glutamic acid

Summary

Summary: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Neuroprotection by BDNF against glutamate-induced apoptotic cell death is mediated by ERK and PI3-kinase pathways
    R D Almeida
    Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology and Department of Zoology, University of Coimbra, 3004 517 Coimbra, Portugal
    Cell Death Differ 12:1329-43. 2005
  2. ncbi Glutamate uptake
    N C Danbolt
    Department of Anatomy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1105, Blindern, N-0317, Oslo, Norway
    Prog Neurobiol 65:1-105. 2001
  3. pmc Structural basis of long-term potentiation in single dendritic spines
    Masanori Matsuzaki
    Department of Cell Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences and The Graduate University of Advanced Studies Sokendai, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444 8787, Japan
    Nature 429:761-6. 2004
  4. ncbi The molecular logic of endocannabinoid signalling
    Daniele Piomelli
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, Irvine 92697 4625, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 4:873-84. 2003
  5. ncbi Glutamate exocytosis from astrocytes controls synaptic strength
    Pascal Jourdain
    Department of Cell Biology and Morphology, University of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 9, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Nat Neurosci 10:331-9. 2007
  6. ncbi Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces neurotoxicity via glutamate release from hemichannels of activated microglia in an autocrine manner
    Hideyuki Takeuchi
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Japan
    J Biol Chem 281:21362-8. 2006
  7. pmc Integrated brain circuits: astrocytic networks modulate neuronal activity and behavior
    Michael M Halassa
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Annu Rev Physiol 72:335-55. 2010
  8. ncbi Properties of synaptically evoked astrocyte calcium signal reveal synaptic information processing by astrocytes
    Gertrudis Perea
    Instituto Cajal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid 28002, Spain
    J Neurosci 25:2192-203. 2005
  9. ncbi Astrocytes and brain injury
    Yongmei Chen
    Department of Neurology, University of California at San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 23:137-49. 2003
  10. ncbi Glutamate receptors, neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration
    Anthony Lau
    Division of Applied and Interventional Research, Toronto Western Research Institute, 399 Bathurst Street, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5T 2S8
    Pflugers Arch 460:525-42. 2010

Research Grants

Detail Information

Publications358 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Neuroprotection by BDNF against glutamate-induced apoptotic cell death is mediated by ERK and PI3-kinase pathways
    R D Almeida
    Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology and Department of Zoology, University of Coimbra, 3004 517 Coimbra, Portugal
    Cell Death Differ 12:1329-43. 2005
    ..The results indicate that the protective effect of BDNF in hippocampal neurons against glutamate toxicity is mediated by the PI3-K and the Ras/MAPK signaling pathways, and involves a long-term change in protein synthesis...
  2. ncbi Glutamate uptake
    N C Danbolt
    Department of Anatomy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1105, Blindern, N-0317, Oslo, Norway
    Prog Neurobiol 65:1-105. 2001
    ..g. osteoporosis) can be properly understood unless more is learned about these transporter proteins. Like glutamate itself, glutamate transporters are somehow involved in almost all aspects of normal and abnormal brain activity...
  3. pmc Structural basis of long-term potentiation in single dendritic spines
    Masanori Matsuzaki
    Department of Cell Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences and The Graduate University of Advanced Studies Sokendai, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444 8787, Japan
    Nature 429:761-6. 2004
    ..They further suggest that small spines are preferential sites for long-term potentiation induction, whereas large spines might represent physical traces of long-term memory...
  4. ncbi The molecular logic of endocannabinoid signalling
    Daniele Piomelli
    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, Irvine 92697 4625, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 4:873-84. 2003
  5. ncbi Glutamate exocytosis from astrocytes controls synaptic strength
    Pascal Jourdain
    Department of Cell Biology and Morphology, University of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 9, 1005 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Nat Neurosci 10:331-9. 2007
    ..Thus, we provide the first combined functional and ultrastructural evidence for a physiological control of synaptic activity via exocytosis of glutamate from astrocytes...
  6. ncbi Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces neurotoxicity via glutamate release from hemichannels of activated microglia in an autocrine manner
    Hideyuki Takeuchi
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Japan
    J Biol Chem 281:21362-8. 2006
    ..These drugs may give us a new therapeutic strategy against neurodegenerative diseases with minimum adverse side effects...
  7. pmc Integrated brain circuits: astrocytic networks modulate neuronal activity and behavior
    Michael M Halassa
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Annu Rev Physiol 72:335-55. 2010
    ....
  8. ncbi Properties of synaptically evoked astrocyte calcium signal reveal synaptic information processing by astrocytes
    Gertrudis Perea
    Instituto Cajal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid 28002, Spain
    J Neurosci 25:2192-203. 2005
    ..Therefore, because astrocytes discriminate and integrate synaptic information, we propose that they can be considered as cellular elements involved in the information processing by the nervous system...
  9. ncbi Astrocytes and brain injury
    Yongmei Chen
    Department of Neurology, University of California at San Francisco, California 94121, USA
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 23:137-49. 2003
    ..In addition, the death or survival of astrocytes themselves may affect the ultimate clinical outcome and rehabilitation through effects on neurogenesis and synaptic reorganization...
  10. ncbi Glutamate receptors, neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration
    Anthony Lau
    Division of Applied and Interventional Research, Toronto Western Research Institute, 399 Bathurst Street, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5T 2S8
    Pflugers Arch 460:525-42. 2010
    ....
  11. ncbi Astrocytes potentiate transmitter release at single hippocampal synapses
    Gertrudis Perea
    Instituto Cajal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain
    Science 317:1083-6. 2007
    ..This persistent plasticity was mGluR-mediated but N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-independent. These results indicate that astrocytes are actively involved in the transfer and storage of synaptic information...
  12. ncbi The expression of vesicular glutamate transporters defines two classes of excitatory synapse
    R T Fremeau
    Department of Neurology, Graduate Program in Neuroscience, UCSF School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Neuron 31:247-60. 2001
    ..Like VGLUT1, this protein localizes to synaptic vesicles and functions as a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT2). The complementary expression of VGLUT1 and 2 defines two distinct classes of excitatory synapse...
  13. ncbi Structure of a glutamate transporter homologue from Pyrococcus horikoshii
    Dinesh Yernool
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, 650 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nature 431:811-8. 2004
    ..We propose that transport of glutamate is achieved by movements of the hairpins that allow alternating access to either side of the membrane...
  14. pmc From revolution to evolution: the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia and its implication for treatment
    Bita Moghaddam
    Department of Neuroscience and Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 37:4-15. 2012
    ..To date, most studies have been done with orthosteric agonists and/or antagonists at specific sites. However, allosteric modulators, both positive and negative, may offer superior efficacy with less danger of downregulation...
  15. ncbi Do astrocytes really exocytose neurotransmitters?
    Nicola B Hamilton
    Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK
    Nat Rev Neurosci 11:227-38. 2010
    ..However, there is intense controversy about whether astrocytes can exocytose transmitters in vivo. Resolving this issue would considerably advance our understanding of brain function...
  16. ncbi Tuned responses of astrocytes and their influence on hemodynamic signals in the visual cortex
    James Schummers
    Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
    Science 320:1638-43. 2008
    ..Furthermore, blocking astrocyte glutamate transporters influenced the magnitude and duration of adjacent visually driven neuronal responses...
  17. ncbi Neuronal synchrony mediated by astrocytic glutamate through activation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors
    Tommaso Fellin
    Istituto CNR di Neuroscienze, Universita di Padova, Viale G Colombo 3, 35121, Italy
    Neuron 43:729-43. 2004
    ..Our results reveal a distinct mechanism for neuronal excitation and synchrony and highlight a functional link between astrocytic glutamate and extrasynaptic NMDA receptors...
  18. ncbi Epilepsy and exacerbation of brain injury in mice lacking the glutamate transporter GLT-1
    K Tanaka
    Department of Degenerative Neurological Diseases, National Institute of Neuroscience, Kodaira, Tokyo 187, Japan
    Science 276:1699-702. 1997
    ..These effects can be attributed to elevated levels of residual glutamate in the brains of these mice...
  19. pmc Molecular mechanisms of excitotoxicity and their relevance to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases
    Xiao Xia Dong
    Department of Pharmacology and Laboratory of Aging and Nervous Diseases, Soochow University School of Medicine, Suzhou, China
    Acta Pharmacol Sin 30:379-87. 2009
    ..This review discusses the current understanding of excitotoxic mechanisms and how they are involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases...
  20. ncbi The tripartite synapse: roles for gliotransmission in health and disease
    Michael M Halassa
    Silvio Conte Center for Integration at the Tripartite Synapse, Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Trends Mol Med 13:54-63. 2007
    ..The results of future experimental tests of the astrocyte activation spectrum, which relates gliotransmission to neurological and psychiatric disorders, might point to a new therapeutic target in the brain...
  21. ncbi Distribution of glutamate transporters in the hippocampus of patients with pharmaco-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy
    E A Proper
    Department of Medical Pharmacology, Rudolf Magnus Institute for Neurosciences, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Brain 125:32-43. 2002
    ..The functional consequences (glutamate transport capacity) of the reported changes in EAAT2 and EAAT3 remain to be determined...
  22. ncbi Endocannabinoids mediate neuron-astrocyte communication
    Marta Navarrete
    Instituto Cajal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid 28002, Spain
    Neuron 57:883-93. 2008
    ..They also reveal the existence of an endocannabinoid-glutamate signaling pathway where astrocytes serve as a bridge for nonsynaptic interneuronal communication...
  23. ncbi Stargazin regulates synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors by two distinct mechanisms
    L Chen
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA
    Nature 408:936-43. 2000
    ....
  24. pmc NMDA receptors are expressed in oligodendrocytes and activated in ischaemia
    Ragnhildur Karadottir
    Department of Physiology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Nature 438:1162-6. 2005
    ..These results point to NMDA receptors of unusual subunit composition as a potential therapeutic target for preventing white matter damage in a variety of diseases...
  25. ncbi TNFα controls glutamatergic gliotransmission in the hippocampal dentate gyrus
    Mirko Santello
    Department of Cell Biology and Morphology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Neuron 69:988-1001. 2011
    ..These findings demonstrate that gliotransmission and its synaptic effects are controlled not only by astrocyte [Ca(2+)](i) elevations but also by permissive/homeostatic factors like TNFα...
  26. ncbi EAAT expression by macrophages and microglia: still more questions than answers
    Gabriel Gras
    Division of Immuno Virology, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, UMR E1 CEA DSV IMETI SIV and University Paris South Paris 11, 18, Route du Panorama, 92265, Fontenay aux Roses, France
    Amino Acids 42:221-9. 2012
    ....
  27. ncbi NMDA spikes in basal dendrites of cortical pyramidal neurons
    J Schiller
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Technion Medical School, Bat Galim, Haifa, Israel
    Nature 404:285-9. 2000
    ..In addition, NMDA spikes may serve as a powerful mechanism for modification of the cortical network by inducing long-term strengthening of co-activated neighbouring inputs...
  28. ncbi Glial reactivity and impaired glutamate metabolism in short-term experimental diabetic retinopathy. Penn State Retina Research Group
    E Lieth
    Department of Neuroscience and Anatomy, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey Medical Center, 17033, USA
    Diabetes 47:815-20. 1998
    ..These findings suggest a novel understanding of the mechanism of neural degeneration in the retina during diabetes, involving early and possibly persistent glutamate excitotoxicity...
  29. pmc Glutamate antagonists limit tumor growth
    W Rzeski
    Department of Pediatric Neurology, Children's Hospital, Charite-Virchow Campus, Humboldt University, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:6372-7. 2001
    ..Furthermore, glutamate antagonists decreased motility and invasive growth of tumor cells. These findings suggest anticancer potential of glutamate antagonists...
  30. ncbi Subtype-specific alterations of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate in patients with major depression
    Gerard Sanacora
    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06519, USA
    Arch Gen Psychiatry 61:705-13. 2004
    ..An initial report, using this technique, suggested that occipital cortex GABA concentrations are reduced in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) relative to healthy comparison subjects...
  31. ncbi Subunit arrangement and function in NMDA receptors
    Hiroyasu Furukawa
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, 650 West 168th Street, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nature 438:185-92. 2005
    ....
  32. ncbi Interaction of A2A adenosine and D2 dopamine receptors modulates corticostriatal glutamatergic transmission
    Alessandro Tozzi
    Clinica Neurologia, Universita di Perugia, Ospedale S Maria della Misericordia, 06156 Perugia, Italy
    Neuropharmacology 53:783-9. 2007
    ..These results suggest that A2A and D2 receptors converge in the control of corticostriatal glutamatergic transmission by exerting an opposite function...
  33. ncbi Increased levels of glutamate in brains from patients with mood disorders
    Kenji Hashimoto
    Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Inohana, Chiba, Japan
    Biol Psychiatry 62:1310-6. 2007
    ....
  34. ncbi Molecular mechanisms of calcium-dependent neurodegeneration in excitotoxicity
    Mark Arundine
    Toronto Western Hospital Research Institute, 399 Bathurst Street, Ont M5T 2S8, Toronto, Canada
    Cell Calcium 34:325-37. 2003
    ..Thus, we summarize the importance of Ca(2+) regulation in mammalian neurons and the excitotoxicity hypothesis, and focus on the molecular determinants of glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxic mechanisms...
  35. ncbi Glutamate release promotes growth of malignant gliomas
    T Takano
    Department of Cell Biology, Anatomy and Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USA
    Nat Med 7:1010-5. 2001
    ..These findings support a new approach for therapy of brain tumors, based upon antagonizing glutamate secretion or its target receptors...
  36. ncbi Identification of a vesicular glutamate transporter that defines a glutamatergic phenotype in neurons
    S Takamori
    Department of Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Gottingen, Germany
    Nature 407:189-94. 2000
    ..We conclude that BNPI functions as vesicular glutamate transporter and that expression of BNPI suffices to define a glutamatergic phenotype in neurons...
  37. ncbi Glutamate transporters: confining runaway excitation by shaping synaptic transmission
    Anastassios V Tzingounis
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94107, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 8:935-47. 2007
    ..We highlight how the diversity of glutamate-transporter function relates to transporter location, density and affinity...
  38. pmc Molecular pathways: dysregulated glutamatergic signaling pathways in cancer
    Todd D Prickett
    National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 18:4240-6. 2012
    ..In the future, extracellular glutamate levels and glutamatergic signaling may serve as biological markers for tumorigenicity and facilitate targeted therapy for melanoma. ...
  39. pmc Vesicular release of glutamate from unmyelinated axons in white matter
    Jennifer L Ziskin
    Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N Wolfe St, WBSB 813, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Nat Neurosci 10:321-30. 2007
    ..This activity-dependent secretion of glutamate was prevalent in the developing and mature mouse corpus callosum, indicating that axons within white matter both conduct action potentials and engage in rapid neuron-glia communication...
  40. pmc Serum glutamate levels correlate with Gleason score and glutamate blockade decreases proliferation, migration, and invasion and induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells
    Shahriar Koochekpour
    Department of Cancer Genetics, Center for Genetics and Pharmacology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 18:5888-901. 2012
    ..The effect of glutamate deprivation or blockade by metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (GRM1) antagonists was investigated on prostate cancer cells' growth, migration, and invasion to establish biologic relevance...
  41. ncbi Fusion-related release of glutamate from astrocytes
    Qi Zhang
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:12724-33. 2004
    ....
  42. ncbi Synaptic mechanisms underlie nicotine-induced excitability of brain reward areas
    Huibert D Mansvelder
    Department of Anesthesia, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
    Neuron 33:905-19. 2002
    ..These results suggest that spatial and temporal differences in nicotinic receptor activity on both excitatory and inhibitory neurons in reward areas coordinate to reinforce nicotine self-administration...
  43. pmc Two forms of astrocyte calcium excitability have distinct effects on NMDA receptor-mediated slow inward currents in pyramidal neurons
    Eiji Shigetomi
    Departments of Physiology and Neurobiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 1751, USA
    J Neurosci 28:6659-63. 2008
    ..The data thus provide a basis to rationalize recent contradictory data on astrocyte-neuron interactions...
  44. ncbi Control of synapse number by glia
    E M Ullian
    Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Neurobiology, Fairchild Science Building, Stanford, CA 94305 5125, USA
    Science 291:657-61. 2001
    ....
  45. ncbi The expression pattern of the Drosophila vesicular glutamate transporter: a marker protein for motoneurons and glutamatergic centers in the brain
    Andrea Mahr
    Max Planck Institut fur Entwicklungsbiologie, Abt III Genetik, Spemannstr 35, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
    Gene Expr Patterns 6:299-309. 2006
    ..Given that vesicular glutamate transporters are essential for the uptake of the neurotransmitter glutamate into synaptic vesicles these tools provide a means to test gene function in these functionally important neurons...
  46. ncbi Astrocytes contain a vesicular compartment that is competent for regulated exocytosis of glutamate
    Paola Bezzi
    Department of Cell Biology and Morphology, University of Lausanne, and Cellular Imaging Facility UNIL CHUV Technological Development Unit, Switzerland
    Nat Neurosci 7:613-20. 2004
    ..These data document the existence of a Ca(2+)-dependent quantal glutamate release activity in glia that was previously considered to be specific to synapses...
  47. ncbi Vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 target to functionally distinct synaptic release sites
    Robert T Fremeau
    Department of Neurology, Graduate Programs in Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, CA 94143, USA
    Science 304:1815-9. 2004
    ..The loss of VGLUT1 also reduced the reserve pool of synaptic vesicles. Thus, VGLUT1 plays an unanticipated role in membrane trafficking at the nerve terminal...
  48. ncbi The glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle: aspects of transport, neurotransmitter homeostasis and ammonia transfer
    Lasse K Bak
    Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, The Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Neurochem 98:641-53. 2006
    ..A main objective of this review is to endorse the view that the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle must be seen as a bi-directional transfer of not only carbon units but also nitrogen units...
  49. pmc Role of excitatory amino acid transporter-2 (EAAT2) and glutamate in neurodegeneration: opportunities for developing novel therapeutics
    Keetae Kim
    Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA
    J Cell Physiol 226:2484-93. 2011
    ....
  50. pmc Glutamate and the biology of gliomas
    John de Groot
    Department of Neuro Oncology, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA
    Glia 59:1181-9. 2011
    ..Several ongoing and recently completed clinical trials are exploring the therapeutic potential of interrupting glutamate-mediated brain tumor growth...
  51. pmc Glutamate release from activated microglia requires the oxidative burst and lipid peroxidation
    Steven W Barger
    Department of Geriatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA
    J Neurochem 101:1205-13. 2007
    ..Indeed, some of the neuroprotective effects of antioxidants may be due to interference with these events rather than direct protection against neuronal oxidation...
  52. ncbi Why did NMDA receptor antagonists fail clinical trials for stroke and traumatic brain injury?
    Chrysanthy Ikonomidou
    Department of Pediatric Neurology, Children s Hospital, Charité Virchow Campus, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany
    Lancet Neurol 1:383-6. 2002
    ..We propose that NMDA receptor antagonists failed stroke and traumatic brain injury trials in human beings because blockade of synaptic transmission mediated by NMDA receptors hinders neuronal survival...
  53. pmc The optimal height of the synaptic cleft
    Leonid P Savtchenko
    Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, London, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:1823-8. 2007
    ..Therefore, our results suggest that a simple fundamental principle may underlie the synaptic cleft architecture: to maximize synaptic strength...
  54. ncbi Extrasynaptic NMDARs oppose synaptic NMDARs by triggering CREB shut-off and cell death pathways
    G E Hardingham
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, UK
    Nat Neurosci 5:405-14. 2002
    ..Specific blockade of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors may effectively prevent neuron loss following stroke and other neuropathological conditions associated with glutamate toxicity...
  55. ncbi The role of excitotoxicity in secondary mechanisms of spinal cord injury: a review with an emphasis on the implications for white matter degeneration
    Eugene Park
    Division of Neurosurgery and Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, and Division of Cell and Molecular Biology, Toronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Ontario, Canada
    J Neurotrauma 21:754-74. 2004
    ..The latter mechanism appears key to glutamatergic white matter degeneration after SCI and may represent an attractive therapeutic target...
  56. ncbi Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease
    Matthew R Hynd
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Australia
    Neurochem Int 45:583-95. 2004
    ..This review discusses mechanisms for the involvement of the NMDA receptor complex and its interaction with polyamines in the pathogenesis of AD. NMDA receptor antagonists have potential for the therapeutic amelioration of AD...
  57. ncbi Genetic enhancement of learning and memory in mice
    Y P Tang
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 1014, USA
    Nature 401:63-9. 1999
    ..Our results suggest that genetic enhancement of mental and cognitive attributes such as intelligence and memory in mammals is feasible...
  58. pmc Astrocytic control of synaptic NMDA receptors
    C Justin Lee
    Center for Neural Science, Division of Life Sciences, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea
    J Physiol 581:1057-81. 2007
    ..These results suggest that astrocytic G-protein coupled receptors that increase intracellular Ca2+ can tune synaptic NMDA receptor responses...
  59. ncbi GLIA: listening and talking to the synapse
    P G Haydon
    Department of Zoology and Genetics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
    Nat Rev Neurosci 2:185-93. 2001
    ..Without such a view, it might be impossible to decode the language of the brain...
  60. ncbi Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 and glutamate signaling in human melanoma
    Jin Namkoong
    Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
    Cancer Res 67:2298-305. 2007
    ..These data suggest the importance of glutamate signaling in human melanoma and imply that the suppression of glutamate signaling may be a new target for melanoma therapy...
  61. ncbi Mechanisms for activation and antagonism of an AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptor: crystal structures of the GluR2 ligand binding core
    N Armstrong
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Neuron 28:165-81. 2000
    ..The crystal packing of the ligand binding cores suggests modes for subunit-subunit contact in the intact receptor and mechanisms by which allosteric effectors modulate receptor activity...
  62. ncbi Heteromeric NMDA receptors: molecular and functional distinction of subtypes
    H Monyer
    Center for Molecular Biology, University of Heidelberg, Germany
    Science 256:1217-21. 1992
    ..Such heteromeric NMDA receptor subtypes may exist in neurons, since NR1 messenger RNA is synthesized throughout the mature rat brain, while NR2 messenger RNA show a differential distribution...
  63. ncbi Motor discoordination and increased susceptibility to cerebellar injury in GLAST mutant mice
    K Watase
    Department of Degenerative Neurological Diseases, National Institute of Neuroscience, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan
    Eur J Neurosci 10:976-88. 1998
    ..These results indicate that GLAST plays active roles both in the cerebellar climbing fibre synapse formation and in preventing excitotoxic cerebellar damage after acute brain injury...
  64. pmc The role of glutamate transporters in neurodegenerative diseases and potential opportunities for intervention
    Amanda L Sheldon
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 4318, United States
    Neurochem Int 51:333-55. 2007
    ....
  65. pmc The glutamate release inhibitor Riluzole decreases migration, invasion, and proliferation of melanoma cells
    Maithao N Le
    Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    J Invest Dermatol 130:2240-9. 2010
    ..These findings, added to our previous work, strengthen the case that GRM1 is a valid therapeutic target in patients with melanoma...
  66. pmc A glutamic acid-rich protein identified in Verticillium dahliae from an insertional mutagenesis affects microsclerotial formation and pathogenicity
    Feng Gao
    State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics and National Center for Plant Gene Research Beijing, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
    PLoS ONE 5:e15319. 2010
    ..One of the genes tagged in a pathogenicity mutant encoded a glutamic acid-rich protein (VdGARP1), which shared no significant similarity to any known annotated gene...
  67. pmc EndoS from Streptococcus pyogenes is hydrolyzed by the cysteine proteinase SpeB and requires glutamic acid 235 and tryptophans for IgG glycan-hydrolyzing activity
    Maria Allhorn
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Infection Medicine, Lund University, Biomedical Center B14, SE 221 84 Lund, Sweden
    BMC Microbiol 8:3. 2008
    ..Furthermore, theoretical structure modeling of EndoS combined with site-directed mutagenesis and chemical blocking of amino acids was used to identify amino acids required for the IgG glycan-hydrolyzing activity of EndoS...
  68. ncbi Layer-by-layer assembly of poly(L-glutamic acid)/chitosan microcapsules for high loading and sustained release of 5-fluorouracil
    Shifeng Yan
    Department of Polymer Materials, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China
    Eur J Pharm Biopharm 78:336-45. 2011
    Hollow polyelectrolyte microcapsules based on poly(l-glutamic acid) (PLGA) and chitosan (CS) with opposite charges were fabricated by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique using melamine formaldehyde (MF) microparticles as sacrificial ..
  69. ncbi Glutamatergic signaling in cellular transformation
    Jessica L F Teh
    Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USA
    Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 25:331-42. 2012
    ..Here we further consider the potential mechanisms by which glutamate receptors can function as an oncogene leading to malignant transformation...
  70. ncbi NMDA receptors mediate neuron-to-glia signaling in mouse cortical astrocytes
    Ulyana Lalo
    Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 26:2673-83. 2006
    ..We conclude that cortical astrocytes express functional NMDA receptors that are devoid of Mg2+ block, and these receptors are involved in neuronal-glial signal transmission...
  71. ncbi Increase in muscle nociceptive substances and anaerobic metabolism in patients with trapezius myalgia: microdialysis in rest and during exercise
    Lars Rosendal
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersø Parkallé 105, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Pain 112:324-34. 2004
    ..In addition, TM was associated with increased anaerobic metabolism, whereas a normal rise in blood flow was seen with exercise. These findings indicate that peripheral nociceptive processes are active in work-related TM...
  72. ncbi Glutamate in plants: metabolism, regulation, and signalling
    Brian G Forde
    Lancaster Environment Centre, Department of Biological Sciences, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK
    J Exp Bot 58:2339-58. 2007
    ....
  73. pmc The identification of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 suggests novel modes of signaling by glutamate
    Robert T Fremeau
    Department of Neurology, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:14488-93. 2002
    ..The dendritic expression of VGLUT3 by particular neurons also indicates the potential for retrograde synaptic signaling. The distribution and subcellular location of VGLUT3 thus suggest novel modes of signaling by glutamate...
  74. pmc Targeting of the transcription factor Max during apoptosis: phosphorylation-regulated cleavage by caspase-5 at an unusual glutamic acid residue in position P1
    A Krippner-Heidenreich
    Institut fur Molekularbiologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Carl Neuberg Strasse 1, 30623 Hannover, Germany
    Biochem J 358:705-15. 2001
    ..Thus Max represents the first caspase-5 substrate. The unusual cleavage after a glutamic acid residue is observed only with full-length, DNA-binding competent Max protein but not with corresponding ..
  75. ncbi Retinal glutamate in diabetes and effect of antioxidants
    R A Kowluru
    Kresge Eye Institute, Wayne State University, 4717 St Antoine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    Neurochem Int 38:385-90. 2001
    ....
  76. pmc Distinct roles of metabotropic glutamate receptor dimerization in agonist activation and G-protein coupling
    Driss El Moustaine
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unite Mixte de Recherche 5203, Institut de Genomique Fonctionnelle, Université Montpellier 1 et 2, 34094 Montpellier Cedex 05, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:16342-7. 2012
    ..Despite this observation, the necessity of dimeric architecture for signaling induced by the endogenous ligand glutamate confirms that the central core of signaling complex is dimeric...
  77. ncbi Astrocytic control of glutamatergic activity: astrocytes as stars of the show
    Leif Hertz
    College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang, P R China
    Trends Neurosci 27:735-43. 2004
    ....
  78. pmc Autocrine glutamate signaling promotes glioma cell invasion
    Susan A Lyons
    Department of Neurobiology, Center for Glial Biology in Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    Cancer Res 67:9463-71. 2007
    ..These data suggest that glioma invasion is effectively disrupted by inhibiting an autocrine glutamate signaling loop with a clinically approved candidate drug, sulfasalazine, already in hand...
  79. ncbi Functional proteomics identify cornichon proteins as auxiliary subunits of AMPA receptors
    Jochen Schwenk
    Institute of Physiology II, University of Freiburg, Engesserstrasse 4, 79108 Freiburg, Germany
    Science 323:1313-9. 2009
    ..These results demonstrate that cornichons are intrinsic auxiliary subunits of native AMPARs and provide previously unknown molecular determinants for glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system...
  80. ncbi New roles for astrocytes: regulation of synaptic transmission
    Eric A Newman
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, 6 145 Jackson Hall, 321 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Trends Neurosci 26:536-42. 2003
    ..Based on these new findings, glia should be considered an active partner at the synapse, dynamically regulating synaptic transmission...
  81. ncbi Functional hemichannels in astrocytes: a novel mechanism of glutamate release
    Zu Cheng Ye
    Department of Neurology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195 6465, USA
    J Neurosci 23:3588-96. 2003
    ..Our results indicated that astrocyte hemichannels could influence CNS levels of extracellular glutamate with implications for normal and pathological brain function...
  82. ncbi Modulation of triheteromeric NMDA receptors by N-terminal domain ligands
    Christopher J Hatton
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie, CNRS UMR 8544, Ecole Normale Supérueure, Paris, France
    Neuron 46:261-74. 2005
    ..Similarly, NR1/2A/2C receptors are inhibited by zinc with high potency but low efficacy. Therefore, interactions between homologous N-terminal domains determine the unique pharmacological properties of triheteromeric NMDARs...
  83. pmc VGLUT2-dependent glutamate release from nociceptors is required to sense pain and suppress itch
    Yang Liu
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, 1 Jimmy Fund Way, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Neuron 68:543-56. 2010
    ..Our studies suggest that synaptic glutamate release from a group of peripheral nociceptors is required to sense pain and suppress itch. Elimination of VGLUT2 in these nociceptors creates a mouse model of chronic neurogenic itch...
  84. ncbi Uptake of glutamate into synaptic vesicles by an inorganic phosphate transporter
    E E Bellocchio
    Department of Neurology, University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine, 513 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143 0435, USA
    Science 289:957-60. 2000
    ..In addition, we show that this vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1, exhibits a conductance for chloride that is blocked by glutamate...
  85. ncbi Differential control of vesicle priming and short-term plasticity by Munc13 isoforms
    Christian Rosenmund
    Max Planck Institut fur biophysikalische Chemie, Abteilung Membranbiophysik, Am Fassberg 11, D 37077, Gottingen, Germany
    Neuron 33:411-24. 2002
    ..Thus, differential expression of Munc13 isoforms at individual synapses represents a general mechanism that controls short-term plasticity and contributes to the heterogeneity of synaptic information coding...
  86. pmc A specific role for Ca2+-dependent adenylyl cyclases in recovery from adaptive presynaptic silencing
    Krista L Moulder
    Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Neurosci 28:5159-68. 2008
    ....
  87. ncbi Morphological evidence for vesicular glutamate release from astrocytes
    L H Bergersen
    Department of Anatomy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, POB 1105 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway
    Neuroscience 158:260-5. 2009
    ..We describe the presence of small synaptic-like microvesicles, SNARE proteins and vesicular glutamate transporters in astrocytes, as well as NMDA receptors situated in vicinity of the astrocytic vesicles...
  88. pmc Mechanism of the distance-dependent scaling of Schaffer collateral synapses in rat CA1 pyramidal neurons
    Mark A Smith
    Neuroscience Center, LSUHSC, 2020 Gravier Street, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    J Physiol 548:245-58. 2003
    ..We conclude, therefore, that the main synaptic mechanism involved in the production of distance-dependent scaling of Schaffer collateral synapses is an elevated postsynaptic AMPA receptor density...
  89. ncbi Macrophage-induced neurotoxicity is mediated by glutamate and attenuated by glutaminase inhibitors and gap junction inhibitors
    Izumi Yawata
    Department of Neuroimmunology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Furo cho, Chikusa ku, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    Life Sci 82:1111-6. 2008
    ..Thus, these drugs may be effective therapeutic reagents for inflammatory, demyelinating, and ischemic brain diseases...
  90. pmc In vivo 13C NMR measurements of cerebral glutamine synthesis as evidence for glutamate-glutamine cycling
    N R Sibson
    Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520 8043, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:2699-704. 1997
    ....
  91. pmc The endocannabinoid system controls key epileptogenic circuits in the hippocampus
    Krisztina Monory
    Department of Physiological Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Duesbergweg 6, 55099 Mainz, Germany
    Neuron 51:455-66. 2006
    ..The direct endocannabinoid-mediated control of hippocampal glutamatergic neurotransmission may constitute a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of disorders associated with excessive excitatory neuronal activity...
  92. pmc What is the role of astrocyte calcium in neurophysiology?
    Cendra Agulhon
    Department of Pharmacology, 1004 Mary Ellen Jones Building CB 7365, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7365, USA
    Neuron 59:932-46. 2008
    ....
  93. ncbi Expression of the vesicular glutamate transporters during development indicates the widespread corelease of multiple neurotransmitters
    Jean Luc Boulland
    Institute of Basic Medical Sciences and the Centre for Molecular Biology and Neuroscience, University of Oslo, N 0317 Oslo, Norway
    J Comp Neurol 480:264-80. 2004
    ..In skeletal muscle, VGLUT3 localizes to granular organelles in the axon terminal as well as in the muscle sarcoplasm. The results suggest novel mechanisms and roles for regulated transmitter release...
  94. ncbi Compromised glutamate transport in human glioma cells: reduction-mislocalization of sodium-dependent glutamate transporters and enhanced activity of cystine-glutamate exchange
    Z C Ye
    Department of Neurobiology, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294, USA
    J Neurosci 19:10767-77. 1999
    ..The resulting glutamate release from glioma cells may contribute to tumor-associated necrosis and possibly to seizures in peritumoral brain tissue...
  95. ncbi Heterosynaptic dopamine neurotransmission selects sets of corticostriatal terminals
    Nigel S Bamford
    Department of Neurology, University of Washington, Children s Hospital and Regional Medical Center, Seattle, WA 98105 USA
    Neuron 42:653-63. 2004
    ..Thus, dopamine, by filtering less active inputs, appears to reinforce specific sets of corticostriatal synaptic connections...
  96. ncbi Unveiling the functions of presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors in the central nervous system
    D D Schoepp
    Neuroscience Research Division, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 299:12-20. 2001
    ..Recent progress on the molecular and pharmacological aspects of these presynaptic mGlu receptors is unveiling their functions and the therapeutic directions of agents designed for these novel glutamate receptor targets...
  97. ncbi Changes in synaptic structure underlie the developmental speeding of AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs
    Laurence Cathala
    1 Department of Pharmacology, University College London, UK
    Nat Neurosci 8:1310-8. 2005
    ..Our findings raise the possibility that structural alterations could be a general mechanism underlying the change in the time course of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission...
  98. ncbi Metabolite concentrations in supraventricular white matter from teenage to early old age: A short echo time 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study
    Raili Raininko
    Departments of Radiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    Acta Radiol 51:309-15. 2010
    ..A long repetition time and short echo time technique reduces quantification errors due to T(1) and T(2) relaxation effects and makes it possible to measure metabolites with short T(2) relaxation times...
  99. ncbi Impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics determines glutamate-induced delayed calcium deregulation in neurons
    Andrey Y Abramov
    Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3 BG, UK
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1800:297-304. 2010
    ..Exposure of neurons to toxic glutamate concentrations causes an initial transient increase in [Ca(2+)](c) followed by a delayed increase commonly termed delayed [Ca(2+)](c) deregulation (DCD)...
  100. pmc 1H-MRS at 4 tesla in minimally treated early schizophrenia
    J R Bustillo
    Department of Psychiatry, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 15:629-36. 2010
    ..We conclude that early in the illness, schizophrenia patients already show abnormalities in glutamatergic metabolism and reductions in NAA consistent with glutamate-related excitotoxicity...
  101. ncbi Synaptically released acetylcholine evokes Ca2+ elevations in astrocytes in hippocampal slices
    Alfonso Araque
    Instituto Cajal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid 28002, Spain
    J Neurosci 22:2443-50. 2002
    ..Therefore, our results show the existence of cholinergic neuron-astrocyte signaling and suggest that astrocytes are a target of axonal inputs from different brain areas...

Research Grants75

  1. Modeling schizophrenia gamma deficits using cell-specific RNAi knockdown of GAD67
    RITCHIE EDWARD BROWN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We will initially target glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), the major synthesizing enzyme for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, since clinical ..
  2. Role of Cited2 in Hematopoiesis
    Yu Chung Yang; Fiscal Year: 2011
    Cited2 [CBP/p300-interacting transactivators with glutamic acid (E) and aspartic acid (D)-rich tail 2] is one of the founding members of a new family of transcriptional modulators...
  3. Mechanisms of Peripheral Induction of T-Cell Tolerance
    MATTHEW FRANKLIN MESCHER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..these hypotheses in humans by direct ex vivo tracking of the number, function, and phenotype of insulin or glutamic acid decarboxylase p:MHCII-specific CD4+ T cells from normoglycemic or type 1 diabetic people...
  4. Biomarkers of Aggressive Oral Cancer
    THEKKELNAYCKE RAJENDIRAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..These metabolites included kynurenine, serine, glutathione, and glutamate/glutamic acid. Since these metabolites have also been implicated in cancer metabolic pathways they constitute potential ..
  5. Targeting Kinases that Phosphorylate the KSHV LANA Chromatin Binding Domain
    S Diane Hayward; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..that, while mutation of these residues to alanine prevented chromatin binding, conversion to phosphomimetic glutamic acid residues restored chromatin binding...
  6. Development and testing of polyvalent anthrax toxin inhibitors
    JEREMY S MOGRIDGE; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We have attached multiple copies of a PA6s heptamer-binding inhibitory peptide to both poly-L-glutamic acid (PLGA) and liposomal scaffolds to generate polyvalent molecules that are several orders of magnitude more ..
  7. Adult Neurogenesis: Regulation By Sleep
    DENNIS J MCGINTY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..identified by double-labeling for c-Fos protein, a marker of neuronal activation, and a GABA neuronal marker [glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)}]. We developed a well-controlled method for SF. 2...
  8. Nicotinic receptor stimulation and epigenetic regulation of GABAergic function.
    Alessandro Guidotti; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..and striatal GABAergic neurons that includes decreased expression of GAD67, the 67 kDa isoform of the glutamic acid decarboxylase enzyme that synthesizes GABA, and decreased expression of other GABAergic proteins including ..
  9. Identification of novel system xc- inhibitors
    BARBARA STAUCH SLUSHER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ....
  10. Variations in Hormones During Menopause: Effects on Cognitive and Brain Aging
    Heather A Bimonte-Nelson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the HT progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) impaired cognition in Ovx rats, and decreased hippocampal glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) protein, possibly compensating for GABAA receptor (GABAAR) stimulation...
  11. Role of the Angiogenic Chemokine, CXCL5, in Prostate Cancer
    Liz Simon; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..CXCL5 is a member of CXC family of chemokines with the three amino acid motif, glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (ELR+) and is a potent angiogenic promoter...
  12. Functional analysis of the Francisella capBCA gene locus
    Jing Ren Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The capBCA locus closely resembles the biosynthetic gene locus of the poly-3-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule in Bacillus anthracis, the anthrax agent. The B. anthracis capsule is a major virulence factor...
  13. Exosome-induced innate and antigen-specific immune responses in Type 1 Diabetes
    Yang D Dai; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have studied one candidate islet antigen, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 KDa (GAD65), for several years and learned that unique antigen delivery and processing ..
  14. Anthrax Toxin Lethal Factor Inhibition Study
    Elizabeth A Amin; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The central hypothesis is that small molecules structurally related to a new glutamic acid-based scaffold will effectively inhibit LF protease activity in vitro and in cell-based assays...
  15. Pyroglutamate Amyloid-beta as an Immunotherapeutic Target for Alzheimer's Disease
    Cynthia A Lemere; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..generated upon N-terminal truncation of A[unreadable] followed by cyclization by glutaminyl cyclase to convert glutamic acid at residues 3 and 11 to pyroglutamate (A[unreadable]pE3 and A[unreadable]pE11)...
  16. PLASTICITY IN THE AGING OLFACTORY SYSTEM
    John W Cave; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..proposal will establish the molecular mechanisms regulating the co-expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) and glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 (Gad1) genes...
  17. The Functional Maturation of Inhibitory Interneurons
    MATTHEW LAZARUS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The activity-dependence of inhibitory circuit formation will be studied by manipulating the two glutamic acid decarboxylase enzymes, the 65 and 67 kilodalton isoforms (GAD65 and GAD67, respectively), that synthesize the ..
  18. OVARIAN HORMONE REGULATION OF LHRH BIOSYNTHESIS
    Sandra L Petersen; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..will examine the effects of specific VP and NA receptor antagonists on expression of a marker of GABA release, glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) mRNA...
  19. The role of Kainate receptors in oligodendrocyte toxicity and EAE
    Geoffrey T Swanson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..To test our hypothesis we will utilize newly developed selective pharmacological agents and gene-targeted mice lacking kainate receptor subunits. ..
  20. Features of chronic tinnitus in an animal model as indicated by MEMRI and MRS
    BORIS M ODINTSOV; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Spectra will be determined for the 1 inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, and the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamic acid (Glu)...
  21. Role of Cited2 in lens development and hyaloid vascular regression
    Yu Chung Yang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    Cited2 (CBP/p300-interacting transactivators with glutamic acid (E) and aspartic acid (D)-rich tail 2) is a founding member of a new family of transcriptional modulators...
  22. Conjugate Anthrax Vaccine with Dual Virulence Factor Specificity
    Lallan Giri; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The two major virulence factors of B. anthracis are the poly-?-D-glutamic acid (?-D-PGA) capsule and the exotoxin...
  23. Consequences of In Vivo Neocortical GAD67 Downregulation
    Karoly Mirnics; Fiscal Year: 2012
    b>Glutamic acid decarboxylase 67kDa (GAD67) transcript reduction in the postmortem prefrontal cortex is the most robust and consistently replicated finding across different cohorts of subjects with schizophrenia...
  24. Metabolomics-Measured Urinary Metabolites, Diet and BP, 17 Random Samples
    LINDA VERNER VAN HORN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..patterns/specific metabolites distinguishing INTERMAP participants with lower and higher intakes of: glutamic acid, glycine, omega-3/omega-6 PFA and their specific PFAs, oleic acid/MFA, dietary Ca, Mg, P, non-heme Fe...
  25. Analysis of peripheral tolerance in vivo
    MARC KEVIN JENKINS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..these hypotheses in humans by direct ex vivo tracking of the number, function, and phenotype of insulin or glutamic acid decarboxylase p:MHCII-specific CD4+ T cells from normoglycemic or type 1 diabetic people...
  26. PGC-1alpha and GABAergic Dysfunction in Huntington Disease
    Rita Marie Cowell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PGC-1 is concentrated specifically in neurons that express the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), and new data from the Cowell lab indicate that PGC-1 is required for the appropriate ..
  27. Structure and Function of NMDA Receptors
    Hiroyasu Furukawa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Defining the molecular structure of the extracellular region of NMDA receptors is expected to help in the design of new therapeutics. ..
  28. Analysis of retina rod photoreceptor GARP and cGMP-gated channel
    Steven J Pittler; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will focus our studies on the channel b- subunit and the associated soluble glutamic acid rich protein (GARP) GARP2, both encoded by the Cngb1 locus, examining the structural and functional roles of ..
  29. Regulation of Sororin by Cdk1-mediated Phosphorylation.
    William R Taylor; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..the cellular effects of Sororin mutants in which individual serines/threonines have been converted to glutamic acid to mimic the constitutively phosphorylated state...
  30. Role of WRN Protein in Cigarette Smoke-Induced Cellular Senescence and Emphysema.
    Toru Nyunoya; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The unique polypeptide sequences enriched in proline (P), glutamic acid (E), serine (S) and threonine (T) (PEST) residues are often targeted for protein degradation...
  31. Diabetes and Persistent Organic Pollutants
    MARY ELLEN TURYK; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..of diabetes risk will be investigated by testing banked serum samples for adiponectin, C reactive protein, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies, and 3-glutamyl transferase...
  32. Surface Proteins of Bacillus anthracis
    Olaf Schneewind; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Formation of a poly-D-3-glutamic acid (PDGA) capsule represents a key virulence strategy of anthrax bacilli. Further, B...
  33. Peptide-Based Quorum Sensing Controlling Virulence in Bacillus anthracis
    Hyunwoo Lee; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Moreover, because an intact AqsR-AqsP appears to be conserved in both B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, knowledge obtained in this study will also be applicable to the physiology of the B. cereus group of bacteria. ..
  34. T regulatory cells in type I diabetes
    Habib Zaghouani; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..CD4 T cells specific for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) or insulin 2 chain (INS2) play a major role in the manifestation of T1D...
  35. The development of novel peptidic and peptidomimetic therapies for the treatment
    BRIAN BUERK BRENNAN; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..unreadable]-chain of hemoglobin (Hb), leading to the incorporation of a valine surface residue in place of glutamic acid [1]...
  36. HIV and NRTI's-induced painful pathogenic mechanisms and gene therapy
    Shuanglin Hao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We propose a series of experiments with models of HIV/HAART neuropathy to: 1) define the changes of TNFa, ROS, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and GABA in DRG and spinal cord in HIV-associated pain;2) critically test the relationship ..
  37. Epitope sepcificity relates to GAD65-specific regulation of pathogenesis
    Yang D Dai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) is one of the earliest pancreatic beta-cell antigens that induces a diabetes-related T and B cell autoimmune response...
  38. Tonic and Phasic Glutamate Release from Psychomotor Stimulants
    Greg A Gerhardt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  39. Design and Development of Pharmacotherapies for Treating Stimulant Abuse
    Frank Ivy Carroll; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..L-Glutamic acid (glutamate) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system...
  40. Borrelia burgdorferi Interactions with Mammalian Host Cells
    JANAKIRAN SESHU; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..analysis of several of these differentially expressed ORFs revealed that BBA34 has an arginine-glycine-glutamic acid (RGD) motif at the N-terminal region and that this motif is probably surface-exposed...
  41. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF TORSIN A
    Phyllis I Hanson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..is a devastating non-degenerative neurological movement disorder caused by autosomal dominant inheritance of a glutamic acid deletion in the protein torsinA (TOR1A), frequently referred to as the ?GAG or ?E mutation because of the ..
  42. Development of an HLA-DP2 Transgenic Murine Model of Chronic Beryllium Disease
    Andrew P Fontenot; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Disease susceptibility has been linked to HLA-DPB1 alleles, including DPB1*0201, that possess a glutamic acid residue at position 69 of the HLA-DP2 2-chain (2Glu69)...
  43. Reversal of Autoimmune Diabetes
    Habib Zaghouani; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..specific for [unreadable] cell-associated self-antigens, such as insulin [unreadable] (INS) chain or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), play a major role in the development of T1D...
  44. Developmental Trajectories of Prefrontal Cortical GABA Neurons and Schizophrenia
    Gil D Hoftman; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our preliminary studies indicate that tissue levels of the two GABA-synthesizing enzymes, glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 and 65 (GAD67 and GAD65), increase in monkey DLPFC throughout postnatal development, with ..
  45. Brain TorsinA and childhood-onset Dystonia
    Pullanipally Shashidharan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The disorder is caused by a three base pair in-frame deletion in the DYT1 gene resulting in the loss of a glutamic acid residue at position 302/303 in torsinA...
  46. Immunoassay for capsular antigen for rapid diagnosis of anthrax
    Thomas R Kozel; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Bacillus anthracis is surrounded by a capsule composed of poly-?-D-glutamic acid (PGA)...
  47. MODEL SYSTEMS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF PAIN GENE THERAPY
    Joseph C Glorioso; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Project 1 will explore the use of HSV-mediated transfer of genes that produce inhibitory neurotransmitters (glutamic acid decaraboxylase and proenkephalin) and anti-inflammatory peptides (IL4 and TNFDSR) in models of painful ..
  48. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF TORSIN A
    Phyllis I Hanson; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..is a devastating non-degenerative neurological movement disorder caused by autosomal dominant inheritance of a glutamic acid deletion in the protein torsinA (TOR1A), frequently referred to as the GAG or E ..
  49. B. anthracis: passive immunization with anticapsular mAb
    Thomas R Kozel; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by applicant): Bacillus anthracis is surrounded by an antiphagocytic capsule that is composed of poly-?-D-glutamic acid (? DPGA)...
  50. Control of Photoreceptor Metabolism
    JAMES BRYANT HURLEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..evaluate photoreceptor metabolism and we found that chronic accumulation of cGMP causes massive depletion of glutamic acid, a condition that precludes synthesis of proteins and glutathione...
  51. PATHOGENIC T CELLS IN CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE
    Andrew P Fontenot; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Using fibroblasts expressing mutated HLA-DP2 molecules, beryllium recognition was dependent on the glutamic acid residue at position 69 ([unreadable]Glu69) of the HLA-DP [unreadable]-chain...
  52. Pathophysiology of DYT1 Dystonia: Targeted Mouse Models
    Yuqing Li; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..It is an autosomal dominant disorder with reduced penetrance due to a 3-bp deletion (AGAG) that deletes a glutamic acid residue in the coding region of DYT1, which codes for torsinA protein...
  53. Human Folylpolyglutamate Synthetase and Cancer Therapeutics
    Richard G Moran; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the naturally occurring folate cofactors and all classical folate antimetabolites to forms that contain 5-6 glutamic acid residues per molecule...
  54. Fluorescent-based Probes for the Glutamate/Cystine Exchanger System Xc-
    Nicholas R Natale; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This project will develop fluorescent molecular probes for system Xc- that will advance our understanding of its roles in these disorders, as well as enhance the development of therapeutic agents with which to regulate its activity. ..
  55. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS OF SINGLE FREQUENCY 2D IR
    ROBIN MAIN HOCHSTRASSER; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..membrane bound peptides and helices, aggregates of amyloid peptides and isotopomers of 13C=18O in unusual (non-commercially available as isotopomers) amino acids such as aspartic acid, serine, glutamic acid and lysine.
  56. A Common Glial-Neuronal Progenitor in Postnatal Brain
    Vittorio Gallo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and Doublecortin (Dcx)-expressing cells constitute a major progenitor population of ..
  57. High throughput Point-of-Care assays for diabetes auto-antibody detection
    KUMAR SUBRAMANIAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..no wash steps), sensor array specifically for the detection of four insulin auto-antibodies namely, Insulin auto-antibodies (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), IA-2 or ICA512 auto-antibodies, and ZnT8 auto-antibodies.
  58. Tubulin Tyrosine Ligase: Target and Tool
    Susannah Gal; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..TTCP) removes the genetically encoded C-terminal tyrosine from polymerized tubulin, exposing a glutamic acid residue...
  59. Mildly acidic tumor microenvironment for diagnostic and therapeutic nanomedicine
    JENNICA L KRANKEL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..A highly pH-sensitive histidine-glutamic acid (HE) copolymer sequence will be linked to the CPPs to prevent non-specific internalization of the construct in ..
  60. Critical domains for HIV-1 entry through atypical coreceptor usage
    Feng Gao; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Introduction of glutamic acid at this same position in other virus backbones leads to significant alterations of coreceptor usage, but does ..
  61. Cortical Excitatory-Inhibitory Balance in Schizophrenia
    David A Lewis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..dendritic spines, the principal site of excitatory inputs to pyramidal (PYR) neurons, and lower expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), the enzyme responsible for most GABA synthesis, in parvalbumin (PV)- containing ..
  62. STUDIES OF NEURONAL AND GLIAL GLUTAMATE DECARBOXYLASES
    Jang Yen Wu; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..We plan to use hybridoma technique which we have successfully developed for neuronal GAD to obtain monoclonal antibody to glial GAD...
  63. IMMUNE MONITORING OF ANTIGEN SPECIFIC THERAPY
    David Hafler; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..or GAD autoantigen reactive T cells as measured by proliferation, We will measure the frequency of insulin and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) reactive T cells by culturing with antigen before and after parenteral or oral ..
  64. PATHOGENESIS AND PREVENTION OF IDDM
    Hugh McDevitt; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The peptide epitopes of glutamic acid decarboxylase and pre pro-insulin will be identified in Dr...
  65. GLIAL B-AMYLOID PEPTIDE RECEPTORS IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
    Kurt Brunden; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..It is also postulated that IL-1 increases arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thereby inducing glutamic acid uptake by astrocytes...
  66. GENETIC AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSES OF SHIGA-LIKE TOXINS
    Stephen Calderwood; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..b>Glutamic acid-167 is critical to the enzymatic activity of the A subunit of SLT-I (Slt-IA) from E. coli...
  67. Multi-componet Vaccine for Staphylcoccus epidermidis
    Tomas Maira Litran; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..S. epidermidis and other related CoNS elaborate, as extracellular polymers, poly-?-DL-glutamic acid (DL-PGA) to facilitate growth and survival in the human host. These polymers are also produced by Bacillus spp...
  68. Prevention of Type I Diabetes Mellitus using a Cell Vac*
    Nick Giannoukakis; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..on the induction of tolerance to either soluble islet antigens or putative autoantigens like insulin and glutamic acid decarboxylase...
  69. PLASTICITY--GAD GENE EXPRESSION IN BASAL GANGLIA
    Marie Francoise Chesselet; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is the major neurotransmitter in these nuclei...
  70. L-amino and acid taste in mice.
    Eugene Delay; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..g., diabetics, cardiovascular disease, aged). ..
  71. PGA antigenemia for early diagnosis of anthrax
    Thomas Kozel; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Bacillus anthracis is surrounded by an anti-phagocytic capsule that is composed of poly-y-D-glutamic acid (PGA), raising the possibility than immunoassay for PGA could be a means for early, specific, rapid and ..
  72. NHLBI MINORITY INSTITUTION RESEARCH SCIENTIST DEVELOPMEN
    MARIA DEL PILAR AGUINAGA; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Sickle cell disease is caused by the substitution of glutamic acid with valine at the position of amino acid six in the Beta- globin chain...
  73. REGULATION OF GABA BIOSYNTHESIS IN THE BRAIN
    Jang Yen Wu; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The success of a large scale purification of recombinant human brain GAD65 and GAD67 and the availability of subtype specific antibodies for GAD65 and GAD67, ensure the high feasibility of this proposal. ..
  74. Bacillus anthracis cell surface carbohydrates
    Russell Carlson; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..anthracis cell wall carbohydrates. B. anthracis produces a capsule consisting of poly-g-glutamic acid, rather than a polysaccharide...
  75. Immune Tolerance Against Type I Diabetes in Mice
    Habib Zaghouani; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..type 1 (Th1) lymphocytes specific for p cell-associated antigens such as insulin beta (INSbeta) chain or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) can confer disease into healthy animals suggesting that the immune system plays a ..