Summary: Agents destructive to snails and other mollusks.

Top Publications

  1. Wei F, Xu X, Liu J, Dai Y, Dussart G, Trigwell J. Toxicology of a potential molluscicide derived from the plant Solanum xanthocarpum: a preliminary study. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2002;96:325-31 pubmed
    ..This extract thus represents a promising plant-derived molluscicide which is worthy of further investigation. ..
  2. Allam A, el Sayad M, Khalil S. Laboratory assessment of the molluscicidal activity of Commiphora molmol (Myrrh) on Biomphalaria alexandrina, Bulinus truncatus and Lymnaea cailliaudi. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2001;31:683-90 pubmed
    ..The present laboratory studies demonstrated that Myrrh has a molluscicidal effect on the snail intermediate hosts, particularly on their eggs. Field studies are recommended...
  3. Silva T, Camara C, Agra M, de Carvalho M, Frana M, Brandoline S, et al. Molluscicidal activity of Solanum species of the Northeast of Brazil on Biomphalaria glabrata. Fitoterapia. 2006;77:449-52 pubmed
    ..jabrense, S. melissarum, S. megalonyx, S. paludosum, S. paraibanum and S. stipulaceum. Four extracts showed molluscicidal activity with LC(50) from 22 to 56 microg/ml. ..
  4. Joubert P, Pretorius S. Laboratory evaluation of B-2 as a molluscicide in the control of the snail intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis in South Africa. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1991;85:447-53 pubmed
    ..It is expected that molluscicidal levels of B-2 would be harmful to O. mossambicus populations. Although B-2 has a marked potential for snail control in South Africa, niclosamide (Bayluscide) remains the molluscicide of choice...
  5. Massoud A, Habib F. The effects of myrrh (Commiphora molmol) on the infected snails of Schistosoma sp. and their egg masses: effect on shedding of cercariae and on snail fecundity. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2003;33:585-96 pubmed
    ..Shedding of cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni from infected B. alexandrina stopped at 1 ppm and was suppressed at 0.8 ppm. Snail fecundity decreased at 1 ppm...
  6. Mezghani Jarraya R, Hammami H, Ayadi A, Damak M. Molluscicidal activity of Hammada scoparia (Pomel) Iljin leaf extracts and the principal alkaloids isolated from them against Galba truncatula. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009;104:1035-8 pubmed
    ..These alkaloids are isoquinolines that have not previously been characterised for their molluscicidal activity. The N-methylisosalsoline possesses the highest molluscicidal activity (LC50 = 0.47 microM against G. truncatula). ..
  7. Hammami H, Ayadi A. Molluscicidal and antiparasitic activity of Solanum nigrum villosum against Galba truncatula infected or uninfected with Fasciola hepatica. J Helminthol. 2008;82:235-9 pubmed publisher
    ..8% for cercariae and 27.6% for intraredial germinal masses after 48 h of treating the snails. The possibility of the unripe fruit extract application for the control of G. truncatula and F. hepatica larval stages should be considered...
  8. Oliveira Filho E, Geraldino B, Coelho D, De Carvalho R, Paumgartten F. Comparative toxicity of Euphorbia milii latex and synthetic molluscicides to Biomphalaria glabrata embryos. Chemosphere. 2010;81:218-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The marked embryotoxicity of E. milii possibly contributes to its effectiveness as a molluscicide...
  9. Wanyonyi A, Chhabra S, Mkoji G, Eilert U, Njue W. Bioactive steroidal alkaloid glycosides from Solanum aculeastrum. Phytochemistry. 2002;59:79-84 pubmed
    ..The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. Molluscicidal activity of the aqueous extracts of the berries and root bark, and the isolated compounds were investigated. ..

More Information


  1. Giovanelli A, Silva C, Medeiros L, Vasconcellos M. The molluscicidal activity of niclosamide (Bayluscide WP70(R)) on Melanoides tuberculata (Thiaridae), a snail associated with habitats of Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2002;97:743-5 pubmed
    ..tuberculata occurrence. It might therefore be preferable to utilize the latex extracted from the Euphorbia splendens, which presented a much higher efficiency for B. glabrata than to M. tuberculata...
  2. dos Santos A, Sant Ana A. Molluscicidal properties of some species of Annona. Phytomedicine. 2001;8:115-20 pubmed
    ..34), root bark (3.79)], Annona glabra L. [seed (17.02)], Annona muricata [leaf (8.75)]. Emphasis is held mainly into Annona muricata L. (leaf) and Annona squamosa Veil. (root) for presenting additional toxicity toward snail egg masses. ..
  3. Miyasato P, Kawano T, Freitas J, Berlinck R, Nakano E, Tallarico L. Molluscicidal activity of some marine substances against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Planorbidae). Parasitol Res. 2012;110:1873-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of extracts from marine organisms which presented molluscicidal activity...
  4. Ndamukong K, Ntonifor N, Mbuh J, Atemnkeng A, Akam M. Molluscicidal activity of some Cameroonian plants on Bulinus species. East Afr Med J. 2006;83:102-9 pubmed
    ..To evaluate some locally available plants for their molluscicidal activity on Bulinus camerunensis and B. truncatus (slender form)...
  5. Teixeira T, Rosa J, Rainha N, Baptista J, Rodrigues A. Assessment of molluscicidal activity of essential oils from five Azorean plants against Radix peregra (Müller, 1774). Chemosphere. 2012;87:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..peregra population, but more research is needed in order to determine the mode of action of these oils and determine the side effects on the ecosystem where this freshwater snail occurs. ..
  6. de S Luna J, dos Santos A, de Lima M, de Omena M, de Mendonça F, Bieber L, et al. A study of the larvicidal and molluscicidal activities of some medicinal plants from northeast Brazil. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;97:199-206 pubmed
    ..Chemical tests indicated that a wide variety of natural product classes were present in those extracts that showed significant activities in the bioassays. ..
  7. Silva T, Batista M, Camara C, Agra M. Molluscicidal activity of some Brazilian Solanum spp. (Solanaceae) against Biomphalaria glabrata. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2005;99:419-25 pubmed
    ..stipulaceum showed significant molluscicidal activity, the median lethal concentrations recorded (20-50 microg/ml) falling well below the threshold, of 100 microg/ml, set for a potential molluscicide by the World Health Organization. ..
  8. Lahlou M, El Mahi M, Hamamouchi J. [Evaluation of antifungal and mollusuicidial activities of Moroccan Zizyphus lotus (L.) Desf]. Ann Pharm Fr. 2002;60:410-4 pubmed
    ..Whereas, methanolic extract was found to possess the strong mollusuicidial activity and exhibited potent "knock-down" effect on molluscans related to its countenance on saponins...
  9. Wanyonyi A, Chhabra S, Mkoji G, Njue W, Tarus P. Molluscicidal and antimicrobial activity of Solanum aculeastrum. Fitoterapia. 2003;74:298-301 pubmed
    ..Fractionation increased activity with 100% mortality at 20 ppm. The aqueous and methanolic extracts of the berries showed moderate antimicrobial activity, increasing by fractionation. ..
  10. Mao Z, Yu P, Sun K, Pan X, Jiang Q, Pan J. [Preparation of five ginkgolic acid monomers and their molluscicidal effects against Oncomelania hupensis]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2007;25:274-8 pubmed
    ..The two monomers, GA(13:0) and GA(15:1), are mainly responsible for the molluscicidal activities of GAs and both effectively inhibit snails' climbing up as well. GA(15:0) also shows certain molluscicidal activity. ..
  11. Shoukry N. Effect of Commiphora molmol on Bithynia connollyi with special reference to their morphology and medical importance. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2006;36:701-12 pubmed
    ..with 80 ppm & death 100% at 96 hr. with 40 ppm). Based on safety to man, animals and environment, C. molmol is highly recommended as a cheap herbal molluscicide...
  12. Barbosa T, Camara C, Silva T, Martins R, Pinto A, Vargas M. New 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-aza-anthraquinones and 2-aminoalkyl compounds from norlapachol with molluscicidal activity. Bioorg Med Chem. 2005;13:6464-9 pubmed
    ..These derivatives showed low to medium LC(50) values, similar to those reported previously for the homologous series of nitrogen derivatives of lapachol. The toxicity profile against Artemia salina was also determined for all compounds. ..
  13. Camara C, Silva T, da Silva T, Martins R, Barbosa T, Pinto A, et al. Molluscicidal activity of 2-hydroxy-[1,4]naphthoquinone and derivatives. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2008;80:329-34 pubmed
    ..As a general rule derivatives with non-polar substituents presented the highest molluscicidal activities. These substances showed significant toxicity in A. salina lethality bioassay. ..
  14. Abd Allah K, Negm Eldin M, Saleh M, El Hamshary A, El Gozamy B, Aly N. A study on biological control of six fresh water snails of medical and veterinary importance. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2009;39:121-39 pubmed
    ..of 300 & 400 ppm. Commiphora molmol is a promising plant to be included with the candidate plant molluscicides. The oil extract of this plant showed a remarkable molluscicidal activity against used snail species...
  15. Peng F, Liu M, Huang Q, Liu N, Yang H, Sun H, et al. Molluscicidal effect of Eomecon chionantha alkaloids against Oncomelania hupensis snails. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2011;42:289-96 pubmed
    ..hupensis snails. ECA has a molluscicidal effect that may be of practical use in the field to control O. hupensis snails...
  16. Zuo J, Wu J, Yang M, Li D, Jiao D, Lian F, et al. [Effect of comprehensive control project on schistosomiasis in Nanjian county]. Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi. 2011;23:113, 120 pubmed
    ..Snail areas decreased by 70.01%, no infected snails had been found since 2007. Through the implementation of the comprehensive control project, schistosomiasis had been effectively controlled in Nanjian County. ..
  17. Kwak S, Kim S, Kim S. Hybrid organic/inorganic reverse osmosis (RO) membrane for bactericidal anti-fouling. 1. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 nanoparticle self-assembled aromatic polyamide thin-film-composite (TFC) membrane. Environ Sci Technol. 2001;35:2388-94 pubmed
  18. Hajare A, Ravikumar V, Khaleel S, Bhuniya D, Reddy D. Synthesis of molluscicidal agent cyanolide a macrolactone from D-(-)-pantolactone. J Org Chem. 2011;76:963-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Highly stereoselective aldol, oxa-Michael addition, and Yamaguchi macrolactonization are the key steps in the present synthesis. ..
  19. Kumar P, Singh V, Singh D. Combination of molluscicides with attractant carbohydrates and amino acids in bait formulation against the snail Lymnaea acuminata. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2011;15:550-5 pubmed
    ..74%) against Lymnaea acuminata. The present study suggested that the molluscicides of plant origin could be used with varying degrees of success in bait formulation. ..
  20. Alva M, Popich S, Borkosky S, Cartagena E, Bardon A. Bioactivity of the essential oil of an argentine collection of Acanthospermum hispidum (Asteraceae). Nat Prod Commun. 2012;7:245-8 pubmed
    ..Synergistic interactions were further validated by FIC index determination of the combination of the antibiotics oxacillin and gentamicin and the essential oil on the four pathogenic strains evaluated. ..
  21. Zhou Y, Zhang B, Wang Z, Zhao J, Mao S, Xie D, et al. [Comparison of molluscicidal effects of two snail control methods with plastic film covering in hilly regions]. Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi. 2013;25:630-2 pubmed
    ..The short-term molluscicidal effect of the colorless plastic film covering method is significantly superior to that of the black plastic film covering method in summer in hilly regions. ..
  22. Abdelrazek F, Metz P, Kataeva O, Jäger A, El Mahrouky S. Synthesis and molluscicidal activity of new chromene and pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivatives. Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 2007;340:543-8 pubmed
    ..The molluscicidal activity of the synthesized compounds towards Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, was investigated and most of them showed weak to moderate activity. ..
  23. El Ansary A, Al Daihan S. Effect of sublethal concentration of Solanum nigrum on transaminases and lactate dehydrogenase of Biomphalria arabica, in Saudi Arabia. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2007;37:39-50 pubmed
    ..AST and ALT were slightly affected but LDH was the most significantly altered enzyme. The role of the biochemical manipulation in affecting host-parasite relationship was discussed. ..
  24. Nofal Z, Fahmy H, Mohamed H. Synthesis, antimicrobial and molluscicidal activities of new benzimidazole derivatives. Arch Pharm Res. 2002;25:28-38 pubmed
    ..A series of pyrimidinobenzimidazoles, triazinobenz-imidazoles, and 2-(acetonylamino)-1-methylbenzimidazole were prepared. The antimicrobial and molluscicidal activities of some newly prepared compounds were carried out. ..
  25. El Sayed K. Effect of the plant Cupressus macro-carpa (Cupressacea) on some haematolo-gical and biochemical parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2006;36:911-24 pubmed
    ..7%, respectively compared to control (81.25%). Duration of cercarial shedding and the total periodic cercarial production/snail showed significant reduction while the parasite incubation period was significantly longer (p<0.05)...
  26. Tripathi S, Singh V, Singh S, Singh D. Enzyme inhibition by the molluscicidal agent Punica granatum Linn. bark and Canna indica Linn. root. Phytother Res. 2004;18:501-6 pubmed
    ..The inhibition kinetics of these enzymes indicates that active fractions of both the plants caused a competitive inhibition of AChE, LDH, ALP, ACP and Na(+)K(+)ATPase. ..
  27. dos Santos A, Fonseca S, César F, de Azevedo Albuquerque M, Santana J, Santana A. A penta-substituted pyridine alkaloid from the rhizome of Jatropha elliptica (Pohl) Muell. Arg. is active against Schistosoma mansoni and Biomphalaria glabrata. Parasitol Res. 2014;113:1077-84 pubmed publisher
    ..43 ?g/mL) but was inactive against their egg masses. It is observed then the potential of this compound for the development of new therapies for the treatment of schistosomiasis. ..
  28. da Silva M, Soares M, Fernandes J, Vieria P. Alkyl, aryl, alkylarylquinoline, and related alkaloids. Alkaloids Chem Biol. 2007;64:139-214 pubmed
    ..Finally, this survey indicates that the Rutaceae, and various bacterial and fungal species offer considerable potential for the discovery of new or known alkaloids with significant and possibly valuable biological activities. ..
  29. Zou F, Duan G, Xie Y, Zhou Y, Dong G, Lin R, et al. Molluscicidal activity of the plant Eupatorium adenophorum against Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2009;103:549-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The toxicity of E. adenophorum extracts, or molluscicidal compounds isolated from such extracts, to other snail hosts of human parasites and to non-target species of aquatic life will be investigated. ..
  30. Huang Z, Zhu Z, Hang D, Li W, Chen S, Zhang K, et al. [Effect of water conservancy schistosomiasis control projects in rivers and estuaries connecting with the Yangtze River on Oncomelania snail control]. Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi. 2012;24:522-6 pubmed
    ..The priority of consideration should be given to the water level control and prevention of snail spreading in the water level instability rivers connecting with the Yangtze River. ..
  31. Xia M, Tang L, Guo F, Chen X, Wei W. [Toxicity test of Luokuwei on mice]. Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi. 2012;24:25, 31 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that Luoweiku is a molluscicide with low toxicity. ..
  32. Roach J, Devappa R, Makkar H, Becker K. Isolation, stability and bioactivity of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters. Fitoterapia. 2012;83:586-92 pubmed publisher
    ..By integrating the isolation methodology developed in this study in the Jatropha biodiesel industry, PEs could be obtained as value-added co-products...
  33. Obied H, Bedgood D, Prenzler P, Robards K. Bioscreening of Australian olive mill waste extracts: biophenol content, antioxidant, antimicrobial and molluscicidal activities. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45:1238-48 pubmed
    ..Molluscicidal activity was measured against Isidorella newcombi and LD(50) values were 424 ppm and 541 ppm for Mission and Frantoio extracts, respectively. The results suggest that OMW may be utilised as a source of bioactive compounds. ..
  34. Singh A, Singh D. Molluscicidal activity of Lawsonia inermis and its binary and tertiary combinations with other plant derived molluscicides. Indian J Exp Biol. 2001;39:263-8 pubmed
    ..acuminata and I. exustus. L. inermis seed powder in combination with Cedrus deodara oil and Azadirachta indica oil was more toxic than their individual components and other combinations. ..
  35. Dai J, Zhou X, Liang Y, Zhang Y, Jiang Y, Xi W, et al. [Sensitivity of Oncomelania snail to niclosamide in China]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2002;20:101-5 pubmed
    ..To understand the variation in response of Oncomelania hupensis to niclosamide...
  36. Zhang H, Xu H, Song Z, Chen L, Wen H. Molluscicidal activity of Aglaia duperreana and the constituents of its twigs and leaves. Fitoterapia. 2012;83:1081-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Naringenin trimethyl ether showed significant molluscicidal activity with a median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of 3.9 ?g/mL, which was indicated higher potency than the positive control, tea saponin (LC(50)=4.5 ?g/mL)...
  37. Bakry F, Hamdi S. Effect of non target snails on some biological of Lymnaea natalensis snails and their infection to Fasciola gigantica. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2006;36:979-92 pubmed
    ..tuberculata and P. planorbis which was more pronounced when snails were at higher ratio lL: 10D. Also, the snails showed significant degree of reduction in infection rate of L. natalensis with F. gigantica miracidia. ..
  38. Olivier H, Jenkins J, Berhow M, Carter J. A Pilot Study Testing a Natural and a Synthetic Molluscicide for Controlling Invasive Apple Snails (Pomacea maculata). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2016;96:289-94 pubmed publisher
    ..No crayfish mortalities occurred at either concentration for either chemical, but sunfish experienced 100 % mortality with TSD (0.03 g/L), and 21 % mortality with niclosamide (0.13 mg/L). ..
  39. Yang T, Wu Z, Lun Z. The apple snail Pomacea canaliculata, a novel vector of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis: its introduction, spread, and control in China. Hawaii J Med Public Health. 2013;72:23-5 pubmed
    ..Efforts to prevent its further spread and population expansion were initiated many years ago, including the use of chemicals and biological control agents to control the snail. ..
  40. Huang N, Li B, Li W, Feng X, Xiong M, Li L, et al. [Effect of a novel plant molluscicide "Luo-wei" against Oncomelania hupensis in plateau mountain areas]. Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi. 2013;25:590-3 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the effect of a novel plant molluscicide, 4%"Luo-wei" (Tea-seed distilled saponins, TDS) against Oncomelania hupensis snails in plateau mountain areas in Yunnan Province...
  41. Meléndez P, Capriles V. Molluscicidal activity of plants from Puerto Rico. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2002;96:209-18 pubmed
    ..The most effective extracts (or their active components or compounds based on them) may have potential as molluscides for the relatively cheap control of human schistosomiasis. ..
  42. el Wakil H, Radwan M. Biochemical studies on the terrestrial snail, Eubania vermiculata (Müller) treated with some pesticides. J Environ Sci Health B. 1991;26:479-89 pubmed
    ..Also, metaldehyde resulted a significant reduction in glycogen content of snails. ..
  43. Dawidar A, Mortada M, Raghib H, Abdel Mogib M. Molluscicidal activity of Balanites aegyptiaca against Monacha cartusiana. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:1326-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile (Zygophyllaceae) is a tropical tree that has many folk uses in various countries. The bark extract is used for the control of the fresh water snails that act as intermediary host of Schistosoma...
  44. Abdel Gawad M, El Amin S, Ohigashi H, Watanabe Y, Takeda N, Sugiyama H, et al. Molluscicidal saponins from Anagallis arvensis against schistosome intermediate hosts. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2000;53:17-9 pubmed
    ..Their structures were identified on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analyses and their activities are comparable to that of the synthetic molluscicide, niclosamide. ..
  45. Al Mathal E. Commiphora molmol in human welfare (review article). J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2007;37:449-68 pubmed
    ..Myrrh contributed much in the human welfare. This review selected some but not all of the value application of myrrh (Commiphora molmol). ..
  46. Wade T, Sweet S, Quinn J, Cairns R, King J. Tributyltin in environmental samples from the Former Derecktor Shipyard, Coddington Cove, Newport RI. Environ Pollut. 2004;129:315-20 pubmed
    ..Based on available screening criteria, TBT concentrations in Coddington Cove sediment is likely to be having an adverse effect on the biota at some locations. ..
  47. Ni H, Ma A, Zhang Y, Geng P. [Preliminary study on molluscicidal effect of active components from Centipeda minima]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2009;27:377-8, following 378 pubmed
    ..50 g/L and 0.62 g/L, respectively. The molluscicidal activity of aqueous extract was higher than that of ethanol extract. The main components of aqueous extract and ethanol extract were sesquiterpenes lactones and sterols. ..
  48. Liu H, Zhong C, Wan G, Cheng B, Wang Y, Tian R, et al. [Molluscicidal effect of plastic film mulch covering method]. Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi. 2013;25:399-401 pubmed
    ..92 to 100% 30 days after the intervention. The plastic film mulch covering method has a great molluscicide effect in the hill subtype and water network type of schistosomiasis epidemic areas. ..
  49. Li B, Li W, Dong Y, Xiong M, Feng X, Mu L, et al. [Molluscicidal effect of LDS in mountainous areas of Yunnan Province]. Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi. 2011;23:395-401 pubmed
    ..77%, 88.89%, 94.50%, 90.38%, 92.17%, 90.38% and 4.55%, respectively in the field. LDS has a good molluscicidal effect on Oncomelania hupensis in mountainous areas. ..
  50. Dai L, Wang W, Dong X, Hu R, Nan X. Molluscicidal activity of cardiac glycosides from Nerium indicum against Pomacea canaliculata and its implications for the mechanisms of toxicity. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011;32:226-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that cardiac glycosides seriously impair normal physiological metabolism, resulting in fatal alterations in major biochemical constituents of hepatopancreas tissues of P. canaliculata. ..
  51. Mantawy M, Hamed M, Sammour E, Sanad M. Influence of Capparis spinosa and Acacia arabica on certain biochemical haemolymph parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2004;34:659-77 pubmed
    ..The study revealed that both plants induced marked alteration in all the measured parameters, where LC50 of C. spinosa after fed one week showed the most potent effect...
  52. de Vasconcellos M, de Amorim A. Activity of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. (Euphorbiaceae) latex against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae), intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematoda: Fasciolidae). 2: limited field-testing. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2003;98:981-5 pubmed
    ..E. splendens var. hislopii latex is thus an efficient natural molluscicide, which may be used as an alternative control agent against L. columella. ..
  53. Zaki M, Fathalla O, Swelam S, Aly H. Synthesis of pyrido[2,1-c][1,2,4]triazine,1,2,4 triazolo[4,3-a] pyridine and 2-(substituted-pyrazolyl)nicotinonitrile and their effect on Biomphalaria alexandrina snail enzymes. Acta Pol Pharm. 2004;61:55-64 pubmed
    ..The activity of compounds 4a,5,6 and 7 have been investigated as molluscicidal. ..