nervous system lead poisoning

Summary

Summary: Injury to the nervous system secondary to exposure to lead compounds. Two distinct clinical patterns occur in children (LEAD POISONING, NERVOUS SYSTEM, CHILDHOOD) and adults (LEAD POISONING, NERVOUS SYSTEM, ADULT). In children, lead poisoning typically produces an encephalopathy. In adults, exposure to toxic levels of lead is associated with a peripheral neuropathy.

Top Publications

  1. Areola O, Jadhav A. Low-level lead exposure modulates effects of quinpirole and eticlopride on response rates in a fixed-interval schedule. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2001;69:151-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, postweaning, subchronic exposure to lead resulted in enhanced sensitivity to quinpirole administration and reduced sensitivity to eticlopride. These observations are consistent with attenuated dopaminergic activity...
  2. Mameli O, Caria M, Melis F, Solinas A, Tavera C, Ibba A, et al. Neurotoxic effect of lead at low concentrations. Brain Res Bull. 2001;55:269-75 pubmed
    ..Finally, the results indicate that the evaluation of the vestibulo-ocular-reflex can provide a test suited for the screening of the neurotoxic effects of lead even in the absence of clinical signs typical of lead intoxication...
  3. Toscano C, Hashemzadeh Gargari H, McGlothan J, Guilarte T. Developmental Pb2+ exposure alters NMDAR subtypes and reduces CREB phosphorylation in the rat brain. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2002;139:217-26 pubmed
  4. Gidlow D. Lead toxicity. Occup Med (Lond). 2004;54:76-81 pubmed
    ..Inevitably there is pressure to reduce lead exposure in the general population and in working environments, but any legislation must be based on a genuine scientific evaluation of the available evidence...
  5. Jett D, Beckles R, Navoa R, McLemore G. Increased high-affinity nicotinic receptor-binding in rats exposed to lead during development. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2002;24:805-11 pubmed
    ..The data therefore suggest that expression of nicotinic receptors that bind [3H]EB were increased by developmental exposure to Pb. Several possible mechanisms for these effects and the potential toxicological significance are discussed. ..
  6. Guilarte T, Toscano C, McGlothan J, Weaver S. Environmental enrichment reverses cognitive and molecular deficits induced by developmental lead exposure. Ann Neurol. 2003;53:50-6 pubmed
    ..We propose environmental enrichment as a basis for the treatment of childhood Pb2+ intoxication. ..
  7. Xie H, Yan C, Xu J, Gao Y, Yu X, Pan J, et al. [Effects of lead exposure on expression of mGluR5 in mRNA and protein levels of the cultured hippocampal neurons]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2007;41:266-70 pubmed
    ..The expression of mGluR5 in mRNA and protein levels should be down-regulated after lead exposure at different lead levels in a dose-dependent manner. ..
  8. Pachauri V, Saxena G, Mehta A, Mishra D, Flora S. Combinational chelation therapy abrogates lead-induced neurodegeneration in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;240:255-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The major highlight of the work is an interesting experimental evidence of the efficacy of combinational therapy using an antioxidant with a thiol chelator in reversing neurological dystrophy caused due to chronic lead exposure in rats. ..
  9. Ponnusamy K, Mohan M, Nagaraja H. Protective antioxidant effect of Centella asiatica bioflavonoids on lead acetate induced neurotoxicity. Med J Malaysia. 2008;63 Suppl A:102 pubmed
    ..The objective of the present work is to study the protective antioxidant effect of pretreatment of CA extract (CAE) on lead acetate induced changes in oxidative biomarkers in the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. ..

More Information

Publications74

  1. Fraser S, Muckle G, Despres C. The relationship between lead exposure, motor function and behaviour in Inuit preschool children. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2006;28:18-27 pubmed
    ..However, IA does act as a mediator in the relationship between postnatal blood lead concentration and transversal sway in tandem position. ..
  2. Liu J, Han D, Li Y, Zheng L, Gu C, Piao Z, et al. Lead affects apoptosis and related gene XIAP and Smac expression in the hippocampus of developing rats. Neurochem Res. 2010;35:473-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Our data indicate that exposure to Pb(Ac)2 caused a dose-dependent and significant increase of apoptosis in the hippocampus of developing rats through depressing the expression of the XIAP but not the Smac genes. ..
  3. Nowak P, Szczerbak G, Nitka D, Kostrzewa R, Josko J, Brus R. Cortical dopaminergic neurotransmission in rats intoxicated with lead during pregnancy. Nitric oxide and hydroxyl radicals formation involvement. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2008;30:428-32 pubmed publisher
    ..It is likely that striatum, nucleus accumbens or other dopamine rich brain areas are more intricately associated with Pb(2+) precipitated behavioral, dopamine - dependent impairments observed in mammalians. ..
  4. Sharifi A, Baniasadi S, Jorjani M, Rahimi F, Bakhshayesh M. Investigation of acute lead poisoning on apoptosis in rat hippocampus in vivo. Neurosci Lett. 2002;329:45-8 pubmed
    ..In Western blot analysis, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression in hippocampus was significantly increased compared to controls. In conclusion, the lead induced cell death in hippocampus in vivo may partly be due to apoptosis. ..
  5. Dedeken P, Louw V, Vandooren A, Verstegen G, Goossens W, Dubois B. Plumbism or lead intoxication mimicking an abdominal tumor. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21:C1-3 pubmed
    ..This case also illustrates the importance of a careful and meticulous social history in patient management. ..
  6. Schneider J, Decamp E. Postnatal lead poisoning impairs behavioral recovery following brain damage. Neurotoxicology. 2007;28:1153-7 pubmed
    ..Considering the increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease in lead-exposed humans, diminished capacity for repair or adaptation following lead exposure needs to now be examined in greater detail. ..
  7. Basha M, Wei W, Brydie M, Razmiafshari M, Zawia N. Lead-induced developmental perturbations in hippocampal Sp1 DNA-binding are prevented by zinc supplementation: in vivo evidence for Pb and Zn competition. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2003;21:1-12 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Pb and Zn can compete both in vivo and in vitro at the zinc finger domain of Sp1 with a consequential effect on Sp1 DNA-binding, subsequent gene expression and brain development. ..
  8. Giusi G, Alo R, Crudo M, Facciolo R, Canonaco M. Specific cerebral heat shock proteins and histamine receptor cross-talking mechanisms promote distinct lead-dependent neurotoxic responses in teleosts. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008;227:248-56 pubmed
    ..pavo, aquatic species which plays an important ecological role towards the survival of other commercially vital fishes...
  9. Nigg J. ADHD, lead exposure and prevention: how much lead or how much evidence is needed?. Expert Rev Neurother. 2008;8:519-21 pubmed publisher
  10. Xu Y, Li G, Han C, Sun L, Zhao R, Cui S. Protective effects of Hippophae rhamnoides L. juice on lead-induced neurotoxicity in mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005;28:490-4 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the different doses of the HRL juice protect against the lead acetate-induced deficits in learning and memory and changes in neurobiochemical parameters...
  11. Nation J, Smith K, Bratton G. Early developmental lead exposure increases sensitivity to cocaine in a self-administration paradigm. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004;77:127-35 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that early developmental lead exposure may increase sensitivity to cocaine later in the life cycle...
  12. Fan G, Feng C, Li Y, Wang C, Yan J, Li W, et al. Selection of nutrients for prevention or amelioration of lead-induced learning and memory impairment in rats. Ann Occup Hyg. 2009;53:341-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The nutrients tested were tyrosine, glycine, methionine, taurine, ascorbic acid, thiamine and zinc...
  13. Tsao D, Yu H, Cheng J, Ho C, Chang H. Alterations in beta-adrenergic receptor density and adenylate cyclase activity in the rat brain treated chronically with lead. Toxicology. 2000;146:93-9 pubmed
    ..001). The results show lead exposure that may be the result of an alteration of beta-adrenergic receptor and adenylate cyclase activity in brain...
  14. Trope I, Lopez Villegas D, Cecil K, Lenkinski R. Exposure to lead appears to selectively alter metabolism of cortical gray matter. Pediatrics. 2001;107:1437-42 pubmed
    ..MRS has the ability to monitor brain metabolism by detecting a number of neurochemicals among which is N-acetylaspartate, a metabolite shown to decrease in processes that involve neuronal loss...
  15. Rocha A, Valles R, Hart N, Bratton G, Nation J. Developmental lead exposure attenuates methamphetamine dose-effect self-administration performance and progressive ratio responding in the male rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008;89:508-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The data showed a general attenuation of the reinforcement efficacy of methamphetamine in animals perinatally exposed to lead, as compared to control animals...
  16. Fontanellas A, Navarro S, Morán Jiménez M, Sánchez Fructuoso A, Vegh I, Barrientos A, et al. Erythrocyte aminolevulinate dehydratase activity as a lead marker in patients with chronic renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;40:43-50 pubmed
    ..Subclinical lead poisoning is difficult to identify. Because the heme biosynthetic pathway is highly sensitive to lead, we considered the study of enzymes involved in this pathway as a method to detect an excessive body lead burden...
  17. Lee W, Yoon H, Lee D, Lee J, Koo C, Park K. Effects of postnatally administered inorganic lead on the tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive norepinephrinergic neurons of the locus ceruleus of the rat. Arch Histol Cytol. 2002;65:45-53 pubmed
    ..Degenerative changes may account for the reported deficits in intellectual attainment and achievement in lead intoxicated children...
  18. Shih R, Glass T, Bandeen Roche K, Carlson M, Bolla K, Todd A, et al. Environmental lead exposure and cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults. Neurology. 2006;67:1556-62 pubmed
    ..To determine if long-term exposure to high levels of lead in the environment is associated with decrements in cognitive ability in older Americans...
  19. Sanders T, Liu Y, Buchner V, Tchounwou P. Neurotoxic effects and biomarkers of lead exposure: a review. Rev Environ Health. 2009;24:15-45 pubmed
  20. Gavazzo P, Gazzoli A, Mazzolini M, Marchetti C. Lead inhibition of NMDA channels in native and recombinant receptors. Neuroreport. 2001;12:3121-5 pubmed
    ..3, 2.5 and 4.7 microM respectively. These data indicate that Pb2+ action is dependent on subunit composition and suggest that down-regulation of the NR2B subunit is correlated to a diminished sensitivity to Pb2+ inhibition...
  21. Ryzhavskii B, Lebed ko O, Belolyubskaya D, Baranova S. Long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to lead on brain development in rats. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2008;38:145-9 pubmed publisher
    ..9-fold increase in the concentration of lipid peroxides, providing evidence of oxidative stress. The possible mechanisms by which these alterations develop are analyzed...
  22. Kuzirian A, Epstein H, Buck D, Child F, Nelson T, Alkon D. Pavlovian conditioning-specific increases of the Ca2+- and GTP-binding protein, calexcitin in identified Hermissenda visual cells. J Neurocytol. 2001;30:993-1008 pubmed
    ..This learning-specific increase in calexcitin is consistent with the previously implicated sequence of molecular events that are associated with progressively longer time domains of memory storage...
  23. Mendola P, Selevan S, Gutter S, Rice D. Environmental factors associated with a spectrum of neurodevelopmental deficits. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2002;8:188-97 pubmed
  24. Olympio K, Oliveira P, Naozuka J, Cardoso M, Marques A, Günther W, et al. Surface dental enamel lead levels and antisocial behavior in Brazilian adolescents. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2010;32:273-9 pubmed publisher
    ..High DELL was not found to be associated with elevated SRD scores. In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis that high-level lead exposure can trigger antisocial behavior, which calls for public policies to prevent lead poisoning...
  25. Deng W, Poretz R. Lead exposure affects levels of galactolipid metabolic enzymes in the developing rat brain. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2001;172:98-107 pubmed
    ..It is further suggested that perturbation of the galactolipid pathway during the developmental maturation of oligodendrocytes may represent a contributing mechanism for Pb-induced neurotoxicity...
  26. Plusquellec P, Muckle G, Dewailly E, Ayotte P, Jacobson S, Jacobson J. The relation of low-level prenatal lead exposure to behavioral indicators of attention in Inuit infants in Arctic Quebec. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007;29:527-37 pubmed
  27. Bergdahl I. Another fundamental error in "What is the meaning of non-linear dose-response relationships between blood lead concentrations and IQ?" became obvious in the authors' response to comments. Neurotoxicology. 2007;28:705-6; author reply 706 pubmed
  28. Gilbert M, Lasley S. Developmental lead (Pb) exposure reduces the ability of the NMDA antagonist MK-801 to suppress long-term potentiation (LTP) in the rat dentate gyrus, in vivo. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007;29:385-93 pubmed
  29. Wang L, Luo L, Luo Y, Gu Y, Ruan D. Effects of Pb2+ on muscarinic modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal CA1 area. Neurotoxicology. 2007;28:499-507 pubmed
  30. Schwartz B, Stewart W, Bolla K, Simon P, Bandeen Roche K, Gordon P, et al. Past adult lead exposure is associated with longitudinal decline in cognitive function. Neurology. 2000;55:1144-50 pubmed
    ..To determine whether adults with past exposure to neurotoxicants have progressive declines in cognitive function years after exposure has ceased, and whether tibia lead is a predictor of the magnitude of change...
  31. Xu J, Yan C, Yang B, Xie H, Zou X, Zhong L, et al. The role of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in developmental lead neurotoxicity. Toxicol Lett. 2009;191:223-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results might improve the understanding of the mechanism and potential treatments for moderate to severe lead poisoning in children...
  32. Struzynska L. A glutamatergic component of lead toxicity in adult brain: the role of astrocytic glutamate transporters. Neurochem Int. 2009;55:151-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations are viewed against a background of other results...
  33. Dyatlov V, Lawrence D. Neonatal lead exposure potentiates sickness behavior induced by Listeria monocytogenes infection of mice. Brain Behav Immun. 2002;16:477-92 pubmed
  34. Deng W, Poretz R. Protein kinase C activation is required for the lead-induced inhibition of proliferation and differentiation of cultured oligodendroglial progenitor cells. Brain Res. 2002;929:87-95 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Pb inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte lineage cells in vitro through a mechanism requiring PKC activation...
  35. She J, Wang M, Zhu D, Tang M, Chen J, Wang L, et al. Monosialoanglioside (GM1) prevents lead-induced neurotoxicity on long-term potentiation, SOD activity, MDA levels, and intracellular calcium levels of hippocampus in rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2009;379:517-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results illustrated the possible mechanisms underlying the protective effects of GM1 against Pb(2+) neurotoxicity and might shed light on protection against Pb(2+) toxicity and its treatment...
  36. Wang H, Chen X, Yin S, Liu J, Tang M, Wu C, et al. Opposite effects of alpha-lipoic acid on antioxidation and long-term potentiation in control and chronically lead-exposed rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2008;378:303-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These differential effects of LA on LTP in control and lead-exposed rats may be due to the different redox status of the control and lead-exposed rats...
  37. Counter S, Buchanan L, Ortega F. Neurocognitive screening of lead-exposed andean adolescents and young adults. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2009;72:625-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, both the RCPM and Digit Span tests were found to be effective instruments for field screening of visual-spatial reasoning and auditory memory abilities, respectively, in Pb-exposed Andean adolescents and young adults...
  38. Szczerbak G, Nowak P, Kostrzewa R, Brus R. Maternal lead exposure produces long-term enhancement of dopaminergic reactivity in rat offspring. Neurochem Res. 2007;32:1791-8 pubmed
  39. Clifford P, Hart N, Thompson J, Buckman S, Wellman P, Bratton G, et al. Prenatal lead exposure enhances methamphetamine sensitization in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009;93:165-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Hart N., Bratton G.R., Nation J.R. Developmental lead exposure attenuates methamphetamine dose-effect self-administration performance and progressive ratio responding in the male rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2008b;89:508-514]...
  40. Chia S, Yap E, Chia K. Can delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase 2 allele exert certain protective measures against the neurotoxic effects of lead?. Occup Environ Med. 2004;61:720 pubmed
  41. Brewster U, Perazella M. A review of chronic lead intoxication: an unrecognized cause of chronic kidney disease. Am J Med Sci. 2004;327:341-7 pubmed
    ..In particular, treatment with calcium EDTA chelation may benefit certain patients with chronic kidney disease by slowing the progression to end-stage renal disease...
  42. Guilarte T, McGlothan J. Selective decrease in NR1 subunit splice variant mRNA in the hippocampus of Pb2+-exposed rats: implications for synaptic targeting and cell surface expression of NMDAR complexes. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;113:37-43 pubmed
  43. Gomaa A, Hu H, Bellinger D, Schwartz J, Tsaih S, Gonzalez Cossio T, et al. Maternal bone lead as an independent risk factor for fetal neurotoxicity: a prospective study. Pediatrics. 2002;110:110-8 pubmed
    ..Our objective was to compare lead levels in umbilical cord blood and maternal bone as independent predictors of infant mental development using a prospective design...
  44. Tangpong J, Satarug S. Alleviation of lead poisoning in the brain with aqueous leaf extract of the Thunbergia laurifolia (Linn.). Toxicol Lett. 2010;198:83-8 pubmed publisher
    ..TL leaf extract thus reduced neuronal cell death and memory loss caused by lead uptake in mice, and the anti-oxidant activities of the TL leaf extract might account for these effects...
  45. Jankowska Kulawy A, Gul Hinc S, Bielarczyk H, Suszkiw J, Pawełczyk T, Dyś A, et al. Effects of lead on cholinergic SN56 neuroblastoma cells. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2008;68:453-62 pubmed
    ..It indicates that lead had no primary suppressive effect on cholinergic phenotype but, at least in part, exerted cytotoxic influence on cholinergic neurons through the decrease of their acetyl-CoA...
  46. Karri S, Saper R, Kales S. Lead encephalopathy due to traditional medicines. Curr Drug Saf. 2008;3:54-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the United States Food and Drug Administration and corresponding agencies in other countries should require and enforce heavy metal testing for all imported traditional medicines and "dietary supplements"...
  47. Pfister E, Böckelmann I, Darius S, Wurthmann C. [Inclusion of psychopathologic methods for diagnosis of early neurotoxic effects from lead and organic solvent mixtures]. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 1999;67:435-40 pubmed
    ..Psychological and pathopsychological methods are necessary but will not suffice to detect early effects after long-term exposure to lead or organic solvents...
  48. Basha R, Reddy G. Developmental exposure to lead and late life abnormalities of nervous system. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48:636-41 pubmed
    ..This article will summarize the association of early life exposure to environmental agents and late-life abnormalities with an emphasis on developmental exposure to Pb and neurodegeneration in old age...
  49. White L, Cory Slechta D, Gilbert M, Tiffany Castiglioni E, Zawia N, Virgolini M, et al. New and evolving concepts in the neurotoxicology of lead. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007;225:1-27 pubmed
  50. Bouyatas M, Gamrani H. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the effect of lead exposure on subcommissural organ innervation and secretion in Shaw's Jird (Meriones shawi). Acta Histochem. 2007;109:421-7 pubmed
    ..These results show that lead exposure affects the serotonergic innervation of the SCO. Moreover, the enhancement of SCO secretion suggests a role of this gland in neuroprotection and lead detoxification of the brain in Meriones shawi...
  51. Sun H, Wang H, Wang S. D-serine relieves chronic lead exposure-impaired long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus in vitro. Neurosci Lett. 2007;417:118-22 pubmed
  52. Chuang H, Tsai S, Chao K, Lian C, Yang C, Ho C, et al. The influence of milk intake on the lead toxicity to the sensory nervous system in lead workers. Neurotoxicology. 2004;25:941-9 pubmed
    ..The authors did not emphasize that offers of milk to workers could be instead of occupational hygiene efforts. Furthermore, lead workers with lactose intolerance might be more susceptible, and need more industrial hygiene interventions...
  53. Antonio García M, Massó González E. Toxic effects of perinatal lead exposure on the brain of rats: involvement of oxidative stress and the beneficial role of antioxidants. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:2089-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides evidence of the beneficial role of antioxidants in early status of brain development in rats against lead exposure...
  54. Struzynska L, Bubko I, Walski M, Rafałowska U. Astroglial reaction during the early phase of acute lead toxicity in the adult rat brain. Toxicology. 2001;165:121-31 pubmed
    ..It may indicate lead-induced neuronal injury. At the same time, a regional enhancement of detoxicative mechanisms (GSH) was noticed, suggesting activation of astrocyte-mediated neuroprotection against toxic Pb action...
  55. Haraguchi T, Ishizu H, Takehisa Y, Kawai K, Yokota O, Terada S, et al. Lead content of brain tissue in diffuse neurofibrillary tangles with calcification (DNTC): the possibility of lead neurotoxicity. Neuroreport. 2001;12:3887-90 pubmed
    ..Although it remains unclear how these findings are related to the formation of NFTs, they suggest that Pb neurotoxicity may be involved in the pathogenesis of DNTC...
  56. Krieg E, Butler M, Chang M, Liu T, Yesupriya A, Dowling N, et al. Lead and cognitive function in VDR genotypes in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2010;32:262-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The mean blood lead concentrations of the children and adults did not vary by VDR genotype...
  57. Lepper T, Oliveira E, Koch G, Berlese D, Feksa L. Lead inhibits in vitro creatine kinase and pyruvate kinase activity in brain cortex of rats. Toxicol In Vitro. 2010;24:1045-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, lead may disrupt energy homeostasis and this effect may contribute to the neurological dysfunction found in lead exposed individuals...
  58. Bauter M, Brockel B, Pankevich D, Virgolini M, Cory Slechta D. Glutamate and dopamine in nucleus accumbens core and shell: sequence learning versus performance. Neurotoxicology. 2003;24:227-43 pubmed
  59. Struzynska L, Dabrowska Bouta B, Koza K, Sulkowski G. Inflammation-like glial response in lead-exposed immature rat brain. Toxicol Sci. 2007;95:156-62 pubmed
    ..Obtained results indicate chronic glial activation with coexisting inflammatory and neurodegenerative features as a new mechanism of Pb neurotoxicity in immature rat brain...
  60. Muller Y, Rivero L, Carvalho M, Kobus K, Farina M, Nazari E. Behavioral impairments related to lead-induced developmental neurotoxicity in chicks. Arch Toxicol. 2008;82:445-51 pubmed
    ..The proposed exposure schedule represents an interesting experimental approach for studding behavioral and cellular mechanisms related to lead-induced developmental neurotoxicity...
  61. Toscano C, Guilarte T. Lead neurotoxicity: from exposure to molecular effects. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2005;49:529-54 pubmed
    ..Finally, the latest research offers some hope that the devastating effects of childhood Pb(2+) intoxication in a child's ability to learn may be reversible if the appropriate stimulatory environment is provided...
  62. Jaya Prasanthi R, Hariprasad Reddy G, Bhuvaneswari Devi C, Rajarami Reddy G. Zinc and calcium reduce lead induced perturbations in the aminergic system of developing brain. Biometals. 2005;18:615-26 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence that dietary Ca2+ and/or Zn2+ provide protection against Pb-induced neurotoxic effects...
  63. Wang H, Chen X, Luo L, Lou Z, Wang S, Chen J, et al. Reparatory effects of nicotine on NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal CA1 region of chronically lead-exposed rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;23:1111-9 pubmed
    ..This may represent the cellular basis of nicotine-facilitated cognitive enhancement observed in chronically lead-exposed rats...
  64. Cremin J, Smith D. In vitro vs in vivo Pb effects on brain protein kinase C activity. Environ Res. 2002;90:191-9 pubmed
    ..While the mechanisms underlying these outcomes are not clear, they suggest that in vitro models might not accurately reflect effects of chronic low-level in vivo Pb exposure...
  65. Yan D, Xiao C, Ma F, Wang L, Luo Y, Liu J, et al. Excitatory effects of low-level lead exposure on action potential firing of pyramidal neurons in CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. J Neurosci Res. 2008;86:3665-73 pubmed publisher