Summary: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.

Top Publications

  1. Kimura A, Miyata A, Honma M. A combination of in vitro comet assay and micronucleus test using human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells. Mutagenesis. 2013;28:583-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are helpful for interpreting the results of the COM and MN in in vitro genotoxic hazard assessments. Further investigation is required to standardise the COM. ..
  2. Dowd K, Farrand A, Tweten R. The cholesterol-dependent cytolysin signature motif: a critical element in the allosteric pathway that couples membrane binding to pore assembly. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002787 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies show for the first time that the undecapeptide of the cholesterol-binding CDCs forms a critical element of the allosteric pathway that controls the assembly of the pore complex. ..
  3. Travica S, Pors K, Loadman P, Shnyder S, Johansson I, Alandas M, et al. Colon cancer-specific cytochrome P450 2W1 converts duocarmycin analogues into potent tumor cytotoxins. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19:2952-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest a novel approach for treatment of colon cancer that uses a locoregional activation of systemically inactive prodrug by the tumor-specific activator enzyme CYP2W1. ..
  4. Dunstone M, Tweten R. Packing a punch: the mechanism of pore formation by cholesterol dependent cytolysins and membrane attack complex/perforin-like proteins. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2012;22:342-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This review explores mechanistic similarities and differences in how CDCs and MACPF proteins form pores. ..
  5. Konshina A, Boldyrev I, Utkin Y, Omel kov A, Efremov R. Snake cytotoxins bind to membranes via interactions with phosphatidylserine head groups of lipids. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19064 pubmed publisher
    The major representatives of Elapidae snake venom, cytotoxins (CTs), share similar three-fingered fold and exert diverse range of biological activities against various cell types...
  6. Hamon M, Cossart P. K+ efflux is required for histone H3 dephosphorylation by Listeria monocytogenes listeriolysin O and other pore-forming toxins. Infect Immun. 2011;79:2839-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our study unveils K(+) efflux as an important signal leading to two independent events critical for infection, inflammasome activation and histone modification. ..
  7. Wilson B, Ho M. Cellular and molecular action of the mitogenic protein-deamidating toxin from Pasteurella multocida. FEBS J. 2011;278:4616-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The resulting cellular outcomes account for the global physiological effects observed during infection with toxinogenic P. multocida, and hint at potential long-term sequelae that may result from PMT exposure. ..
  8. Ozcelik B, Kartal M, Orhan I. Cytotoxicity, antiviral and antimicrobial activities of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Pharm Biol. 2011;49:396-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Antiviral and antimicrobial effects of the compounds tested herein may constitute a preliminary step for further relevant studies to identify the mechanism of action. ..
  9. Xu L, Huang B, Du H, Zhang X, Xu J, Li X, et al. Crystal structure of cytotoxin protein suilysin from Streptococcus suis. Protein Cell. 2010;1:96-105 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation suggests that the current view of the structure-function relationship between CDC proteins and membrane association is far from complete. ..

More Information


  1. Fagerlund A, Lindb ck T, Granum P. Bacillus cereus cytotoxins Hbl, Nhe and CytK are secreted via the Sec translocation pathway. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:304 pubmed publisher
    ..are Gram positive opportunistic pathogens that may cause food poisoning, and the three secreted pore-forming cytotoxins Hbl, Nhe and CytK have been implicated as the causative agents of diarrhoeal disease...
  2. Keyel P, Heid M, Salter R. Macrophage responses to bacterial toxins: a balance between activation and suppression. Immunol Res. 2011;50:118-23 pubmed publisher
    ..CDCs thus impact macrophage function in ways that may be both beneficial and detrimental to the host. ..
  3. Lavaggi M, Nieves M, Cabrera M, Olea Azar C, López de Ceráin A, Monge A, et al. Structural modifications on the phenazine N,N'-dioxide-scaffold looking for new selective hypoxic cytotoxins. Eur J Med Chem. 2010;45:5362-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated some structural modifications in order to find new selective hypoxic cytotoxins and to establish the structural requirements for adequate activity...
  4. Wilson B, Ho M. Recent insights into Pasteurella multocida toxin and other G-protein-modulating bacterial toxins. Future Microbiol. 2010;5:1185-201 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of PMT-C3 belongs to a family of transglutaminase-like proteins, with active site Cys-His-Asp catalytic triads distinct from E. coli CNF1...
  5. Tang T, Gminski R, Könczöl M, Modest C, Armbruster B, Mersch Sundermann V. Investigations on cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of laser printer emissions in human epithelial A549 lung cells using an air/liquid exposure system. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2012;53:125-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Because laser printing technology is widely used, studies with additional cytogenetic endpoints are necessary to confirm the DNA-damaging potency and to identify emission components responsible for genotoxicity. ..
  6. Asare N, Instanes C, Sandberg W, Refsnes M, Schwarze P, Kruszewski M, et al. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles in testicular cells. Toxicology. 2012;291:65-72 pubmed publisher
  7. Magdolenova Z, Bilanicova D, Pojana G, Fjellsbø L, Hudecova A, Hasplova K, et al. Impact of agglomeration and different dispersions of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the human related in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. J Environ Monit. 2012;14:455-64 pubmed publisher
    ..It is important, when assessing the hazard associated with NPs, to establish standard testing procedures and thorough strategies to consider the diverse conditions relevant to possible exposures. ..
  8. Liu S, Xu L, Zhang T, Ren G, Yang Z. Oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by nanosized titanium dioxide in PC12 cells. Toxicology. 2010;267:172-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results might have revealed a key mechanism in PC12 apoptosis under the effect of the nano-TiO2 solutions. ..
  9. Fahmy B, Cormier S. Copper oxide nanoparticles induce oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in airway epithelial cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2009;23:1365-71 pubmed publisher
  10. Ali N, Shah S, Shah I, Ahmed G, Ghias M, Khan I. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011;11:106 pubmed publisher
    ..The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins...
  11. Khuda F, Iqbal Z, Zakiullah -, Khan A, Nasir F, Muhammad N, et al. Metal analysis, phytotoxic, insecticidal and cytotoxic activities of selected medicinal plants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2012;25:51-8 pubmed
    ..9730 ?g/ml) at highest dose. However, the extracts from other plants were not effective against the brine shrimps tested...
  12. Lomax J, Eller C, Raines R. Rational design and evaluation of mammalian ribonuclease cytotoxins. Methods Enzymol. 2012;502:273-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These efforts have informed our understanding of ptRNase-based cytotoxins, as well as the action of protein-based drugs with cytosolic targets...
  13. Chu J, Thomas L, Watkins S, Franchi L, Nunez G, Salter R. Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins induce rapid release of mature IL-1beta from murine macrophages in a NLRP3 inflammasome and cathepsin B-dependent manner. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:1227-38 pubmed publisher
  14. Papandreou I, Denko N, Olson M, VAN Melckebeke H, Lust S, Tam A, et al. Identification of an Ire1alpha endonuclease specific inhibitor with cytotoxic activity against human multiple myeloma. Blood. 2011;117:1311-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of this novel Ire1 inhibitor supports the hypothesis that the Ire1-XBP1 axis is a promising target for anticancer therapy, especially in the context of MM. ..
  15. Candolfi M, Xiong W, Yagiz K, Liu C, Muhammad A, Puntel M, et al. Gene therapy-mediated delivery of targeted cytotoxins for glioma therapeutics. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:20021-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These shortcomings were overcome by our therapeutic Ad, thus representing a significant advance in the development of targeted therapeutics for GBM. ..
  16. McCoy A, Koizumi Y, Toma C, Higa N, Dixit V, Taniguchi S, et al. Cytotoxins of the human pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila trigger, via the NLRP3 inflammasome, caspase-1 activation in macrophages. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:2797-803 pubmed publisher
    ..The activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was mediated by three cytotoxins (aerolysin, hemolysin and multifunctional repeat-in-toxin) produced by A. hydrophila...
  17. Kim Y, Kim B, Kim S, Kim C, Na H, Koh J, et al. Outer membrane vesicles of Vibrio vulnificus deliver cytolysin-hemolysin VvhA into epithelial cells to induce cytotoxicity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;399:607-12 pubmed publisher
    The Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio vulnificus produces cytotoxins that induce the acute death of host cells. However, the secretory mechanisms of such cytotoxins have not been extensively studied...
  18. Traitcheva N, Berg H. Electroporation and alternating current cause membrane permeation of photodynamic cytotoxins yielding necrosis and apoptosis of cancer cells. Bioelectrochemistry. 2010;79:257-60 pubmed publisher
  19. Mahto S, Park C, Yoon T, Rhee S. Assessment of cytocompatibility of surface-modified CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots for BALB/3T3 fibroblast cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2010;24:1070-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that surface modification by ligands plays a significant role in the prevention of cytotoxicity of QDs. ..
  20. Heuck A, Moe P, Johnson B. The cholesterol-dependent cytolysin family of gram-positive bacterial toxins. Subcell Biochem. 2010;51:551-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies support the concept that there is a dynamic interplay between the cholesterol-binding domain of the CDCs and the excess of cholesterol molecules in the target membrane. ..
  21. Kachlany S. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin: from threat to therapy. J Dent Res. 2010;89:561-70 pubmed publisher
  22. Lo H, Lin J, Chen Y, Chen C, Shao C, Lai Y, et al. RTX toxin enhances the survival of Vibrio vulnificus during infection by protecting the organism from phagocytosis. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:1866-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the RTX of V. vulnificus is required for bacterial survival during infection by protecting the organism from phagocytosis...
  23. Lu X, Hu F, Ma Y, Wang C, Zhang Y, Zhao M. The role of oxidative stress in enantiomer-specific, bifenthrin-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. Environ Toxicol. 2011;26:271-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our study also indicated that enantioselectivity should be considered when evaluating the ecotoxicological effects and the health risks of chiral contaminants. ..
  24. De Nicola M, Nuccitelli S, Gattia D, Traversa E, Magrini A, Bergamaschi A, et al. Effects of carbon nanotubes on human monocytes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1171:600-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This cytotoxic effect may have important implications, and much attention in terms of evaluation of exposure risks is recommended. ..
  25. Ma N, Tian Y, Wu Y, Ma X. Contributions of the Interaction Between Dietary Protein and Gut Microbiota to Intestinal Health. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2017;18:795-808 pubmed publisher
    ..short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), ammonia, amines, gases such as hydrogen, sulfide and methane which are cytotoxins, genotoxins and carcinogens associated with development of colon cancer and inflammatory bowel diseases...
  26. Giddens A, Lee H, Lu G, Miller C, Guo J, Lewis Phillips G, et al. Analogues of DNA minor groove cross-linking agents incorporating aminoCBI, an amino derivative of the duocarmycins: Synthesis, cytotoxicity, and potential as payloads for antibody-drug conjugates. Bioorg Med Chem. 2016;24:6075-6081 pubmed publisher
    ..However, all bifunctional agents are potent cytotoxins, some in the sub-pM IC50 range, with in vitro properties that compare favourably with established ..
  27. Miri R, Razzaghi Asl N, Mohammadi M. QM study and conformational analysis of an isatin Schiff base as a potential cytotoxic agent. J Mol Model. 2013;19:727-35 pubmed publisher
    ..7227). Conformational analysis revealed that 3-(2-(4-nitrophenyl) hydrazono) indolin-2-one might not necessarily interact with the VEGFR-2 active site in its minimum energy conformation. ..
  28. Calderón Montaño J, Madrona A, Burgos Morón E, Orta M, Mateos S, Espartero J, et al. Selective cytotoxic activity of new lipophilic hydroxytyrosol alkyl ether derivatives. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:5046-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the cytotoxicity of HTDE is more potent and selective than that of parent compound hydroxytyrosol. ..
  29. Ragupathi Raja Kannan R, Arumugam R, Iyapparaj P, Thangaradjou T, Anantharaman P. In vitro antibacterial, cytotoxicity and haemolytic activities and phytochemical analysis of seagrasses from the Gulf of Mannar, South India. Food Chem. 2013;136:1484-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings suggest the possible pharmacological applications of selected seagrasses that can be used as food ingredients. ..
  30. Gong K, Tang X, Zhang G, Cheng C, Zhang X, Li P, et al. Polyhydroxylated steroids from the South China Sea soft coral Sarcophyton sp. and their cytotoxic and antiviral activities. Mar Drugs. 2013;11:4788-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds 4 and 9 exhibited significant anti-H1N1 IAV activity with IC?? values of 19.6 and 36.7 ?g/mL, respectively. ..
  31. Williams D, Peng C, Kimbrell M, Papke R. Intrinsically low open probability of ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors can be overcome by positive allosteric modulation and serum factors leading to the generation of excitotoxic currents at physiological temperatures. Mol Pharmacol. 2012;82:746-59 pubmed
  32. Jiang J, Su X, Zhang H, Zhang X, Yuan Y. A novel approach to active compounds identification based on support vector regression model and mean impact value. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2013;81:650-7 pubmed publisher
    ..prior to bioassay-guided separation. The use of a support vector regression model combined with mean impact value analysis could provide an efficient and economical approach for drug discovery from natural products. ..
  33. Chen W, Xu Y, Zhang L, Su H, Zheng X. Blackberry subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion affords protection against Ethyl Carbamate-induced cytotoxicity. Food Chem. 2016;212:620-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the present study may give implication to prevent EC-induced health problem. ..
  34. Kikuchi T, Takebayashi M, Shinto M, Yamada T, Tanaka R. Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds. Molecules. 2013;18:5568-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Compound 3 and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a-29-diol 3-benzoate (5) exhibited potent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, with low cytotoxicities, and 2 exhibited single-digit micromolar cytotoxicity against HL-60 and P388 cells. ..
  35. Lysenkova L, Turchin K, Korolev A, Dezhenkova L, Bekker O, Shtil A, et al. Synthesis and cytotoxicity of oligomycin A derivatives modified in the side chain. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013;21:2918-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Novel series of oligomycin A derivatives allow for the search of intracellular molecules beyond F0F1 ATP synthase relevant to the cytotoxic properties of this perspective chemical class. ..
  36. Liu C, Shen Q, Li J, Tian Y, Quan Z. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 7-hydroxy-4-phenylchromen-2-one-linked to triazole moieties as potent cytotoxic agents. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2017;32:1111-1119 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the compounds exhibited better antitumour activity than the positive control drug 5-fluorouracil. ..
  37. Diep B, Le V, Visram Z, Rouha H, Stulik L, Dip E, et al. Improved Protection in a Rabbit Model of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Necrotizing Pneumonia upon Neutralization of Leukocidins in Addition to Alpha-Hemolysin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016;60:6333-40 pubmed publisher
    ..S. aureus strains express multiple cytotoxins, including alpha-hemolysin (Hla) and up to five bicomponent leukocidins that specifically target phagocytic ..
  38. Shramova E, Proshkina G, Deyev S, Petrov R. Flavoprotein miniSOG BRET-induced cytotoxicity depends on its intracellular localization. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2017;474:228-230 pubmed publisher
    ..The obtained data indicate that, for maximization of the photodynamic effect in vivo, it is appropriate to use the NanoLuc-miniSOG fusion protein in the membrane localization. ..
  39. Ischenko I, Zhi J, Hayman M, Petrenko O. KRAS-dependent suppression of MYC enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. Oncotarget. 2017;8:17995-18009 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support a direct link between MYC and cancer cell viability, and raise the possibility that inactivation of MYC may be an effective therapeutic strategy for KRAS mutant tumors across various cancer types. ..
  40. Grünewald J, Jin Y, Vance J, Read J, Wang X, Wan Y, et al. Optimization of an Enzymatic Antibody-Drug Conjugation Approach Based on Coenzyme A Analogs. Bioconjug Chem. 2017;28:1906-1915 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, linker stability was found to be modulated by attachment site, and this, together with linker length, provides an opportunity for maximizing ADC stability without sacrificing potency. ..
  41. Sperotto A, Moura D, Péres V, Damasceno F, Caramão E, Henriques J, et al. Cytotoxic mechanism of Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth essential oil and its major compound nerolidol. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;57:57-68 pubmed publisher
    ..From this, we conclude that the observed cytotoxicity to P. gaudichaudianum essential oil and nerolidol is mainly related to ROS and DNA single strand breaks generated by the presence of oxidative lesions. ..
  42. Shah S, Shier W, Jamaluddin -, Tahir N, Hameed A, Ahmad S, et al. Penicillium verruculosum SG: a source of polyketide and bioactive compounds with varying cytotoxic activities against normal and cancer lines. Arch Microbiol. 2014;196:267-78 pubmed publisher
    ..XRD of a yellow crystalline compound (224.21 m/z) confirmed its 3-dimensional structure as phenazine 1 carboxylic acid (C13H8N2O2) (broad spectrum antibiotic), and it is first time reported in fungi. ..
  43. Soenen S, Parak W, Rejman J, Manshian B. (Intra)cellular stability of inorganic nanoparticles: effects on cytotoxicity, particle functionality, and biomedical applications. Chem Rev. 2015;115:2109-35 pubmed publisher
  44. Lee J, Lee W, Lee S, Jung Y, Park S, Choi P, et al. Important role of Maillard reaction in the protective effect of heat-processed ginsenoside Re-serine mixture against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in LLC-PK1 cells. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:5475-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, MRPs from ginsenoside Re-serine mixture showed protective effect against cisplatin-induced renal epithelial cell damage. ..
  45. Pakhomova O, Gregory B, Pakhomov A. Facilitation of electroporative drug uptake and cell killing by electrosensitization. J Cell Mol Med. 2013;17:154-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhancement of the electroporative uptake appears a key mechanism of electrosensitization and may benefit electrochemotherapy and numerous applications that employ EP for cell permeabilization. ..
  46. Spaulding A, Salgado Pabon W, Merriman J, Stach C, Ji Y, Gillman A, et al. Vaccination against Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia. J Infect Dis. 2014;209:1955-62 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus. These results advance our understanding of S. aureus pathogenesis and have important implications in disease prevention. ..
  47. Zhang L, Ning M, Xu Y, Wang C, Zhao G, Cao Q, et al. Predicting the Cytotoxic Potency of Cigarette Smoke by Assessing the Thioredoxin Reductase Inhibitory Capacity of Cigarette Smoke Extract. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13: pubmed publisher
  48. Krishnamurthy P, Schuetz J. Role of ABCG2/BCRP in biology and medicine. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006;46:381-410 pubmed
    ..In combination with immunohistochemical analyses, these studies have revealed how ABCG2 influences the absorption, distribution, and excretion of drugs and cytotoxins.
  49. Benzekry S, Hahnfeldt P. Maximum tolerated dose versus metronomic scheduling in the treatment of metastatic cancers. J Theor Biol. 2013;335:235-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Simulation results reveal differences between primary tumor reduction and control of metastases but overall suggest use of the metronomic protocol. ..
  50. Bianco E, de Oliveira S, Rigotto C, Tonini M, da Rosa Guimarães T, Bittencourt F, et al. Anti-infective potential of marine invertebrates and seaweeds from the Brazilian coast. Molecules. 2013;18:5761-78 pubmed publisher
    ..9 and SI > 5, respectively). All the active extracts deserve special attention in further studies to chemically characterize the bioactive compounds, and to perform more refined biological assays...
  51. Cruz Paredes C, Bolívar Balbás P, Gómez Velasco A, Juárez Z, Sánchez Arreola E, Hernández L, et al. Antimicrobial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities of Lopezia racemosa. ScientificWorldJournal. 2013;2013:237438 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the biological activities of L. racemosa, including antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory activities. ..
  52. Kim Y, Lee S, Kang I, Nam K, Choy H, Rhee J. A bacterial RTX toxin causes programmed necrotic cell death through calcium-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:1406-15 pubmed publisher
  53. Macedo B, Millen T, Braga C, Gomes M, Ferreira P, Kraineva J, et al. Nonspecific prion protein-nucleic acid interactions lead to different aggregates and cytotoxic species. Biochemistry. 2012;51:5402-13 pubmed
    ..Understanding the structural and cellular effects observed for PrP-nucleic acid complexes may shed light on the still mysterious pathology of the prion protein. ..
  54. Nocca G, D Antò V, Rivieccio V, Schweikl H, Amato M, Rengo S, et al. Effects of ethanol and dimethyl sulfoxide on solubility and cytotoxicity of the resin monomer triethylene glycol dimethacrylate. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2012;100:1500-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the presence of the utilized solvents does not substantially alter the monomer solubility but eases its entrance into the cells thus improving its cytotoxic potency. ..
  55. Chou H, Lu Y, Cheng C, Chen Y, Lyu P, Lin C, et al. Proteomic and redox-proteomic analysis of berberine-induced cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells. J Proteomics. 2012;75:3158-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The identified targets may be useful for further evaluation as potential targets in breast cancer therapy. ..
  56. Rosen D, Cordeiro J, Cohen A, Lacayo N, Hogge D, Hawtin R, et al. Assessing signaling pathways associated with in vitro resistance to cytotoxic agents in AML. Leuk Res. 2012;36:900-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies are ongoing to assess the clinical predictive value of these findings. ..
  57. Chamni S, Sirimangkalakitti N, Chanvorachote P, Saito N, Suwanborirux K. Chemistry of Renieramycins. 17. A New Generation of Renieramycins: Hydroquinone 5-O-Monoester Analogues of Renieramycin M as Potential Cytotoxic Agents against Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells. J Nat Prod. 2017;80:1541-1547 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the hydroquinone 5-O-monoester analogues are a new generation of the renieramycins to be further developed as potential marine-derived drug candidates for lung cancer treatment. ..
  58. Szalowska E, Stoopen G, Groot M, Hendriksen P, Peijnenburg A. Treatment of mouse liver slices with cholestatic hepatotoxicants results in down-regulation of Fxr and its target genes. BMC Med Genomics. 2013;6:39 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, comparative data analysis showed that the ex vivo mouse findings are also relevant for human pathology. Moreover, this work provides a set of genes that are potentially useful to assess drugs for cholestatic properties. ..
  59. Hawkins Salsbury J, Parameswar A, Jiang X, Schlesinger P, Bongarzone E, Ory D, et al. Psychosine, the cytotoxic sphingolipid that accumulates in globoid cell leukodystrophy, alters membrane architecture. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:3303-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Although other mechanisms may play a role in disease, these data strongly suggest that psy exerts its effects primarily through membrane perturbation rather than through specific protein-psy interactions. ..
  60. Newland A, Li J, Wasco L, Aziz M, Lowe D. Brentuximab vedotin: a CD30-directed antibody-cytotoxic drug conjugate. Pharmacotherapy. 2013;33:93-104 pubmed publisher
  61. Luo L, Jin H, Huang H. Transferrin-cisplatin specifically deliver cisplatin to HepG2 cells in vitro and enhance cisplatin cytotoxicity. J Proteomics. 2012;77:237-50 pubmed publisher
  62. Puntel M, A K M G, Farrokhi C, Vanderveen N, Paran C, Appelhans A, et al. Safety profile, efficacy, and biodistribution of a bicistronic high-capacity adenovirus vector encoding a combined immunostimulation and cytotoxic gene therapy as a prelude to a phase I clinical trial for glioblastoma. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;268:318-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that doses up to 1×10(9) vp of HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L can be safely delivered into the normal rat brain and underpin further developments for its implementation in a phase I clinical trial for glioma. ..
  63. Gilbert R, Mikelj M, Dalla Serra M, Froelich C, Anderluh G. Effects of MACPF/CDC proteins on lipid membranes. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013;70:2083-98 pubmed publisher
  64. Stachowiak R, Lyżniak M, Budziszewska B, Roeske K, Bielecki J, Hoser G, et al. Cytotoxicity of bacterial metabolic products, including listeriolysin O, on leukocyte targets. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012;2012:954375 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the response of human peripheral blood mononuclear and human leukemia cell lines to bacteria supernatants containing listeriolysin O depended on the bacteria strain, target cell type, and supernatant concentration. ..
  65. Petrović V, Colović M, Krstic D, Vujacić A, Petrovic S, Joksic G, et al. In vitro effects of some gold complexes on Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and cell proliferation. J Inorg Biochem. 2013;124:35-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, among investigated gold(III) complexes, the [Au(bipy)Cl2]Cl complex exhibits a strong cytotoxic effect on human lymphocytes, which suggests its potential for use in antitumor therapy...
  66. Uchida Y, Raina D, Kharbanda S, Kufe D. Inhibition of the MUC1-C oncoprotein is synergistic with cytotoxic agents in the treatment of breast cancer cells. Cancer Biol Ther. 2013;14:127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that blocking MUC1-C function could be effective in combination with taxol and DOX for the treatment of breast cancer. ..
  67. Salah R, Michaud P, Mati F, Harrat Z, Lounici H, Abdi N, et al. Anticancer activity of chemically prepared shrimp low molecular weight chitin evaluation with the human monocyte leukaemia cell line, THP-1. Int J Biol Macromol. 2013;52:333-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The high antitumour effect of low molecular weight of chitin was established. ..
  68. Aberdam E, Petit I, Sangari L, Aberdam D. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived limbal epithelial cells (LiPSC) as a cellular alternative for in vitro ocular toxicity testing. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179913 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data strongly suggest that LiPSC could become a powerful alternative cellular model for cosmetic and drug tests. ..
  69. Lee E, Lee S. Etoposide increases equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 activity and fluorothymidine uptake: screening of 60 cytotoxic agents. Oncol Rep. 2013;29:763-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of ENT1 activity by etoposide was cell-type dependent, which requests caution for the application of ENT1-mediated [(18)F]FLT flare for treatment monitoring. ..
  70. Khasraw M, Yap S, Ananda S. Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the GI tract: the role of cytotoxic chemotherapy. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2013;13:451-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This article briefly reviews NENs before focusing on reviewing data on the role of cytotoxic chemotherapy studies in NENs. ..
  71. Dzoyem J, Guru S, Pieme C, Kuete V, Sharma A, Khan I, et al. Cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of selected Cameroonian edible plants. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:78 pubmed publisher
    ..5 ?g/ml) respectively. Our findings suggest that Cameroonian spices herein studied could be potentially useful for the development of therapeutic agents against bacterial infections as well as for prostate and leukemia cancer. ..
  72. Engel J, Tinneberg H, Rick F, Berkes E, Schally A. Targeting of Peptide Cytotoxins to LHRH Receptors For Treatment of Cancer. Curr Drug Targets. 2016;17:488-94 pubmed
    ..Because of the very promising phase II results in endometrial cancer, a multinational, multicenter phase III study of this malignancy has been initiated and is currently recruiting patients. ..
  73. Zou H, Wang L, Long Z, Qin Q, Song Z, Xie T, et al. Preparation of 4-([2,2':6',2″-terpyridin]-4'-yl)-N,N-diethylaniline Ni(II) and Pt(II) complexes and exploration of their in vitro cytotoxic activities. Eur J Med Chem. 2016;108:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we found that 1 and 2 exerted their cytotoxic activity mainly via inhibiting telomerase by interaction with c-myc quadruplex and disruption of mitochondrial function. ..
  74. Anari E, Akbarzadeh A, Zarghami N. Chrysin-loaded PLGA-PEG nanoparticles designed for enhanced effect on the breast cancer cell line. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2016;44:1410-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the nanochrysin therapy developed is a novel method that could increase cytotoxicity to cancer cells without damaging the normal cells, and would be promising in breast cancer therapy. ..
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