environmental carcinogens


Summary: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.

Top Publications

  1. Luippold R, Mundt K, Dell L, Birk T. Low-level hexavalent chromium exposure and rate of mortality among US chromate production employees. J Occup Environ Med. 2005;47:381-5 pubmed
    ..The absence of an elevated lung cancer risk may be a favorable reflection of the post-change environment. However, longer follow-up allowing an appropriate latency for the entire cohort will be needed to confirm this conclusion. ..
  2. Puncochar P. Exposure determination and respirator selection under the OSHA Hexavalent Chromium Standards. Occup Health Saf. 2006;75:134-9 pubmed
  3. Van Leeuwen D, Gottschalk R, Schoeters G, van Larebeke N, Nelen V, Baeyens W, et al. Transcriptome analysis in peripheral blood of humans exposed to environmental carcinogens: a promising new biomarker in environmental health studies. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:1519-25 pubmed publisher
    ..significant correlations of particular gene expressions with blood and urinary measures of various environmental carcinogens. Considering the observed significant differences between gene expression levels in inhabitants of ..
  4. Gallo V, Khan A, Gonzales C, Phillips D, Schoket B, Gyorffy E, et al. Validation of biomarkers for the study of environmental carcinogens: a review. Biomarkers. 2008;13:505-34 pubmed
    ..Immunoassays for the quantification of adducts of N-nitroso compounds are useful for large epidemiological studies, given their sensitivity, the small amount of DNA required and their potential for rapid and high-throughput analysis. ..
  5. Belpomme D, Irigaray P, Hardell L, Clapp R, Montagnier L, Epstein S, et al. The multitude and diversity of environmental carcinogens. Environ Res. 2007;105:414-29 pubmed
  6. Gibbs G, Berry G. Mesothelioma and asbestos. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008;52:S223-31 pubmed
    ..To date there is no indication of an increased risk of mesothelioma resulting from non-commercial fiber exposure in the taconite industry...
  7. Corcelle E, Djerbi N, Mari M, Nebout M, Fiorini C, Fenichel P, et al. Control of the autophagy maturation step by the MAPK ERK and p38: lessons from environmental carcinogens. Autophagy. 2007;3:57-9 pubmed
    ..We have recently exploited the disruption of autophagy by environmental carcinogens as a powerful model to uncover the underlying signaling pathways...
  8. Mannetje A, Fevotte J, Fletcher T, Brennan P, Legoza J, Szeremi M, et al. Assessing exposure misclassification by expert assessment in multicenter occupational studies. Epidemiology. 2003;14:585-92 pubmed
  9. Wild C, Kleinjans J. Children and increased susceptibility to environmental carcinogens: evidence or empathy?. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12:1389-94 pubmed

More Information


  1. Arey J. A tale of two diesels. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112:812-3 pubmed
    ..e., SRMs) that can be shared and exhaustively characterized. This needs to be a continuing process as diesel engines, fuels, and exhaust components evolve in response to control regulations. ..
  2. Thavathiru E, Ludes Meyers J, MacLeod M, Aldaz C. Expression of common chromosomal fragile site genes, WWOX/FRA16D and FHIT/FRA3B is downregulated by exposure to environmental carcinogens, UV, and BPDE but not by IR. Mol Carcinog. 2005;44:174-82 pubmed
    ..Here we report that environmental carcinogens, ultraviolet (UV) light, and Benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE), significantly downregulate expression ..
  3. Juutilainen J, Kumlin T, Naarala J. Do extremely low frequency magnetic fields enhance the effects of environmental carcinogens? A meta-analysis of experimental studies. Int J Radiat Biol. 2006;82:1-12 pubmed
    ..There is an obvious need for further studies on combined effects with magnetic fields. ..
  4. Zahm S, Blair A. Occupational cancer among women: where have we been and where are we going?. Am J Ind Med. 2003;44:565-75 pubmed
  5. Zhitkovich A. Importance of chromium-DNA adducts in mutagenicity and toxicity of chromium(VI). Chem Res Toxicol. 2005;18:3-11 pubmed
  6. Dweck A, Lurie P, Michaels D, Wolfe S. Hexavalent chromium study's conclusions unjustified. J Occup Environ Med. 2005;47:980-1; author reply 981 pubmed
  7. Lurie P, Wolfe S. Continuing exposure to hexavalent chromium, a known lung carcinogen: an analysis of OSHA compliance inspections, 1990-2000. Am J Ind Med. 2002;42:378-83 pubmed
    ..Further investigations should examine whether state plans provide weaker enforcement than federal OSHA. ..
  8. Perlow R, Broyde S. Toward understanding the mutagenicity of an environmental carcinogen: structural insights into nucleotide incorporation preferences. J Mol Biol. 2002;322:291-309 pubmed
    ..Structural rationalization of the incorporation preference opposite (+)-trans-anti-[BP]-N(2)-dG by T7 DNA polymerase contributes to providing a molecular explanation for mutations caused by this carcinogen-DNA adduct in a model system. ..
  9. de Kok T, Hogervorst J, Briedé J, van Herwijnen M, Maas L, Moonen E, et al. Genotoxicity and physicochemical characteristics of traffic-related ambient particulate matter. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2005;46:71-80 pubmed
    ..This implies that emission reduction strategies that take chemical and toxicological characteristics of PM into account may be useful for reducing the health risks associated with PM exposure. ..
  10. Manola K. Cytogenetics of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Eur J Haematol. 2009;83:391-405 pubmed publisher
  11. Wilbur S, Wohlers D, Paikoff S, Keith L, Faroon O. ATSDR evaluation of potential for human exposure to benzene. Toxicol Ind Health. 2008;24:399-442 pubmed publisher
  12. Nebert D, Dalton T. The role of cytochrome P450 enzymes in endogenous signalling pathways and environmental carcinogenesis. Nat Rev Cancer. 2006;6:947-60 pubmed
    ..We suggest a two-tiered system to predict an overall inter-individual risk of tumorigenesis based on DNA variants in certain 'early defence' CYP genes, combined with polymorphisms in various downstream target genes. ..
  13. Rogan E. Xenoestrogens, biotransformation, and differential risks for breast cancer. Altern Ther Health Med. 2007;13:S112-21 pubmed
  14. Romano K, Newman A, Zahran R, Millard J. DNA interstrand cross-linking by epichlorohydrin. Chem Res Toxicol. 2007;20:832-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, interstrand cross-linking by the two optical isomers of ECH correlated with their relative cytotoxicities, with R-ECH about twice as potent as S-ECH. ..
  15. Kalayarasan S, Sriram N, Sureshkumar A, Sudhandiran G. Chromium (VI)-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis is reduced by garlic and its derivative S-allylcysteine through the activation of Nrf2 in the hepatocytes of Wistar rats. J Appl Toxicol. 2008;28:908-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show the promising role of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense of AGE and SAC against chromium toxicity. ..
  16. Pathak N, Khandelwal S. Influence of cadmium on murine thymocytes: potentiation of apoptosis and oxidative stress. Toxicol Lett. 2006;165:121-32 pubmed
    ..These results clearly demonstrate the apoptogenic potential of Cd in murine thymocytes, following mitochondrial membrane depolarization, caspase activation and ROS and GSH acting as critical mediators. ..
  17. Pesheva M, Krastanova O, Stamenova R, Kantardjiev D, Venkov P. The response of Ty1 test to genotoxins. Arch Toxicol. 2008;82:779-85 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that the Ty1 test can complement existing assays in laboratory and environmental studies showing high sensitivity to a wider spectrum of carcinogenic genotoxins. ..
  18. Góralczyk K, Hernik A, Czaja K, Struciński P, Korcz W, Snopczyński T, et al. [Organohalogen compounds--new and old hazards for people]. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2010;61:109-17 pubmed
    ..Most of them shows antiandrogenic, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. ..
  19. Forkert P. Mechanisms of lung tumorigenesis by ethyl carbamate and vinyl carbamate. Drug Metab Rev. 2010;42:355-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings affirmed that the metabolism of EC and VC is a prerequisite for, or at least substantially contributes to, initiation of the cascade of events leading to lung tumor formation. ..
  20. Dahlgren J, Klein J, Takhar H. Cluster of Hodgkin's lymphoma in residents near a non-operational petroleum refinery. Toxicol Ind Health. 2008;24:683-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of its significantly increased value compared with the rest of the United States, it provides evidence of benzene's role as a causative agent in the etiology of Hodgkin's disease. ..
  21. Wang L, Jiang X. Plasma-induced reduction of chromium(VI) in an aqueous solution. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:8492-7 pubmed
    ..A possible reaction mechanism was proposed based on the reduction kinetics. Energy efficiency of Cr(VI) reduction in GDP was compared with that in other competitive processes. ..
  22. Yao B, Fu J, Hu E, Qi Y, Zhou Z. The effects of over-expression and suppression of Cdc25A on the S-phase checkpoint induced by benzo(a)pyrene. Toxicology. 2008;246:180-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results further demonstrated that Cdc25A was an effector in Chk1-Cdc25A-cyclin A/Cdk2 pathway of S-phase checkpoint elicited by the carcinogen BaP in 16HBE cells. ..
  23. Guseva Canu I, Rogel A, Samson E, Benhamou S, Laplanche A, Tirmarche M. Cancer mortality risk among biology research workers in France: first results of two retrospective cohorts studies. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2008;81:777-85 pubmed
    ..The positive trend of cancer mortality according to ionizing radiation exposure among bioCEA cohort needs to be confirmed with more precise assessment of exposures and information on individual risk factors. ..
  24. Konings E, Ashby P, Hamlet C, Thompson G. Acrylamide in cereal and cereal products: a review on progress in level reduction. Food Addit Contam. 2007;24 Suppl 1:47-59 pubmed
    ..Importantly, nutritional and toxicological issues, other than acrylamide, must also be considered so as to ensure that the steps taken to reduce acrylamide levels do not have other adverse effects on diet. ..
  25. Keane M, Stone S, Chen B, Slaven J, Schwegler Berry D, Antonini J. Hexavalent chromium content in stainless steel welding fumes is dependent on the welding process and shield gas type. J Environ Monit. 2009;11:418-24 pubmed publisher
    ..A short circuit He/Ar shielded process and a pulsed axial spray Ar/O(2) process were both identified as having substantially lower Cr(VI) generation rates per unit of wire used relative to the other processes studied...
  26. Burns C, Jammer B, Bodnar C. Mortality rates among chemical workers in the Kanawha Valley of West Virginia: 1940-1999. W V Med J. 2006;102:24-8 pubmed
    ..Updates of the entire cohort will continue and can be used as a comparison population for chemical specific studies within these three plants. ..
  27. Laconi E, Doratiotto S, Vineis P. The microenvironments of multistage carcinogenesis. Semin Cancer Biol. 2008;18:322-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A deeper understanding of the role(s) of tissue and tumor microenvironments in the pathogenesis of cancer is essential to design more effective strategies for the management of this disease. ..
  28. Singh R, Sram R, Binkova B, Kalina I, Popov T, Georgieva T, et al. The relationship between biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts, antioxidant status and genetic susceptibility following exposure to environmental air pollution in humans. Mutat Res. 2007;620:83-92 pubmed
    ..This effect was not observed for individuals carrying the null variant. ..
  29. Galanis A, Karapetsas A, Sandaltzopoulos R. Metal-induced carcinogenesis, oxidative stress and hypoxia signalling. Mutat Res. 2009;674:31-5 pubmed publisher
  30. Berman D, Crump K. A meta-analysis of asbestos-related cancer risk that addresses fiber size and mineral type. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2008;38 Suppl 1:49-73 pubmed publisher
    ..If similar data become available for Quebec, perhaps these two size distributions can be used to eliminate the discrepancy between these two studies...
  31. Huff J. Benzene-induced cancers: abridged history and occupational health impact. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2007;13:213-21 pubmed
    ..This paper presents a condensed history of the benzene bioassay story with mention of benzene-associated human cancers. ..
  32. Ochecka Szymańska A, Jaskółowska A, Białasiewicz D. [Joint Conference of The 42nd Clinical Day of Medical Parasitology & VIIIth Polish National Symposium "Ecology of the Contemporary Man". "Environmental Conditions of Parasitic Diseases and Mycoses, and other Ecological Issues". Wiad Parazytol. 2003;49:381-7 pubmed
  33. Crinnion W. Maternal levels of xenobiotics that affect fetal development and childhood health. Altern Med Rev. 2009;14:212-22 pubmed
    ..Recommendations for maternal testing and dietary changes to avoid the greatest sources of exposure are also included. ..
  34. Saha S, Mistri R, Ray B. Rapid and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of six carcinogenic aromatic amines in mainstream cigarette smoke by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:3059-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The method showed excellent reproducibility and was also rapid, selective and robust for aromatic amine determination from cigarette smoke. ..
  35. Pereira L, Bicalho L, Campos da Paz Lopes M, de Sousa T, Báo S, de Fátima Menezes Almeida Santos M, et al. DNA damage and apoptosis induced by Pteridium aquilinum aqueous extract in the oral cell lines HSG and OSCC-3. J Oral Pathol Med. 2009;38:441-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the oral cavity is the first site of contact with ingested toxic substances, the interaction of bracken fern composites with oral cell lines has not yet been studied...
  36. Boyle S, Kakouli Duarte T. The effects of chromium VI on the fitness and on the beta-tubulin genes during in vivo development of the nematode Steinernema feltiae. Sci Total Environ. 2008;404:56-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings constitute this organism appropriate for further investigation for the development of sub-lethal end points and biomarkers for the detection and biomonitoring of chromium VI contamination in soil. ..
  37. Steinsvåg K, Bratveit M, Moen B, Austgulen L, Hollund B, Haaland I, et al. Expert assessment of exposure to carcinogens in Norway's offshore petroleum industry. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2008;18:175-82 pubmed
    ..The university experts and the industry experts' assessments had no apparent differences. Further validation of the exposure assessment is suggested, such as by new sampling data or observational studies. ..
  38. Su S, Yang L, Zhang W, Jin Y, Nie J, Tong J. [p16 and MGMT gene methylation in sputum cells of uranium workers]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2006;24:92-5 pubmed
    ..00%-40.00%) with the increase of the accumulated exposure dosage of the radon daughters (P < 0.01). The methylation of p16 and MGMT gene is related to the accumulate exposure dosage of the radon daughters. ..
  39. Alexandrov K, Rojas M, Satarug S. The critical DNA damage by benzo(a)pyrene in lung tissues of smokers and approaches to preventing its formation. Toxicol Lett. 2010;198:63-8 pubmed publisher
  40. Abbas H, Ali F. Study the effect of hexavalent chromium on some biochemical, citotoxicological and histopathological aspects of the Orechromis spp. fish. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007;10:3973-82 pubmed
    ..Histopathological changes were seen in liver, muscle and gills sections of chromium-exposed fishes. The obtained results were discussed in the study research. ..
  41. Lee L, Chen C, Chang Y, Liou S, Wang J. An estimation of the health impact of groundwater pollution caused by dumping of chlorinated solvents. Sci Total Environ. 2010;408:1271-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated a practical approach for comparative health risk assessment using QALY as the common unit. This approach can be used for policy decisions based on possible health risks. ..
  42. Fucic A, Znaor A, Strnad M, van der Hel O, Aleksandrov A, Miskov S, et al. Chromosome damage and cancer risk in the workplace: the example of cytogenetic surveillance in Croatia. Toxicol Lett. 2007;172:4-11 pubmed
    ..72). Recommendations for future strategies comprise the inclusion of predictive biomarkers in surveillance programs, the definition of a regulatory framework, and their possible use for the identification of individual risk profiles. ..
  43. Anderson L. Environmental genotoxicants/carcinogens and childhood cancer: bridgeable gaps in scientific knowledge. Mutat Res. 2006;608:136-56 pubmed
    ..Investigations of interactions between factors may be key to understanding risk. Finally, fathers and newborn infants should receive more attention as especially sensitive targets. ..
  44. Liang C, Jang C, Liu C, Lin K, Lin M. An integrated GIS-based approach in assessing carcinogenic risks via food-chain exposure in arsenic-affected groundwater areas. Environ Toxicol. 2010;25:113-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The integrated GIS-based approach can provide fishery administrators with an effective management strategy at specific fish ponds with high risks to human health. ..
  45. Halford N, Muttucumaru N, Curtis T, Parry M. Genetic and agronomic approaches to decreasing acrylamide precursors in crop plants. Food Addit Contam. 2007;24 Suppl 1:26-36 pubmed
  46. Suneela M, Reddy M, Reddy R. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of Jeedimetla Industrial Development Area-Hyderabad. J Environ Sci Eng. 2004;46:245-8 pubmed
    ..These variations in the concentration can be attributed to their source and climatic conditions during sampling. ..
  47. Kiyosawa N, Kwekel J, Burgoon L, Williams K, Tashiro C, Chittim B, et al. o,p'-DDT elicits PXR/CAR-, not ER-, mediated responses in the immature ovariectomized rat liver. Toxicol Sci. 2008;101:350-63 pubmed
    ..Based on the species-specific differences in CAR regulation, the extrapolation of rodent DDT hepatocarcinogenicity to humans warrants further investigation. ..
  48. Chrysochoou M, Fakra S, Marcus M, Moon D, Dermatas D. Microstructural analyses of Cr(VI) speciation in chromite ore processing residue (COPR). Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43:5461-6 pubmed
    ..Treatment of HB COPR is challenging in terms of dissolving the acidity-resistant, inaccessible Cr(VI) compounds; the same applies to approximately 50% of Cr(VI) in GB COPR. ..
  49. Wang G, Deng Y, Lin T. Cancer risk assessment from trihalomethanes in drinking water. Sci Total Environ. 2007;387:86-95 pubmed
    ..Based on the results of the cancer risks calculated from each THM species, the regulatory issue of the THMs was also discussed. ..
  50. Sahota H, Singh K, Singh M, Singh S, Papp Z. Diurnal and monthly variation of indoor radon and thoron progeny concentrations at a hillside place of northern India. J Environ Sci Eng. 2004;46:233-8 pubmed
    ..20 Bq m(-3) and 0.235 Bq m(-3), respectively, over the period August to November 2003. Both, EECRn and EECTh show a negative correlation with temperature. ..
  51. Keith L, Moffett D, Rosemond Z, Wohlers D. ATSDR evaluation of health effects of tungsten and relevance to public health. Toxicol Ind Health. 2007;23:347-87 pubmed
    ..It contains descriptions and evaluations of toxicological studies and epidemiological investigations and provides conclusions, where possible, on the relevance of toxicity and toxicokinetic data to public health. ..
  52. Gómez Raposo C, de Castro Carpeno J, Gonzalez Baron M. [Causes of lung cancer: smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational and environmental exposures and genetic predisposition]. Med Clin (Barc). 2007;128:390-6 pubmed
  53. Cebulska Wasilewska A, Pawłyk I, Panek A, Wiecheć A, Kalina I, Popov T, et al. Exposure to environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: influences on cellular susceptibility to DNA damage (sampling Kosice and Sofia). Mutat Res. 2007;620:145-54 pubmed
    ..These results confirm that environmental exposure to c-PAHs can alter the ability of blood lymphocytes to repair DNA damage and, as a result could potentially lead to effects that are hazardous to human health. ..