snake bites

Summary

Summary: Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)

Top Publications

  1. Crocker P, Zad O, Milling T, Maxson T, King B, Whorton E. Human cytokine response to Texas crotaline envenomation before and after antivenom administration. Am J Emerg Med. 2010;28:871-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to characterize the human cytokine response to Texas crotaline envenomation before and after antivenom administration...
  2. Ruha A, Curry S, Albrecht C, Riley B, Pizon A. Late hematologic toxicity following treatment of rattlesnake envenomation with crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom. Toxicon. 2011;57:53-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Monteiro F, Kanchan T, Bhagavath P, Kumar G, Menezes R, Yoganarasimha K. Clinico-epidemiological features of viper bite envenomation: a study from Manipal, South India. Singapore Med J. 2012;53:203-7 pubmed
    ..The present study aimed to collate the victim profile of viper bite cases in the region and to determine the pattern, manifestations, complications and the associated risk factors of these bites...
  4. Isbister G. Snakebite doesn't cause disseminated intravascular coagulation: coagulopathy and thrombotic microangiopathy in snake envenoming. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2010;36:444-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The existence of the overlapping clinical syndromes of VICC and thrombotic microangiopathy in snake envenoming is the likely reason for the mistaken idea that snakebite causes DIC...
  5. Calvete J. Proteomic tools against the neglected pathology of snake bite envenoming. Expert Rev Proteomics. 2011;8:739-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Antivenomics and venom phenotyping may also contribute to expand the clinical range of currently existing antidotes...
  6. Chippaux J. Estimate of the burden of snakebites in sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analytic approach. Toxicon. 2011;57:586-99 pubmed publisher
  7. Ha T, Höjer J, Trinh X, Nguyen T. A controlled clinical trial of a novel antivenom in patients envenomed by Bungarus multicinctus. J Med Toxicol. 2010;6:393-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The rate of adverse reactions to the antivenom was 7.4%. A favorable efficacy and acceptable safety of this antivenom were demonstrated...
  8. Lam K, Crow P, Ng K, Shek K, Fung H, Ades G, et al. A cross-sectional survey of snake oral bacterial flora from Hong Kong, SAR, China. Emerg Med J. 2011;28:107-14 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the pattern of oral bacterial flora and their sensitivity to antibiotics in freshly captured native snakes in Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China...
  9. Isbister G, Shahmy S, Mohamed F, Abeysinghe C, Karunathilake H, Ariaratnam A. A randomised controlled trial of two infusion rates to decrease reactions to antivenom. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38739 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to investigate whether the rate of infusion of antivenom reduced the frequency of severe systemic hypersensitivity reactions...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Petras D, Sanz L, Segura A, Herrera M, Villalta M, Solano D, et al. Snake venomics of African spitting cobras: toxin composition and assessment of congeneric cross-reactivity of the pan-African EchiTAb-Plus-ICP antivenom by antivenomics and neutralization approaches. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:1266-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The impaired activity of EchiTAb-Plus-ICP against N. katiensis may not represent a major concern. This species is sympatric with N. nigricollis in many regions of Africa, although very few bites have been attributed to it...
  2. Cook D, Samarasekara C, Wagstaff S, Kinne J, Wernery U, Harrison R. Analysis of camelid IgG for antivenom development: Immunoreactivity and preclinical neutralisation of venom-induced pathology by IgG subclasses, and the effect of heat treatment. Toxicon. 2010;56:596-603 pubmed publisher
    ..The immunoreactivity of the heavy and light chain, IgG1 subclass, was markedly more vulnerable to extreme heat treatment than the heavy chain-only IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses...
  3. Boldrini França J, Correa Netto C, Silva M, Rodrigues R, De La Torre P, Perez A, et al. Snake venomics and antivenomics of Crotalus durissus subspecies from Brazil: assessment of geographic variation and its implication on snakebite management. J Proteomics. 2010;73:1758-76 pubmed publisher
    ..C. durissus causes most of the lethal snakebite accidents in Brazil. The implication of the geographic variation of venom composition for the treatment of bites by different C. durissus subspecies populations is discussed...
  4. Oliveira F, Brito M, Morais I, Fook S, Albuquerque H. Accidents caused by Bothrops and Bothropoides in the State of Paraiba: epidemiological and clinical aspects. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2010;43:662-7 pubmed
    ..Bothrops and Bothropoides snakes cause 70% of the ophidic accidents in Brazil. The species that cause ophidic accidents in State of Paraíba are Bothropoides erythromelas, Bothrops leucurus and Bothropoides neuwiedi...
  5. Walker J, Morrison R. Current management of copperhead snakebite. J Am Coll Surg. 2011;212:470-4; discussion 474-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Several thousand snakebites occur annually in the US, but fewer than 10 deaths occur. Most deaths are from envenomations by rattlesnakes (Crotalus species), but deaths from copperhead and water moccasin (Agkistrodon species) are rare...
  6. Gomes A, Das R, Sarkhel S, Mishra R, Mukherjee S, Bhattacharya S, et al. Herbs and herbal constituents active against snake bite. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48:865-78 pubmed
    ..The present review has been focussed on the varied folk and traditional herbs and their antisnake venom compounds, which might be a stepping stone in establishing the future therapy against snake bite treatment and management...
  7. Johnston C, O Leary M, Brown S, Currie B, Halkidis L, Whitaker R, et al. Death adder envenoming causes neurotoxicity not reversed by antivenom--Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-16). PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1841 pubmed publisher
    ..Death adders (Acanthophis spp) are found in Australia, Papua New Guinea and parts of eastern Indonesia. This study aimed to investigate the clinical syndrome of death adder envenoming and response to antivenom treatment...
  8. Gnanathasan A, Rodrigo C, Peranantharajah T, Coonghe A. Saw-scaled viper bites in Sri Lanka: is it a different subspecies? Clinical evidence from an authenticated case series. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;86:254-7 pubmed publisher
  9. Gutierrez J, Williams D, Fan H, Warrell D. Snakebite envenoming from a global perspective: Towards an integrated approach. Toxicon. 2010;56:1223-35 pubmed publisher
  10. Isbister G, White J, Currie B, O Leary M, Brown S. Clinical effects and treatment of envenoming by Hoplocephalus spp. snakes in Australia: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-12). Toxicon. 2011;58:634-40 pubmed publisher
    ..envenoming. Based on in vitro studies reported here, patients may be treated with one vial of TSAV, although one vial of brown snake antivenom may also be sufficient...
  11. Malina T, Krecsák L, Jelić D, Maretic T, Tóth T, Siško M, et al. First clinical experiences about the neurotoxic envenomings inflicted by lowland populations of the Balkan adder, Vipera berus bosniensis. Neurotoxicology. 2011;32:68-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This study presents the evidence of the frequent neurotoxic manifestations in Balkan adder-bitten patients for the first time, which strongly suggests that the venom of the lowland populations of V.b. bosniensis has neurotoxic activity...
  12. Barone J, Alponti R, Frezzatti R, Zambotti Villela L, Silveira P. Differential efficiency of simvastatin and lipoic acid treatments on Bothrops jararaca envenomation-induced acute kidney injury in mice. Toxicon. 2011;57:148-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The beneficial effects of LA and especially of SA on renal effects of vBj open a new perspective for clinical investigations of these drugs as coadjuvant agents in the serotherapy of Bothrops envenomation...
  13. David S, Matathia S, Christopher S. Mortality predictors of snake bite envenomation in southern India--a ten-year retrospective audit of 533 patients. J Med Toxicol. 2012;8:118-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The limitations are the retrospective study design and the rejection percentage of 15.5% due to insufficient information from the total chart pool...
  14. Correia J, Santana Neto P, Pinho M, Silva J, Amorim M, Escobar J. Poisoning due to Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein, 1823) attended at Restauração Hospital in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil: case report. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2010;43:336-8 pubmed
    Few papers have been published on snake bites caused by Philodryas olfersii. We report here the first case identified at the Centro de Assistência Toxicológica do Hospital da Restauração, Recife, State of Pernambuco...
  15. Calvete J, Cid P, Sanz L, Segura A, Villalta M, Herrera M, et al. Antivenomic assessment of the immunological reactivity of EchiTAb-Plus-ICP, an antivenom for the treatment of snakebite envenoming in sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82:1194-201 pubmed publisher
  16. Chippaux J. [Guidelines for the production, control and regulation of snake antivenom immunoglobulins]. Biol Aujourdhui. 2010;204:87-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These guidelines, which will published soon, should promote access to antivenoms, and their use by health services, leading in the short term to a significant decrease of snakebite morbidity and mortality...
  17. Harrison R, Hargreaves A, Wagstaff S, Faragher B, Lalloo D. Snake envenoming: a disease of poverty. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e569 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis examined the association between globally available data on snakebite-induced mortality and socioeconomic indicators of poverty...
  18. Rahman R, Faiz M, Selim S, Rahman B, Basher A, Jones A, et al. Annual incidence of snake bite in rural bangladesh. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e860 pubmed publisher
    ..An accurate estimate of the risk of snake bite is largely unknown for most countries in the developing world, especially South-East Asia...
  19. Acikalin A, Gokel Y. Serum IL-6, TNF? levels in snakebite cases occurring in Southern Turkey. Emerg Med J. 2011;28:208-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our study is to assess the relationship between tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF?) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) serum levels, and clinical and laboratory findings in the snakebite patients...
  20. Gutierrez J. Improving antivenom availability and accessibility: science, technology, and beyond. Toxicon. 2012;60:676-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These tasks should be envisaged in terms of synergistic, interprogrammatic and intersectorial interventions, with the participation of many players...
  21. Weant K, Johnson P, Bowers R, Armitstead J. Evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach to the development of a crotalidae polyvalent antivenin (CroFab) protocol at a university hospital. Ann Pharmacother. 2010;44:447-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The inappropriate use of this agent can result in adverse patient consequences and a significant financial burden for both the hospital and the patient...
  22. Yasunaga H, Horiguchi H, Kuwabara K, Hashimoto H, Matsuda S. Short report: Venomous snake bites in Japan. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84:135-6 pubmed publisher
    Few reliable data are available on the incidence of snake bites in developing and developed nations. Insufficient epidemiologic data have hindered the recognition of snake bite as an important public health issue...
  23. Kularatne S, Sivansuthan S, Medagedara S, Maduwage K, de Silva A. Revisiting saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) bites in the Jaffna Peninsula of Sri Lanka: distribution, epidemiology and clinical manifestations. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2011;105:591-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The median time for correction of coagulopathy was 802min (range 180-1669min) with Indian polyvalent antivenom. All recovered. The saw scaled viper is responsible for most venomous bites in the Jaffna peninsula...
  24. Salama R, Sattayasai J, Gande A, Sattayasai N, Davis M, Lattmann E. Identification and evaluation of agents isolated from traditionally used herbs against Ophiophagus hannah venom. Drug Discov Ther. 2012;6:18-23 pubmed
  25. Faiz A, Ghose A, Ahsan F, Rahman R, Amin R, Hassan M, et al. The greater black krait (Bungarus niger), a newly recognized cause of neuro-myotoxic snake bite envenoming in Bangladesh. Brain. 2010;133:3181-93 pubmed publisher
  26. Isbister G, O Leary M, Elliott M, Brown S. Tiger snake (Notechis spp) envenoming: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-13). Med J Aust. 2012;197:173-7 pubmed
    ..To describe the clinical syndrome associated with definite tiger snake (Notechis spp) envenoming and to examine the ability of tiger snake antivenom (TSAV) to bind free venom in vivo...
  27. Herath N, Wazil A, Kularatne S, Ratnatunga N, Weerakoon K, Badurdeen S, et al. Thrombotic microangiopathy and acute kidney injury in hump-nosed viper (Hypnale species) envenoming: a descriptive study in Sri Lanka. Toxicon. 2012;60:61-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Autopsy study found thrombosis of micro-vessels. Thrombotic microangiopathy could be a causative pathology of AKI in hump-nosed viper bite carrying poor outcome...
  28. Leong P, Tan N, Fung S, Sim S. Cross neutralisation of Southeast Asian cobra and krait venoms by Indian polyvalent antivenoms. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012;106:731-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results suggest that VPAV could be used as alternative antivenom for the treatment of elapid envenomation in Southeast Asian regions including Malaysia, Thailand and certain regions of Indonesia...
  29. Churchman A, O Leary M, Buckley N, Page C, Tankel A, Gavaghan C, et al. Clinical effects of red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenoming and correlation with venom concentrations: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-11). Med J Aust. 2010;193:696-700 pubmed
    ..To describe the clinical features and laboratory findings in patients with definite red-bellied black snake (RBBS; Pseudechis porphyriacus) bites, including correlation with results of venom assays...
  30. Brown N, Landon J. Antivenom: the most cost-effective treatment in the world?. Toxicon. 2010;55:1405-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These advances may lead to antivenom becoming one of the most cost-effective treatments available to modern medicine, and provides strong justification for its inclusion in international health funding initiatives...
  31. Hifumi T, Yamamoto A, Morokuma K, Ogasawara T, Kiriu N, Hasegawa E, et al. Surveillance of the clinical use of mamushi (Gloydius blomhoffii) antivenom in tertiary care centers in Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2011;64:373-6 pubmed
    ..Antivenom was recognized to be safe; however, the remarkable finding was that although the severity of treated cases was unclear, some clinicians reported using cepharanthine as the first choice of treatment for pit viper bites...
  32. Massey D, Calvete J, Sanchez E, Sanz L, Richards K, Curtis R, et al. Venom variability and envenoming severity outcomes of the Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mojave rattlesnake) from Southern Arizona. J Proteomics. 2012;75:2576-87 pubmed publisher
    ..06). Although not part of the original data to be collected, death and intubations, were also noted. There is a 10× increased risk of death and a 50× increased risk of intubations if envenomated in Cochise County...
  33. Saul M, Thomas P, Dosen P, Isbister G, O Leary M, Whyte I, et al. A pharmacological approach to first aid treatment for snakebite. Nat Med. 2011;17:809-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This pharmacological approach should give snakebite victims more time to obtain medical care and antivenom treatment...
  34. Chen C, Wu K, Chen C, Wang C. Bacterial infection in association with snakebite: a 10-year experience in a northern Taiwan medical center. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2011;44:456-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Microbiological data of secondary wound infections following snakebites is rarely reported in Taiwan. The objective of this study was to assess the secondary wound infection after venomous snakebites...
  35. Vargas M, Segura A, Herrera M, Villalta M, Estrada R, Cerdas M, et al. Preclinical evaluation of caprylic acid-fractionated IgG antivenom for the treatment of Taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus) envenoming in Papua New Guinea. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1144 pubmed publisher
    ..This situation prompted an international collaborative project aimed at generating a new, low-cost antivenom against O. scutellatus for PNG...
  36. de Silva H, Pathmeswaran A, Ranasinha C, Jayamanne S, Samarakoon S, Hittharage A, et al. Low-dose adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone in the prevention of acute adverse reactions to antivenom following snakebite: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PLoS Med. 2011;8:e1000435 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone prevent such reactions in secondary referral hospitals in Sri Lanka by conducting a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial...
  37. Kulawickrama S, O Leary M, Hodgson W, Brown S, Jacoby T, Davern K, et al. Development of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay for measuring taipan venom in serum. Toxicon. 2010;55:1510-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of biotinylation and the antivenom difference method in venom EIA produces a highly sensitive assay that will be useful for determining antivenom dose, forensic and clinical diagnosis...
  38. Rodrigues R, Boldrini França J, Fonseca F, De La Torre P, Henrique Silva F, Sanz L, et al. Combined snake venomics and venom gland transcriptomic analysis of Bothropoides pauloensis. J Proteomics. 2012;75:2707-20 pubmed publisher
  39. Lavonas E, Kokko J, Schaeffer T, Mlynarchek S, Bogdan G, Dart R. Short-term outcomes after Fab antivenom therapy for severe crotaline snakebite. Ann Emerg Med. 2011;57:128-137.e3 pubmed publisher
  40. Pla D, Gutierrez J, Calvete J. Second generation snake antivenomics: comparing immunoaffinity and immunodepletion protocols. Toxicon. 2012;60:688-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These features contribute to the generalization, economy and reproducibility of the method...
  41. Valenta J, Stach Z, Michalek P. Exotic snake bites in the Czech Republic--Epidemiological and clinical aspects during 15-year period (1999-2013). Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2014;52:258-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Cases of envenoming caused by exotic snakes among their breeders are clinically more important...
  42. Chippaux J, Diouf A, Stock R, Parra H, Massougbodji A. Report of the 4th International Conference on Envenomations by Snakebites and Scorpion Stings in Africa, Dakar, April 25-29, 2011. Toxicon. 2011;58:426-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, financing mechanisms to ensure an equitable distribution of resources must be sought, as well as the constitution of a network of African experts were discussed at length...
  43. Mohapatra B, Warrell D, Suraweera W, Bhatia P, Dhingra N, Jotkar R, et al. Snakebite mortality in India: a nationally representative mortality survey. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1018 pubmed publisher
    ..However, inadequate hospital-based reporting has resulted in estimates of total annual snakebite mortality ranging widely from about 1,300 to 50,000. We calculated direct estimates of snakebite mortality from a national mortality survey...
  44. Calvete J, Sanz L, Perez A, Borges A, Vargas A, Lomonte B, et al. Snake population venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops atrox: Paedomorphism along its transamazonian dispersal and implications of geographic venom variability on snakebite management. J Proteomics. 2011;74:510-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The degree of immunodepletion achieved suggests that each of these antivenoms may be effective against envenomations by paedomorphic, and some ontogenetic, B. atrox venoms...
  45. Alegre V, Barone J, Yamasaki S, Zambotti Villela L, Silveira P. Lipoic acid effects on renal function, aminopeptidase activities and oxidative stress in Crotalus durissus terrificus envenomation in mice. Toxicon. 2010;56:402-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Data suggest that LA contributes to the solubilization/remotion of proteins in MF with impairment of most AP, but it could be beneficial for the treatment of the direct nephrotoxicity of vCdt...
  46. Isbister G, Woods D, Alley S, O Leary M, Seldon M, Lincz L. Endogenous thrombin potential as a novel method for the characterization of procoagulant snake venoms and the efficacy of antivenom. Toxicon. 2010;56:75-85 pubmed publisher
    ..ETP is a useful assay to investigate mechanisms of other procoagulant venoms and is a robust method of assessing antivenom efficacy...
  47. Warrell D. Snake bite. Lancet. 2010;375:77-88 pubmed publisher
    ..To treat envenoming, the production and clinical use of antivenom must be improved. Increased collaboration between clinicians, epidemiologists, and laboratory toxinologists should enhance the understanding and treatment of envenoming...
  48. Bell D, Wijegunasinghe D, Samarakoon S, Palipana H, Gunasekera S, de Silva H, et al. Neurophysiological findings in patients 1 year after snake bite induced neurotoxicity in Sri Lanka. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010;104:351-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical significance of these neurophysiological abnormalities is uncertain and further studies are required to investigate whether the abnormalities persist and to see whether clinical consequences develop...
  49. Adukauskiene D, Varanauskiene E, Adukauskaitė A. Venomous snakebites. Medicina (Kaunas). 2011;47:461-7 pubmed
  50. Senthilkumaran S, Meenakshisundaram R, Thirumalaikolundusubramanian P. Cardiac tamponade in Russell viper (Daboia russelii) bite: case report with brief review. J Emerg Med. 2012;42:288-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Coagulopathy after snake bite is well known; however, cardiac tamponade as a manifestation of coagulopathy is rare...
  51. Janes D, Bush S, Kolluru G. Large snake size suggests increased snakebite severity in patients bitten by rattlesnakes in Southern california. Wilderness Environ Med. 2010;21:120-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To correlate rattlesnake size and other characteristics of envenomation with the severity of envenomation...
  52. Calvete J. Antivenomics and venom phenotyping: A marriage of convenience to address the performance and range of clinical use of antivenoms. Toxicon. 2010;56:1284-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent work showing how the knowledge of evolutionary trends along with venom phenotyping may have an impact in designing a mixture of venoms for immunization aimed to produce a pan-American anti-crotalic antivenom is discussed...
  53. Lima J, Martelli Junior H, Martelli D, Silva M, Carvalho S, Canela J, et al. [Profile of snakebite accidents in the north of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2009;42:561-4 pubmed
    ..It is expected that the new data obtained from this sample may serve as the substrate for planning and implementing measures for healthcare surveillance...