inert gas narcosis

Summary

Summary: Progressive mental disturbances and unconsciousness due to breathing mixtures of oxygen and inert gases (argon, helium, xenon, krypton, and atmospheric nitrogen) at high pressure.

Top Publications

  1. Pastena L, Faralli F, Mainardi G, Gagliardi R. EEG patterns associated with nitrogen narcosis (breathing air at 9 ATA). Aviat Space Environ Med. 2005;76:1031-6 pubmed
    ..The narcotic effect of nitrogen impairs diver performance and limits dive profiles, especially for deep dives using compressed air. It would be helpful to establish measurable correlates of nitrogen narcosis...
  2. Ayers D, Mercer S, Glover M. Common medical disorders related to diving--prevention, diagnosis and fundamentals of treatment. Part 1: Diving disorders that do not require recompression. J R Army Med Corps. 2003;149:15-22 pubmed
  3. Dedieu D, Balon N, Weiss M, Risso J, Kinkead R, Rostain J. Microdialysis study of striatal dopaminergic dysfunctions induced by 3 MPa of nitrogen- and helium-oxygen breathing mixtures in freely moving rats. Brain Res. 2004;998:202-7 pubmed
  4. Rostain J, Balon N. Recent neurochemical basis of inert gas narcosis and pressure effects. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2006;33:197-204 pubmed
  5. Benton P. Submarine escape trials 1999-2001--provision of medical support. J R Nav Med Serv. 2002;88:108-15 pubmed
    ..The article also provides details of the results to date that have been obtained from this work...
  6. Vallee N, Rostain J, Boussuges A, Risso J. Comparison of nitrogen narcosis and helium pressure effects on striatal amino acids: a microdialysis study in rats. Neurochem Res. 2009;34:835-44 pubmed publisher
    ..As a matter of fact, nitrogen induces a reduction in glutamate and in other amino acids that could partly explain the decrease in striatal dopamine level as well as the motor and cognitive disturbances reported in nitrogen narcosis...
  7. Gustavsson L, Hultcrantz E. [Medical aspects of diving--a sport for both women and men]. Lakartidningen. 1999;96:749-53 pubmed
    ..All participants in the sport must be responsible for their own diving safety...
  8. Mekjavic I, Savić S, Eiken O. Nitrogen narcosis attenuates shivering thermogenesis. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1995;78:2241-4 pubmed
    ..Most likely, the observed effects on the autonomic responses and thermal perception are due to an inhibitory action of hyperbaric nitrogen on central neural structures involved in temperature regulation...
  9. Jakovljevic M, Vidmar G, Mekjavic I. Psychomotor function during mild narcosis induced by subanesthetic level of nitrous oxide: individual susceptibility beyond gender effect. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2012;39:1067-74 pubmed
    ..In particular, we assessed individual susceptibility to narcosis...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Vallee N, Rostain J, Risso J. A pressurized nitrogen counterbalance to cortical glutamatergic pathway stimulation. Neurochem Res. 2010;35:718-26 pubmed publisher
    ..4%, respectively). In conclusion, the function of the corticostriatal pathway is affected by nitrogen under pressure. This suggests that the nitrogen-induced break point seems to be located at the glutamatergic striatopetal neurons...
  2. Abraini J, Joulia F. Psycho-sensorimotor performance in divers exposed to six and seven atmospheres absolute of compressed air. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1992;65:84-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, our results supported the ergonomic point of view that the laws limiting occupational diving to 6 ATA (50 m) are better adapted to reality and the requirements of underwater activity...
  3. Fowler B, Pang E, Mitchell I. On controlling inert gas narcosis. Hum Factors. 1992;34:115-20 pubmed
    ..Slowing is accompanied by strategic changes that may be maladaptive. This suggests that, contrary to conventional wisdom, the safety and efficiency of divers exposed to narcosis could be improved with training...
  4. Hamilton K, Laliberte M, Heslegrave R. Subjective and behavioral effects associated with repeated exposure to narcosis. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1992;63:865-9 pubmed
  5. Hamilton K, Fowler B, Landolt J, Porlier G. Nitrogen narcosis and ethyl alcohol increase the gain of the vestibular ocular reflex. Undersea Biomed Res. 1989;16:129-37 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that nitrogen nacrosis differentially impairs the system controlling the VOR. It is proposed that this impairment may help to explain the disorientation sometimes associated with nitrogen narcosis...
  6. Ciammaichella R, Mekjavic I. The effect of nitrous oxide-induced narcosis on aerobic work performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000;82:333-9 pubmed
  7. Sledkov A. [Prediction of the central effect of pharmacological preparations in a hyperbaric environment]. Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 1996;30:24-6 pubmed
    ..Besides, it was shown that the strategy of searching protectors against NSHP and nitrogen narcosis may consist of selecting substances which will adequately recuperate shifts in the brain excitability due to these hyperbaric pathologies...
  8. Sledkov A, Bernarskii K, Shilina M. [Involvement of adrenergic mechanisms in developing the nervous syndrome of high pressure and nitrogen narcosis]. Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 1996;30:28-33 pubmed
    ..Mechanisms of NSHP and nitrogen narcosis and possible principles of pharmacological correction are under discussion...
  9. van Wijk C, Meintjes W. Complex tactile performance in low visibility: the effect of nitrogen narcosis. Diving Hyperb Med. 2014;44:65-9 pubmed
    ..When this happens under hyperbaric conditions, factors like nitrogen narcosis could influence a person's ability to successfully complete such tasks...
  10. Lavoute C, Weiss M, Rostain J. Alterations in nigral NMDA and GABAA receptor control of the striatal dopamine level after repetitive exposures to nitrogen narcosis. Exp Neurol. 2008;212:63-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, repetitive nitrogen exposure induced persistent changes in glutamatergic and GABAergic control of dopaminergic neurons, resulting in decreased activity of the nigrostriatal pathway...
  11. Linnarsson D, Ornhagen H, Gennser M, Berg H. Breathing volumes and gas exchange during simulated rapid free ascent from 100 msw. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1993;74:1293-8 pubmed
    ..The time course of arterial PCO2 changes as reflected by end-tidal values during short-lasting compression/decompression would act to promote inert gas supersaturation in the brain...
  12. Marotte H. [The exposure of man to altitude when flying: from Paul Bert to today]. J Soc Biol. 2006;200:251-5 pubmed
    ..We also consider the case of protection against accidental loss of aircraft pressurization...
  13. Bove A. Diving medicine. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014;189:1479-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This review provides a basis for understanding the diving environment and its accompanying disorders and provides a basis for assessment of fitness for diving...
  14. Fothergill D, Hedges D, Morrison J. Effects of CO2 and N2 partial pressures on cognitive and psychomotor performance. Undersea Biomed Res. 1991;18:1-19 pubmed
  15. Sander H. Mononeuropathy of the medial branch of the deep peroneal nerve in a scuba diver. J Peripher Nerv Syst. 1999;4:134-7 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of injury is hypothesized to be a manifestation of decompression illness with a gas bubble causing blood flow obstruction and an ischemic infarct...
  16. Lenoir P, Jammes Y, Giry P, Rostain J, Burnet H, Tomei C, et al. Electromyographic study of respiratory muscles during human diving at 46 ATA. Undersea Biomed Res. 1990;17:121-37 pubmed
    ..Hyperbaric tremor was recorded on the thoracic EMG and was maximal with He-O2 inhalation. It disappeared at the end of the period at 46 ATA (He-N2-O2)...
  17. Kneller W, Hobbs M. Inert gas narcosis and the encoding and retrieval of long-term memory. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2013;84:1235-9 pubmed
    Prior research has indicated that inert gas narcosis (IGN) causes decrements in free recall memory performance and that these result from disruption of either encoding or self-guided search in the retrieval process...
  18. Turle Lorenzo N, Zouani B, Risso J. Narcotic effects produced by nitrous oxide and hyperbaric nitrogen narcosis in rats performing a fixed-ratio test. Physiol Behav. 1999;67:321-5 pubmed
    ..The results show significant performances decreases: the number of pressed lever are reduced by 50% under Nitrox and by 70% under N2O. Nitrous oxide could be considered as a normobaric model of hyperbaric narcosis...
  19. Lindholm P, Lundgren C. The physiology and pathophysiology of human breath-hold diving. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;106:284-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential for high nitrogen pressure in the lungs to cause decompression sickness and N(2) narcosis is also illuminated...
  20. Vallee N, Rostain J, Risso J. How can an inert gas counterbalance a NMDA-induced glutamate release?. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;107:1951-8 pubmed publisher
    ..studies performed in rats have revealed a decrease of striatal dopamine and glutamate induced by inert gas narcosis. We sought to establish the hypothetical role of glutamate and its main receptor, the N-methyl-d-aspartate (..
  21. Weibing X, Jun L, Zheng M, Fengtao Y, Hexiang Z. Effect of 2.1 MPa and 4.1 MPa H2O2 exposure on auditory brain stem evoked potential in mice. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2005;32:391-6 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, asymmetrical reaction of each segment in the neuro-network might be responsible for the occurrence of HPNS...
  22. Arieli R, Ertracht O, Oster I, Vitenstein A, Adir Y. Effects of nitrogen and helium on CNS oxygen toxicity in the rat. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005;98:144-50 pubmed
  23. Petri N. Change in strategy of solving psychological tests: evidence of nitrogen narcosis in shallow air-diving. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2003;30:293-303 pubmed
  24. Kneller W, Higham P, Hobbs M. Measuring manual dexterity and anxiety in divers using a novel task at 35-41 m. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2012;83:54-7 pubmed
    ..Preliminary findings of the effects of depth (i.e., narcosis) and subjective anxiety on a novel test of manual dexterity are presented...
  25. Hamilton K, Laliberte M, Fowler B. Dissociation of the behavioral and subjective components of nitrogen narcosis and diver adaptation. Undersea Hyperb Med. 1995;22:41-9 pubmed
  26. Ostlund A, Sundblad P, Demetriades A, Linnarsson D. Arterial baroreflex control during mild-to-moderate nitrous oxide narcosis. Undersea Hyperb Med. 1999;26:15-20 pubmed
    We hypothesized that light-to-moderate inert gas narcosis might play a role in bradycardia in divers by altering sensitivity or response dynamics of arterial baroreflexes...
  27. Sledkov A. [Effect of calcium channel blockers on developing nervous syndrome of high pressure and nitrogen narcosis in mice]. Aviakosm Ekolog Med. 1997;31:75-7 pubmed
    ..On exposure to the hyperbaric nitrogen-oxygen environment verapromil (phenylalkulamine blocker of L-type calcium channels) had a protection effect with respect to a convulsive component of the nitrogen narcosis...
  28. Mekjavic I, Sundberg C. Human temperature regulation during narcosis induced by inhalation of 30% nitrous oxide. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1992;73:2246-54 pubmed
    ..26 degrees C] during the N2O than during the AIR condition (delta T(es) = -0.36 +/- 0.31 degrees C and delta T(re) = -0.44 +/- 0.22 degrees C).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  29. Rogers W, Moeller G. Effect of brief, repeated hyperbaric exposures on susceptibility to nitrogen narcosis. Undersea Biomed Res. 1989;16:227-32 pubmed
    ..5 ATA was reduced with repetitive exposures. These results are taken as evidence that there is little or no behavioral adaptation to nitrogen narcosis in response to brief, repetitive exposures to narcosis-inducing hyperbaric air...
  30. Vallee N, Rostain J, Risso J. Low susceptibility to inert gases and pressure symptoms in TREK-1-deficient mice. Neuroreport. 2009;20:343-7 pubmed
    ..TREK-1 channels seem to play a key role in modulating the anaesthetic potential of inert gases and in neuroprotection...
  31. Kneller W, Hobbs M. The levels of processing effect under nitrogen narcosis. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2013;40:239-45 pubmed
    ..It was concluded memory performance can be altered by processing under narcosis and supports the contention that narcosis affects the encoding stage of memory as opposed to self-guided search (retrieval)...
  32. Fowler B, Adams J. Dissociation of the effects of alcohol and amphetamine on inert gas narcosis using reaction time and P300 latency. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1993;64:493-9 pubmed
    Alcohol exacerbates and amphetamine ameliorates the slowing of reaction time (RT) produced by inert gas narcosis. The event-related brain potential P300 was used to determine whether these drug effects involve stimulus- or response-..
  33. Rostain J, Balon N. [Diving: barometric pressure and neurochemical mechanisms]. J Soc Biol. 2006;200:257-63 pubmed
    ..The question is to know whether inert gases, that disrupt dopamine and GABA neurotransmissions and probably glutamatergic neurotransmission, act by binding to neurotransmitter protein receptors...
  34. Lavoute C, Weiss M, Rostain J. Effects of NMDA administration in the substantia nigra pars compacta on the striatal dopamine release before and after repetitive exposures to nitrogen narcosis in rats. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2006;33:175-9 pubmed
    ..Our results neither support the hypothesis of an antagonist effect of nitrogen on NMDA receptors at the first exposure, nor that of a NMDA receptor desensitization following repetitive exposures to hyperbaric nitrogen...
  35. Bangham A. Liposomes and the physico-chemical basis of unconsciousness. FASEB J. 2005;19:1766-8 pubmed
  36. Nakayama H, Shibayama M, Yamami N, Togawa S, Takahashi M, Mano Y. Decompression sickness and recreational scuba divers. Emerg Med J. 2003;20:332-4 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study is to clear the status of recreational scuba divers in Japan for promoting safety in recreational diving...
  37. Fothergill D, Carlson N. Effects of N2O narcosis on breathing and effort sensations during exercise and inspiratory resistive loading. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1996;81:1562-71 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the load-compensating respiratory reflexes responsible for maintaining ventilation during resistive breathing are not depressed by N2O narcosis...
  38. Fowler B, Hamel R, Lindeis A. Relationship between the event-related brain potential P300 and inert gas narcosis. Undersea Hyperb Med. 1993;20:49-62 pubmed
    It is known that inert gas narcosis slows both reaction time (RT) and the event-related brain potential P300 in a correlated and dose-dependent manner...
  39. Hemelryck W, Rozloznik M, Germonpre P, Balestra C, Lafère P. Functional comparison between critical flicker fusion frequency and simple cognitive tests in subjects breathing air or oxygen in normobaria. Diving Hyperb Med. 2013;43:138-42 pubmed
    Measurement of inert gas narcosis and its degree is difficult during operational circumstances, hence the need for a reliable, reproducible and adaptable tool...
  40. Hamilton K, Laliberte M, Heslegrave R, Khan S. Visual/vestibular effects of inert gas narcosis. Ergonomics. 1993;36:891-8 pubmed
    Divers breathing compressed air at depths beyond 30 m experience a type of behavioural impairment known as inert gas narcosis. This condition degrades performance on a wide range of tasks and has the potential to compromise safety...
  41. Abraini J. Inert gas and raised pressure: evidence that motor decrements are due to pressure per se and cognitive decrements due to narcotic action. Pflugers Arch. 1997;433:788-91 pubmed
    ..This analysis indicated that impairment of cognitive ability was a consequence of the narcotic action of the inert gases, whereas impairment of motor ability was a consequence of the raised pressure per se...
  42. Kostopanagiotou G, Hamamoto I, Hartwell V, Nemoto E. Hyperbaric nitrogen and pentobarbital on synaptosomal membrane lipids and free fatty acids. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2006;33:95-101 pubmed
    ..05) but unaffected by pentobarbital. The decrease in synaptosomal membrane FFA at 10 MPa suggests attenuated hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids without detectable alterations in membrane phospholipid composition...
  43. Thom S, Marquis R. Free radical reactions and the inhibitory and lethal actions of high-pressure gases. Undersea Biomed Res. 1987;14:485-501 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that the inhibitory and lethal actions of these gases may be due to enhanced reactivity of radicals with cell components and reduced leakage of the radicals to the environment...
  44. Jakovljevic M, Vidmar G, Mekjavic I. Inert gas narcosis has no influence on thermo-tactile sensation. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112:1929-35 pubmed publisher
    Contribution of skin thermal sensors under inert gas narcosis to the raising hypothermia is not known...
  45. Inoue Y, Murakami T, Nakamura T, Morita K, Kaneda D, Nishino I, et al. Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a Patient Developing Carbon Dioxide Narcosis. Intern Med. 2017;56:797-803 pubmed publisher
    ..After the initiation of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation, the patient's serum sodium concentration normalized and became stable. Thus, ALS should be recognized as a possible cause of SIADH in the clinical setting...
  46. Connor C, Ferrigno M. Estimates of N2 narcosis and O2 toxicity during submarine escapes from 600 to 1,000 fsw. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2009;36:237-45 pubmed
    ..When DT in the escape trunk is very short (e.g., 10 s), the risk of either incapacitating N2 narcosis and/or O2-induced convulsions occurring in the trunk is low, even during escapes from 1,000 fsw...
  47. Levett D, Millar I. Bubble trouble: a review of diving physiology and disease. Postgrad Med J. 2008;84:571-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We will discuss current developments in diving research and some potential translational research areas...
  48. Abraham M, Nielsen G, Alarie Y. The Ferguson principle and an analysis of biological activity of gases and vapors. J Pharm Sci. 1994;83:680-8 pubmed
    ..For the example of upper respiratory tract irritation of male Swiss OF1 mice, such solvents include N-formylmorpholine, a trialkylphosphate, and wet octanol, but not water itself...
  49. Fowler B, Pogue J, Porlier G. P300 latency indexes nitrogen narcosis. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1990;75:221-9 pubmed
    ..A clear-cut dose-response relationship could not be established for P300 amplitude. These results indicate that P300 latency indexes nitrogen narcosis and are interpreted as support for the slowed processing model of inert gas narcosis.
  50. Schellart N. Contrast sensitivity of air-breathing nonprofessional scuba divers at a depth of 40 meters. Percept Mot Skills. 1992;75:275-83 pubmed
    ..Analysis indicates that the visual contrast sensitivity, and therefore probably also acuity, of sport divers is not affected up to depths of 40 m. This holds under ideal as well as poor diving conditions...
  51. Kowalski J, Seidack S, Klein F, Varn A, Rottger S, Kähler W, et al. Does inert gas narcosis have an influence on perception of pain?. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2012;39:569-76 pubmed
    ..The results are highly relevant since nitrogen narcosis occurs in divers as well as in medical personnel or construction workers, working under hyperbaric conditions...
  52. Dujic Z, Breskovic T. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health. Sports Med. 2012;42:459-72 pubmed publisher
  53. Hobbs M. Subjective and behavioural responses to nitrogen narcosis and alcohol. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2008;35:175-84 pubmed
    ..It has been suggested this indicates evidence of a shared biological mechanism but there is a paucity of experimental data to support these claims...