drug induced dyskinesia


Summary: Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)

Top Publications

  1. Tenback D, van Harten P, Slooff C, Van Os J. Worsening of psychosis in schizophrenia is longitudinally associated with tardive dyskinesia in the European Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes study. Compr Psychiatry. 2007;48:436-40 pubmed
    ..The objective of the study was to examine if worsening of psychosis predicts the emergence of tardive dyskinesia (TD)...
  2. Stocchi F, Rascol O, Kieburtz K, Poewe W, Jankovic J, Tolosa E, et al. Initiating levodopa/carbidopa therapy with and without entacapone in early Parkinson disease: the STRIDE-PD study. Ann Neurol. 2010;68:18-27 pubmed publisher
  3. Julien C, Berthiaume L, Hadj Tahar A, Rajput A, Bedard P, Di Paolo T, et al. Postmortem brain fatty acid profile of levodopa-treated Parkinson disease patients and parkinsonian monkeys. Neurochem Int. 2006;48:404-14 pubmed
    ..01). These results suggest that changes in brain fatty acid relative concentrations are associated with levodopa treatment in PD patients and in a non-human primate model of parkinsonism...
  4. Tenback D, van Harten P, Slooff C, Van Os J. Evidence that early extrapyramidal symptoms predict later tardive dyskinesia: a prospective analysis of 10,000 patients in the European Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes (SOHO) study. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:1438-40 pubmed
    ..This study examined whether extrapyramidal symptoms predict incidence of tardive dyskinesia 1 year later...
  5. Aubert I, Guigoni C, Li Q, Dovero S, Bioulac B, Gross C, et al. Enhanced preproenkephalin-B-derived opioid transmission in striatum and subthalamic nucleus converges upon globus pallidus internalis in L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-induced dyskinesia. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;61:836-44 pubmed
  6. Guigoni C, Doudnikoff E, Li Q, Bloch B, Bezard E. Altered D(1) dopamine receptor trafficking in parkinsonian and dyskinetic non-human primates. Neurobiol Dis. 2007;26:452-63 pubmed
    ..Further experiments including parkinsonian monkeys chronically treated with L-dopa that show no dyskinesia and parkinsonian monkeys treated only once with L-dopa are now necessary to confirm our hypothesis...
  7. Brotchie J. Nondopaminergic mechanisms in levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Mov Disord. 2005;20:919-31 pubmed
    ..SV2A, have been identified. This increased understanding has already delivered and will continue to define novel approaches to treatment that target both pre- and postsynaptic signaling molecules throughout the basal ganglia circuitry...
  8. Lane E, Winkler C, Brundin P, Cenci M. The impact of graft size on the development of dyskinesia following intrastriatal grafting of embryonic dopamine neurons in the rat. Neurobiol Dis. 2006;22:334-45 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, robust and reproducible AIMs were evoked in rats with large grafts by blockade of monoamine reuptake. These AIMs may provide a new tool for assessing dyskinetic effects of neural grafting...
  9. Nasrallah H. Focus on lower risk of tardive dyskinesia with atypical antipsychotics. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2006;18:57-62 pubmed
    ..Identifying the risk factors for TD is important to minimize the risk of this potentially irreversible movement disorder in susceptible populations...

More Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. Stocchi F. The levodopa wearing-off phenomenon in Parkinson's disease: pharmacokinetic considerations. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2006;7:1399-407 pubmed
  2. Rascol O, Brooks D, Korczyn A, De Deyn P, Clarke C, Lang A, et al. Development of dyskinesias in a 5-year trial of ropinirole and L-dopa. Mov Disord. 2006;21:1844-50 pubmed
    ..Early use of ropinirole postpones the onset of dyskinesias, but these benefits decline when levodopa therapy is started, with no evidence of a subsequent rapid "catch-up" or a persisting preventive effect...
  3. Picconi B, Pisani A, Barone I, Bonsi P, Centonze D, Bernardi G, et al. Pathological synaptic plasticity in the striatum: implications for Parkinson's disease. Neurotoxicology. 2005;26:779-83 pubmed
    ..The potential relevance of these findings in the control of motor function and in the pathogenesis both of Parkinson's disease and l-dopa-induced motor complications will be discussed...
  4. Guigoni C, Dovero S, Aubert I, Li Q, Bioulac B, Bloch B, et al. Levodopa-induced dyskinesia in MPTP-treated macaques is not dependent on the extent and pattern of nigrostrial lesioning. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:283-7 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that neither the extent nor the pattern of nigrostriatal lesioning are sufficient to explain the occurrence of levodopa-induced dyskinesia...
  5. Pavon N, Martin A, Mendialdua A, Moratalla R. ERK phosphorylation and FosB expression are associated with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in hemiparkinsonian mice. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;59:64-74 pubmed
    ..We have developed a model of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in mice that reproduces the main clinical features of dyskinesia in humans...
  6. Tenback D, van Harten P, Slooff C, Van Os J. Tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia is associated with prolactin-related sexual disturbances. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:1832-7 pubmed
    ..This may suggest a shared, pandopaminergic pathological mechanism associated with schizophrenia itself, rather than only a medication effect...
  7. Carta M, Lindgren H, Lundblad M, Stancampiano R, Fadda F, Cenci M. Role of striatal L-DOPA in the production of dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats. J Neurochem. 2006;96:1718-27 pubmed
    ..Individual differences in the central bioavailability of L-DOPA may provide a clue to the varying susceptibility to dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease...
  8. Olanow C, Obeso J, Stocchi F. Drug insight: Continuous dopaminergic stimulation in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2006;2:382-92 pubmed
    ..The current challenge is to develop a long-acting oral formulation of levodopa that provides comparable anti-parkinsonian benefits without motor complications...
  9. van Harten P, Hoek H, Matroos G, Van Os J. Incidence of tardive dyskinesia and tardive dystonia in African Caribbean patients on long-term antipsychotic treatment: the Curaçao extrapyramidal syndromes study V. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67:1920-7 pubmed
    ..Do these patients remain at risk for TD or TDt and, consequently, should a switch to SGAs be considered? A longitudinal cohort study in patients on long-term antipsychotic treatment may answer this question...
  10. Sajatovic M, Jenkins J. Is antipsychotic medication stigmatizing for people with mental illness?. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2007;19:107-12 pubmed
  11. Lieberman J. An interview with Jeffrey A. Lieberman: Tardive Dyskinesia. [interview by Sussman Norman]. CNS Spectr. 2007;12:747-50 pubmed
  12. Sundram S, Lambert T, Piskulic D. Acculturation is associated with the prevalence of tardive dyskinesia and akathisia in community-treated patients with schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2008;117:474-8 pubmed publisher
  13. Chen Y, Huang Y, Wen C, Wang Y, Chen W, Chen L, et al. Movement disorder and neuromuscular change in zebrafish embryos after exposure to caffeine. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2008;30:440-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that the treatment of caffeine leads to misalignment of muscle fibers and motor neuron defects, especially secondary motor neuron axonal growth defects. ..
  14. Bishnoi M, Chopra K, Kulkarni S. Co-administration of nitric oxide (NO) donors prevents haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia, oxidative damage and change in striatal dopamine levels. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009;91:423-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, a sub-study on a possible schizophrenic phenotype, i.e. a possible clinical worsening in the animals receiving NO donors and neuroleptics will substantiate the clinical utility of the study. ..
  15. Kim S, Jeong S, Kim J, Lee S, Kim J. A case of hemiballism as a rare side effect of ciprofloxacin in a patient with liver cirrhosis. Chemotherapy. 2009;55:207-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Careful dosing and a high index of suspicion of the neurological adverse effects of ciprofloxacin including movement disorders are warranted especially in cirrhotic patients. ..
  16. Berthet A, Bezard E. Dopamine receptors and L-dopa-induced dyskinesia. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009;15 Suppl 4:S8-12 pubmed publisher
    ..As more molecular tools are made available, we will better understand the role of each receptor and its associated signalling cascade in Parkinson's disease and L-dopa-induced dyskinesia, hopefully in a way amenable to patients. ..
  17. Duggal H. Acute pisa syndrome and pharnygolaryngeal dystonia due to ziprasidone. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008;20:108-9 pubmed publisher
  18. Brar J, Parepally H, Chalasani L, Gopalani A, Appel N, Chengappa K. The impact of olanzapine on tardive dyskinetic symptoms in a state hospital population. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2008;20:139-44 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the question whether olanzapine treats, ameliorates, or masks preexisting tardive dyskinesia was difficult to answer, as no dosage reduction or withdrawal was undertaken. ..
  19. Nutt J, Chung K, Holford N. Dyskinesia and the antiparkinsonian response always temporally coincide: a retrospective study. Neurology. 2010;74:1191-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Other mechanisms for the development of dyskinesia need to be considered. ..
  20. Lee S, Sanefuji M, Torio M, Kaku N, Ichimiya Y, Mizuguchi S, et al. Involuntary movements and coma as the prognostic marker for acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion. J Neurol Sci. 2016;370:39-43 pubmed publisher
    ..015) and posterior parts (p=0.011) of the cerebrum and basal ganglia (p=0.020). Early appearing involuntary movements or coma might account for the extension of acute brain lesions and the poor neurological outcomes in AESD patients. ..
  21. Beszłej J, Grzesiak M, Milejski P. [Acute dyskinetic syndrome during chloropromazine treatment of a female patient with CYP2D6 poor metabolism phenotype]. Psychiatr Pol. 2007;41:495-501 pubmed
    ..Most likely the antidopaminergic influence of the drug on the CNS was much more marked due to an inhibition of chlorpromazine metabolism leading probably to an increase of the chlorpromazine blood level. ..
  22. Eskow K, Dupre K, Barnum C, Dickinson S, Park J, Bishop C. The role of the dorsal raphe nucleus in the development, expression, and treatment of L-dopa-induced dyskinesia in hemiparkinsonian rats. Synapse. 2009;63:610-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These current findings reveal the integral contribution of the RRN in the development and expression of LID and implicate a prominent role for dorsal raphe 5-HT1AR in the efficacious properties of 5-HT1AR agonists. ..
  23. Khorasani M, Hosseinzadeh S, Vakili A. Effect of central microinjection of carbenoxolone in an experimental model of focal cerebral ischemia. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2009;22:349-54 pubmed
    ..01). Our findings indicated that central microinjection of CBX has protective effect on against ischemic reperfusion injuries in a transient model of focal cerebral ischemia. ..
  24. Lindenbach D, Conti M, Ostock C, Dupre K, Bishop C. Alterations in primary motor cortex neurotransmission and gene expression in hemi-parkinsonian rats with drug-induced dyskinesia. Neuroscience. 2015;310:12-26 pubmed publisher
  25. Malik T, Hasan S, Pervez S, Fatima T, Haleem D. Nigella sativa Oil Reduces Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS)-Like Behavior in Haloperidol-Treated Rats. Neurochem Res. 2016;41:3386-3398 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemical analysis indicates that NS reduced astrogliosis in caudate and accumbens nuclei. These results suggest that NS may consider as an adjunct to antipsychotics to reduce the EPS-like side effect. ..
  26. Balasubramaniam R, Ram S. Orofacial movement disorders. Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2008;20:273-85, vii pubmed publisher
    ..Aspects of epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis are discussed along with treatment considerations for these orofacial movement disorders. ..
  27. Berton O, Guigoni C, Li Q, Bioulac B, Aubert I, Gross C, et al. Striatal overexpression of DeltaJunD resets L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in a primate model of Parkinson disease. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;66:554-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish a mechanism of dyskinesia induction and maintenance by L-DOPA and validate a strategy, with strong translational potential, to deprime the L-DOPA-treated brain. ..
  28. Taylor D. Psychopharmacology and adverse effects of antipsychotic long-acting injections: a review. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 2009;52:S13-9 pubmed publisher
    ..All LAIs offer the prospect of assured adherence (although patients may still default on treatment) but their use is complicated by adverse effects, complex pharmacokinetics and confusion over dose-response relationships. ..
  29. Muller T. Entacapone. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2010;6:983-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This study only allowed up titration with a fixed LD intake every 4 h. But dyskinesia occurrence may require down titration of LD dose or delay of next LD intake. ..
  30. Lee C, Li J. Phenytoin intoxication and upper facial dyskinesia: an unusual presentation. Mov Disord. 2008;23:1188-9 pubmed publisher
  31. Weiden P. Antipsychotic-induced movement disorders - forgotten but not gone. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2008;117:401-2 pubmed publisher
  32. Bai Y, Chou K, Lin C, Chen I, Li C, Yang K, et al. White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia patients with tardive dyskinesia: a diffusion tensor image study. Schizophr Res. 2009;109:167-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies with larger sample size are required to validate the findings. ..
  33. Clark C, Sacrey L, Whishaw I. Righting elicited by novel or familiar auditory or vestibular stimulation in the haloperidol-treated rat: rat posturography as a model to study anticipatory motor control. J Neurosci Methods. 2009;182:266-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are discussed in relation to the idea that nonlemniscal and lemniscal auditory pathways differentially contribute to behavioral activation versus tonotopic processing of sound. ..
  34. Woitalla D, Mueller T, Russ H, Hock K, Haeger D. The management approaches to dyskinesia vary from country to country. Neuroepidemiology. 2007;29:163-9 pubmed
    ..6% of UK physicians were dissatisfied with current treatment strategies for dyskinesia. Regardless of geographical location, physicians were dissatisfied with the current treatment strategies for dyskinesia. ..
  35. Schapira A, Emre M, Jenner P, Poewe W. Levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16:982-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Maintaining good motor function and quality of life remain the primary goals of therapy and the principle that treatment must be tailored to the individual patient's needs is paramount. ..
  36. Mishra C, Barodia S, Prakash A, Senthil Kumar J, Luthra P. Novel 8-(furan-2-yl)-3-substituted thiazolo [5,4-e][1,2,4] triazolo[1,5-c] pyrimidine-2(3H)-thione derivatives as potential adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010;18:2491-500 pubmed publisher
    ..Attenuation in haloperidol-induced motor impairments (catalepsy and akinesia) in Swiss albino male mice pre-treated with compounds 24-26 further supports their role in the alleviation of PD symptoms. ..
  37. Saiki H, Hayashi T, Takahashi R, Takahashi J. Objective and quantitative evaluation of motor function in a monkey model of Parkinson's disease. J Neurosci Methods. 2010;190:198-204 pubmed publisher
  38. Zai C, Tiwari A, Basile V, De Luca V, Muller D, King N, et al. Association study of tardive dyskinesia and five DRD4 polymorphisms in schizophrenia patients. Pharmacogenomics J. 2009;9:168-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that DRD4 may be involved in TD in the Caucasian population, although further replication studies are needed. ..
  39. Fox S, Chuang R, Brotchie J. Serotonin and Parkinson's disease: On movement, mood, and madness. Mov Disord. 2009;24:1255-66 pubmed publisher
    ..However, several unanswered questions remain, and future studies need to focus on correlating changes in 5-HT neurotransmission in both pathological and in vivo imaging studies with a full clinical phenotype. ..
  40. Isaias I, Antonini A. Single-photon emission computed tomography in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Neurodegener Dis. 2010;7:319-29 pubmed publisher
  41. Tyurnikov V, Nizametdinova D, Gushcha A, Fedotova E, Poleshchuk V, Timerbaeva S, et al. [Unilateral posteroventral pallidotomy in the treatment of drug-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease]. Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko. 2017;81:69-75 pubmed publisher
    ..to determine the efficacy of unilateral posteroventral pallidotomy (PVP) in the treatment of drug-induced dyskinesia (DID) in Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  42. Monville C, Torres E, Pekarik V, Lane E, Dunnett S. Genetic, temporal and diurnal influences on L-dopa-induced dyskinesia in the 6-OHDA model. Brain Res Bull. 2009;78:248-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a complex combination of individual factors are likely to interact to regulate the onset and development of abnormal movements in some animals but not others. ..
  43. Simonin C, Tir M, Devos D, Kreisler A, Dujardin K, Salleron J, et al. Reduced levodopa-induced complications after 5 years of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a second honeymoon. J Neurol. 2009;256:1736-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that DBS leads to both qualitative and quantitative modulations in the corticostriatal loops. ..
  44. Buck K, Ferger B. The selective alpha1 adrenoceptor antagonist HEAT reduces L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Synapse. 2010;64:117-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies assessing the risk benefit in comparison to existing therapies are needed before considering alpha(1) adrenoceptor antagonists as a target for the development of new antidyskinetic compounds. ..
  45. Brodsky M, Park B, Nutt J. Effects of a dopamine agonist on the pharmacodynamics of levodopa in Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2010;67:27-32 pubmed publisher
    ..When considering a combination of these therapies, an appropriate balance should be maintained regarding gain of motor function vs worsening of dyskinesia. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00666653. ..
  46. Souza R, Remington G, Meltzer H, Lieberman J, Kennedy J, Wong A. Phosphodiesterase 4B genetic variants are not associated with antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;25:264-9 pubmed publisher
    ..None of these results survived correction for multiple testing. Overall, our results do not support a genetic association between tardive dyskinesia and PDE4B. ..
  47. Tahiroglu A, Avci A. Polypharmacy and EPS in a child; a case report. Psychopharmacol Bull. 2007;40:129-33 pubmed
    ..Oculogyric crisis occurred on the third day of this combination treatment and these symptoms included ocular pain and sustained upward gaze. Benztropine 2 mg i.m. resulted in rapid relief of oculogyric crisis symptoms. ..
  48. Gajendiran M. Differential effects of spinal 5-HT1A receptor activation and 5-HT2A/2C receptor desensitization by chronic haloperidol. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31:1449-55 pubmed
    ..The above serotonergic mechanisms may be partly responsible for haloperidol-induced extrapyramidal motor dysfunction. ..
  49. Zivkovic S, Costa G, Bond G, Abu Elmagd K. Treatment of tardive dyskinesia with levetiracetam in a transplant patient. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008;117:351-3 pubmed
    ..In our patient, levetiracetam relieved symptoms of tardive dyskinesia and allowed continuous use of metoclopramide. Larger studies are needed to confirm its efficacy. ..
  50. Samadi P, Morissette M, Levesque D, Di Paolo T. BDNF levels are not related with levodopa-induced dyskinesias in MPTP monkeys. Mov Disord. 2010;25:116-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed reduced striatal BDNF concentrations in levodopa-treated MPTP monkeys with or without LIDs, suggesting that levodopa treatment is associated with reduced striatal BDNF levels and is independent of dyskinesias...
  51. Haleem D, Samad N, Haleem M. Reversal of haloperidol-induced tardive vacuous chewing movements and supersensitive somatodendritic serotonergic response by buspirone in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2007;87:115-21 pubmed
  52. Lerner V, Libov I, Kaptsan A, Miodownik C, Dwolatzky T, Levine J. The prevalence of neuroleptic drug-induced tardive movement subsyndromes among schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients residing in the southern region of Israel. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2007;44:20-8 pubmed
    ..35%; P<0.02). TMD generally appears in a combined fashion. Further prospective studies from different geographical areas are recommended...
  53. Preskorn S. The evolution of antipsychotic drug therapy: reserpine, chlorpromazine, and haloperidol. J Psychiatr Pract. 2007;13:253-7 pubmed
  54. Buck K, Ferger B. Intrastriatal inhibition of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase prevents l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia: a bilateral reverse in vivo microdialysis study in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats. Neurobiol Dis. 2008;29:210-20 pubmed
    ..We conclude that intrastriatal l-DOPA itself is not able to induce dyskinetic movements, whereas the increase of intrastriatal DA levels is instrumental for l-DOPA- and DA-induced dyskinetic behavior...
  55. Paquette M, Brudney E, Putterman D, Meshul C, Johnson S, Berger S. Sigma ligands, but not N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists, reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Neuroreport. 2008;19:111-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Antidyskinetic effects of dextromethorphan may be mediated via mechanisms other than NMDA, including the sigma-1 receptor and other binding sites common to dextromethorphan and BMY-14802...
  56. Psarros C, Theleritis C, Paparrigopoulos T, Politis A, Papadimitriou G. Amisulpride for the treatment of very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009;24:518-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of amisulpride monotherapy in a diagnostically homogeneous group of elderly patients without cognitive impairment suffering from very-late-onset schizophrenia...
  57. Lundblad M, af Bjerkén S, Cenci M, Pomerleau F, Gerhardt G, Stromberg I. Chronic intermittent L-DOPA treatment induces changes in dopamine release. J Neurochem. 2009;108:998-1008 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates the importance of studying DA release dynamics for the understanding of both beneficial and adverse effects of l-DOPA replacement therapy...
  58. Park S, Lee J, Kong B, Lee S, Lee C, Kim J, et al. Genetic association of BDNF val66met and GSK-3beta-50T/C polymorphisms with tardive dyskinesia. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2009;63:433-9 pubmed publisher
  59. Lyons K, Pahwa R. An open-label conversion study of pramipexole to ropinirole prolonged release in Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2009;24:2121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A conversion ratio of 1 mg of pramipexole to 4 mg of ropinirole PR resulted in the fewest discontinuations of ropinirole PR, the fewest dose adjustments and the largest percentage of subjects that preferred ropinirole PR...
  60. Pekkan G, Kilicoglu A, Algin D. Treatment of a tardive dyskinesia patient with temporomandibular disorder: a case report. J Orofac Pain. 2010;24:212-6 pubmed
    ..Involuntary movements of mandibular clenching and bruxing disappeared and pain was relieved to a great extent. Reappearances of dyskinetic movements and pain were observed during the follow-up period of 1.5 years...
  61. Gour J, Edwards R, Lemieux S, Ghassemi M, Jog M, Duval C. Movement patterns of peak-dose levodopa-induced dyskinesias in patients with Parkinson's disease. Brain Res Bull. 2007;74:66-74 pubmed
    ..This may provide a way for patients to adapt to these involuntary movements while performing voluntary motor acts...
  62. Tseng H, Su P, Liu H, Liou H, Yen R. Bilateral subthalamotomy for advanced Parkinson disease. Surg Neurol. 2007;68 Suppl 1:S43-50; discussion S50-1 pubmed
    ..We sought to determine if bilateral surgery of the STN offers more benefits in the treatment of advanced PD...
  63. Bishnoi M, Chopra K, Kulkarni S. U-74500A (lazaroid), a 21-aminosteroid attenuates neuroleptic-induced orofacial dyskinesia. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2007;29:601-5 pubmed publisher
    ..U-74500A, an aminosteroid, may have therapeutic use in typical neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia-like effects...
  64. Goetz C, Nutt J, Stebbins G. The Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale: presentation and clinimetric profile. Mov Disord. 2008;23:2398-403 pubmed publisher
    ..The UDysRS is a clinimetrically sound rating scale for dyskinesia in PD, demonstrating acceptable levels of internal consistency and inter- and intra-rater reliability. Testing scale responsivity to treatment interventions is planned...
  65. Bishop C, Krolewski D, Eskow K, Barnum C, Dupre K, Deak T, et al. Contribution of the striatum to the effects of 5-HT1A receptor stimulation in L-DOPA-treated hemiparkinsonian rats. J Neurosci Res. 2009;87:1645-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that the cellular and behavioral properties of 5-HT1AR agonists are conveyed in part via a population of functional 5-HT1AR within the striatum...
  66. Chong S, Tay J, Subramaniam M, Pek E, Machin D. Mortality rates among patients with schizophrenia and tardive dyskinesia. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009;29:5-8 pubmed publisher
    ..90; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-3.20; P = 0.017). Our finding showed a robust association with increased mortality rate and TD, but we failed to find any significant association with any specific cause of death and TD...
  67. Pope A, Adams C, Paton C, Weaver T, Barnes T. Assessment of adverse effects in clinical studies of antipsychotic medication: survey of methods used. Br J Psychiatry. 2010;197:67-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The way in which safety and tolerability data are collected and reported in clinical studies does not allow for fair and meaningful comparison of the relative risk profiles of individual antipsychotic drugs. ..
  68. Lykouras L, Rizos E, Gournellis R. Aripiprazole in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia induced by other atypical antipsychotics. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31:1535-6 pubmed
  69. Waddell L, Taylor M. A new self-rating scale for detecting atypical or second-generation antipsychotic side effects. J Psychopharmacol. 2008;22:238-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Fifty comparison subjects also completed the GASS. The GASS was shown to have good discrimatory power and construct validity, along with good re-test reliablity, and is put forward as a short, helpful and valid clinical tool...
  70. Grosset D. Dopamine agonists and therapy compliance. Neurol Sci. 2008;29 Suppl 5:S375-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The treatment of the syndrome is difficult, hence a strict adherence to antiparkinson medication should be encouraged for prevention...
  71. Novick D, Haro J, Perrin E, Suarez D, Texeira J. Tolerability of outpatient antipsychotic treatment: 36-month results from the European Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes (SOHO) study. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009;19:542-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, antipsychotics have different tolerability profiles in terms of the adverse events we monitored. Results should be interpreted conservatively due to the observational study design...
  72. Abdallah C, Cohen C, Sanchez Almira M, Reyes P, Ramirez P. Community integration and associated factors among older adults with schizophrenia. Psychiatr Serv. 2009;60:1642-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study compared community integration for older persons with schizophrenia with their age peers in the community and examined factors associated with community integration in the schizophrenia group...
  73. Kobylecki C, Cenci M, Crossman A, Ravenscroft P. Calcium-permeable AMPA receptors are involved in the induction and expression of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease. J Neurochem. 2010;114:499-511 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors are critically involved in both the induction and subsequent expression of LID, and represent a potential target for anti-dyskinetic therapies...
  74. Anninos P, Adamopoulos A, Kotini A, Tsagas N, Tamiolakis D, Prassopoulos P. MEG evaluation of Parkinson's diseased patients after external magnetic stimulation. Acta Neurol Belg. 2007;107:5-10 pubmed
  75. Kondo T, Ishiguchi H. [Drug induced dyskinesia]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 2007;96:1621-6 pubmed
  76. Bishnoi M, Chopra K, Kulkarni S. Differential striatal levels of TNF-alpha, NFkappaB p65 subunit and dopamine with chronic typical and atypical neuroleptic treatment: role in orofacial dyskinesia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32:1473-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The present study suggests the impossible involvement of striatal TNF-alpha and NFkappaB p65 subunit in haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats, an animal model for human tardive dyskinesia...
  77. Adan Manes J, Garcia Parajua P. Aripiprazole in combination with other antipsychotic drugs may worsen psychosis. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2009;34:245-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that clinicians should be cautious when adding aripiprazole to patients under treatment with dopamine antagonists with a high affinity for D2 and D3 receptors...
  78. Klivenyi P, Vecsei L. [Long term experience with Stalevo in Szeged, Hungary]. Ideggyogy Sz. 2009;62:178-80 pubmed
    ..After switching the patients' general well-being was improved as indicated by the visual analogue scale. In summary, the Stalevo treatment is safe and effective for long run and improves the patients' quality of life...
  79. Bishnoi M, Chopra K, Kulkarni S. Neurochemical changes associated with chronic administration of typical antipsychotics and its relationship with tardive dyskinesia. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2007;29:211-6 pubmed
    ..Both haloperidol and chlorpromazine produced time-dependent decreases in the levels of these neurotransmitters...
  80. Liou Y, Chen M, Wang Y, Chen J, Liao D, Bai Y, et al. Analysis of genetic variations in the RGS9 gene and antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009;150B:239-42 pubmed publisher
    ..0399). In the haplotype analysis, a significant association of the AGG haplotype (rs8077696-rs8070231-rs2292593) of the RGS9 gene was found (permutation P = 0.007), and this is worthy of replication and further study...
  81. Ferger B, Buck K, Shimasaki M, Koros E, Voehringer P, Buerger E. Continuous dopaminergic stimulation by pramipexole is effective to treat early morning akinesia in animal models of Parkinson's disease: A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study using in vivo microdialysis in rats. Synapse. 2010;64:533-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrates that PPX-CR may offer a higher therapeutic benefit than PPX-IR on early morning akinesia and confirms earlier reports that PPX-IR reverses motor impairment for several hours...
  82. Guan Q, Liu X, He Y, Jin L, Zhao L. Effect of cdk5 antagonist on L-dopa-induced dyskinesias in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Int J Neurosci. 2010;120:421-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that up-regulated expression of Cdk5 may compensate the high levels of phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Thr34 in LID rats. Therefore, modulation of Cdk5 for therapy of human PD should be carefully reconsidered...
  83. Valastro B, Dekundy A, Krogh M, Lundblad M, James P, Danysz W, et al. Proteomic analysis of striatal proteins in the rat model of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. J Neurochem. 2007;102:1395-409 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the protein changes occurring in LID...
  84. Miller D, Eudicone J, Pikalov A, Kim E. Comparative assessment of the incidence and severity of tardive dyskinesia in patients receiving aripiprazole or haloperidol for the treatment of schizophrenia: a post hoc analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68:1901-6 pubmed
    ..To comparatively assess the incidence of tardive dyskinesia in patients with schizophrenia receiving either aripiprazole or haloperidol...
  85. Doty R. The olfactory vector hypothesis of neurodegenerative disease: is it viable?. Ann Neurol. 2008;63:7-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence for and against this concept, the "olfactory vector hypothesis," is addressed in this review...
  86. Nicholas A, Lubin F, Hallett P, Vattem P, Ravenscroft P, Bezard E, et al. Striatal histone modifications in models of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. J Neurochem. 2008;106:486-94 pubmed publisher
    ..However, both models exhibit marked deacetylation of histone H4, suggesting that inhibitors of H4 deacetylation may be useful in preventing or reversing LDID...
  87. Del Sorbo F, Albanese A. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias and their management. J Neurol. 2008;255 Suppl 4:32-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Their availability will certainly change the current clinical practice and will widen again the therapeutic window of dopaminergic medications that has now become too narrow...
  88. Rizos E, Douzenis A, Gournellis R, Christodoulou C, Lykouras L. Tardive dyskinesia in a patient treated with quetiapine. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2009;10:54-7 pubmed
    ..Although, it is under consideration the possibility that the improvement could have been due to the discontinuation of quetiapine, we conclude that aripiprazole improved the TD symptoms...
  89. Koning J, Tenback D, Kahn R, van Schelven L, van Harten P. Instrument measurement of lingual force variability reflects tardive tongue dyskinesia. J Med Eng Technol. 2010;34:71-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Instrument test-retest reliability corresponded with an ICC of 0.85 p < 0.0001. Instrument measurement of lingual force variability is a valid and reliable method for assessing tardive tongue dyskinesia...
  90. Cenci M, Ohlin K. Rodent models of treatment-induced motor complications in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009;15 Suppl 4:S13-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews the strategies that have been used to reproduce different motor complications of PD treatment in rodents, and comments on their range of applicability...
  91. Atwoli L, Manguro G, Owiti P, Ndambuki D. Neuroleptic induced tardive dyskinesia in a patient on treatment for schizophrenia: case report. East Afr Med J. 2009;86:354-6 pubmed
    ..The patient was initially treated with Benzhexol, an anticholinergic agent with the potential to induce or aggravate the disorder. This case discusses the common presentation and management of neuroleptic induced tardive dyskinesia...
  92. Santini E, Valjent E, Fisone G. Parkinson's disease: levodopa-induced dyskinesia and signal transduction. FEBS J. 2008;275:1392-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of this pathological adaptation and of the consequent changes in signaling in the development and expression of LID are discussed...