tick paralysis

Summary

Summary: Paralysis caused by a neurotropic toxin secreted by the salivary glands of ticks.

Top Publications

  1. Vedanarayanan V, Evans O, Subramony S. Tick paralysis in children: electrophysiology and possibility of misdiagnosis. Neurology. 2002;59:1088-90 pubmed
    The authors report six patients with tick paralysis seen over 5 years. Clinical and electrodiagnostic findings failed to adequately distinguish tick paralysis from Guillain-Barré syndrome in these patients...
  2. Atwell R, Campbell F, Evans E. Prospective survey of tick paralysis in dogs. Aust Vet J. 2001;79:412-8 pubmed
    To obtain information on tick paralysis in dogs, including the nature of disease, host signalment, tick-host relationship, treatment, disease progression and recovery, and preventive measures.
  3. Hall Mendelin S, Craig S, Hall R, O Donoghue P, Atwell R, Tulsiani S, et al. Tick paralysis in Australia caused by Ixodes holocyclus Neumann. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2011;105:95-106 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on tick paralysis, the role of the Australian paralysis tick Ixodes holocyclus, and the role of toxin molecules from this ..
  4. Inokuma H, Takahata H, Fournier P, Brouqui P, Raoult D, Okuda M, et al. Tick paralysis by Ixodes holocyclus in a Japanese traveler returning from Australia associated with Rickettsia helvetica infection. J Travel Med. 2003;10:61-3 pubmed
  5. Otranto D, Dantas Torres F, Tarallo V, Ramos R, Stanneck D, Baneth G, et al. Apparent tick paralysis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2012;188:325-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Other causes of neurological disease in dogs were excluded and the diagnosis of tick paralysis by R...
  6. Grattan Smith P, Morris J, Johnston H, Yiannikas C, Malik R, Russell R, et al. Clinical and neurophysiological features of tick paralysis. Brain. 1997;120 ( Pt 11):1975-87 pubmed
    The clinical and neurophysiological findings in six Australian children with generalized tick paralysis are described. Paralysis is usually caused by the mature female of the species Ixodes holocyclus...
  7. Espinoza Gomez F, Newton Sanchez O, Flores Cazares G, de la Cruz Ruiz M, Melnikov V, Austria Tejeda J, et al. Tick paralysis caused by Amblyomma maculatum on the Mexican Pacific Coast. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:945-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Tick paralysis is a rare entity in which it is necessary to identify the cause and remove the arthropod to have a rapid remission of symptoms...
  8. Webster R, Mackie J, Haskins S. Histopathological changes in the lungs from dogs with tick paralysis: 25 cases (2010-2012). Aust Vet J. 2013;91:306-11 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prevalence and nature of histological lung lesions in dogs with tick paralysis.
  9. Vedanarayanan V, Sorey W, Subramony S. Tick paralysis. Semin Neurol. 2004;24:181-4 pubmed
    b>Tick paralysis results from inoculation of a toxin from tick salivary glands during a blood meal...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Campbell F, Atwell R, Smart L. Effects of the paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus, on the electrocardiogram of the Spectacled Flying Fox, Pteropus conspicillatus. Aust Vet J. 2003;81:328-31 pubmed
    ..To evaluate cardiac electrical function in the Spectacled Flying Fox (bat) infested with Ixodes holocyclus...
  2. Atwell R, Campbell F. Reactions to tick antitoxin serum and the role of atropine in treatment of dogs and cats with tick paralysis caused by Ixodes holocyclus: a pilot survey. Aust Vet J. 2001;79:394-7 pubmed
    To determine the incidence and nature of adverse reactions of dogs and cats to tick antitoxin serum and to re-evaluate the role of atropine in the treatment of tick paralysis.
  3. Chagnon S, Naik M, Abdel Hamid H. Child neurology: tick paralysis: a diagnosis not to miss. Neurology. 2014;82:e91-3 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, she was areflexic in both lower extremities and had a wide-based, unsteady gait but no appendicular dysmetria or titubation. Sensory examination was normal. ..
  4. Fourie L, Kok D, Krugel L, Snyman A, Van Der Lingen F. Control of Karoo paralysis ticks through vegetation management. Med Vet Entomol. 1996;10:39-43 pubmed
    ..rubicundus. Similarly, domestic goats can, through their browsing effect on shrubs and trees, modify the vegetation and as such play an important role in an integrated tick management system...
  5. Mushatt D, Hyslop N. Neurologic aspects of North American zoonoses. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1991;5:703-31 pubmed
    ..Associations between these patterns and specific organisms are emphasized by means of tables and algorithms...
  6. Doan Wiggins L. Tick-borne diseases. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1991;9:303-25 pubmed
    ..Early and specific therapy is a principal factor in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases...
  7. Spickett A, Heyne H. A survey of Karoo tick paralysis in South Africa. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1988;55:89-92 pubmed
    Recent research interest in Karoo tick paralysis and its vector. Ixodes rubicundus, prompted this survey to determine the economic implications of this disease...
  8. Masina S, Broady K. Tick paralysis: development of a vaccine. Int J Parasitol. 1999;29:535-41 pubmed
    ..The current treatment for tick paralysis is in the form of a polyclonal dog antiserum...
  9. Tee S, Feary D. Suspected tick paralysis (Ixodes holocyclus) in a Miniature Horse. Aust Vet J. 2012;90:181-5 pubmed publisher
    ..and other diagnostic tests did not identify an alternative aetiology, leading to a presumptive diagnosis of tick paralysis. The gelding was treated with tick antiserum and intensive supportive care...
  10. Maritz C, Louw A, Gothe R, Neitz A. Detection and micro-scale isolation of a low molecular mass paralysis toxin from the tick, Argas (Persicargas) walkerae. Exp Appl Acarol. 2000;24:615-30 pubmed
    ..partially purified toxin on neurotransmitter release from crude rat brain synaptosomes was investigated, since tick paralysis toxins are hypothesised to inhibit neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic terminal...
  11. Pecina C. Tick paralysis. Semin Neurol. 2012;32:531-2 pubmed publisher
    b>Tick paralysis is a rare, but readily treatable condition that if missed can lead to significant morbidity and death...
  12. Ilkiw J, Turner D. Infestation in the dog by the paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus. 5. Treatment. Aust Vet J. 1988;65:236-8 pubmed
    ..The survival of all dogs together with the rapid return to normality indicated that this drug was beneficial in the treatment of dogs with advanced signs of tick paralysis.
  13. Gürbüz M, Erdogan M, Dogan N, Birdane L, Cingi C, Cingi E. [Case report: isolated facial paralysis with a tick.]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2010;34:61-4 pubmed
    ..She couldn't close her left eye and she lisped. The tick was removed from her external auditory canal surgically...
  14. Crawford P, Mitchell D. Tick paralysis as a cause of autonomic dysfunction in a 57-year-old female. South Med J. 2009;102:190-2 pubmed publisher
    Both Guillain-Barré and tick paralysis can present with ataxia and acute, ascending, flaccid motor paralysis...
  15. Hanson B, Frank P, Mertins J, Corn J. Tick paralysis of a snake caused by Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol. 2007;44:155-7 pubmed
    ..Other, earlier reported cases of tick toxicosis in reptiles are reviewed and clarified. Evidently, the present incident is the only reported case of tick paralysis in a poikilotherm found in a natural setting.
  16. Fourie L, Horak I, van Zyl J. Seasonal occurrence of Karoo paralysis in Angora goats in relation to the infestation density of female Ixodes rubicundus. Vet Parasitol. 1992;41:249-54 pubmed
    ..Twenty-nine percent of previously paralysed goats were paralysed again during the same season. Paralysis occurred during periods of peak tick activity (April-June)...
  17. Lysyk T. Tick paralysis caused by Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) is a heritable trait. J Med Entomol. 2010;47:210-4 pubmed
    ..Virulence was similar among the AV and VA crosses, indicating that virulent males were as likely as females to pass the trait to progeny. Time to paralysis was faster for the VV cross compared with the heterogeneous crosses...
  18. Crause J, Verschoor J, Coetzee J, Hoppe H, Taljaard J, Gothe R, et al. The localization of a paralysis toxin in granules and nuclei of prefed female Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi tick salivary gland cells. Exp Appl Acarol. 1993;17:357-63 pubmed
    ..The association of toxin with chromatin indicates that the toxin may have a regulatory function. Evidence is provided to support the view that the toxin is made up of three identical sub-units, with only the trimeric form being toxic...
  19. Gauci M, Loh R, Stone B, Thong Y. Allergic reactions to the Australian paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus: diagnostic evaluation by skin test and radioimmunoassay. Clin Exp Allergy. 1989;19:279-83 pubmed
    ..Subjects who reported heavy exposure to tick-bite were more likely to have positive RIA values (P less than 0.05). There was an association between the individual's atopic status and tick allergy (P greater than 0.05)...
  20. Malik R, Farrow B. Tick paralysis in North America and Australia. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1991;21:157-71 pubmed
    The pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of tick paralysis in North America and Australia are reviewed...
  21. Spickett A, Elliott E, Heyne H, Neser J. Paralysis of laboratory rabbits by nymphae of Ixodes rubicundus, Neumann 1904 (Acarina: Ixodidae) and some effects on the life-cycle following feeding under different temperature conditions. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1989;56:59-62 pubmed
    ..Under constant cold conditions paralysis resulted from lower levels of infestation than under warm or under fluctuating winter conditions. Neurological parameters used in assessing the progression of the paresis are discussed...
  22. Lysyk T, Veira D, Kastelic J, Majak W. Inducing active and passive immunity in sheep to paralysis caused by Dermacentor andersoni. J Med Entomol. 2009;46:1436-41 pubmed
    Arcott sheep were evaluated as a model for studying active and passive immunity to tick paralysis caused by Dermacentor andersoni (Stiles). The incidence of tick paralysis in sheep increased from 0 at doses < or = 0...
  23. Viljoen G, van Wyngaardt S, Gothe R, Visser L, Bezuidenhout J, Neitz A. The detection and isolation of a paralysis toxin present in Argas (Persicargas) walkerae. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1990;57:163-8 pubmed
    ..This fraction with a pI of 4,5, showed 2 major bands corresponding to a Mr of 32 kDa and 60 kDa after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...
  24. Krishnan A, Lin C, Reddel S, McGrath R, Kiernan M. Conduction block and impaired axonal function in tick paralysis. Muscle Nerve. 2009;40:358-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Tick paralysis (TP) is an uncommon disorder caused by a neurotoxin secreted by engorged female ticks. The cause of TP remains unclear, although alterations in axonal ion channel function and neuromuscular transmission have been proposed...
  25. Remondegui C. Tick paralysis cases in Argentina. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2012;45:533-4 pubmed
    b>Tick paralysis (TP) occurs worldwide and is caused by a neurotoxin secreted by engorged female ticks that affects the peripheral and central nervous system...
  26. Barrington G, Parish S. Tick paralysis in two llamas. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1995;207:476-7 pubmed
    ..Both had signs of ascending motor paralysis with minimal or no afferent sensory loss. Tick paralysis was diagnosed on the basis of complete clinical recovery following removal of a single, attached and engorged ..
  27. Buettner P, Westcott D, Maclean J, Brown L, McKeown A, Johnson A, et al. Tick paralysis in spectacled flying-foxes (Pteropus conspicillatus) in North Queensland, Australia: impact of a ground-dwelling ectoparasite finding an arboreal host. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73078 pubmed publisher
    ..This study quantifies the impact of tick paralysis on SFF and investigates the relationship with climate...
  28. Gauci M, Stone B, Thong Y. Detection in allergic individuals of IgE specific for the Australian paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1988;85:190-3 pubmed
    ..It appears to be suitable for diagnostic and research applications...
  29. Adamantos S, Boag A, Church D. Australian tick paralysis in a dog imported into the UK. Vet Rec. 2005;156:327 pubmed
  30. Daugherty R, Posner J, Henretig F, McHugh L, Tan C. Tick paralysis: atypical presentation, unusual location. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2005;21:677-80 pubmed
    We present 2 unrelated cases of tick paralysis presenting within a 2-month period in the greater Philadelphia region, a geographic area in which this disease is highly unusual...
  31. Eppleston K, Kelman M, Ward M. Distribution, seasonality and risk factors for tick paralysis in Australian dogs and cats. Vet Parasitol. 2013;196:460-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Tick paralysis is a serious and potentially fatal condition of Australian companion animals induced by the paralysis ticks, Ixodes holocyclus and Ixodes cornuatus...
  32. Fourie L, Kok O, van Zyl J. Spatial distribution of the Karoo paralysis tick Ixodes rubicundus (Acari: Ixodidae) within a false upper Karoo veld type. Exp Appl Acarol. 1991;11:37-49 pubmed
    ..Significantly more ticks were distributed on the cooler, more protected southern sides of vegetation in comparison to the northern sides...
  33. Li Z, Turner R. Pediatric tick paralysis: discussion of two cases and literature review. Pediatr Neurol. 2004;31:304-7 pubmed
    This report describes two cases of tick paralysis in children diagnosed within a 3-month period (May-July 2002) in rural South Carolina...
  34. Burke M, Fordham L, Hamrick H. Ticks and tick paralysis: imaging findings on cranial MR. Pediatr Radiol. 2005;35:206-8 pubmed
    b>Tick paralysis is an acute, progressive, and potentially fatal muscle paralysis secondary to a toxin secreted by a pregnant tick during a bite...
  35. Lysyk T, Majak W, Veira D. Prefeeding Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle with prior tick exposure may inhibit detection of tick paralysis by using hamster bioassay. J Med Entomol. 2005;42:376-82 pubmed
    ..Results indicate that assaying ticks for virulence requires prefeeding on naive hosts. If these are not available, rabbits, a resistant host, can be used for prefeeding ticks...
  36. Gordon B, Giza C. Tick paralysis presenting in an urban environment. Pediatr Neurol. 2004;30:122-4 pubmed
    We report the case of a 17-month-old female with tick paralysis presenting to an urban Los Angeles emergency department...
  37. Holland C. Asymmetrical focal neurological deficits in dogs and cats with naturally occurring tick paralysis (Ixodes holocyclus): 27 cases (1999-2006). Aust Vet J. 2008;86:377-84 pubmed publisher
    To describe basic epidemiological features, clinical characteristics and outcomes of asymmetrical focal neurological deficits identified in dogs and cats with naturally occurring tick paralysis (Ixodes holocyclus).
  38. Fourie L, Kok D, Horak I, van Zyl J. An evaluation of strategic and threshold control measures against the Karoo paralysis tick, Ixodes rubicundus (Acari: Ixodidae) in South Africa. Exp Appl Acarol. 1995;19:147-53 pubmed
    ..Possible reasons for this were low stocking densities, especially during times of peak abundance of adults and the presence of wild hosts which maintained tick populations...
  39. Greenberg B. Clinical cases in neurology from Johns Hopkins. Case 2: acute ascending paralysis in a 4-year-old boy. MedGenMed. 2003;5:36 pubmed
  40. Greenstein P. Tick paralysis. Med Clin North Am. 2002;86:441-6 pubmed
    b>Tick paralysis is a preventable cause of morbidity and death that, when diagnosed promptly, requires a simple low-cost intervention...
  41. Webster R, Mills P, Morton J. Indications, durations and outcomes of mechanical ventilation in dogs and cats with tick paralysis caused by Ixodes holocyclus: 61 cases (2008-2011). Aust Vet J. 2013;91:233-9 pubmed publisher
  42. Hughes R. Management of acute neuromuscular paralysis. J R Coll Physicians Lond. 1998;32:254-9 pubmed
    ..During convalescence patients require understanding and support in coping with residual disability...
  43. Fourie L, Kok D. Seasonal dynamics of the Karoo paralysis tick (Ixodes rubicundus): a comparative study on Merino and Dorper sheep. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1996;63:273-6 pubmed
    ..Heightened humidity and lower temperatures during the early stages of seasonal activity of the tick (April or May), normally result in peak abundance of ticks on hosts at that time...
  44. Beyer A, Grossman M. Tick paralysis in a red wolf. J Wildl Dis. 1997;33:900-2 pubmed
    ..rufus) in North Carolina (USA), exhibiting paresis, anorexia and heavy tick infection was diagnosed with tick paralysis. The wolf recovered completely following the removal of all ticks...
  45. Nafe L. Selected neurotoxins. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1988;18:593-604 pubmed
    ..The practitioner will find it worthwhile to establish contact with a toxicologist or poison information center for additional support when necessary...
  46. Fourie L, Horak I, Marais L. An undescribed Rhipicephalus species associated with field paralysis of Angora goats. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 1988;59:47-9 pubmed
    ..The elephant shrew Elephantulus myurus is a preferred host of the immature stages whereas the scrub hare Lepus saxatilis serves as an important host for the adult ticks...
  47. Dogan M, Devge C, Tanriover O, Pata Y, Sonmezoglu M. Facial nerve paralysis due to intra-aural Hyalomma tick infestation. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2012;36:254-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We are of the opinion that in patients presenting with sudden acute ear pain and facial palsy, the ear canal should be examined to exclude an infestation by ticks...
  48. Mosabah A, Morsy T. Tick paralysis: first zoonosis record in Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2012;42:71-8 pubmed
    b>Tick paralysis caused by the secretion of toxin with saliva while taking a blood meal is an important veterinary disease, but is rare in humans. Although it has certain geographical proclivities, it exists worldwide...
  49. Dworkin M, Shoemaker P, Anderson D. Tick paralysis: 33 human cases in Washington State, 1946-1996. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;29:1435-9 pubmed
    b>Tick paralysis is a preventable cause of illness and death that, when diagnosed promptly, requires simple, low-cost intervention (tick removal)...
  50. Sharifi K, Mohammadi G, Tafti A. Outbreak of tick paralysis in a nomadic sheep flock in Iran. Vet Rec. 2003;153:631-2 pubmed
  51. Diaz J. A 60-year meta-analysis of tick paralysis in the United States: a predictable, preventable, and often misdiagnosed poisoning. J Med Toxicol. 2010;6:15-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Tick paralysis (TP) is a neurotoxic poisoning primarily afflicting young girls in endemic regions. Recent case series of TP have described increasing misdiagnoses of TP as the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)...
  52. Luttrell M, Creekmore L, Mertins J. Avian tick paralysis caused by Ixodes brunneus in the southeastern United States. J Wildl Dis. 1996;32:133-6 pubmed
    Between 1988 and 1994, 16 definitive and 26 presumptive cases of tick paralysis were diagnosed in 10 species of birds from five southeastern states in the USA...
  53. Kelly C. Tick education. Aust Vet J. 2004;82:30 pubmed