Summary: Agents capable of exerting a harmful effect on the body.

Top Publications

  1. Lapczynski A, Lalko J, Politano V, McGinty D, Bhatia S, Letizia C, et al. Fragrance material review on alpha-iso-methylionone. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45 Suppl 1:S280-9 pubmed
    ..A toxicologic and dermatologic review of alpha-iso-methylionone when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. ..
  2. Brodsky B, Wormser U. Protection from toxicants. Curr Probl Dermatol. 2007;34:76-86 pubmed
    ..In addition, the ointment should be left on the skin long enough for achieving the therapeutic effect. This simple topical treatment can prevent suffering, skin transplantation and complications associated with skin burns. ..
  3. Feuillet S, Tazi A. [Acute interstitial pneumonia: diagnostic approach and management]. Rev Mal Respir. 2011;28:809-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Initial therapeutic management includes symptomatic measures, broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment adapted to the clinical context, frequently combined with systemic corticosteroid therapy. ..
  4. Kucuk C, Sozuer E, Gursoy S, Canoz O, Artis T, Akcan A, et al. Treatment with Met-RANTES decreases bacterial translocation in experimental colitis. Am J Surg. 2006;191:77-83 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that chemokine receptor antagonists may potentially be useful in the treatment of IBDs. ..
  5. Guitart R, Giménez N. [What is a "poison"? Proposal of definition]. Med Clin (Barc). 2012;138:127-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The scientific knowledge needs accurate definitions to avoid ambiguities. ..
  6. Gherardi M, Gordiani A, Gatto M. Development and validation of method for analysis of some ototoxic solvents in saliva matrix by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2010;878:2391-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method is a highly sensitive, versatile and flexible technique for the biological monitoring of exposure to ototoxic solvents by saliva analysis. ..
  7. Pelham C, Jimenez T, Rodova M, Rudolph A, Chipps E, Islam M. Regulation of HFE expression by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) through an inverted repeat DNA sequence in the distal promoter. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1829:1257-1265 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PARP1 binding to the inverted repeat sequence on the HFE promoter may serve as a novel iron sensing mechanism as increased iron level can trigger PARP1 cleavage and relief of HFE transcriptional repression. ..
  8. Bostanci M, Bagirici F. Neuroprotective effect of aminoguanidine on iron-induced neurotoxicity. Brain Res Bull. 2008;76:57-62 pubmed publisher
    ..It was found that aminoguanidine decreased mean neuron loss from 43.4% to 20.3%. Results of the present study suggest that aminoguanidine may attenuate the neurotoxic effects of iron by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase. ..
  9. Inui K, Wang X, Qiu Y, Tsuji T, Nakata H, Kakigi R. Cortical processing of noxious information in humans: a magnetoencephalographic study. Suppl Clin Neurophysiol. 2006;59:127-33 pubmed

More Information


  1. Wang W, Duan B, Xu H, Xu L, Xu T. Calcium-permeable acid-sensing ion channel is a molecular target of the neurotoxic metal ion lead. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:2497-505 pubmed
    ..Because ASIC1b and -3 subunits are mainly expressed in peripheral neurons, our data identified ASIC1a-containing Ca2+-permeable ASIC as a novel central target of Pb2+ action, which may contribute to Pb2+ neurotoxicity. ..
  2. Imbe H, Okamoto K, Donishi T, Senba E, Kimura A. Involvement of descending facilitation from the rostral ventromedial medulla in the enhancement of formalin-evoked nocifensive behavior following repeated forced swim stress. Brain Res. 2010;1329:103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the descending facilitation from the RVM may be involved in the enhancement of formalin-evoked nocifensive behavior following the forced swim stress. ..
  3. Guo J, Pukkala E, Kyyrönen P, Lindbohm M, Heikkilä P, Kauppinen T. Testicular cancer, occupation and exposure to chemical agents among Finnish men in 1971-1995. Cancer Causes Control. 2005;16:97-103 pubmed
    ..Risk of testicular cancer increased only in four occupations. Pesticides, textile dust, and some organic solvents may be related to an excess risk of seminoma. ..
  4. Okada H, Watanabe Y, Inoue T, Kobayashi T, Kanno Y, Shiota G, et al. Transgene-derived hepatocyte growth factor attenuates reactive renal fibrosis in aristolochic acid nephrotoxicity. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2003;18:2515-23 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a possible therapeutic efficacy for renal interstitial fibrosis following tubular degeneration even of low-dose HGF. ..
  5. Nazli M, Hismiogullari E, Thippeswamy T, Morris R. How central is nitric oxide (NO) to the activation of c-fos in spinal neurones following noxious peripheral stimulation in the rat?. Brain Res. 2001;888:172-175 pubmed
    ..Additionally very little colocalization between NOS and c-fos following noxious stimulation was found. Collectively these data give no support for a role for NO in the noxiously evoked induction of c-fos. ..
  6. Ma D, Mizurini D, Assumpção T, Li Y, Qi Y, Kotsyfakis M, et al. Desmolaris, a novel factor XIa anticoagulant from the salivary gland of the vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) inhibits inflammation and thrombosis in vivo. Blood. 2013;122:4094-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Desmolaris emerges as a novel anticoagulant targeting FXIa under conditions in which the coagulation activation, particularly the contact pathway, plays a major pathological role. ..
  7. Mantone J. Shrinking technology. Nanotechnology holds the promise of spectacular medical advances, including a cure for cancer, but critics warn of dire consequences. Mod Healthc. 2003;33:32-3, 35 pubmed
  8. Lim S, Lam C, Schoenung J. Quantity-based and toxicity-based evaluation of the U.S. Toxics Release Inventory. J Hazard Mater. 2010;178:49-56 pubmed publisher
    ..As the chemicals are aggregated to the state and industry sector levels, the discrepancies between the evaluation methods are less significant. ..
  9. Hewitt D, Gandy J. Characterization of a fatal methyl bromide exposure by analysis of the water cooler. Am J Ind Med. 2009;52:579-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The water cooler analysis represented a unique method of retrospectively verifying and quantifying exposure to MeBr. ..
  10. Shulga O, Palmer C. Detection of V-type nerve agent degradation products at electrodes modified by PPy/PQQ using CaCl2 as supporting electrolyte. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2006;385:1116-23 pubmed
    ..38 V. Linear calibration plots were observed for these compounds. The detection limits of 4.5 and 3 microM were obtained for DMAET and DEAET respectively, with sensitivities of 1.18 and 1.37 nA microM(-1) cm(-2). ..
  11. Hazra R, Ray K, Guha D. Inhibitory role of Acorus calamus in ferric chloride-induced epileptogenesis in rat. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2007;26:947-53 pubmed publisher
  12. Yang L, Kemadjou J, Zinsmeister C, Bauer M, Legradi J, Muller F, et al. Transcriptional profiling reveals barcode-like toxicogenomic responses in the zebrafish embryo. Genome Biol. 2007;8:R227 pubmed
    ..Our work provides proof-of-principle for the use of the zebrafish embryo as a toxicogenomic model and highlights its potential for systematic, large-scale analysis of the effects of chemicals on the developing vertebrate embryo. ..
  13. Polgár E, Campbell A, MacIntyre L, Watanabe M, Todd A. Phosphorylation of ERK in neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing neurons in laminae III and IV of the rat spinal dorsal horn following noxious stimulation. Mol Pain. 2007;3:4 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that lamina III/IV NK1r-immunoreactive neurons show receptor internalisation and ERK phosphorylation after mechanical, thermal or chemical noxious stimuli. ..
  14. Juang R, Tseng K. Experimental investigation of bio-removal of toxic organic pollutants from highly saline solutions in a triphasic system. J Hazard Mater. 2010;178:706-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The application potentials of such a triphasic process for the removal of toxic organics (phenol) from highly saline and acidic wastewaters were finally demonstrated in fed-batch mode. ..
  15. Rappaport S, Li H, Grigoryan H, Funk W, Williams E. Adductomics: characterizing exposures to reactive electrophiles. Toxicol Lett. 2012;213:83-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we selectively review the literature regarding the potential of adductomics to partially elucidate the human exposome, with particular attention to the HSA-Cys(34) subadductome. ..
  16. Woollard K, Sturgeon S, Chin Dusting J, Salem H, Jackson S. Erythrocyte hemolysis and hemoglobin oxidation promote ferric chloride-induced vascular injury. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:13110-8 pubmed publisher
  17. Mumby M. The 3D structure of protein phosphatase 2A: new insights into a ubiquitous regulator of cell signaling. ACS Chem Biol. 2007;2:99-103 pubmed
    ..The structures also explain how specific site mutations may lead to cancer and suggest a novel role for PP2A methylation in the formation of PP2A holoenzymes. ..
  18. de Castro F, Silos Santiago I, Lopez De Armentia M, Barbacid M, Belmonte C. Corneal innervation and sensitivity to noxious stimuli in trkA knockout mice. Eur J Neurosci. 1998;10:146-52 pubmed
    ..On the basis of our results, we propose that these surviving cells are polymodal nociceptive neurones, sensitive to mechanical stimulation, noxious heat and acid. ..
  19. Macpherson L, Dubin A, Evans M, Marr F, Schultz P, Cravatt B, et al. Noxious compounds activate TRPA1 ion channels through covalent modification of cysteines. Nature. 2007;445:541-5 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our data indicate that covalent modification of reactive cysteines within TRPA1 can cause channel activation, rapidly signalling potential tissue damage through the pain pathway...
  20. Burkart W, Jung T. Health risks from combined exposures: mechanistic considerations on deviations from additivity. Mutat Res. 1998;411:119-28 pubmed
    ..However, an experimental proof of the quantitative assessment of the contribution of synergistic interactions to the total detriment from natural and man-made toxicants is remote. Surprises therefore cannot be excluded. ..
  21. Fuchs J, Kaviani A, Watson K, Thompson J, Wilson J, Fauza D. Intratracheal pulmonary ventilation improves gas exchange during laparoscopy in a pediatric lung injury model. J Pediatr Surg. 2005;40:22-5 pubmed
    ..Intratracheal pulmonary ventilation may be a safer intraoperative mode of ventilation for neonates and children with respiratory failure who require laparoscopy. ..
  22. Komiyama O, Arai M, Kawara M, Kobayashi K, De Laat A. Pain patterns and mandibular dysfunction following experimental trapezius muscle pain. J Orofac Pain. 2005;19:119-26 pubmed
    ..The present results suggest that experimental trapezius muscle pain can spread over a wide area and is also accompanied by a temporary reduction of mouth opening. ..
  23. Juergensmeyer M, Gingras B, Scheffrahn R, Weinberg M. Methyl bromide fumigant lethal to Bacillus anthracis spores. J Environ Health. 2007;69:24-6, 46; quiz 50 pubmed
    ..In the event of a bioterrorist attack, MB might serve as an excellent decontaminating agent because it leaves no residue and does not damage furnishings and commodities. ..
  24. Kaiser J. Hormesis. Sipping from a poisoned chalice. Science. 2003;302:376-9 pubmed
  25. Kim J, Hong S, Lee C, Jeon E, Choi A. Relationship between olfactory function and olfactory neuronal population in C57BL6 mice injected intraperitoneally with 3-methylindole. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;143:837-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The food-finding test would be a useful tool that could be easily performed without special training in the 3-methylindole-treated C57BL6 anosmic mouse model. ..
  26. Muzi G, Locati E, Murgia N, Ambrosio G, Abbritti G. [Evaluation of the effects of occupational noxae on the cardiovascular system]. Med Lav. 2004;95:145-57 pubmed
    ..assessment of epidemiological and clinical methods and tools for evaluating the effects of occupational pathogenic noxae on the cardiovascular system...
  27. Srivastava A, Kalita J, Haris M, Gupta R, Misra U. Radiological and histological changes following cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in a rat model. Neurosci Res. 2009;65:343-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, ferric chloride induced CVST in the rat produces cytotoxic edema in early stage followed by vasogenic edema which is related to recanalization of the superior sagittal sinus. ..
  28. Duerden E, Albanese M. Localization of pain-related brain activation: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging data. Hum Brain Mapp. 2013;34:109-49 pubmed publisher
  29. Matsuoka Y, Masuda H, Yokoyama M, Kihara K. Protective effects of bilirubin against cyclophosphamide induced hemorrhagic cystitis in rats. J Urol. 2008;179:1160-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that bilirubin may have therapeutic potential against bladder inflammatory insults such as cyclophosphamide induced cystitis. ..
  30. Woulfe D, Lilliendahl J, August S, Rauova L, Kowalska M, Abrink M, et al. Serglycin proteoglycan deletion induces defects in platelet aggregation and thrombus formation in mice. Blood. 2008;111:3458-67 pubmed
    ..We propose that SG-/- platelet function deficiencies are related to inadequate packaging and secretion of selected alpha-granule proteins and reduced secretion of dense granule contents critical for platelet activation. ..
  31. St Charles F, McAughey J, Shepperd C. Methodologies for the quantitative estimation of toxicant dose to cigarette smokers using physical, chemical and bioanalytical data. Inhal Toxicol. 2013;25:383-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Of toxicological importance is that the dose correlations provide an estimate of the metabolic conversion of a constituent to its respective biomarker. ..
  32. Bonde J. Occupational causes of male infertility. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2013;20:234-9 pubmed publisher
  33. Reglodi D, Kiss P, Szabadfi K, Atlasz T, Gabriel R, Horvath G, et al. PACAP is an endogenous protective factor-insights from PACAP-deficient mice. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;48:482-92 pubmed
    ..In summary, lack of endogenous PACAP leads to higher vulnerability in a number of injuries in the nervous system and peripheral organs, supporting the hypothesis that PACAP is part of the endogenous cytoprotective machinery. ..
  34. Andreu J, Vila M, Hulme P. An assessment of stakeholder perceptions and management of noxious alien plants in Spain. Environ Manage. 2009;43:1244-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Managers also expressed their concern about the fact that much scientific research is concerned with the ecology of alien plants rather than with specific cost-efficient strategies to manage alien species. ..
  35. Hasegawa M, Ide M, Fujita T, Takenaka S. Urinary metabolic fingerprinting for alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate-induced intrahepatic cholestasis in rats using Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Toxicol Pathol. 2008;36:818-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, it is possible to monitor the progression of and recovery from drug-induced hepatotoxicity by urinary metabolic fingerprinting with FT-ICR MS and to search for potential biomarkers involved in intrahepatic cholestasis. ..
  36. Marshall E. POLITICS. Antiterror law intrusive, U.K. academic groups warn. Science. 2005;310:1101 pubmed
  37. Ou L, Thomas J, Allen L, Vu J, Dickson D. Emissions and distribution of methyl bromide in field beds applied at two rates and covered with two types of plastic mulches. J Environ Sci Health B. 2007;42:15-20 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, VIF promoted retention of MBr in the root zone and, if volatilization loss from bed edges can be blocked, volatilization loss from VIF-covered beds should be negligible. ..
  38. Aleman M, Walton B, Byrnes J, Wang J, Heisler M, Machlus K, et al. Elevated prothrombin promotes venous, but not arterial, thrombosis in mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:1829-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reconcile previously discordant findings on thrombin generation in hyperprothrombinemic individuals measured ex vivo and in vitro, and show elevated prothrombin promotes venous, but not arterial, thrombosis in vivo. ..
  39. Kumar V, Kinsella L. Healthy brain aging: effect of head injury, alcohol and environmental toxins. Clin Geriatr Med. 2010;26:29-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the many environmental toxins suspected of causing cognitive dysfunction, lead intoxication has the strongest evidence to support a link. ..
  40. Lee J, Jeong H, Park E, Hwang J, Bae E, Ahn J, et al. A role for benzo[a]pyrene and Slug in invasive properties of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis: a potential molecular link between smoking and radiographic progression. Joint Bone Spine. 2013;80:621-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data showed that B[a]P regulates the invasive properties of RA FLS through Slug expression. This mechanism may provide a novel molecular link underlying the association between smoking and increased radiographic progression in RA. ..
  41. Tanaka E, Terada M, Misawa S. Cytochrome P450 2E1: its clinical and toxicological role. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2000;25:165-75 pubmed
    ..In the future, methods for fully analysing the function of CYP2E1 using knockout mice will be established. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding of the role of human CYP2E1 in drug metabolism. ..
  42. Hougaard K, Hansen A. Enhancement of developmental toxicity effects of chemicals by gestational stress. A review. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007;29:425-45 pubmed
    ..Interactive response seems to depend on stressor severity and timing of chemical exposure relative to maternal stress which should be further scrutinized. ..
  43. Svensson P, Wang K, Arendt Nielsen L, Cairns B, Sessle B. Pain effects of glutamate injections into human jaw or neck muscles. J Orofac Pain. 2005;19:109-18 pubmed
    ..The relatively limited overlap between the sensory manifestations of pain from masseter and splenius muscles may have potential implications for diagnosis and management of myofascial pain complaints in the craniofacial and neck region. ..
  44. Sukhotnik I, Shteinberg D, Ben Lulu S, Bashenko Y, Mogilner J, Ure B, et al. Transforming growth factor-alpha stimulates enterocyte proliferation and accelerates intestinal recovery following methotrexate-induced intestinal mucositis in a rat and a cell culture model. Pediatr Surg Int. 2008;24:1303-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations may have significant implications for the treatment of patients on chemotherapy who develop severe mucositis. ..
  45. Wang L, Miller C, Swarthout R, Rao M, Mackman N, Taubman M. Vascular smooth muscle-derived tissue factor is critical for arterial thrombosis after ferric chloride-induced injury. Blood. 2009;113:705-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This mouse model should be valuable in determining the contribution of VSMC-derived TF in other TF-mediated phenomena, such as restenosis. ..
  46. Paules R. Toxicogenomics and environmental diseases: the search for biomarkers predictive of adverse effects. Med Lav. 2006;97:322-3 pubmed
  47. Bird J, Wang X, Smith P, Barbera F, Huang C, Schumacher W. A platelet target for venous thrombosis? P2Y1 deletion or antagonism protects mice from vena cava thrombosis. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2012;34:199-207 pubmed publisher
    ..However as with many antithrombotic agents the benefit comes at the potential price of an increase in provoked bleeding times. ..
  48. Mathur R. Effect of chronic intermittent exposure to AM radiofrequency field on responses to various types of noxious stimuli in growing rats. Electromagn Biol Med. 2008;27:266-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that amplitude modulated RF field differentially affects the mechanisms involved in the processing of various noxious stimuli. ..
  49. Belsito D, Bickers D, Bruze M, Calow P, Greim H, Hanifin J, et al. A toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of related esters and alcohols of cinnamic acid and cinnamyl alcohol when used as fragrance ingredients. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45 Suppl 1:S1-23 pubmed
    ..An evaluation and review of a structurally related group of fragrance materials. ..
  50. Pearse D, Mirza A, Leah J. Jun, Fos and Krox in the hippocampus after noxious stimulation: simultaneous-input-dependent expression and nuclear speckling. Brain Res. 2001;894:193-208 pubmed
    ..Thus C-fibre stimulation does affect transcription factor activity in the hippocampus; and the strong responses of some ITFs to simultaneous inputs points to their having a role as 'genetic coincidence detectors' in the hippocampus. ..
  51. Youngentob S, Schwob J. Odorant identification and quality perception following methyl bromide-induced lesions of the olfactory epithelium. Behav Neurosci. 2006;120:1346-55 pubmed
    ..These results provide strong support for the proposition that the regional variations in mucosal sensitivities within and across olfactory receptor gene expression zones are fundamentally important for the encoding of odorant quality. ..
  52. Büch T, Schäfer E, Demmel M, Boekhoff I, Thiermann H, Gudermann T, et al. Functional expression of the transient receptor potential channel TRPA1, a sensor for toxic lung inhalants, in pulmonary epithelial cells. Chem Biol Interact. 2013;206:462-71 pubmed publisher
  53. Riley J, Robinson M, Wise E, Myers C, Fillingim R. Sex differences in the perception of noxious experimental stimuli: a meta-analysis. Pain. 1998;74:181-7 pubmed
    ..The results of this study compels to caution authors to obtain adequate sample sizes and hope that this meta-analytic review can aid in the determination of sample size for future studies. ..