Summary: Substances used to destroy or inhibit the action of rats, mice, or other rodents.

Top Publications

  1. Petterino C, Paolo B. Toxicology of various anticoagulant rodenticides in animals. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2001;43:353-60 pubmed
    Anticoagulant rodenticides act by interrupting cellular recycling of vitamin K and inducing a secondary coagulopathy. Their sensitivity to different animal species is reviewed.
  2. Watt B, Proudfoot A, Bradberry S, Vale J. Anticoagulant rodenticides. Toxicol Rev. 2005;24:259-69 pubmed
    ..The emergence of warfarin-resistant strains of rats led to the introduction of a new group of anticoagulant rodenticides variously referred to as 'superwarfarins', 'single dose' or 'long-acting'...
  3. Loffredo C, Silbergeld E, Ferencz C, Zhang J. Association of transposition of the great arteries in infants with maternal exposures to herbicides and rodenticides. Am J Epidemiol. 2001;153:529-36 pubmed
    ..6). No data were collected on specific chemicals or brand names. These results raise new questions about the possible epidemiologic association of TGA with some classes of pesticides and warrant new, carefully targeted investigations. ..
  4. Ruder M, Poppenga R, Bryan J, Bain M, Pitman J, Keel M. Intoxication of nontarget wildlife with rodenticides in northwestern Kansas. J Wildl Dis. 2011;47:212-6 pubmed
    ..Anticoagulant and nonanticoagulant rodenticides are commonly employed to control prairie dog populations throughout their range...
  5. Tosh D, Shore R, Jess S, Withers A, Bearhop S, Ian Montgomery W, et al. User behaviour, best practice and the risks of non-target exposure associated with anticoagulant rodenticide use. J Environ Manage. 2011;92:1503-8 pubmed publisher
    Usage of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) is an integral component of modern agriculture and is essential for the control of commensal rodent populations...
  6. Kendrick D. Mosquito repellents and superwarfarin rodenticides--are they really toxic in children?. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2006;18:180-3 pubmed
    ..This review provides information on common mosquito repellents and rodenticides used in households and discusses their toxicity, in order to help pediatricians better advise their patients of ..
  7. Painter J, Mølbak K, Sonne Hansen J, Barrett T, Wells J, Tauxe R. Salmonella-based rodenticides and public health. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:985-7 pubmed
    ..Based on the similarity of the strains, currently available Salmonella-based rodenticides likely are as great a threat to public health as past strains were...
  8. Vandenbroucke V, Bousquet Melou A, De Backer P, Croubels S. Pharmacokinetics of eight anticoagulant rodenticides in mice after single oral administration. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2008;31:437-45 pubmed publisher
    The first aim of the study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of eight anticoagulant rodenticides (brodifacoum, bromadiolone, chlorophacinone, coumatetralyl, difenacoum, difethialone, flocoumafen and warfarin) in plasma and liver of ..
  9. Gabriel M, Woods L, Poppenga R, Sweitzer R, Thompson C, Matthews S, et al. Anticoagulant rodenticides on our public and community lands: spatial distribution of exposure and poisoning of a rare forest carnivore. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40163 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Stone W, Okoniewski J, Stedelin J. Anticoagulant rodenticides and raptors: recent findings from New York, 1998-2001. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2003;70:34-40 pubmed
  2. Wu Q, Zhang M, Lan Z. [Simultaneous determination of fluoroacetamide and tetramine by gas chromatography]. Se Pu. 2002;20:381-2 pubmed
    ..The detection limits and average recoveries were 5 ng and 69.1% for fluoroacetamide and 1 ng and 89.8% for tetramine...
  3. Vudathala D, Cummings M, Murphy L. Analysis of multiple anticoagulant rodenticides in animal blood and liver tissue using principles of QuEChERS method. J Anal Toxicol. 2010;34:273-9 pubmed
    A quick and easy method for the analysis of anticoagulant rodenticides in blood or tissue using principles of dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE), commonly known as QuEChERS (short for quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe),..
  4. Heiberg A. Anticoagulant resistance: a relevant issue in sewer rat (Rattus norvegicus) control?. Pest Manag Sci. 2009;65:444-9 pubmed publisher
    ..majority of rat problems in cities are thought to be related to defective sewers, and the use of anticoagulant rodenticides in such places is often implemented as part of regular urban rodent control...
  5. Perkins E, Bao W, Guan X, Ang C, Wolfinger R, Chu T, et al. Comparison of transcriptional responses in liver tissue and primary hepatocyte cell cultures after exposure to hexahydro-1, 3, 5-trinitro-1, 3, 5-triazine. BMC Bioinformatics. 2006;7 Suppl 4:S22 pubmed
    ..Expression effects related to RDX exposure in cells reflected a fraction of liver responses indicating that care must be taken in extrapolating from primary cells to whole animal organ toxicity effects. ..
  6. Li Z, Zeng J. [Clinical analysis of 15 cases with tetramethylenedisulfotetramine]. Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2001;26:65-6 pubmed
    ..Gastric lavage and chemical toxin analysis in early stage are of vital importance, plasma exchange, tracheotomy and mechanical ventilation are the most effective reatment methods. ..
  7. Pan X, Ochoa K, Francisco M, Cox S, Dixon K, Anderson T, et al. Absorption, distribution, and biotransformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in B6C3F1 mice (Mus musculus). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2013;32:1295-303 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of RDX metabolites at notable amounts in different tissues suggests that RDX can transform into its N-nitroso metabolites in vivo by an undefined mechanism. ..
  8. Robinson R, Griffith J, Wolowich W, Nahata M. Intoxication with sodium monofluoroacetate (compound 1080). Vet Hum Toxicol. 2002;44:93-5 pubmed
    ..Two days later he was discharged with no evidence of neurologic sequelae. We report this patient to increase awareness of SMFA toxicity, and its ability to cause anion gap metabolic acidosis...
  9. Nipper M, Carr R, Biedenbach J, Hooten R, Miller K, Saepoff S. Development of marine toxicity data for ordnance compounds. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2001;41:308-18 pubmed
    ..Among the dinitro- and trinitrotoluenes and benzenes, toxicity tended to increase with the level of nitrogenation. Picric acid and RDX were the least toxic chemicals tested overall. ..
  10. Zurita J, Jos A, Cameán A, Salguero M, López Artíguez M, Repetto G. Ecotoxicological evaluation of sodium fluoroacetate on aquatic organisms and investigation of the effects on two fish cell lines. Chemosphere. 2007;67:1-12 pubmed
    ..Moreover, sulphydryl groups and oxidative stress could be involved in PLHC-1 cell death induced by SMFA more than changes in calcium homeostasis. ..
  11. Fisher P, Funnell E, Fairweather A, Brown L, Campion M. Accidental discharge of brodifacoum baits into a freshwater lake: a case study. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2012;88:226-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the month after the spill no residual brodifacoum was detected in samples of lake water, sediment, benthic invertebrates, eels, and two birds. ..
  12. Whisson D, Salmon T. Effect of diphacinone on blood coagulation in Spermophilus beecheyi as a basis for determining optimal timing of field bait applications. Pest Manag Sci. 2002;58:736-8 pubmed
  13. Baldwin R, Quinn N, Davis D, Engeman R. Effectiveness of rodenticides for managing invasive roof rats and native deer mice in orchards. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014;21:5795-802 pubmed publisher
    ..most practical and cost-effective control method for rodents in many agricultural environments is the use of rodenticides (toxic baits), but little or no information exists on the efficacy of current rodenticides in controlling roof ..
  14. Proudfoot A, Bradberry S, Vale J. Sodium fluoroacetate poisoning. Toxicol Rev. 2006;25:213-9 pubmed
    ..The immediate, and probably only, management of fluoroacetate poisoning is therefore supportive, including the correction of hypocalcaemia. ..
  15. Kanchan T, Menezes R. Suicidal poisoning in Southern India: gender differences. J Forensic Leg Med. 2008;15:7-14 pubmed
    ..This paper examines the difference in pattern of suicidal poisoning among males and females to identify population at risk, and understand the problem status among both genders. ..
  16. Mitchell D, Wells C, Hoch N, Lind K, Woods S, Mitchell L. Poison induced pica in rats. Physiol Behav. 1976;17:691-7 pubmed
  17. Ishizuka M, Tanikawa T, Tanaka K, Heewon M, Okajima F, Sakamoto K, et al. Pesticide resistance in wild mammals--mechanisms of anticoagulant resistance in wild rodents. J Toxicol Sci. 2008;33:283-91 pubmed
    ..However, animals resistant to this second-generation rodenticide have already been reported in Europe. In this review, we focus on the mechanism and the pleiotropic effects of pesticide resistance in wild rodents. ..
  18. Mutlu M, Cansu A, Karakas T, Kalyoncu M, Erduran E. Pattern of pediatric poisoning in the east Karadeniz region between 2002 and 2006: increased suicide poisoning. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2010;29:131-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The main toxic agent was drugs (70.2%), followed by foods (8.8%), rodenticides (7%), insecticides/pesticides (4.9%), and carbon monoxide (4.7%)...
  19. Saravanan K, Kanakasabai R. Evaluation of secondary poisoning of difethialone, a new second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide to barn owl, Tyto alba Hartert under captivity. Indian J Exp Biol. 2004;42:1013-6 pubmed
    ..The owls survived after the treament of rodenticide on phase 1 and phase 2 experiments but they died during phase 3 experiment. The results suggest that the difethialone could cause more secondary toxicity to owls. ..
  20. Mesban H, Tayeb E, Mourad A, Younis L, el Zaher M, Aly M. Toxicology and histopathology of some rodenticides and palatable food items combinations on the common mice Mus musculus var. albus in Egypt. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2003;68:771-87 pubmed
    ..The tested anticoagulant rodenticides were greatly effective against the albino mouse Mus musculus var...
  21. Franco D, Everett G, Manoucheri M. I smell a rat: a case report and literature review of paradoxical thrombosis and hemorrhage in a patient with brodifacoum toxicity. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2013;24:202-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, paradoxical thrombosis and hemorrhage should raise the suspicion for superwarfarin toxicity in the appropriate clinical setting. Further studies are required to define the management of these patients. ..
  22. Xie W, Chen Z, Li X. [Advances in the detection method of several forbidden rodenticides]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2002;31:316-8 pubmed
    The progress of detection method of four forbidden rodenticides, including fluoroacetamide, sodium fluoroacetate, gliftor and tetramine is reviewed in this paper. The technique of sample preparation and gas chromatography are emphasized.
  23. Šćepović T, Jokić G, Esther A, Kataranovski D, Vukša P, Đedović S, et al. VKOR variant and sex are the main influencing factors on bromadiolone tolerance of the house mouse (Mus musculus L.). Pest Manag Sci. 2016;72:574-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The tolerance levels of VKOR variants should be determined in further studies in order to evaluate the effectiveness of bromadiolone in sustainable management. ..
  24. Liang M, Zheng N, Zhou L, Liu Q, Zhang H, Zhuo L, et al. [Comparative analysis of 607 autopsy cases of poisoning death]. Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2011;27:200-4 pubmed
    ..Poisoning deaths of pesticides remain a major public health problem for a long time and the awareness of prevention need to be raised, especially for the prevention of deaths from multiple poisons. ..
  25. Kim J, Jeon B. Survivors from beta-fluoroethyl acetate poisoning show a selective cerebellar syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80:528-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The pathomechanism underlying the selective cerebellar toxicity of FEA remains to be elucidated. The selective involvement of the cerebellum might provide a useful model for cerebellar degeneration. ..
  26. Sarabia J, Sánchez Barbudo I, Siqueira W, Mateo R, Rollan E, Pizarrod M. Lesions associated with the plexus venosus subcutaneus collaris of pigeons with chlorophacinone toxicosis. Avian Dis. 2008;52:540-3 pubmed
    ..This case report describes a relationship between the subcutaneous hemorrhagic lesions and the plexus venosus collaris. ..
  27. Smith L, Liang B, Booth M, Filigenzi M, Tkachenko A, Gaskill C. Development and Validation of Quantitative Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Assay for Anticoagulant Rodenticides in Liver. J Agric Food Chem. 2017;65:6682-6691 pubmed publisher
    Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are used to control rodent populations; however, exposure to nontarget animals occurs. A sensitive and rugged quantitative method was developed, optimized, and validated for eight ARs in liver...
  28. Jarvis A, McFarland V, Honeycutt M. Assessment of the effectiveness of composting for the reduction of toxicity and mutagenicity of explosive-contaminated soil. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 1998;39:131-5 pubmed
  29. Primus T, Griffin D, Volz S, Johnston J. Reversed-phase ion-pair liquid chromatographic determination of chlorophacinone and diphacinone in steam-rolled oat baits and steam-rolled oat/wax baits. J AOAC Int. 1998;81:349-57 pubmed
    ..0 and 0.76 micrograms/g, respectively. Method limits of detection for chlorophacinone and diphacinone in wax baits were estimated to be 4.2 and 2.8 micrograms/g, respectively. ..
  30. Ishizuka M, Okajima F, Tanikawa T, Min H, Tanaka K, Sakamoto K, et al. Elevated warfarin metabolism in warfarin-resistant roof rats (Rattus rattus) in Tokyo. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007;35:62-6 pubmed
    ..We concluded that the mechanism of warfarin resistance in Tokyo roof rats is caused by increased clearance of warfarin. ..
  31. Sheremata T, Halasz A, Paquet L, Thiboutot S, Ampleman G, Hawari J. The fate of the cyclic nitramine explosive RDX in natural soil. Environ Sci Technol. 2001;35:1037-40 pubmed
    ..However, N2O from RDX represented only 3% of the total N2O that formed from the process of nitrification/denitrification. ..
  32. Hawari J, Halasz A, Groom C, Deschamps S, Paquet L, Beaulieu C, et al. Photodegradation of RDX in aqueous solution: a mechanistic probe for biodegradation with Rhodococcus sp. Environ Sci Technol. 2002;36:5117-23 pubmed
  33. Bumbrah G, Krishan K, Kanchan T, Sharma M, Sodhi G. Phosphide poisoning: a review of literature. Forensic Sci Int. 2012;214:1-6 pubmed publisher
    Metal phosphides in general and aluminium phosphide in particular are potent insecticides and rodenticides. These are commercially used for protection of crops during storage, as well as during transportation...
  34. Desvars Larrive A, Pascal M, Gasqui P, Cosson J, Benoit E, Lattard V, et al. Population genetics, community of parasites, and resistance to rodenticides in an urban brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) population. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184015 pubmed publisher
    ..France), with regards to haematology, population genetics, immunogenic diversity, resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides, and community of parasites. Haematological parameters were measured...
  35. Leporati M, Salomone A, Golè G, Vincenti M. Determination of Anticoagulant Rodenticides and ?-Chloralose in Human Hair. Application to a Real Case. J Anal Toxicol. 2016;40:277-85 pubmed publisher
    Anticoagulant rodenticides are the largest group of poisons used to kill harmful rodents...
  36. Xiang L, Min Z, Alan Z, Yaohui W. Retrospective study of twenty-four patients with prolonged coagulopathy due to long-acting anti-vitamin K rodenticide poisoning. Am J Med Sci. 2014;347:299-304 pubmed publisher
    Second generation anticoagulant rodenticides are now the most common rat killers used in China; however, poisoning incidents are frequently reported...
  37. Endepols S, Klemann N, Pelz H, Ziebell K. A scheme for the placement of rodenticide baits for rat eradication on confinement livestock farms. Prev Vet Med. 2003;58:115-23 pubmed
    ..This program, which is available on the Internet, enables the creation of individualised rat-control plans, including complete documentation of the control measure. ..
  38. Gregory K, Larese Casanova P, Parkin G, Scherer M. Abiotic transformation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine by Fe(II) bound to magnetite. Environ Sci Technol. 2004;38:1408-14 pubmed
    ..The degradation of RDX by Fe(II)-magnetite suspensions indicates a possible remedial option that could be employed in natural and engineered environments where iron oxides are abundant and ferrous iron is present. ..
  39. Sánchez Barbudo I, Camarero P, Mateo R. Primary and secondary poisoning by anticoagulant rodenticides of non-target animals in Spain. Sci Total Environ. 2012;420:280-8 pubmed publisher
    ..e. treated grain by spreader machines) should be discontinued in future EU regulations on the use of rodenticides to prevent the poisoning of non-target wildlife species.
  40. Johnston J, Pitt W, Sugihara R, Eisemann J, Primus T, Holmes M, et al. Probabilistic risk assessment for snails, slugs, and endangered honeycreepers in diphacinone rodenticide baited areas on Hawaii, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005;24:1557-67 pubmed
    ..Also, no acute toxicity was noted for snails and slugs that feed on diphacinone baits. ..
  41. Pasquale Styles M, Sochaski M, Dorman D, Krell W, Shah A, Schmidt C. Fatal bromethalin poisoning. J Forensic Sci. 2006;51:1154-7 pubmed
    Bromethalin is a neurotoxin found in some rodenticides. A delusional 21-year-old male presented to a hospital with altered mental status the day after ingesting a bromethalin-based rodenticide...
  42. Binks S, Davies P. Case of the month: "Oh! Drat!--A case of transcutaneous superwarfarin poisoning and its recurrent presentation". Emerg Med J. 2007;24:307-8 pubmed
    ..They were unaware that superwarfarins are more potent and longer acting than warfarin, with toxic effects for weeks or even months, and that large doses of vitamin K are often required. ..
  43. Thomas P, Mineau P, Shore R, Champoux L, Martin P, Wilson L, et al. Second generation anticoagulant rodenticides in predatory birds: Probabilistic characterisation of toxic liver concentrations and implications for predatory bird populations in Canada. Environ Int. 2011;37:914-20 pubmed publisher
    Second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) are widely used to control rodent pests but exposure and poisonings occur in non-target species, such as birds of prey...
  44. Petterino C, Paolo B, Tristo G. Clinical and pathological features of anticoagulant rodenticide intoxications in dogs. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2004;46:70-5 pubmed
    ..In 2 cases necropsy examinations were done. The clinical-pathological aspects of anticoagulant rodenticide poisonings of dogs are then discussed. ..
  45. Schjerve H. [Incorrect about the rat poison contribution in Dagbladet]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2006;126:635; author reply 635 pubmed
  46. Federici S, Claudet I, Laporte Turpin E, Marcoux M, Cheuret E, Maréchal K. [Severe chloralose intoxication in a toddler]. Arch Pediatr. 2006;13:364-6 pubmed
    ..We report a case of an accidental intoxication in a 20-month-old boy resulting from the ingestion of a rodenticide containing alpha-chloralose...
  47. Torka P, Sharma R, Sood R. Rodenticide poisoning as a cause of quadriparesis: a rare entity. Am J Emerg Med. 2009;27:625.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Barium acts by redistribution of potassium from the extra- to intravascular compartment causing hypokalemia. Early recognition and prompt potassium supplementation under cardiac monitoring yield gratifying results. ..
  48. Zoh K, Stenstrom M. Application of a membrane bioreactor for treating explosives process wastewater. Water Res. 2002;36:1018-24 pubmed
    ..15 and 2.0 m3/m2 day and was maintained by routine backwashing every three days. Backwashing with tap water containing chlorine bleach every fourth or fifth backwashing was able to restore membrane flux to its original value. ..
  49. Papin F, Clarot F, Vicomte C, Gaulier J, Daubin C, Chapon F, et al. Lethal paradoxical cerebral vein thrombosis due to suspicious anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication with chlorophacinone. Forensic Sci Int. 2007;166:85-90 pubmed
    ..They review the literature and discuss particularities of anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication, as well as the apparent contradiction between anticoagulant intoxication and lethal thrombosis. ..
  50. Sage M, Coeurdassier M, Defaut R, Gimbert F, Berny P, Giraudoux P. Kinetics of bromadiolone in rodent populations and implications for predators after field control of the water vole, Arvicola terrestris. Sci Total Environ. 2008;407:211-22 pubmed publisher
  51. Gooneratne S, Eason C, Milne L, Arthur D, Cook C, Wickstrom M. Acute and long-term effects of exposure to sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) in sheep. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2008;75:127-39 pubmed
    ..Death from 1080 is most likely to occur within 96 h, and animals that survived this period appeared normal. ..
  52. Williams A, Gregory K, Parkin G, Scherer M. Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine transformation by biologically reduced ferrihydrite: evolution of Fe mineralogy, surface area, and reaction rates. Environ Sci Technol. 2005;39:5183-9 pubmed
  53. Bhushan B, Halasz A, Hawari J. Effect of iron(III), humic acids and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate on biodegradation of cyclic nitramines by Clostridium sp. EDB2. J Appl Microbiol. 2006;100:555-63 pubmed
    ..The present study could be helpful in determining the fate of cyclic nitramine energetic chemicals in the environments rich in Fe(III) and HA. ..