitamins, and serum on development and metabolism of in vitro fertilization-derived feline embryos relative to embryos grown in vivo
    Jason R Herrick
    Center for Conservation and Research of Endangered Wildlife, Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden, Cincinnati, Ohio 45220, USA
    Biol Reprod 76:858-70. 2007
    ..5, 3.0, or 6.0 mM; l-lactate, 3.0, 6.0, or 12.0 mM; and pyruvate, 0.1 or 1.0 mM) and essential amino acids (EAAs; 0, 0.5, or 1.0x) in the medium during Days 1-3 and Days 3-6 of culture. Inclusion of vitamins (0 vs...
  22. ncbi Endocrine effects of food intake: insulin, ghrelin, and leptin responses to a single bolus of essential amino acids in humans
    I Knerr
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Erlangen Nuremberg, Loschgestrasse 15, DE 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Ann Nutr Metab 47:312-8. 2003
    This study deals with the physiological effects of an oral bolus of essential amino acids (AA) on the secretion of insulin, ghrelin and leptin in fasting humans.
  23. pmc Determination of essential amino acids involved in the CD4-independent tropism of the X4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 m7NDK isolate: role of potential N glycosylations in the C2 and V3 regions of gp120
    J Dumonceaux
    INSERM Unite 380, , , 75014 Paris, France
    J Virol 75:5425-8. 2001
    ..Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that three amino acids are essential to maintain this tropism, one in the C2 region and two in the V3 loop. Two mutations implied N glycosylation modifications...
  24. pmc Analysis of the Yersinia enterocolitica PspBC proteins defines functional domains, essential amino acids and new roles within the phage-shock-protein response
    Erwan Gueguen
    Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    Mol Microbiol 74:619-33. 2009
    ..and physiological functions of PspBC and discovered unexpected new roles, functional domains and essential amino acids. First, we showed that PspB controls PspC concentration by both pre- and post-transcriptional mechanisms...
  25. doi Overproduction of human interleukin-2 in recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 high-cell-density culture by the determination and optimization of essential amino acids using a simple stoichiometric model
    S Yegane-Sarkandy
    Chemical Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem 54:31-9. 2009
    ..the productivity of human IL-2 (interleukin-2), a stoichiometric model has been used to determine the most essential amino acids and precise values of their amounts to be added to the culture during expression of human IL-2 (as a model ..
  26. ncbi Essential amino acids of Escherichia coli DnaC protein in an N-terminal domain interact with DnaB helicase
    A V Ludlam
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 1319, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:27345-53. 2001
    ..Bond, M. W., Miyajima, A., Kobori, J., and Arai, K. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 10475-10480)...
  27. ncbi Higher urinary excretion of essential amino acids in preterm infants fed protein hydrolysates
    L Maggio
    Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy
    Acta Paediatr 94:75-84. 2005
    ..We designed a randomized, controlled trial to test the effects of a preterm formula with hydrolysed cow's milk proteins on short-term growth and urinary and plasma amino acids levels...
  28. pmc Different levels of transcriptional regulation due to trophic constraints in the reduced genome of Buchnera aphidicola APS
    Nancie Reymond
    UMR 203 INRA INSA de Lyon, Biologie Fonctionnelle Insectes et Interactions BF2I, INSA, Bat Louis Pasteur, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex, France
    Appl Environ Microbiol 72:7760-6. 2006
    ..the obligate intracellular bacterium associated with most aphid species, provides its hosts with essential amino acids (EAAs), nutrients in short supply in the plant phloem sap...
  29. pmc Improving the content of essential amino acids in crop plants: goals and opportunities
    Shai Ufaz
    Department of Plant Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Plant Physiol 147:954-61. 2008
  30. ncbi Endocrine responses to the oral ingestion of a physiological dose of essential amino acids in humans
    M Groschl
    Department of Paediatrics, Friedrich Alexander Universität Erlangen Nuremberg, Germany
    J Endocrinol 179:237-44. 2003
    ..was measured at 10 minute intervals following the oral ingestion of a standardised physiological dose of essential amino acids (AA). Twenty-eight healthy male, fasted volunteers (aged 18-40 yrs, BMI 18.0-24...
  31. ncbi Intestinal protein supply alters amino acid, but not glucose, metabolism by the sheep gastrointestinal tract
    Samer W El-Kadi
    Department of Animal and Avian Scienes, University of Maryland College Park, MD 00742, USA
    J Nutr 136:1261-9. 2006
    ..05, r = 0.90; PDV, P < 0.05, r = 0.93). The ruminant GIT appears to metabolize increasing amounts of the branched-chain AAs and certain nonessential AAs when the intestinal supply of protein is increased...
  32. ncbi Interplay of stress and physical inactivity on muscle loss: Nutritional countermeasures
    Douglas Paddon-Jones
    The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77550, USA
    J Nutr 136:2123-6. 2006
    ..This review focuses on the role of amino acid supplementation in the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass during age-related and clinically mandated inactivity...
  33. ncbi Effect of amino acid mixture on the isolated ischemic heart
    Evasio Pasini
    Service of Metabolic and Nutritional Pathophysiology, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Medical Center of Montescano, Pavia, Italy
    Am J Cardiol 93:30A-34A. 2004
    ..05) and lactate (15 +/- 1.5 mg/min/gww vs 5 +/- 1 mg/min/gww; p <0.05). We conclude that long-term supplementation of an amino acid mixture reduced myocardial ischemic damage...
  34. ncbi Metabolic effects of orally administered amino acid mixture in elderly subjects with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Sebastiano B Solerte
    Department of Internal Medicine, Geriatric Clinic, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
    Am J Cardiol 93:23A-29A. 2004
    ..We suggest that increased amino acid availability for skeletal muscle function and strength could ameliorate metabolic control and insulin sensitivity in elderly patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes...
  35. ncbi Early myocardial dysfunction in the diabetic heart: current research and clinical applications
    Roldano Scognamiglio
    Metabolic Cardiology Unit, Giustinianco Hospital, Division of Metabolic Diseases, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Padua, Padua, Italy
    Am J Cardiol 93:17A-20A. 2004
    ....
  36. ncbi Responses to amino acid imbalances and deficiencies in lactating dairy cows
    T L Weekes
    Centre for Nutrition Modelling, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 Canada
    J Dairy Sci 89:2177-87. 2006
    ..Infusion of the complete amino acid mix resulted in an increase in the plasma concentrations of several essential amino acids, insulin, and glucagon...
  37. ncbi Dietary arginine supplementation enhances the growth of milk-fed young pigs
    Sung Woo Kim
    Department of Animal and Food Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 2141, USA
    J Nutr 134:625-30. 2004
    ..Collectively, both the metabolic and growth data demonstrate unequivocally that arginine is deficient in milk-fed young pigs and that this arginine deficiency represents a major obstacle to maximal growth in piglets...
  38. ncbi The use of low-protein, low-phosphorus, amino acid- and phytase-supplemented diets on laying hen performance and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion
    K Keshavarz
    Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Poult Sci 83:75-83. 2004
    ..5% CP) and a negative control (13% CP) with and without supplementation with the limiting essential amino acids. In experiment 1, supplementing the negative control with lysine, methionine, and tryptophan resulted in ..
  39. ncbi Body composition of patients on a very low-protein diet: a two-year survey with DEXA
    Philippe Chauveau
    Service de Nephrologie, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux
    J Ren Nutr 13:282-7. 2003
    ..However, only few studies have examined the course of nutritional status and body composition in the long term (2 years)...
  40. ncbi Sparing of methionine requirements: evaluation of human data takes sulfur amino acids beyond protein
    Naomi K Fukagawa
    Department of Medicine and General Clinical Research Center, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont 05405, USA
    J Nutr 136:1676S-1681S. 2006
    ..Other pathways may influence the specific requirement for methionine and/or cysteine, especially when the person is challenged by disease, inadequate availability of food, or environmental stress...
  41. ncbi Effects of amino acid supplementation on left ventricular remodeling in patients with chronic heart failure with decreased systolic function and diabetes mellitus: rationale and design of a magnetic resonance imaging study
    Liviu Klein
    Division of Cardiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    Am J Cardiol 93:44A-46A. 2004
    ....
  42. ncbi Microbial production of single-cell protein from deproteinized whey concentrates
    Nadja Schultz
    Universitat Stuttgart, Institut für Bioverfahrenstechnik, Allmandring 31, 70569, Stuttgart, Germany
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 69:515-20. 2006
    ..used for the analysis of amino acid and ash composition, showing a distinct increase of eight out of ten essential amino acids compared to sweet and sour whey protein and exceeding the World Health Organisation guidelines for valine, ..
  43. ncbi Amino acid supplementation alters bone metabolism during simulated weightlessness
    S R Zwart
    Human Adaptation and Countermeasures Office, NASA Lyndon B Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
    J Appl Physiol 99:134-40. 2005
    ..5 g essential amino acids and 90 g carbohydrate per day for 28 days...
  44. ncbi Almond (Prunus dulcis L.) protein quality
    Susan Ahrens
    Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, College of Human Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, 32306 1493, USA
    Plant Foods Hum Nutr 60:123-8. 2005
    ..55 +/- 1.26, 92.25 +/- 1.05, and 82.62 +/- 1.47, respectively. Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Scoring (PDCAAS) values suggested almond proteins to be of poor nutritional quality...
  45. ncbi Skeletal muscle protein mobilization during the progression of lactation
    Emma J Clowes
    Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288:E564-72. 2005
    ....
  46. ncbi Human soleus and vastus lateralis muscle protein metabolism with an amino acid infusion
    Chad C Carroll
    Nutrition, Metabolism, and Exercise Laboratory, DWR Department of Geriatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288:E479-85. 2005
    ..The greater 4E-BP1 in the soleus suggests that there is a muscle-specific distribution of general translational initiation machinery in human skeletal muscle...
  47. pmc Amino acids and muscle loss with aging
    Satoshi Fujita
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA
    J Nutr 136:277S-80S. 2006
    ..For this reason, long-term essential amino acid supplementation may be a useful tool for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia, particularly if excess leucine is provided in the supplement...
  48. ncbi Effect of level of metabolizable protein on splanchnic flux of amino acids in lactating dairy cows
    G Raggio
    Departement des Sciences Animales, Universite Laval, Ste Foy, QC, Canada, G1K 7P4
    J Dairy Sci 87:3461-72. 2004
    ..Yields of milk and protein increased, as did urinary N excretion with increasing MP. Portal absorption of essential amino acids (EAA) increased linearly with increasing MP supply, as did liver removal of His, Met, and Phe...
  49. ncbi Essential amino acid and carbohydrate supplementation ameliorates muscle protein loss in humans during 28 days bedrest
    Douglas Paddon-Jones
    Metabolism Unit, 815 Market Street, Galveston, Texas 77550, USA
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:4351-8. 2004
    ..The experimental group (EXP) also consumed 16.5 g essential amino acids and 30 g carbohydrate (1100, 1600, and 2100 h). The dietary regimen was maintained during bedrest...
  50. ncbi Lysine deficiency and feed restriction independently alter cationic amino acid transporter expression in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus)
    Brooke D Humphrey
    Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 143:218-27. 2006
    ..By expressing high affinity CAT isoforms, developing lymphocytes may have a greater ability to obtain lysine than their surrounding tissue during a lysine deficiency...
  51. ncbi Exogenous amino acids stimulate human muscle anabolism without interfering with the response to mixed meal ingestion
    Douglas Paddon-Jones
    Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77550, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288:E761-7. 2005
    ..to determine whether ingestion of a between-meal supplement containing 30 g of carbohydrate and 15 g of essential amino acids (CAA) altered the metabolic response to a nutritionally mixed meal in healthy, recreationally active male ..
  52. ncbi What are the essential elements needed for the determination of amino acid requirements in humans?
    Peter Fürst
    Institute of Nutrition Science, University of Bonn, D 53115 Bonn, Germany
    J Nutr 134:1558S-1565S. 2004
    ..Based on these measurements tentative values for conditionally indispensable amino acids during disease are given in the article...
  53. ncbi Effect of ruminally protected methionine on splanchnic metabolism of amino acids in lactating dairy cows
    R Berthiaume
    Agriculture and Agri Food Canada, Lennoxville, QC, Canada J1M 1Z3
    J Dairy Sci 89:1621-34. 2006
    ..1 microM). Although it had no significant effect on net portal and hepatic fluxes of other essential amino acids, RPM resulted in a linear increase in the total splanchnic output of Ile, Leu, Phe, and Thr...
  54. ncbi Absorption of chemically unmodified lysine from proteins in foods that have sustained damage during processing or storage
    Paul J Moughan
    Massey University, Riddet Centre, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    J AOAC Int 88:949-54. 2005
    ..The development and application of an assay for absorbed (ileal digestible) reactive lysine is discussed...
  55. ncbi [Effect of hypoproteic diets enriched with essential and non-essential amino acids on the uninephrectomized rat ]
    Virginia Leticia Colina
    Universidad Central de Venezuela, Sección de Investigaciones Cardio Renales, Instituto de Medicina Experimental, Facultad de Medicina, Apartado Postal 50587, Caracas 1050, Venezuela
    Acta Cient Venez 53:21-8. 2002
    ..The hypoproteinic diets were enriched with Lysine and Arginine (essential amino acids) and Proline, Glutamic Acid and Asparagine (non essential amino acids)...
  56. doi Protein and amino acid metabolism in the human newborn
    Satish C Kalhan
    Department of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Annu Rev Nutr 28:389-410. 2008
    ..Finally, the physiological rationale and the impact of nutrient (amino acids) interventions on the dynamics of protein metabolism are discussed...
  57. ncbi Dietary essential amino acid supplements increase bone strength by influencing bone mass and bone microarchitecture in ovariectomized adult rats fed an isocaloric low-protein diet
    P Ammann
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland
    J Bone Miner Res 17:1264-72. 2002
    ..The animals fed the 2.5% casein diet were given isocaloric supplements of essential amino acids in similar relative proportion to that of casein at doses of 2...
  58. ncbi Cold exposure and associated metabolic changes in adult tropical beetles exposed to fluctuating thermal regimes
    L Lalouette
    UMR CNRS 6553, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes, France
    FEBS J 274:1759-67. 2007
    ..The increase of several essential amino acids (Lys, Iso, Leu, Phe and Trp) in cold-exposed beetles supports the conclusion that it results from the ..
  59. ncbi Effects of amino acid intake on anabolic processes
    R R Wolfe
    University of Texas Medical Branch, Shriners Burns Hospital, Galveston, TX, USA
    Can J Appl Physiol 26:S220-7. 2001
    ..of muscle protein synthesis appears to be the extracellular concentrations of one or more of the essential amino acids (EAAs)...
  60. pmc Nutrient signalling in the regulation of human muscle protein synthesis
    Satoshi Fujita
    University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Internal Medicine, Galveston, TX 77555 1144, USA
    J Physiol 582:813-23. 2007
    ..On the other hand, essential amino acids (leucine in particular) and insulin stimulate mTOR signalling and protein synthesis...
  61. ncbi Lysine requirement of healthy school-age children determined by the indicator amino acid oxidation method
    Rajavel Elango
    Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
    Am J Clin Nutr 86:360-5. 2007
    ..The current Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendations for lysine requirements in children are based on a factorial estimate...
  62. ncbi Aging does not impair the anabolic response to a protein-rich meal
    T Brock Symons
    Division of Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 1144, USA
    Am J Clin Nutr 86:451-6. 2007
    ..We previously showed that free-form essential amino acids acutely stimulate muscle protein synthesis in both the young and the elderly...
  63. ncbi Dried distillers grains plus solubles with corn silage or alfalfa hay as the primary forage source in dairy cow diets
    D H Kleinschmit
    Dairy Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007 0647, USA
    J Dairy Sci 90:5587-99. 2007
    ..Feeding alfalfa hay as the sole forage source improved feed efficiency compared with diets containing corn silage...
  64. ncbi Protein quality assessment: impact of expanding understanding of protein and amino acid needs for optimal health
    D Joe Millward
    School of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, University of Surrey, Surrey, UK
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:1576S-1581S. 2008
    ..As research continues to evolve in assessing protein's role in optimal health at higher intakes, there is also need to continue to explore implications for protein quality assessment...
  65. ncbi Stable nitrogen isotopes in essential versus non-essential amino acids of different plankton size fractions
    Natalie Loick
    Baltic Sea Research Institute Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany
    Isotopes Environ Health Stud 43:281-93. 2007
    ..isotope values (delta(15)N) of the essential amino acid (EAA) leucine and the delta(15)N values of six non-essential amino acids (NEAAs) from plankton size fractions from the South China Sea (SCS) were analysed...
  66. pmc Leucine-enriched essential amino acid and carbohydrate ingestion following resistance exercise enhances mTOR signaling and protein synthesis in human muscle
    Hans C Dreyer
    Department of Physical Therapy, Division of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555 1144, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 294:E392-400. 2008
    We recently showed that resistance exercise and ingestion of essential amino acids with carbohydrate (EAA+CHO) can independently stimulate mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and muscle protein synthesis in humans...
  67. doi Dietary crude protein has minimal effect on the activity of selected enzymes of methionine catabolism in kittens fed diets near-limiting in methionine
    M J Strieker
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
    J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 92:149-56. 2008
    ....
  68. ncbi Relationship of dietary lysine level to the concentration of all essential amino acids in broiler diets
    J Si
    Poultry Science Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville 72701, USA
    Poult Sci 80:1472-9. 2001
    A study was conducted to evaluate the relationship of dietary Lys and other essential amino acids (EAA) in diets for broilers. Diets were formulated based upon NRC (1994) recommendations...
  69. ncbi L-threonine supplementation increases the amplitude of the feed intake cycle of rats fed a low-protein zinc-deficient diet
    Kazuhiro Yamasaki
    Faculty of Nutrition and High Technology Research Center, Kobe Gakuin University, Japan
    J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 48:230-7. 2002
    ..patterns in rats fed a zinc-deficient diet before and after supplementation with protein and several essential amino acids were determined...
  70. ncbi Acute response of net muscle protein balance reflects 24-h balance after exercise and amino acid ingestion
    Kevin D Tipton
    Metabolism Unit, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Galveston, Texas 77550, USA
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 284:E76-89. 2003
    The purpose of this study was to determine if the acute anabolic muscle response to resistance exercise and essential amino acids (EAA) reflects the response over 24 h...
  71. ncbi [The modulating role of essential and non-essential amino acids in organotypic tissue culture in rats of different ages]
    N I Chalisova
    I P Pavlov Institute of Physiology, Russian Acad Sci, 199034, St Petersburg, Nab Makarova, 6, Russia
    Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova 89:591-7. 2003
    ..The data obtained suggest a modulating role of amino acids in the tissues at different stages of maturation...
  72. ncbi Nutrition support in critical illness: amino acids
    Peter Stehle
    Department of Nutrition Science, University Bonn, Bonn, Germany
    Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Clin Perform Programme 8:57-66; discussion 67-73. 2003
  73. ncbi Increasing dietary crude protein does not increase the essential amino acid requirements of kittens
    M J Strieker
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 90:344-53. 2006
    ..These results indicate that the EAA requirements of kittens are not positively correlated with dietary CP concentrations...
  74. ncbi Nitrogen balance and ileal amino acid digestibility in growing pigs fed diets reduced in protein concentration
    E R Otto
    Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824, USA
    J Anim Sci 81:1743-53. 2003
    ....
  75. ncbi Crude protein and essential amino acid requirements in chicks during the first week posthatch
    D Sklan
    Faculty of Agriculture, Hebrew University, Rehovot, Israel
    Br Poult Sci 44:266-74. 2003
    ..lysine and sulphur amino acid supply in the first week posthatch in broilers and the relationship between essential amino acids and dietary crude protein during the first week posthatch on performance at 7 d and through marketing. 2...
  76. ncbi Growth, carcass traits, and plasma amino acid concentrations of gilts fed low-protein diets supplemented with amino acids including histidine, isoleucine, and valine
    J L Figueroa
    Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska, Lincoln 68583 0908, USA
    J Anim Sci 81:1529-37. 2003
    ..These data suggest that valine is the fifth-limiting amino acid and that either histidine or isoleucine is the sixth-limiting amino acid in an 11% CP diet...
  77. ncbi Evaluation of protein fractionation systems used in formulating rations for dairy cattle
    C Lanzas
    Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    J Dairy Sci 90:507-21. 2007
    ..Approaches need to be developed to account for their variability. Research is needed to provide better methods for measuring pool sizes and ruminal digestion rates for protein fractionation systems...
  78. ncbi Free amino acid pool and muscle protein balance after resistance exercise
    Hannu T Pitkanen
    Neuromuscular Research Center, Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla, Finland
    Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:784-92. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a resistance exercise session (RES) on free amino acid concentrations and protein synthesis and breakdown of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle during recovery in male subjects...
  79. ncbi Evaluation of amino acid patterns in recipes for kidney disease patients
    Junko Kawakami
    Department of Home Economics, Sagami Women s Junior College, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan
    J Ren Nutr 13:126-32. 2003
    ..In addition, this research explored practical knowledge about which combination of foods could cause an imbalance, if any, of amino acids, and seek to further improve diets for patients with kidney disease...
  80. ncbi Effect of soybean meal particle size on amino acid and energy digestibility in grower-finisher swine
    N D Fastinger
    Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University and Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Columbus 43210, USA
    J Anim Sci 81:697-704. 2003
    ..05) as particle size decreased. When the essential amino acids were averaged, apparent digestibility increased (P < 0.10) from 83.5% to 84...
  81. ncbi Enhanced fracture and soft-tissue healing by means of anabolic dietary supplementation
    Michael S Hughes
    Department of Orthopaedics, University of Missouri School of Medicine, One Hospital Drive, Columbia, MO 65212, USA
    J Bone Joint Surg Am 88:2386-94. 2006
    ..This animal study was designed to examine the effects of dietary protein intake and the role of conditionally essential amino acids in muscle and bone-healing after a fracture.
  82. ncbi Addition of glutamine to essential amino acids and carbohydrate does not enhance anabolism in young human males following exercise
    Sarah B Wilkinson
    Exercise Metabolism Research Group, Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, 1280 Main St West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada
    Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 31:518-29. 2006
    ..The addition of glutamine to a CHO + EAA beverage had no effect on post-exercise muscle glycogen resynthesis or muscle protein synthesis, but may suppress a rise in whole-body proteolysis during the later stages of recovery...
  83. pmc Amino acid metabolism and regulatory effects in aging
    Kyle L Timmerman
    Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555 0460, USA
    Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 11:45-9. 2008
    ..To examine recent discoveries related to the amino acid metabolism and regulatory effects in aging, focusing on the development and treatment of age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia)...
  84. ncbi Effects of nutrients (in food) on the structure and function of the nervous system: update on dietary requirements for brain. Part 1: micronutrients
    J M Bourre
    French Academy of Medicine INSERM, U705 CNRS, UMR 7157 Universités Paris 7 et 5, Department of Neuro pharmaco nutrition Hôpital Fernand Widal, 200, rue du Faubourg Saint Denis, 75475 Paris Cedex 10
    J Nutr Health Aging 10:377-85. 2006
    ..Macronutrients are presented in the accompanying paper...
  85. ncbi Dietary protein reduction in sheep and goats: different effects on L-alanine and L-leucine transport across the brush-border membrane of jejunal enterocytes
    B Schroder
    Department of Physiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover, Germany
    J Comp Physiol B 173:511-8. 2003
    ..amino acids L-alanine (representative for nonessential amino acids) and L-leucine (representative for essential amino acids) as model substances...
  86. ncbi [Co-expressions of phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase A (ppsA) and transketolase A (tktA) genes of Escherichia coli]
    Yong Hui Li
    Institute of Radiation Medicine, Academy of Military Medicine Science, Beijing 100850, China
    Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 19:301-6. 2003
    ..Aromatic metabolites such as tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine are essential amino acids for human and animals. In addition, phenylalanine is used in aspartame production...
  87. ncbi Mechanism of inhibition of peptide chain initiation by amino acid deprivation in perfused rat liver. Regulation involving inhibition of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha phosphatase activity
    S R Kimball
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey 17033
    J Biol Chem 266:1969-76. 1991
    ..initiation of protein synthesis was shown to be inhibited in perfused rat livers deprived of single essential amino acids. In the present study, histidinol, a competitive inhibitor of histidinyl-tRNA synthetase, was used to ..
  88. ncbi Plasma amino acid levels in patients with colorectal cancers and liver cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma
    Jenq Chang Lee
    Department of Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Hospital College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan
    Hepatogastroenterology 50:1269-73. 2003
    ..In this study, we try to investigate the plasma free amino acid profile in patients with colorectal cancer and liver cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma, which are the most common cancers in Taiwan...
  89. ncbi Site-directed mutagenesis of essential residues involved in the mechanism of bacterial glycosylasparaginase
    Y Liu
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama 36688, USA
    J Biol Chem 273:9688-94. 1998
    ..Based on the activity of the mutant enzymes, six catalytically essential amino acids were identified: Trp-11, Asp-66, Thr-152, Thr-170, Arg-180, and Asp-183...
  90. doi L-leucine, L-methionine, and L-lysine are involved in the regulation of intermediary metabolism-related gene expression in rainbow trout hepatocytes
    Marine Lansard
    INRA, UMR1067 Nutrition Aquaculture et Génomique, Pôle d Hydrobiologie, CD918, F 64310 St Pée sur Nivelle, France
    J Nutr 141:75-80. 2011
    ..was placed on leucine, known to be a signaling molecule in mammals, and methionine and lysine that are essential amino acids limiting in plant-based diets for fish...
  91. ncbi [HFR vs HDF-ON line: plasmatic amino acids loss evaluation]
    E Ragazzoni
    U O Aziendale di Nefrologia e Dialisi, Ospedale di Borgomanero, Borgomanero, Novara
    G Ital Nefrol 21:S85-90. 2004
    ..These amino acids, often present with low plasmatic levels in hemodialyzed patients, seem to be related to a picture of malnourishment...
  92. ncbi Identification of six novel allosteric effectors of Arabidopsis thaliana aspartate kinase-homoserine dehydrogenase isoforms. Physiological context sets the specificity
    Gilles Curien
    Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Végétale UMR5168, CEA CNRS INRA Université Joseph Fourier, 38054 Grenoble, France
    J Biol Chem 280:41178-83. 2005
    ..These two activities catalyze the first and the third steps toward the synthesis of the essential amino acids threonine, isoleucine, and methionine...
  93. ncbi Impact of increasing parenteral protein loads on amino acid levels and balance in critically ill anuric patients on continuous renal replacement therapy
    C D Scheinkestel
    Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
    Nutrition 19:733-40. 2003
    ....
  94. doi Effects of estrous cycle stage and transport temperature of ovaries on in vitro maturation of canine oocytes
    Mithat Evecen
    Department of Reproduction and Artificial Insemination, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul University, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul, Turkey
    Anim Reprod Sci 117:160-5. 2010
    ..mSOF) supplemented with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), essential and non-essential amino acids at 38.5 degrees C in a humidified 5% CO(2), 5% O(2), and 90% N(2) atmosphere for 72 h...
  95. pmc Growing rats respond to a sulfur amino acid-deficient diet by phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 heterotrimeric complex and induction of adaptive components of the integrated stress response
    Angelos K Sikalidis
    Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
    J Nutr 140:1080-5. 2010
    ..responses to amino acid deficiency have commonly used media or diets devoid of 1 or more essential amino acids, we asked whether eIF2alpha-kinase-mediated responses would be induced in animals fed a more typical diet ..
  96. ncbi Development of farmed fish: a nutritionally necessary alternative to meat
    J R Sargent
    Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, UK
    Proc Nutr Soc 58:377-83. 1999
    ..The dietary requirement of these farmed fish for high-quality protein, rich in essential amino acids, can be met by sources other than fishmeal...
  97. ncbi Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 gene expression can be regulated by diet manipulation in several tissues of young chickens
    Kazumi Kita
    Laboratory of Grassland Science, University Farm, Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Togo, Aichi 470 0151, Japan
    J Nutr 132:145-51. 2002
    ..casein; crude protein (CP) 20%] and the supplementation of essential amino acids on IGFBP-2 gene expression of young chickens (5 wk old) was examined...
  98. doi Overexpression of mutated forms of aspartate kinase and cystathionine gamma-synthase in tobacco leaves resulted in the high accumulation of methionine and threonine
    Yael Hacham
    Laboratory of Plant Science, Migal Galilee Technology Center, P O Box 831, Kiryat Shmona 12 100, Israel
    Plant J 54:260-71. 2008
    Methionine and threonine are two essential amino acids, the levels of which limit the nutritional quality of plants...
  99. doi Enhanced tumor growth elicited by L-type amino acid transporter 1 in human malignant glioma cells
    Keiichi Kobayashi
    Department of Neurosurgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    Neurosurgery 62:493-503; discussion 503-4. 2008
    ..a major catalytic subunit of system L that is responsible for the transport of large neutral amino acids, including most essential amino acids, in concert with the covalently bound 4F2 heavy chain, and is implicated in tumorigenesis.
  100. pmc Dual mechanism of brain injury and novel treatment strategy in maple syrup urine disease
    William J Zinnanti
    Penn State College of Medicine, Box 149, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
    Brain 132:903-18. 2009
    ..Here, we show that rapid brain leucine accumulation displaces other essential amino acids resulting in neurotransmitter depletion and disruption of normal brain growth and development...
  101. ncbi Human milk proteins: key components for the biological activity of human milk
    Bo Lonnerdal
    Department of Nutrition and Program of International Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
    Adv Exp Med Biol 554:11-25. 2004
    ..However, the proteins in human milk themselves also provide adequate amounts of essential amino acids to the growing infant...

Research Grants71

  1. Nutrition and Anabolic Interventions in Cancer Cachexia
    Melinda Sheffield Moore; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our general hypothesis is that the anti-anorectic and anti-cachexic effects of leucine-enhanced essential amino acids (L-EAA) supplemented concomitantly with testosterone's anabolic and anti-catabolic properties will ..
  2. THERAPY IN DIALYSIS HYPOALBUMINEMIA AND HOMOCYSTEINEMIA
    Joseph Eustace; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..0 g/dl, examining in one arm of the trial the efficacy of oral essential amino acids supplements versus placebo at improving serum albumin levels and reducing hospitalization rates and (1C) ..
  3. Severe falciparum malaria: mechanisms of hypoargininemia
    Bert Lopansri; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..associated with the uptake, biosynthesis and catabolism of arginine, and levels of other essential and non-essential amino acids. Plasma samples will be analyzed using HPLC with pre-column derivatization and fluorescence detection...
  4. PROTEINS OF COAGULATION PATHWAYS
    John Griffin; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Amino acid substitutions in synthetic protein S modules will be used to identify functionally essential amino acids; (2) To purify, separate and characterize the various isoforms of protein S that differ in their APC- ..
  5. ACTIVE SITE STUDIES OF HUMAN SULFOTRANSFERASES
    Guangping Chen; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..3. Mutagenesis of essential amino acids and/or functional domains of human STs. 4.Computational molecular structure studies of human STs...
  6. BRANCHED CHAIN AMINO ACID METABOLISM
    SUSAN HUTSON; Fiscal Year: 2002
    The branched chain amino acids (BCAA), leucine, isoleucine and valine, are classified as essential amino acids, because we cannot synthesize their carbon skeleton so they must be acquired from dietary sources...
  7. FETAL VELOCIMETRY AND AMINO ACID TRANSPORT IN PREGNANCY
    FREDERICK BATTAGLIA; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..A non steady state study utilizing stable isoptomers of essential and non essential amino acids in pregnant women scheduled for cordocentesis examines in vivo transport for different groups of amino ..
  8. BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER LARGE NEUTRAL AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER
    William Pardridge; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These studies will provide new molecular biological information on a crucial transporter at the blood-brain barrier that regulates the supply in the brain of essential amino acids.
  9. BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER LARGE NEUTRAL AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER
    RUBEN BOADO; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..These studies will provide new molecular biological information on a crucial transporter at the blood-brain barrier that regulates the supply in the brain of essential amino acids.
  10. MECHANISMS OF NEONATAL PROTEIN ACCRETION
    Scott Denne; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Leucine and phenylalanine kinetics will be determined during the sequential addition of the conditional essential amino acids tyrosine and cysteine to a parenteral nutrition mixture...
  11. Optimal Amino Acid Nutrition in Sepsis
    Robert R Wolfe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Our overriding hypothesis is that there is a unique formulation based primarily on essential amino acids (EAAs) that will maximally stimulate protein synthesis in muscle and gut mucosa, while maintaining protein ..
  12. Optimal Amino Acid Nutrition in Sepsis
    Nicolaas Deutz; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Our overriding hypothesis is that there is a unique formulation based primarily on essential amino acids (EAAs) that will maximally stimulate protein synthesis in muscle and gut mucosa, while maintaining protein ..
  13. Fetal Velocimetry & Amino Acid Transport in Pregnancy
    FREDERICK BATTAGLIA; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The transport of the 9 essential amino acids across the placenta will be studied using stable isotopes and determining the fetal/maternal enrichments ..