pesticide synergists


Summary: Chemicals that, while not possessing inherent pesticidal activity, nonetheless promote or enhance the effectiveness of other pesticides when combined.

Top Publications

  1. Mesbah H, Saad A, Mourad A, Taman F, Mohamed I. Joint action of quercetin with four insecticides on the cotton leaf-worm larvae, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Lep. : Noctuidae) in Egypt. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2007;72:445-57 pubmed
  2. Matowo J, Kulkarni M, Mosha F, Oxborough R, Kitau J, Tenu F, et al. Biochemical basis of permethrin resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Lower Moshi, north-eastern Tanzania. Malar J. 2010;9:193 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevated levels of mixed function oxidases and beta-esterases play a role in detoxification of permethrin in the resistant An. arabiensis population of Lower Moshi. ..
  3. Khot A, Bingham G, Field L, Moores G. A novel assay reveals the blockade of esterases by piperonyl butoxide. Pest Manag Sci. 2008;64:1139-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The new assay reveals esterase blockade by PBO and thus has the potential to be used as a high-throughput screening method for other potential synergists. ..
  4. Sánchez Arroyo H, Koehler P, Valles S. Effects of the synergists piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate on propoxur pharmacokinetics in Blattella germanica (Blattodea: Blattellidae). J Econ Entomol. 2001;94:1209-16 pubmed
    ..The data demonstrate that unanticipated effects are possible with synergists and that caution must be exercised when interpreting synergist results...
  5. Stumpf N, Nauen R. Cross-resistance, inheritance, and biochemistry of mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor-acaricide resistance in Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). J Econ Entomol. 2001;94:1577-83 pubmed
    ..This is the first attempt to mechanistically describe METI-acaricide resistance in T. urticae. The implications for resistance management strategies are discussed. ..
  6. Gauvrit C, Muller T, Milius A, Trouvé G. Ethoxylated rapeseed oil derivatives as non-ionic adjuvants for glyphosate. Pest Manag Sci. 2007;63:707-13 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that ethoxylates of rapeseed oil and of methylated rapeseed oil are a promising chemistry for glyphosate adjuvants, provided that their ethylene oxide content is high. ..
  7. Yavuz O, Aksoy A, Das Y, Gulbahar M, Yarim G, Cenesiz M, et al. Repeated-dose 14-day dermal toxicity of different combinations of some synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, piperonyl butoxide, and tetramethrin in rats. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2010;29:16-25 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, the findings showed that although pyrethroids are considered to be of low acute toxicity, they become more toxic when combined with piperonyl butoxide or tetramethrin in certain doses. ..
  8. Bertók B, Pap L, Arvai G, Bakonyvári I, Kuruczné Ribai Z. Structure-activity relationship study of alkynyl ether insecticide synergists and the development of MB-599 (verbutin). Pest Manag Sci. 2003;59:377-92 pubmed
    ..A product containing a (1+1) mixture of verbutin and beta-cypermethrin was launched in Hungary in 2002. ..
  9. Ochiai N, Fujimura M, Oshima M, Motoyama T, Ichiishi A, Yamada Okabe H, et al. Effects of iprodione and fludioxonil on glycerol synthesis and hyphal development in Candida albicans. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002;66:2209-15 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that iprodione and fludioxonil interfere with the CaNIK1/COS1 signal transduction pathway, resulting in glycerol synthesis stimulation and the inhibition of hyphal formation. ..

More Information


  1. Tao L, Yang J, Zhuang P, Tang Z. Effect of a mixture of iprobenfos and malathion on the development of malathion resistance in the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens Coq. Pest Manag Sci. 2006;62:86-90 pubmed
    ..The above results suggested that iprobenfos, although it cannot completely stop or prevent the onset of malathion resistance, could dramatically delay its evolution. ..
  2. Yadav S, Mittal P, Saxena P, Singh R. Effect of synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the toxicity of some essential oils against mosquito larvae. J Commun Dis. 2008;40:263-8 pubmed
    ..19 ppm to 23.87 ppm. Similarly the oil of Pogostemon pacholli showed most significant results where the LC50 value was >250 ppm it was reduced to 50 ppm with PBO...
  3. Van Pottelberge S, Khajehali J, Van Leeuwen T, Tirry L. Effects of spirodiclofen on reproduction in a susceptible and resistant strain of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Exp Appl Acarol. 2009;47:301-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data shows that the detection of spirodiclofen resistance should not be limited to mortality bioassays with eggs or larvae, but should be combined with inhibitory studies on female fertility and fecundity. ..
  4. Van Wambeke E. Combinations of reduced rates of 1,3-dichloropropene and dazomet as a broad spectrum soil fumigation strategy in view of methyl bromide replacement. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2007;72:61-70 pubmed
    ..e. less volatile and with less good diffusion capacity as compared to methyl bromide. ..
  5. Fakoorziba M, Eghbal F, Vijayan V. Synergist efficacy of piperonyl butoxide with deltamethrin as pyrethroid insecticide on Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquitoe species. Environ Toxicol. 2009;24:19-24 pubmed publisher
    ..So, it is suggested that PBO is a good synergist in this area for decreasing the use of pesticides in environment in vector control. ..
  6. Spanoghe P, De Schampheleire M, Van der Meeren P, Steurbaut W. Influence of agricultural adjuvants on droplet spectra. Pest Manag Sci. 2007;63:4-16 pubmed
    ..The effects of these adjuvants on spray formation depend on the type of nozzle in combination with the applied pressure. ..
  7. Schmidt N, Haywood J, Bonning B. Toward the physiological basis for increased Agrotis ipsilon multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus infection following feeding of Agrotis ipsilon larvae on transgenic corn expressing Cry1Fa2. J Invertebr Pathol. 2009;102:141-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional research is required to further delineate the physiological basis for enhanced baculovirus infection following exposure to sublethal doses of Bt toxins. ..
  8. He Y, Zhang J, Chen J. Effect of synergists on susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole in field populations of Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J Econ Entomol. 2014;107:791-6 pubmed
    ..These susceptibility and synergism data suggested that detoxification enzymes might be involved in the tolerance variation to chlorantraniliprole in field populations of C. suppressalis. ..
  9. Sanchez Bruni S, Fusé L, Moreno L, Saumell C, Alvarez L, Fiel C, et al. Changes to oxfendazole chiral kinetics and anthelmintic efficacy induced by piperonyl butoxide in horses. Equine Vet J. 2005;37:257-62 pubmed
    ..Metabolic inhibitors may be used to enhance the activity of benzimidazole anthelmintics and extend the effective lifespan of benzimidazole drugs in the face of increasing resistance. ..
  10. Ninsin K, Tanaka T. Synergism and stability of acetamiprid resistance in a laboratory colony of Plutella xylostella. Pest Manag Sci. 2005;61:723-7 pubmed
    ..Maintaining the resistant strain for seven generations in the absence of selection pressure resulted in a drop in resistance ratio from 110 to 2.42, indicating that acetamiprid resistance in P. xylostella is not stable. ..
  11. Grossmann K, Caspar G, Kwiatkowski J, Bowe S. On the mechanism of selectivity of the corn herbicide BAS 662H: a combination of the novel auxin transport inhibitor diflufenzopyr and the auxin herbicide dicamba. Pest Manag Sci. 2002;58:1002-14 pubmed
    ..Selectivity of BAS 662H is additionally favoured by a higher crop tolerance to dicamba because of reduced foliar uptake of this herbicide in corn under the influence of diflufenzopyr...
  12. Loureiro S, Svendsen C, Ferreira A, Pinheiro C, Ribeiro F, Soares A. Toxicity of three binary mixtures to Daphnia magna: comparing chemical modes of action and deviations from conceptual models. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2010;29:1716-26 pubmed publisher
  13. Singh A, Singh D. Effect of herbal molluscicides and their combinations on the reproduction of the snail Lymnaea acuminata. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2004;46:470-7 pubmed
    ..Twenty-four-hour sublethal treatment with the acetogenins caused a maximum reduction in the protein, amino acid, DNA, and RNA in the ovotestis of treated Lymnaea acuminata. ..
  14. Burridge M, Simmons L, Ahrens E, Naudé S, Malan F. Development of a novel self-medicating applicator for control of internal and external parasites of wild and domestic animals. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2004;71:41-51 pubmed
  15. Bynum E, Archer T. Susceptibility of populations of Banks grass mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) suspected of developing bifenthrin resistance from three maize fields. Exp Appl Acarol. 2002;27:303-12 pubmed
    ..The activity of a dimethoate + bifenthrin mixture and a three way mixture of dimethoate, bifenthrin, and piperonyl butoxide caused 5- and 38-fold increase in toxicity against the more resistant Banks grass mite. ..
  16. Brausch J, Smith P. Mechanisms of resistance and cross-resistance to agrochemicals in the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus (Crustacea: Anostraca). Aquat Toxicol. 2009;92:140-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the primary mechanism for the development of resistance to agrochemicals in T. platyurus is due to increased metabolic detoxification...
  17. How Y, Lee C. Surface contact toxicity and synergism of several insecticides against different stages of the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Pest Manag Sci. 2011;67:734-40 pubmed publisher
    ..hemipterus, the insects showed substantial recovery 72 h post-treatment. The late instars (fourth and fifth instars) should be used as the model for toxicological evaluation. ..
  18. Couso Ferrer F, Arouri R, Beroiz B, Perera N, Cervera A, Navarro Llopis V, et al. Cross-resistance to insecticides in a malathion-resistant strain of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). J Econ Entomol. 2011;104:1349-56 pubmed
    ..Especially relevant is the case of lambda-cyhalothrin, because we have shown that resistance to this insecticide can rapidly evolve to levels that may compromise its effectiveness in the field. ..
  19. Venturino A, Anguiano O, Gauna L, Cocca C, Bergoc R, Pechen de d Angelo A. Thiols and polyamines in the potentiation of malathion toxicity in larval stages of the toad Bufo arenarum. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2001;130:191-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that exposure to thiols-depleting agents may induce alteration of organophosphate degradation in amphibian larvae. ..
  20. Yun M, Shim I, Usui K. Involvement of cytochrome P-450 enzyme activity in the selectivity and safening action of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl. Pest Manag Sci. 2001;57:283-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these results suggest the existence of a multiple form of cytochrome P-450 in plants. ..
  21. Niu G, Pollock H, Lawrance A, Siegel J, Berenbaum M. Effects of a naturally occurring and a synthetic synergist on toxicity of three insecticides and a phytochemical to navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J Econ Entomol. 2012;105:410-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, this study demonstrates that in A. transitella the insect growth regulator methoxyfenozide is not detoxified by P450s. ..
  22. Ahmad M. Potentiation/Antagonism of pyrethroids with organophosphate insecticides in Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). J Econ Entomol. 2007;100:886-93 pubmed
    ..tabaci. Chlorpyrifos was antagonistic with cypermethrin but had an additive effect with fenpropathrin. ..
  23. Schönherr J, Schreiber L, Buchholz A. Effects of temperature and concentration of the accelerators ethoxylated alcohols, diethyl suberate and tributyl phosphate on the mobility of [14C]2,4-dichlorophenoxy butyric acid in plant cuticles. Pest Manag Sci. 2001;57:17-24 pubmed
    ..MEDs were also very effective accelerators, lowering activation energies to 36 kJ mol-1. Data are discussed in relation to increasing rates of foliar penetration of active ingredients at low temperatures. ..
  24. Zeng R, Zeng R, Niu G, Wen Z, Schuler M, Berenbaum M. Toxicity of aflatoxin B1 to Helicoverpa zea and bioactivation by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. J Chem Ecol. 2006;32:1459-71 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these findings indicate that, as in many other vertebrates and invertebrates, toxicity of AFB1 to H. zea results from P450-mediated metabolic bioactivation. ..
  25. Willoughby L, Batterham P, Daborn P. Piperonyl butoxide induces the expression of cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Pest Manag Sci. 2007;63:803-8 pubmed
    ..The implications of the induction of gene families known to metabolise insecticides and the use of PBO in pest management programs are discussed. ..
  26. Romero A, Potter M, Haynes K. Evaluation of piperonyl butoxide as a deltamethrin synergist for pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs. J Econ Entomol. 2009;102:2310-5 pubmed
    ..Addition of PBO to pyrethroids is not a comprehensive solution to pyrethroid resistance because strains vary in both overall resistance level and the proportion of that resistance attributable to P450s...
  27. Emerson M, Biswas S, Levine S. Cuprizone and piperonyl butoxide, proposed inhibitors of T-cell function, attenuate experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in SJL mice. J Neuroimmunol. 2001;119:205-13 pubmed disease (GVHD) indicating attenuation of an immune T-cell response. These results suggest that cuprizone and PBO suppress EAE and use of these agents will provide insights into the mechanisms of T-cell mediated diseases. ..
  28. Murray M. Toxicological actions of plant-derived and anthropogenic methylenedioxyphenyl-substituted chemicals in mammals and insects. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2012;15:365-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In insects CYP inhibition by MDP agents underlies their use as pesticide synergists, but analogous inhibition of mammalian CYP impairs the clearance of drugs and foreign compounds...
  29. Byard J, Needham D. Metabolism and excretion of piperonyl butoxide in the rat. Xenobiotica. 2006;36:1259-72 pubmed
    ..The identified metabolites accounted for approximately 60% of the administered dose. ..
  30. Meisch M, Brown J, Dame D, Lewis C. Ground ultra-low volume assessment of Aqua-Kontrol. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2006;22:758-9 pubmed
    ..Droplet collections on magnesium-oxide-coated (MGO) glass slides from 3 applications revealed mean deposition rate of 216 droplets/cm2 and 11-micron volume median diameter (VMD) (based on Aqua-Kontrol label spread factor of 0.61). ..
  31. Alon M, Alon F, Nauen R, Morin S. Organophosphates' resistance in the B-biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is associated with a point mutation in an ace1-type acetylcholinesterase and overexpression of carboxylesterase. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;38:940-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, we bring new biochemical evidence that support the involvement of both AChE insensitivity and COE metabolism in resistance to OP insecticides in the resistant strain...
  32. Izadi H, Subrahmanyam B. Evaluation of substituted oxime ethers for growth regulatory activity against Spodoptera litura (F.). Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2005;70:651-60 pubmed
    ..Three compounds used in this study were also synergised by piperonyl butoxide (PBO). The synergistic ratios were found in the range of 1.33 to 4.605. The ovicidal activity of the oxime ethers is not significant. ..
  33. Kawai M, Saegusa Y, Jin M, Dewa Y, Nishimura J, Harada T, et al. Mechanistic study on hepatocarcinogenesis of piperonyl butoxide in mice. Toxicol Pathol. 2009;37:761-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus PBO can induce oxidative stress, activate the MAPK pathway, and increase ATF3 transcript levels in hepatocytes outside the altered foci during the early stage of PBO-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. ..
  34. Pap L, Arvai G, Bertok B, Ribai Z, Bakonyvári I. Comparative evaluation of new synergists containing a butynyl-type synergophore group and piperonyl butoxide derivatives. Pest Manag Sci. 2001;57:186-90 pubmed
    ..8) than with PBO (SR = 6.4). There was no significant difference between synergistic activities of MB-599 (SR = 4.6) and PBO (SR = 4) for permethrin. ..
  35. Li T, Liu Y, Wei D, Shang F, Dou W, Wang J, et al. CHARACTERIZATION AND EXPRESSION PROFILES OF FIVE POSSIBLE CYTOCHROME P450 GENES FROM Liposcelis entomophila (ENDERLEIN) (PSOCOPTERA: LIPOSCELIDIDAE). Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2016;92:259-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The induction profiles suggested that these five cytochrome P450 genes may be associated with deltamethrin and malathion metabolism in psocids. ..
  36. Peterson R, Macedo P, Davis R. A human-health risk assessment for West Nile virus and insecticides used in mosquito management. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114:366-72 pubmed
    ..Further, our results indicate that, based on human-health criteria, the risks from WNV exceed the risks from exposure to mosquito insecticides. ..
  37. Rider C, LeBlanc G. An integrated addition and interaction model for assessing toxicity of chemical mixtures. Toxicol Sci. 2005;87:520-8 pubmed
    ..Only the IAI model accurately predicted the toxicity of the mixtures. The IAI model holds promise as a means for assessing hazard of complex chemical mixtures. ..
  38. Horton M, Rundle A, Camann D, Boyd Barr D, Rauh V, Whyatt R. Impact of prenatal exposure to piperonyl butoxide and permethrin on 36-month neurodevelopment. Pediatrics. 2011;127:e699-706 pubmed publisher
    ..9 points lower on the Mental Developmental Index than those with lower exposures (95% confidence interval: -0.25 to -7.49). Prenatal exposure to piperonyl butoxide was negatively associated with 36-month neurodevelopment. ..
  39. Philippou D, Borzatta V, Capparella E, Moroni L, Field L, Moores G. The interactions between piperonyl butoxide and E4, a resistance-associated esterase from the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Pest Manag Sci. 2013;69:499-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Structure-activity studies with analogues of PBO also reveal the essential chemical moieties present in the molecule. ..
  40. Deardorff A, Stark J. Population-level toxicity of the insecticide, spinosad and the nonylphenol polyethoxylate, R-11, to the cladoceran species Ceriodaphnia dubia Richard. J Environ Sci Health B. 2011;46:336-40 pubmed publisher
    ..dubia. However, spinosad appears to affect C. dubia at or near the EEC while R-11 does not negatively affect this species until concentrations are much higher than the EEC. ..
  41. Upham J, Acott P, O regan P, Sinal C, Crocker J, Geldenhuys L, et al. The pesticide adjuvant, Toximul, alters hepatic metabolism through effects on downstream targets of PPARalpha. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1772:1057-64 pubmed
  42. Hawkins S, Billiard S, Tabash S, Brown R, Hodson P. Altering cytochrome P4501A activity affects polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism and toxicity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2002;21:1845-53 pubmed
    ..These results support the role of CYP1A activity in PAH metabolism and excretion, and the role ofthe CYP1A-generatedmetabolites of PAHs in chronic toxicity to larval fish. ..
  43. Katsuda Y, Leemingsawat S, Thongrungkiat S, Prummonkol S, Samung Y, Kanzaki T, et al. Control of mosquito vectors of tropical infectious diseases: (2) pyrethroid susceptibility of Aedes aegypti ( l) collected from different sites in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2008;39:229-34 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the repellent effect of commercial dl, d-T80-allethrin 0.20% coils was as low as about 50%. The d, d-T-prallethrin and K-3050 coils with the synergist were confirmed to be highly effective in repelling Ae. aegypti. ..
  44. Barry J, Miller N, Piñero J, Tuttle A, Mau R, Vargas R. Effectiveness of protein baits on melon fly and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): attraction and feeding. J Econ Entomol. 2006;99:1161-7 pubmed
    ..The differences are discussed between the two Bactrocera species primarily in regard to bait preference, extent of response, and previous work on laboratory flies. ..
  45. Lawler S, Dritz D, Johnson C, Wolder M. Does synergized pyrethrin applied over wetlands for mosquito control affect Daphnia magna zooplankton or Callibaetis californicus mayflies?. Pest Manag Sci. 2008;64:843-7 pubmed publisher
    ..9 ng g(-1)). Deposition of aerosolized 25% pyrethrin + 5% PBO may contaminate wetlands, but its application at rates used for mosquito control did not produce detectable effects on indicator species. ..
  46. Wojdyła A. Activity of some chemicals in the control of Botrytis cinerea on roses. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2003;68:711-5 pubmed
    ..50 WP and Penncozeb 80 WP completely suppressed conidia germination. ..
  47. Xue J, Cai Q, Zheng D, Yuan Z. The synergistic activity between Cry1Aa and Cry1c from Bacillus thuringiensis against Spodoptera exigua and Helicoverpa armigera. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2005;40:460-5 pubmed
    ..thuringiensis Cry1 toxins. It can be applied to the rational design of new generations of B. thuringiensis biopesticides and to strategies for management of resistant insects. ..
  48. Hunsche M, Noga G. Effects of relative humidity and substrate on the spatial association between glyphosate and ethoxylated seed oil adjuvants in the dried deposits of sessile droplets. Pest Manag Sci. 2012;68:231-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Coffee-ring structures were formed exclusively with the adjuvant+Gly mixtures, whereas Gly alone formed either one big deposit or several small islands distributed within the droplet footprint. ..
  49. Bielza P, Fernandez E, Gravalos C, Abellan J. Carbamates synergize the toxicity of acrinathrin in resistant western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). J Econ Entomol. 2009;102:393-7 pubmed
    ..Carbamates such as pirimicarb, oxamyl, and propamocarb could be practical candidates for field use as synergists, even against other pests with metabolic resistance. ..
  50. Karakotov S, Zheltova E, Putsykin Y, Balakin K, Shapovalov A. Use of growth regulator of cytokinin type for enhancement and modification of herbicide activity. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2006;71:821-8 pubmed
    ..It was found that enhanced performance of the novel herbicide formulation is determined by increased herbicidal action of Ethofumesate, one of the active ingredients of BPAM...
  51. Heder A, Hirsch Ernst K, Bauer D, Kahl G, Desel H. Induction of cytochrome P450 2B1 by pyrethroids in primary rat hepatocyte cultures. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001;62:71-9 pubmed
    ..Due to its superior potency in induction, permethrin appears as a useful substance for mechanistic studies to elucidate the mechanism of enzyme induction by phenobarbital. ..
  52. Ahmed M, Vogel C. The role of octopamine receptor agonists in the synergistic toxicity of certain insect growth regulators (IGRs) in controlling Dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito. Acta Trop. 2016;155:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..aegypti control. However, further field experiments need to be done to understand the unique potential role of OR agonists and their synergistic action on IGRs. ..
  53. Lesser C. Field trial efficacy of Anvil 10+10 and Biomist 31:66 against Ochlerotatus sollicitans in Delaware. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2002;18:36-9 pubmed
    ..05) than applications of Biomist at equal percentages of the maximum label rate. Applications of Anvil at rates of 50 and 67% were not effective. ..