drug induced akathisia


Summary: A condition associated with the use of certain medications and characterized by an internal sense of motor restlessness often described as an inability to resist the urge to move.

Top Publications

  1. Ascher Svanum H, Zhu B, Faries D, Peng X, Kinon B, Tohen M. Tardive dyskinesia and the 3-year course of schizophrenia: results from a large, prospective, naturalistic study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69:1580-8 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to compare the 3-year course of schizophrenia between persons with tardive dyskinesia (TD) and persons without TD on multiple outcome measures...
  2. Eichhammer P, Albus M, Borrmann Hassenbach M, Schoeler A, Putzhammer A, Frick U, et al. Association of dopamine D3-receptor gene variants with neuroleptic induced akathisia in schizophrenic patients: a generalization of Steen's study on DRD3 and tardive dyskinesia. Am J Med Genet. 2000;96:187-91 pubmed
    ..9% incidence of AA in schizophrenic patients nonhomozygous for the 2-2 allele (exact P = 0.0223). Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 96:187-191, 2000...
  3. Kane J, Fleischhacker W, Hansen L, Perlis R, Pikalov A, Assuncao Talbott S. Akathisia: an updated review focusing on second-generation antipsychotics. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009;70:627-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, to provide a review of the literature on the incidence of drug-induced akathisia associated with the use of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) and first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs)...
  4. Kobylecki C, Jakobsen K, Hansen T, Jakobsen I, Rasmussen H, Werge T. CYP2D6 genotype predicts antipsychotic side effects in schizophrenia inpatients: a retrospective matched case-control study. Neuropsychobiology. 2009;59:222-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The impaired metabolic capacity of the PM genotype results in higher steady-state plasma concentrations at a given dose, thus increasing the risk of toxic effects from medication...
  5. Ehrenberg B. Acute migraine treatment with droperidol. Neurology. 2003;61:1826; author reply 1826 pubmed
  6. Betemps E. A self-administered instrument to measure psychiatric discomfort of persons with serious mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 1999;50:107-8 pubmed
    ..It was revised and tested again with 292 outpatients in treatment for psychosis. The resulting 23-item instrument was found to be internally consistent and responsive to changes in a patient's condition over time. ..
  7. Thwaites D, McCann S, Broderick P. Hydromorphone neuroexcitation. J Palliat Med. 2004;7:545-50 pubmed
    ..01) of continuous parenteral hydromorphone A possible mechanism for these findings is hydromorphone-3-glucoronide, a metabolic product of hydromorphone, which has been implicated in neuroexcitatory symptoms in laboratory investigations. ..
  8. Pfeffer G, Chouinard G, Margolese H. Gabapentin in the treatment of antipsychotic-induced akathisia in schizophrenia. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005;20:179-81 pubmed
    ..Gabapentin may be effective by mechanisms similar to its action in restless legs syndrome and Parkinsonism, and/or via the GABA neurotransmitter system. ..
  9. Friedman J. Atypical antipsychotics have very different adverse effect profiles and should not be lumped together. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:586; author reply 586-7 pubmed

More Information

Publications111 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kobylarz K, Kołaczyk D, Stanczyk M. [Sevofluran in pediatric practice--personal experience]. Folia Med Cracov. 2001;42:211-6 pubmed
    ..We didn't use higher concentrations of sevoflurane than 5.5 Vol% and 3.5 Vol% for halothane. Sevoflurane patients has a greater incidence of emergence agitation. ..
  2. Dahmani S, Stany I, Brasher C, Lejeune C, Bruneau B, Wood C, et al. Pharmacological prevention of sevoflurane- and desflurane-related emergence agitation in children: a meta-analysis of published studies. Br J Anaesth. 2010;104:216-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This meta-analysis found that propofol, ketamine, fentanyl, and preoperative analgesia had a prophylactic effect in preventing EA. The analgesic properties of these drugs do not seem to have a role in this effect. ..
  3. Tuisku K, Lauerma H, Holi M, Honkonen T, Rimon R. Akathisia masked by hypokinesia. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2000;33:147-9 pubmed
    ..Not only akathisia defined by DSM-IV but also subjective akathisia should be adequately treated to relieve the subjective distress, and to diminish the unfavorable effects on psychotic symptoms, behavior, and drug compliance...
  4. Gogtay N, Rapoport J. Clozapine use in children and adolescents. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2008;9:459-65 pubmed
    ..Despite a higher incidence of adverse effects in children, clozapine appears to be a uniquely beneficial second-line agent for treating children with refractory schizophrenia. ..
  5. Schwarz S, Cheung H, Ries C, Lee S, Wang J, Macleod B. Lumbar intrathecal administration of the quaternary lidocaine derivative, QX-314, produces irritation and death in mice. Anesthesiology. 2010;113:438-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Although QX-314 did produce long-lasting neural blockade, these findings indicate that QX-314 is unlikely to be a suitable candidate for spinal anesthesia in humans. ..
  6. Tuisku K, Lauerma H, Holi M, Markkula J, Rimon R. Measuring neuroleptic-induced akathisia by three-channel actometry. Schizophr Res. 1999;40:105-10 pubmed
    ..Movement frequencies in NIA seemed to be pathognomonic. Actometry is promising for investigation and clinical assessment of NIA. Olanzapine proved to be an adequate treatment choice for NIA patients. ..
  7. Gross E, Hull H, Lytton G, Hill J, Piersel W. Case study of neuroleptic-induced akathisia: important implications for individuals with mental retardation. Am J Ment Retard. 1993;98:156-64 pubmed
    ..The importance of the diagnosis and treatment of neuroleptic-induced akathisia in individuals with mental retardation was discussed. ..
  8. Segman R, Heresco Levy U, Finkel B, Inbar R, Neeman T, Schlafman M, et al. Association between the serotonin 2C receptor gene and tardive dyskinesia in chronic schizophrenia: additive contribution of 5-HT2Cser and DRD3gly alleles to susceptibility. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000;152:408-13 pubmed
    ..2% and 4.7% to the variance in OFD scores. These findings support a small but significant contribution of the HT2CR and DRD3 to susceptibility to TD, which is additive in nature. ..
  9. Collins R, Jones J, Walthall J, Chisholm C, Giles B, Brizendine E, et al. Intravenous administration of prochlorperazine by 15-minute infusion versus 2-minute bolus does not affect the incidence of akathisia: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2001;38:491-6 pubmed
    ..The efficacy of prochlorperazine in the treatment of headache and nausea likewise did not appear to be affected by the rate of administration, although no formal statistical comparisons were made. ..
  10. Kawanishi C, Onishi H, Kato D, Kishida I, Furuno T, Wada M, et al. Unexpectedly high prevalence of akathisia in cancer patients. Palliat Support Care. 2007;5:351-4 pubmed
    ..The authors suggest that oncologists should optimize the use of antiemetic drugs and be aware of akathisia as a possible complication of cancer treatment. ..
  11. Silverstone P, Pukhovsky A, Rotzinger S. Lithium does not attenuate the effects of D-amphetamine in healthy volunteers. Psychiatry Res. 1998;79:219-26 pubmed
  12. Houltram B, Scanlan M. Extrapyramidal side effects. Nurs Stand. 2004;18:39-41 pubmed
  13. Trottenberg T, Volkmann J, Deuschl G, Kühn A, Schneider G, Muller J, et al. Treatment of severe tardive dystonia with pallidal deep brain stimulation. Neurology. 2005;64:344-6 pubmed
    ..7 SD of the motor part of the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale) improvement of dystonia and functional disability without adverse events. ..
  14. Wilson M. Mirtazapine for akathisia in bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005;25:394-5 pubmed
  15. Desai A, Nierenberg D, Duhaime A. Akathisia after mild traumatic head injury. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010;5:460-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The literature on akathisia in pediatric patients, and especially in patients following acute head injury, is reviewed, with suggestions for an approach to these symptoms in this clinical setting. ..
  16. Whitehorn D, Kopala L. Neuromotor dysfunction in early psychosis. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2002;14:113-21 pubmed
    ..Atypical antipsychotic agents can alleviate psychosis without inducing EPSS. Preexisting EPSS may be corrected. ..
  17. Raja M, Azzoni A. Oxcarbazepine vs. valproate in the treatment of mood and schizoaffective disorders. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003;6:409-14 pubmed
    ..The assessment of global psychopathology and functioning, of positive and mood symptoms suggested similar efficacy of OXC and VPA. Unexpectedly, OXC appeared more efficacious in the treatment of negative symptoms. ..
  18. Masmoudi K, Gras Champel V, Douadi Y, Masson H, Andrejak M. [Trimetazidine-a new aetiology for extrapyramidal disorders: A case of parkinsonism and akathisia]. Therapie. 2005;60:603-5 pubmed
  19. Van Herreweghe I, Mertens K, Maes V, Ramet J. Orphenadrine poisoning in a child: clinical and analytical data. Intensive Care Med. 1999;25:1134-6 pubmed
    ..The initial orphenadrine plasma level (3,55 microg/ml) was in the toxic range, associated with high mortality. The calculated elimination half-life was 10.2 h and the molecule and/or its metabolites were found up to 90 h after ingestion...
  20. Halford J, Mazeika G, Slifer S, Speer M, Saunders A, Strittmatter W, et al. APOE2 allele increased in tardive dyskinesia. Mov Disord. 2006;21:540-2 pubmed
    ..Further information about the mechanisms of increased risk of tardive dyskinesia could result in stratification of prescribing practices weighing the costs of medications against the relative risk of side effects. ..
  21. Cardenas J, Rho J, Ng Y. Reversible lamotrigine-induced neurobehavioral disturbances in children with epilepsy. J Child Neurol. 2010;25:182-7 pubmed publisher
    ..While idiosyncratic and uncommon, this is a potentially significant, clinical side effect. Further studies are necessary to clarify the population at risk. ..
  22. Cohen S, Rulf D, Pies R. Extrapyramidal side effects associated with aripiprazole coprescription in 2 patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005;66:135-6 pubmed
  23. Hettema J, Ross D. A case of aripiprazole-related tardive akathisia and its treatment with ropinirole. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68:1814-5 pubmed
  24. Avital A, Gross Isseroff R, Stryjer R, Hermesh H, Weizman A, Shiloh R. Zolmitriptan compared to propranolol in the treatment of acute neuroleptic-induced akathisia: a comparative double-blind study. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009;19:476-82 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant differences were found between the groups in all other measurements. Taken together, zolmitriptan was found to be as effective as propranolol for the treatment of NIA. Further placebo-controlled studies are warranted. ..
  25. Zalialova Z, Bogdanov E. [Acute pharmacological extrapyramidal disturbances]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2003;103:48-54 pubmed
  26. Kim J, Byun H. Association of subjective cognitive dysfunction with akathisia in patients receiving stable doses of risperidone or haloperidol. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2007;32:461-7 pubmed
    ..Early therapeutic interventions for akathisia should be performed considering its significant association with the subjective cognitive dysfunction and the impairment of coping responses. ..
  27. Jones M, Jones A. Do partial agonists cause akathisia: the role of the mental health nurse who prescribes. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2008;15:417-23 pubmed publisher
  28. Sinclair L, Christmas D, Hood S, Potokar J, Robertson A, Isaac A, et al. Antidepressant-induced jitteriness/anxiety syndrome: systematic review. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;194:483-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We recommend systematised evaluation of side-effects at earlier time points in antidepressant trials to further elucidate this clinically important syndrome. ..
  29. Gunduz A, Metin B, Metin S, Poyraz B, Karadeniz D, Kiziltan G, et al. Lower limb flexor reflex: Comparisons between drug-induced akathisia and restless legs syndrome. Neurosci Lett. 2017;641:40-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate increased excitability of LLFR pathway in akathisia group. These findings are probably due to lack of inhibition originated in regions other than those known to downregulate in RLS. ..
  30. Shimizu E, Watanabe H, Iyo M. Delayed-onset nocturnal akathisia due to risperidone and levomepromazine: a case report. Eur Psychiatry. 2002;17:294-5 pubmed
  31. Stryjer R, Grupper D, Strous R, Poyurovsky M, Weizman A. Mianserin for the rapid improvement of chronic akathisia in a schizophrenia patient. Eur Psychiatry. 2004;19:237-8 pubmed
  32. Lea J, Stoner S, Lafollette J. Agitation associated with aripiprazole initiation. Pharmacotherapy. 2007;27:1339-42 pubmed
    ..These cases magnify some of the challenges and provide insight into the clinical implications of converting to therapies with different pharmacodynamic effects. ..
  33. Walters A, Hening W, Rubinstein M, Chokroverty S. A clinical and polysomnographic comparison of neuroleptic-induced akathisia and the idiopathic restless legs syndrome. Sleep. 1991;14:339-45 pubmed
    ..Because both NIA and idiopathic RLS are characterized by motor restlessness and sleep disturbances, the pharmacodynamics of antipsychotic medications may give clues as to both the cause and treatment of idiopathic RLS. ..
  34. Vinson D. Diphenhydramine in the treatment of akathisia induced by prochlorperazine. J Emerg Med. 2004;26:265-70 pubmed
    ..2 +/- 2.6, a mean reduction of 8.5 +/- 3.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.8 to 9.4; p < 0.0001). In conclusion, intravenous diphenhydramine rapidly reduces signs and symptoms of acute akathisia induced by prochlorperazine. ..
  35. Green S, Sherwin T. Incidence and severity of recovery agitation after ketamine sedation in young adults. Am J Emerg Med. 2005;23:142-4 pubmed
    ..This supports the expansion of ketamine use to young adults aged 16 to 21 years. ..
  36. Jauss M, Schroder J, Pantel J, Bachmann S, Gerdsen I, Mundt C. Severe akathisia during olanzapine treatment of acute schizophrenia. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1998;31:146-8 pubmed
    ..One should therefore be aware of possible extrapyramidal side effects with olanzapine that are reduced compared to classical neuroleptic drugs but not completely eliminated. ..
  37. Sommer B. Quetiapine-Induced extrapyramidal side effects in patients with Parkinson's disease: case report. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2001;14:99-100 pubmed
    ..The patients described were unusual in their frailty and severity of illness and may not represent the majority of patients with PD. ..
  38. Vorel S, Bos F, Vorel Havelkova E, Brombacher P. [Neuroleptic malignant syndrome in users of risperidone]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005;149:159-60; author reply 160 pubmed
  39. Khiat A, Kuznetsov Y, Blanchet P, Boulanger Y. Diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetization transfer imaging of tardive and edentulous orodyskinesia. Mov Disord. 2008;23:1281-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are consistent with the pathophysiological hypothesis of damage to cholinergic interneurons. ..
  40. Isawa S, Murasaki M, Miura S, Yoshioka M, Uchiumi M, Kumagai Y, et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions among haloperidol, carteolol hydrochloride and biperiden hydrochloride. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1999;19:111-8 pubmed
    ..Adverse events of the central nervous system such as sleepiness and changes in pupil size were observed, but all were mild with clinical insignificance. ..
  41. Correll C, Sheridan E, DelBello M. Antipsychotic and mood stabilizer efficacy and tolerability in pediatric and adult patients with bipolar I mania: a comparative analysis of acute, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Bipolar Disord. 2010;12:116-41 pubmed publisher
    ..2, CI: 8.1-13.7), likely due to lower doses/slower titration. In treating mania, potentially greater short-term efficacy compared to placebo with SGAs versus MS needs to be balanced against increased adverse events, especially in youth. ..
  42. Stryjer R, Strous R, Bar F, Poyurovsky M, Weizman A, Kotler M. Treatment of neuroleptic-induced akathisia with the 5-HT2A antagonist trazodone. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2003;26:137-41 pubmed
    ..Further study in the context of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial is mandated to substantiate these preliminary findings. ..
  43. Glazer W. Olanzapine vs haloperidol for treatment of schizophrenia. JAMA. 2004;291:1064-5; author reply 1065-6 pubmed
  44. Eltahawy H, Feinstein A, Khan F, Saint Cyr J, Lang A, Lozano A. Bilateral globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation in tardive dyskinesia: a case report. Mov Disord. 2004;19:969-72 pubmed
    ..At 18 months follow-up, her Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale score fell from 52 (preoperative) to 21 (60% improvement). ..
  45. Weaver C, Jones J, Chisholm C, Foley M, Giles B, Somerville G, et al. Droperidol vs prochlorperazine for the treatment of acute headache. J Emerg Med. 2004;26:145-50 pubmed
    ..1% (SD 28.0%) in the prochlorperazine group (p =.23). It is concluded that droperidol i.v. provided a similar reduction of headache as achieved with prochlorperazine i.v. with a similar incidence of akathisia...
  46. Back I, Taubert M. Akathisia and an unusual symptomatic treatment: a case report. Palliat Med. 2007;21:713-5 pubmed
    ..During the time of convalescence, she gained great symptomatic relief from using exercise pedals and it allowed her to go about usual everyday activities, such as eating and reading, while continuously treading the pedals...
  47. Macleod S. Akathisia and an unusual symptomatic treatment. Palliat Med. 2007;21:717 pubmed
  48. Bigos K, Pollock B, Aizenstein H, Fisher P, Bies R, Hariri A. Acute 5-HT reuptake blockade potentiates human amygdala reactivity. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008;33:3221-5 pubmed publisher
  49. Gulsun M, Doruk A. Mirtazapine-induced akathisia. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;28:467 pubmed publisher
  50. Stip E, Tourjman V. Aripiprazole in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: A review. Clin Ther. 2010;32 Suppl 1:S3-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic that has been found to improve positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia with a favorable adverse-effect profile...
  51. Canuso C, Bossie C, Amatniek J, Turkoz I, Pandina G, Cornblatt B. Paliperidone extended-release tablets in patients with recently diagnosed schizophrenia. Early Interv Psychiatry. 2010;4:64-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Effective early and persistent antipsychotic treatment in recently diagnosed schizophrenia may positively impact long-term outcomes. Paliperidone extended-release (ER) was assessed in this population...
  52. Sachdev P, Saharov T. Effects of specific dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists and agonists and neuroleptic drugs on emotional defecation in a rat model of akathisia. Psychiatry Res. 1998;81:323-32 pubmed
    ..It is unlikely to be due to actions of neuroleptics on 5HT2 or alpha1 receptors as has sometimes been suggested. The results have implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis of akathisia...
  53. Halliday J, Farrington S, Macdonald S, MacEwan T, Sharkey V, McCreadie R. Nithsdale Schizophrenia Surveys 23: movement disorders. 20-year review. Br J Psychiatry. 2002;181:422-7 pubmed
    ..In the past 10 years the new atypical antipsychotic drugs have stimulated further interest in the pharmacological management of schizophrenia. The risk of movement disorders has been reported to be less with these new agents...
  54. McKinley G. Free fall. Ann Intern Med. 2006;145:390-1 pubmed
  55. Clarke C. Relating with professionals. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2006;13:522-6 pubmed
    ..In order to achieve positive progression, there needs to be a radical change within our relationship to provide ease of engagement from all parties. In this paper I tentatively suggest how this process can be achieved...
  56. Bishnoi M, Chopra K, Kulkarni S. Protective effect of rutin, a polyphenolic flavonoid against haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia and associated behavioural, biochemical and neurochemical changes. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2007;21:521-9 pubmed
  57. Tenback D, van Harten P, Van Os J. Non-therapeutic risk factors for onset of tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Mov Disord. 2009;24:2309-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite many reported risk factors for TD in schizophrenia, little conclusive evidence exists to corroborate this. However, the fact that early EPS predicts onset of TD has important clinical and research implications...
  58. Shen X, Purser C, Tien L, Chiu C, Paul I, Baker R, et al. mu-Opioid receptor knockout mice are insensitive to methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:2294-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicated that the mu-opioid system is involved in modulating the development of behavioral sensitization to METH. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc...
  59. Hofmann M, Seifritz E, Botschev C, Krauchi K, Muller Spahn F. Serum iron and ferritin in acute neuroleptic akathisia. Psychiatry Res. 2000;93:201-7 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a minor role for iron deficiency in acute akathisia...
  60. Sachdev P, Brune M. Animal models of acute drug-induced akathisia - a review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2000;24:269-77 pubmed
    ..It is also necessary to consider the subtypes of akathisia in the attempts to develop these models...
  61. Leong G, Silva J. Neuroleptic-induced akathisia and violence: a review. J Forensic Sci. 2003;48:187-9 pubmed
    ..Nonetheless, important clinical and forensic aspects of neuroleptic-induced akathisia and aggression remain and are explored...
  62. Addington D, Pantelis C, Dineen M, Benattia I, Romano S. Efficacy and tolerability of ziprasidone versus risperidone in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: an 8-week, double-blind, multicenter trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65:1624-33 pubmed
    ..Thus, we compared ziprasidone and risperidone in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder...
  63. Poyurovsky M, Pashinian A, Weizman R, Fuchs C, Weizman A. Low-dose mirtazapine: a new option in the treatment of antipsychotic-induced akathisia. A randomized, double-blind, placebo- and propranolol-controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;59:1071-7 pubmed
    ..We investigated the antiakathisia effect, safety, and tolerability of low-dose mirtazapine, an agent with marked 5-HT(2A) antagonism...
  64. Hardmeier M, Eichhorn M, Stoppe G. [Agitation and gamma-hydroxybutyrate]. Nervenarzt. 2006;77:1111-4 pubmed
    ..Diagnostic workup is discussed considering the relevant literature on this topic. Intoxication and dependence on GHB are important entities in the contexts of neurology and psychiatry...
  65. Spencer M, Hays D. Reply to letter to the editor by Perrone. Am J Emerg Med. 2006;24:761 pubmed
  66. Petrenko A, Kohno T, Wu J, Sakimura K, Baba H. Spontaneous hyperactivity in mutant mice lacking the NMDA receptor GluRepsilon1 subunit is aggravated during exposure to 0.1 MAC sevoflurane and is preserved after emergence from sevoflurane anaesthesia. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2008;25:953-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulated that hyperactive animals would show a further increase in activity in the presence of low concentrations of volatile anaesthetics, such as sevoflurane...
  67. Akagi H, Kumar T. Lesson of the week: Akathisia: overlooked at a cost. BMJ. 2002;324:1506-7 pubmed
  68. Jeste D. Lifetime influence of one year with Gerry Smith. Physiol Behav. 2004;82:167-70 pubmed
    ..Most mentors are useful for teaching content of research; Gerry is one of those few who serve as role models-not only as scientists but also as professionals...
  69. Cáceres Calle O, Fernandez Benitez M. Allergy to dexchlorpheniramine. Study of a case. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2004;32:306-9 pubmed
    ..We report the case of a 32-year-old woman who experienced two episodes of akathisia secondary to intravenous (i.v.) dexchlorpheniramine administration for a possible hypersensitivity reaction to local anesthetics...
  70. Tsuji Y, Miyama S, Uemura Y, Kitanaka N, Yoneda A, Mikayama H, et al. [Three cases of drug-induced akathisia due to antiemetics during cancer palliative care]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2006;33:267-9 pubmed
    ..It is important that akathisia is recognized and treated appropriately as an adverse reaction to drugs and a further increase in antipsychotic medication dosage may further exacerbate the condition...
  71. Yamauchi K, Ohmori T. [Two cases of tardive Tourette syndrome]. Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi. 2006;108:459-65 pubmed
    ..Tardive Tourette syndrome should not be misdiagnosed as an exacerbation of schizophrenic symptoms responsive to an increase of neuroleptics. This side effect should be recognized widely and treated properly...
  72. Burkhardt J, Constantinidis C, Anstrom K, Roberts D, Woodward D. Synchronous oscillations and phase reorganization in the basal ganglia during akinesia induced by high-dose haloperidol. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:1912-24 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that acute DA blockade is sufficient to produce synchronous oscillatory activity across basal ganglia neuron populations, and that prolonged DA blockade results in phase lag changes in pallidostriatal synchrony...
  73. Sharif Z. Side effects as influencers of treatment outcome. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69 Suppl 3:38-43 pubmed
    ..The current article will provide a brief summary of safety-related issues that influence treatment outcome and choice of drug...
  74. Gilbert D. Drug-induced movement disorders in children. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1142:72-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Many publications are small case series. This report attempts to provide useful information, with appropriate caution and discussion of the limitations of what we know...
  75. Sethi K. Movement disorders induced by dopamine blocking agents. Semin Neurol. 2001;21:59-68 pubmed
    ..Symptomatic treatments are varied and have an inconsistent effect on the movement disorders. Prevention remains the most important strategy...
  76. Pae C, Yu H, Kim J, Kim W, Lee C, Lee S, et al. Glutathione S-transferase M1 polymorphism may contribute to schizophrenia in the Korean population. Psychiatr Genet. 2004;14:147-50 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that, at least in the Korean population, the GSTM1 polymorphism may confer susceptibility to the development of schizophrenia but not to tardive dyskinesia...
  77. de Leon J, Diaz F, Aguilar M, Jurado D, Gurpegui M. Does smoking reduce akathisia? Testing a narrow version of the self-medication hypothesis. Schizophr Res. 2006;86:256-68 pubmed
    ..A narrow version of the self-medication hypothesis, heavy smoking reduces akathisia, is explored...
  78. Cotter P, O Keeffe S. Improvement in neuroleptic-induced akathisia with intravenous iron treatment in a patient with iron deficiency. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78:548 pubmed
  79. Zhang X, Xiu M, Chen D, Zhu F, Wu G, Haile C, et al. Increased S100B serum levels in schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia: association with dyskinetic movements. J Psychiatr Res. 2010;44:429-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum S100B levels were positively correlated with AIMS scores in patients with TD. These data suggest that increased S100B levels may be related to neuro-degeneration, associated with TD pathophysiology...
  80. Lencz T, Malhotra A. Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic-induced side effects. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2009;11:405-15 pubmed
    ..Effects of these genes and others on risk for TD, extrapyramidal side effects, hyperprolactinemia, and weight gain are reviewed in this article...
  81. Ishigooka J, Murasaki M, Miura S. Efficacy and safety of olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, in patients with schizophrenia: results of an open-label multicenter study in Japan. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001;55:353-63 pubmed
    ..3%) followed by increases in triglycerides (20.4%). However, mean prolactin values tended to be normalized during the study. This study result suggests that olanzapine is an "atypical" antipsychotic...
  82. Poewe W, Hogl B. Akathisia, restless legs and periodic limb movements in sleep in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 2004;63:S12-6 pubmed
    ..Long-term prospective studies of RLS cohorts will clarify whether or not RLS is associated with an increased risk for development of PD...
  83. Santiveri X, Molto L, Rodriguez C, Sandin F, Vilaplana J, Castillo J. [Sedation and analgesia with propofol plus low-dose ketamine for retrobulbar block]. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2006;53:545-9 pubmed
    ..To determine if adding ketamine to propofol provides better sedation than propofol alone for patients receiving a retrobulbar block for eye surgery...
  84. Chouinard G, Chouinard V. Atypical antipsychotics: CATIE study, drug-induced movement disorder and resulting iatrogenic psychiatric-like symptoms, supersensitivity rebound psychosis and withdrawal discontinuation syndromes. Psychother Psychosom. 2008;77:69-77 pubmed publisher
  85. Johnston T, van der Meij A, Brotchie J, Fox S. Effect of histamine H2 receptor antagonism on levodopa-induced dyskinesia in the MPTP-macaque model of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2010;25:1379-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, in combination with a higher dose of levodopa, famotidine can reduce peak-dose levodopa-induced chorea and improve the quality of on-time...
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    ..We tested the hypothesis that bolus administration of propofol after sevoflurane anesthesia would reduce the incidence of recovery agitation compared with sevoflurane anesthesia alone...
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    ..To evaluate extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), including akathisia, with quetiapine in patients with bipolar mania...
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    ..Pharmacogenetics of tardive dyskinesia and dopamine D3 (DRD3), serotonin 2A (HTR2A), and 2C (HTR2C) receptors has been examined in various populations, but not in Russians...
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    ..There were organ differences in sensitivity in the mice exposed to NO. Spleen, thymus, and macrophages might be the important targets of NO...