insect repellents


Summary: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.

Top Publications

  1. Dua V, Pandey A, Dash A. Adulticidal activity of essential oil of Lantana camara leaves against mosquitoes. Indian J Med Res. 2010;131:434-9 pubmed
    ..In the present study we have investigated the insecticidal activity of essential oil isolated from the leaves of Lantana camara against mosquito vectors...
  2. de Boer H, Vongsombath C, Palsson K, Björk L, Jaenson T. Botanical repellents and pesticides traditionally used against hematophagous invertebrates in Lao People's Democratic Republic: a comparative study of plants used in 66 villages. J Med Entomol. 2010;47:400-14 pubmed
  3. Kiszewski A, Darling S. Estimating a mosquito repellent's potential to reduce malaria in communities. J Vector Borne Dis. 2010;47:217-21 pubmed
    ..A combination of both interventions could create synergies that result in reductions of disease burden significantly greater than with the use of ITNs alone. ..
  4. Katritzky A, Wang Z, Slavov S, Dobchev D, Hall C, Tsikolia M, et al. Novel carboxamides as potential mosquito repellents. J Med Entomol. 2010;47:924-38 pubmed
    ..5 d for deet). Only one of the carboxamides, hexahydro-1-(l-oxohexyl)-1H-azepine, had a minimum effective dosage that was equivalent or slightly better than that of deet (0.033 micromol/cm2 versus 0.047 micromol/cm2). ..
  5. Qualls W, Day J, Xue R, Bowers D. Altered behavioral responses of Sindbis virus-infected Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to DEET and non-DEET based insect repellents. Acta Trop. 2012;122:284-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, a decrease in TFB and time to complete the four bloodfeeding stages will lessen the prey-status, and enhance both the chances of mosquito survival and arbovirus transmission...
  6. Bohbot J, Fu L, Le T, Chauhan K, Cantrell C, Dickens J. Multiple activities of insect repellents on odorant receptors in mosquitoes. Med Vet Entomol. 2011;25:436-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the molecular effects of 10 insect repellents and a pyrethroid insecticide with known repellent activity on two highly specific Aedes aegypti (Diptera: ..
  7. Paluch G, Bartholomay L, Coats J. Mosquito repellents: a review of chemical structure diversity and olfaction. Pest Manag Sci. 2010;66:925-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Even with these advances, there is still a large amount of information contained in the early works on insect repellents. Many of the standard test methods and chemicals that are still used for evaluating active repellents were ..
  8. Noosidum A, Prabaripai A, Chareonviriyaphap T, Chandrapatya A. Excito-repellency properties of essential oils from Melaleuca leucadendron L., Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Persoon, and Litsea salicifolia (Nees) on Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes. J Vector Ecol. 2008;33:305-12 pubmed
    ..aegypti and deserve further investigation for possible use as active ingredients in topical (skin) and indoor dispersed repellent systems...
  9. Dugassa S, Medhin G, Balkew M, Seyoum A, Gebre Michael T. Field investigation on the repellent activity of some aromatic plants by traditional means against Anopheles arabiensis and An. pharoensis (Diptera: Culicidae) around Koka, central Ethiopia. Acta Trop. 2009;112:38-42 pubmed publisher
    ..However, feasibility and actual impact on disease transmission need to be known on these and other potentially useful plants. ..

More Information


  1. Miller N, Rainone E, Dyer M, González M, Mather T. Tick bite protection with permethrin-treated summer-weight clothing. J Med Entomol. 2011;48:327-33 pubmed
    ..Results of this study demonstrate the potential of permethrin-treated summer clothing for significantly reducing tick bites and tick-borne pathogen transmission. ..
  2. Turner S, Li N, Guda T, Githure J, Cardé R, Ray A. Ultra-prolonged activation of CO2-sensing neurons disorients mosquitoes. Nature. 2011;474:87-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The three classes of CO(2)-response-modifying odours offer powerful instruments for developing new generations of insect repellents and lures, which even in small quantities can interfere with the ability of mosquitoes to seek humans.
  3. Buckendahl J, Heukelbach J, Ariza L, Kehr J, Seidenschwang M, Feldmeier H. Control of tungiasis through intermittent application of a plant-based repellent: an intervention study in a resource-poor community in Brazil. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e879 pubmed publisher
    ..5; IQR 4-8; p<0.001). Our study shows that in a setting with intense transmission, tungiasis-associated morbidity can be minimized through the intermittent application of a plant-based repellent. ..
  4. Torr S, Mangwiro T, Hall D. Shoo fly, don't bother me! Efficacy of traditional methods of protecting cattle from tsetse. Med Vet Entomol. 2011;25:192-201 pubmed publisher
    ..The practical benefits and difficulties of using repellents and/or housing to manage trypanosomiases are discussed...
  5. Muller G, Junnila A, Butler J, Kravchenko V, Revay E, Weiss R, et al. Efficacy of the botanical repellents geraniol, linalool, and citronella against mosquitoes. J Vector Ecol. 2009;34:2-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Trap catches were significantly reduced again when diffusers were placed 3 m from the traps. We concluded that geraniol had significantly more repellent activity than citronella or linalool in both indoor and outdoor settings. ..
  6. Pellegrino M, Steinbach N, Stensmyr M, Hansson B, Vosshall L. A natural polymorphism alters odour and DEET sensitivity in an insect odorant receptor. Nature. 2011;478:511-4 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Insect repellents containing DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) are highly effective, but the mechanism by which this chemical ..
  7. Elango G, Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Abduz Zahir A, Abdul Rahuman A. Oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res. 2009;105:1567-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study provides first report on the oviposition, ovicidal, and repellent activities against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus of plant extracts from Southern India...
  8. Paluch G, Grodnitzky J, Bartholomay L, Coats J. Quantitative structure-activity relationship of botanical sesquiterpenes: spatial and contact repellency to the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:7618-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The model identified for contact repellency was the best fit and most significant model in this analysis and showed a relationship with vapor pressure, Mulliken population, and total energy. ..
  9. Debboun M, Strickman D. Insect repellents and associated personal protection for a reduction in human disease. Med Vet Entomol. 2013;27:1-9 pubmed publisher
    Personal protection measures against biting arthropods include topical insect repellents, area repellents, insecticide-treated bednets and treated clothing...
  10. Ogoma S, Moore S, Maia M. A systematic review of mosquito coils and passive emanators: defining recommendations for spatial repellency testing methodologies. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:287 pubmed publisher
  11. Frances S, Mackenzie D, Klun J, Debboun M. Laboratory and field evaluation of SS220 and deet against mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2009;25:174-8 pubmed
    ..Seven hours after application, SS220 provided greater than 96.0% protection against all mosquitoes, whereas 20% deet provided 58.9% protection...
  12. Bohbot J, Dickens J. Insect repellents: modulators of mosquito odorant receptor activity. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12138 pubmed publisher
    DEET, 2-undecanone (2-U), IR3535 and Picaridin are widely used as insect repellents to prevent interactions between humans and many arthropods including mosquitoes...
  13. Dekker T, Ignell R, Ghebru M, Glinwood R, Hopkins R. Identification of mosquito repellent odours from Ocimum forskolei. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:183 pubmed publisher
    ..We verified whether active repellent compounds could be identified using gas-chromatography coupled electroantennogram recordings (GC-EAD) with headspace extracts of crushed plants...
  14. Thanispong K, Achee N, Bangs M, Grieco J, Suwonkerd W, Prabaripai A, et al. Irritancy and repellency behavioral responses of three strains of Aedes aegypti exposed to DDT and alpha-cypermethrin. J Med Entomol. 2009;46:1407-14 pubmed
    ..aegypti strains show that behavioral responses that can interrupt human-vector contact still occur regardless of degree of physiological susceptibility to compounds tested. ..
  15. Karunamoorthi K, Ilango K, Endale A. Ethnobotanical survey of knowledge and usage custom of traditional insect/mosquito repellent plants among the Ethiopian Oromo ethnic group. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;125:224-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they are easily available, accessible and affordable therefore usage of traditional repellent plants should be promoted among the local residents in order to reduce vector-borne disease prevalence. ..
  16. Uzzan B, Konate L, Diop A, Nicolas P, Dia I, Dieng Y, et al. Efficacy of four insect repellents against mosquito bites: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled field study in Senegal. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2009;23:589-94 pubmed publisher
    ..insecticides) and disease prevention (vaccination against yellow fever, chemoprophylaxis against malaria), insect repellents applied on the skin could help reduce the heavy burden related to these diseases...
  17. Corbel V, Stankiewicz M, Pennetier C, Fournier D, Stojan J, Girard E, et al. Evidence for inhibition of cholinesterases in insect and mammalian nervous systems by the insect repellent deet. BMC Biol. 2009;7:47 pubmed publisher
    N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) remains the gold standard for insect repellents. About 200 million people use it every year and over 8 billion doses have been applied over the past 50 years...
  18. Miller J, Siegert P, Amimo F, Walker E. Designation of chemicals in terms of the locomotor responses they elicit from insects: an update of Dethier et al. (1960). J Econ Entomol. 2009;102:2056-60 pubmed
    ..With these clarifications, insect behavioral terms unique to medical entomology but contradicting Dethier et al.'s classical scheme can be reconciled with the vocabulary of formal behavioral science. ..
  19. Nerio L, Olivero Verbel J, Stashenko E. Repellent activity of essential oils: a review. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:372-8 pubmed publisher
  20. Logan J, Seal N, Cook J, Stanczyk N, Birkett M, Clark S, et al. Identification of human-derived volatile chemicals that interfere with attraction of the Scottish biting midge and their potential use as repellents. J Med Entomol. 2009;46:208-19 pubmed
    ..4, 74.2, and 31.6% at hours 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively) in the field and have the potential to be developed as novel repellents. ..
  21. Faulde M, Albiez G, Nehring O. Insecticidal, acaricidal and repellent effects of DEET- and IR3535-impregnated bed nets using a novel long-lasting polymer-coating technique. Parasitol Res. 2010;106:957-65 pubmed publisher
    ..First results on bioactivity and long-lasting efficacy show that the new LLRTN technique is highly promising as a potential candidate for future malaria control strategies, especially in areas where pyrethroid resistance occurs...
  22. Achee N, Sardelis M, Dusfour I, Chauhan K, Grieco J. Characterization of spatial repellent, contact irritant, and toxicant chemical actions of standard vector control compounds. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2009;25:156-67 pubmed
    ..Studies similar to that presented here can be used as baseline evidence for expected vector responses and support best approaches for more detailed behavioral research. ..
  23. Abramson C, Giray T, Mixson T, Nolf S, Wells H, Kence A, et al. Proboscis conditioning experiments with honeybees, Apis mellifera caucasica, with butyric acid and DEET mixture as conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. J Insect Sci. 2010;10:122 pubmed publisher
    ..These results again demonstrate that DEET or butyric acid are not olfactory repellents, and in addition, conditioned suppression is influenced by feeding state of the bee...
  24. Killeen G, Moore S. Target product profiles for protecting against outdoor malaria transmission. Malar J. 2012;11:17 pubmed publisher
  25. Bohbot J, Dickens J. Odorant receptor modulation: ternary paradigm for mode of action of insect repellents. Neuropharmacology. 2012;62:2086-95 pubmed publisher
    ..insect behavior for the purpose of controlling the spread of infectious diseases has been the task of a few insect repellents for which the mechanistic modes of action on odorant receptors (ORs) are unclear...
  26. Kramer M, Feldlaufer M, Chauhan K. Mosquito biting behavior: statistical power and sources of variation in toxicity and repellent bioassays. J Med Entomol. 2010;47:199-204 pubmed
  27. Kamaraj C, Rahuman A, Mahapatra A, Bagavan A, Elango G. Insecticidal and larvicidal activities of medicinal plant extracts against mosquitoes. Parasitol Res. 2010;107:1337-49 pubmed publisher
    ..52 ppm), respectively, after 24 h. The plant extracts are potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the Japanese encephalitis vector, C. gelidus, and lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. ..
  28. Bissinger B, Apperson C, Sonenshine D, Watson D, Roe R. Efficacy of the new repellent BioUD against three species of ixodid ticks. Exp Appl Acarol. 2009;48:239-50 pubmed publisher
    ..americanum from the dosages tested. Based on filter paper head-to-head assays, BioUD is at least 2-4 times more active as a repellent than DEET against three species of ixodid ticks under the conditions of our laboratory bioassays. ..
  29. Piyaphanee W, Wattanagoon Y, Silachamroon U, Mansanguan C, Wichianprasat P, Walker E. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices among foreign backpackers toward malaria risk in southeast Asia. J Travel Med. 2009;16:101-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Although most backpackers perceive the risk of malaria in Southeast Asia, they have some misunderstandings about malaria and tend to comply poorly with mosquito bite prevention and chemoprophylactic strategies. ..
  30. Syed Z, Pelletier J, Flounders E, Chitolina R, Leal W. Generic insect repellent detector from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17705 pubmed publisher
    b>Insect repellents are prophylactic tools against a number of vector-borne diseases...
  31. Osimitz T, Murphy J, Fell L, Page B. Adverse events associated with the use of insect repellents containing N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010;56:93-9 pubmed publisher
    DEET is the major component of most topically applied insect repellents used in the US...
  32. Hamilton C, Beresford D, Sutcliffe J. Effects of natal habitat odour, reinforced by adult experience, on choice of oviposition site in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Med Vet Entomol. 2011;25:428-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This adult experience-reinforced NHPI (AER-NHPI) is discussed in terms of its adaptive significance for container breeders, the possible timing mechanism and sensory basis of induction and potential practical consequences. ..
  33. Killeen G, Chitnis N, Moore S, Okumu F. Target product profile choices for intra-domiciliary malaria vector control pesticide products: repel or kill?. Malar J. 2011;10:207 pubmed publisher
  34. Phasomkusolsil S, Soonwera M. Insect repellent activity of medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles minimus (Theobald) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say based on protection time and biting rate. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2010;41:831-40 pubmed
    ..8%, and 115 minutes and 0.8%, respectively. The period of protection time against Ae. aegypti for all repellent candidates tested was lower than the Thai Industrial Standards Institute (TISI) determined time of greater than 2 hours...
  35. Sfara V, Mougabure Cueto G, Zerba E, Alzogaray R. Adaptation of the repellency response to DEET in Rhodnius prolixus. J Insect Physiol. 2011;57:1431-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that exposure to DEET produces adaptation in R. prolixus nymphs, and that the behavioural response elicited by DEET occurs via olfaction when no other stimuli are present. ..
  36. Lee Y, Kim S, Montell C. Avoiding DEET through insect gustatory receptors. Neuron. 2010;67:555-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Since 0.02% DEET elicited action potentials, we conclude that DEET directly activates of GRNs. We suggest that the effectiveness of DEET in pest control owes to its dual action in inducing avoidance simultaneously via GRNs and ORNs...
  37. Said S, Grieco J, Achee N. Evaluation of contact irritant and spatial repellent behavioral responses of male Aedes aegypti to vector control compounds. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2009;25:436-41 pubmed
  38. Pennetier C, Costantini C, Corbel V, Licciardi S, Dabire R, Lapied B, et al. Synergy between repellents and organophosphates on bed nets: efficacy and behavioural response of natural free-flying An. gambiae mosquitoes. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7896 pubmed publisher
    ..the results of two trials run against free-flying Anopheles gambiae populations comparing the effects of two insect repellents (either DEET or KBR 3023, also known as icaridin) and an organophosphate insecticide at low-doses (..
  39. Achee N, Bangs M, Farlow R, Killeen G, Lindsay S, Logan J, et al. Spatial repellents: from discovery and development to evidence-based validation. Malar J. 2012;11:164 pubmed
  40. Sanford J, Shields V, Dickens J. Gustatory receptor neuron responds to DEET and other insect repellents in the yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Naturwissenschaften. 2013;100:269-73 pubmed publisher
    ..spike responded to the feeding deterrent, quinine, as well as N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide and other insect repellents. Two other neurons with differing spikes responded to salt (NaCl) and sucrose...
  41. Chen Hussey V, Carneiro I, Keomanila H, Gray R, Bannavong S, Phanalasy S, et al. Can topical insect repellents reduce malaria? A cluster-randomised controlled trial of the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) in Lao PDR. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70664 pubmed publisher
    ..Topical insect repellents may be able to protect users from outdoor biting, thereby providing additional protection above the current ..
  42. Kitchen L, Lawrence K, Coleman R. The role of the United States military in the development of vector control products, including insect repellents, insecticides, and bed nets. J Vector Ecol. 2009;34:50-61 pubmed publisher
    ..g., undetectable, long-lasting in multiple climates) in order to protect its service members, many Department of Defense vector control products have had global impacts on endemic disease control...
  43. Frances S, MacKenzie D, Rowcliffe K, Corcoran S. Comparative field evaluation of repellent formulations containing deet and IR3535 against mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2009;25:511-3 pubmed
    ..The study showed that ADF deet provided significantly better protection against mosquitoes than Avon Bug Guard (IR3535). ..
  44. Spero N, Gonzalez Y, Scialdone M, Hallahan D. Repellency of hydrogenated catmint oil formulations to black flies and mosquitoes in the field. J Med Entomol. 2008;45:1080-6 pubmed
    ..In Florida, data on repellency toward a mixed population of mosquitoes indicated that all formulations conferred protection for >4 h, with the 15 wt% lotion giving >6 h complete protection from bites...
  45. Degennaro M, McBride C, Seeholzer L, Nakagawa T, Dennis E, Goldman C, et al. orco mutant mosquitoes lose strong preference for humans and are not repelled by volatile DEET. Nature. 2013;498:487-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the odorant receptor pathway is crucial for an anthropophilic vector mosquito to discriminate human from non-human hosts and to be effectively repelled by volatile DEET. ..
  46. Antwi F, Shama L, Peterson R. Risk assessments for the insect repellents DEET and picaridin. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008;51:31-6 pubmed publisher
    For the use of topical insect repellents, DEET and picaridin, human health risk assessments were conducted for various population subgroups. Acute, subchronic, and chronic dermal exposures were examined...
  47. Grieco J, Achee N, Sardelis M, Chauhan K, Roberts D. A novel high-throughput screening system to evaluate the behavioral response of adult mosquitoes to chemicals. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2005;21:404-11 pubmed
    ..The system is compact in size, easy to decontaminate, and requires only a minute quantity of chemical compound. ..
  48. Kline D, Bernier U, Posey K, Barnard D. Olfactometric evaluation of spatial repellents for Aedes aegypti. J Med Entomol. 2003;40:463-7 pubmed
    ..Highest spatial repellency (33.6%) was observed using a combination of linalool and dehydrolinalool. Deet did not manifest spatial repellency, whereas linalool and dehydrolinalool alone, and in combination, exhibited spatial repellency...
  49. Hoffmann E, Miller J. Reduction of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) attacks on a human subject by combination of wind and vapor-phase DEET repellent. J Med Entomol. 2002;39:935-8 pubmed
    ..6 m/s and the DEET vapor concentration was estimated at 2 microg/liter air. We suggest a combination of directed wind and volatile repellent might be developed as a mosquito deterrent strategy for the backyard setting...
  50. Seyoum A, Kabiru E, Lwande W, Killeen G, Hassanali A, Knols B. Repellency of live potted plants against Anopheles gambiae from human baits in semi-field experimental huts. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;67:191-5 pubmed
    ..As such, they may represent a new, sustainable and readily applicable malaria vector control tool for incorporation into integrated vector management programs. ..
  51. Kolaczinski J, Fanello C, Herve J, Conway D, Carnevale P, Curtis C. Experimental and molecular genetic analysis of the impact of pyrethroid and non-pyrethroid insecticide impregnated bednets for mosquito control in an area of pyrethroid resistance. Bull Entomol Res. 2000;90:125-32 pubmed
  52. McGready R, Hamilton K, Simpson J, Cho T, Luxemburger C, Edwards R, et al. Safety of the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-M-toluamide (DEET) in pregnancy. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;65:285-9 pubmed
    ..and third trimesters of pregnancy was assessed as part of a double-blind, randomized, therapeutic trial of insect repellents for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy (n = 897)...