radioactive soil pollutants


Summary: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.

Top Publications

  1. Yablokov A, Nesterenko V. 1. Chernobyl contamination through time and space. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1181:5-30 pubmed publisher
  2. Schneider K, Kuznetzov V, Sanzharova N, Kanter U, Telikh K, Khlopuk M. Soil-to-plant and soil-to-grain transfer of (137)Cs in field-grown maize hybrids during two contrasting seasons: assessing the phenotypic variability and its genetic component. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2008;47:241-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings are discussed with respect to new approaches towards a better understanding of (137)Cs accumulation and its potential reduction in plants...
  3. Yablokov A, Nesterenko V, Nesterenko A. 8. Atmospheric, water, and soil contamination after Chernobyl. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1181:223-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This transfer is one of the important mechanisms, observed in recent years, that leads to increased doses of internal irradiation among people in the contaminated territories. ..
  4. Stepanova E, Karmaus W, Naboka M, Vdovenko V, Mousseau T, Shestopalov V, et al. Exposure from the Chernobyl accident had adverse effects on erythrocytes, leukocytes, and, platelets in children in the Narodichesky region, Ukraine: a 6-year follow-up study. Environ Health. 2008;7:21 pubmed publisher
    ..The study is the first longitudinal analysis from a large cohort of children after the Chernobyl accident. The findings suggest persistent adverse hematological effects associated with residential 137Cs exposure. ..
  5. Anspaugh L. Doses to members of the general public and observed effects on biota: Chernobyl Forum update. J Environ Radioact. 2007;96:13-9 pubmed
    ..Effects on non-human biota were observed that ranged from minor to lethal; the current increase in the number and diversity of species in the most contaminated area is due to absence of human pressure. ..
  6. Gerstmann U, Schimmack W. Soil-to-grain transfer of fallout 90Sr for 28 winter wheat cultivars. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2006;45:187-94 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that 90Sr rather than 137Cs might be the limiting radionuclide concerning the use of contaminated land for wheat production. Thus, more efforts might be necessary identifying wheat cultivars with minimum 90Sr uptake...
  7. Gastberger M, Steinhausler F, Gerzabek M, Hubmer A. Fallout strontium and caesium transfer from vegetation to cow milk at two lowland and two Alpine pastures. J Environ Radioact. 2001;54:267-73 pubmed
    ..0005 to 0.0012 dl-1 and correlated with the stable strontium transfer coefficient (0.0006-0.0013 dl-1) with the lower values found on the intensively managed pastures. The 137Cs transfer coefficient ranged from 0.0009-0.0045 dl-1. ..
  8. Soudek P, Valenová S, Vavríková Z, Vanek T. (137)Cs and (90)Sr uptake by sunflower cultivated under hydroponic conditions. J Environ Radioact. 2006;88:236-50 pubmed
    ..Accumulation of about 22% of initial activity of (90)Sr was determined in plants grown on the medium with 8 mM calcium ions...
  9. Ioannides K, Papachristodoulou C, Mertzimekis T, Tzialla C. Effect of soil amendments on radiocesium transfer to alfalfa. Health Phys. 2003;84:637-41 pubmed
    ..Prussian Blue supplements had practically no effect on soil-to-alfalfa transfer of the radionuclide. ..

More Information


  1. Seaman J, Meehan T, Bertsch P. Immobilization of cesium-137 and uranium in contaminated sediments using soil amendments. J Environ Qual. 2001;30:1206-13 pubmed
    ..The current results demonstrate the effectiveness of soil amendments in reducing the mobility of U and Cs+, which makes in-place immobilization an effective remediation alternative. ..
  2. Zhu Y, Smolders E. Plant uptake of radiocaesium: a review of mechanisms, regulation and application. J Exp Bot. 2000;51:1635-45 pubmed
    ..Phytoremediation may be a possible option to decontaminate radiocaesium-contaminated soils, but its major limitation is that it takes an excessively long time (tens of years) and produces large volumes of waste...
  3. Geraskin S, Dikarev V, Zyablitskaya Y, Oudalova A, Spirin Y, Alexakhin R. Genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl fallout to agricultural crops. J Environ Radioact. 2003;66:155-69 pubmed
    ..Analysis of genetic variability in three sequential generations of rye and wheat revealed increased cytogenetic damage in plants exposed to chronic irradiation during the 2nd and 3rd years. ..
  4. Likhtarev I, Kovgan L, Jacob P, Anspaugh L. Chernobyl accident: retrospective and prospective estimates of external dose of the population of Ukraine. Health Phys. 2002;82:290-303 pubmed
    ..A critical group of 22,500 persons who received individual doses of >20 mSv is identified for consideration of increased social and medical attention...
  5. Carbol P, Solatie D, Erdmann N, Nylen T, Betti M. Deposition and distribution of Chernobyl fallout fission products and actinides in a Russian soil profile. J Environ Radioact. 2003;68:27-46 pubmed
    ..The results presented in this article are valid for this single soil profile and should not be generalised unless validated in a more rigorous study of a larger number of soil profiles. ..
  6. Anspaugh L, Simon S, Gordeev K, Likhtarev I, Maxwell R, Shinkarev S. Movement of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems by physical processes. Health Phys. 2002;82:669-79 pubmed
    ..Chernobyl-related results on the movement of radionuclides into the soil column are presented, as is a revised model for this process based upon recent results from Ukraine. ..
  7. Schimmack W, Zimmermann G, Sommer M, Dietl F, Schultz W, Paretzke H. Soil-to-grain transfer of fallout 137Cs for 28 winter wheat cultivars as observed in field experiments. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2004;42:275-84 pubmed
  8. Lee S, Wagiran H, Ramli A, Apriantoro N, Wood A. Radiological monitoring: terrestrial natural radionuclides in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. J Environ Radioact. 2009;100:368-74 pubmed publisher
    ..An isodose map for the Kinta District was also produced. ..
  9. Duquene L, Vandenhove H, Tack F, Van Hees M, Wannijn J. Diffusive gradient in thin FILMS (DGT) compared with soil solution and labile uranium fraction for predicting uranium bioavailability to ryegrass. J Environ Radioact. 2010;101:140-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The DGT technique did not provide significant advantages over conventional methods to predict uranium uptake by plants. ..
  10. Farai I, Isinkaye M. Radiological safety assessment of surface-water dam sediments used as building material in southwestern Nigeria. J Radiol Prot. 2009;29:85-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The values obtained are lower than internationally recommended limits for building materials. The results indicate an acceptably low radiological risk arising from the use of the sediments in the construction of buildings. ..
  11. Garcia Talavera M, Martinez M, Matarranz J, Ramos L. Setting radon-specific release criteria and demonstrating compliance for land affected by NORM. Appl Radiat Isot. 2008;66:1567-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper addresses some of the problems encountered in translating the (222)Rn criterion into site-specific release limits and in demonstrating compliance with them. ..
  12. Wang T, Li M, Teng S. Cs diffusion in local Taiwan laterite with different solution concentration, pH and packing density. Appl Radiat Isot. 2008;66:1183-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our results show that Cs diffusion is unaffected by the given packing density, indicating the interlaminary space is not the major determinant of Cs adsorption and diffusion in LTL. ..
  13. Thiry Y, Van Hees M. Evolution of pH, organic matter and (226)radium/calcium partitioning in U-mining debris following revegetation with pine trees. Sci Total Environ. 2008;393:111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Trees are effective at reducing hydrological release of many pollutants but in the mining debris studied, four decades of pine growth did not significantly promote (226)Ra remediation in the soil. ..
  14. Schaub M, Seth B, Alewell C. Determination of delta(18)O in soils: measuring conditions and a potential application. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2009;23:313-8 pubmed publisher
    ..For wetlands affected by soil erosion, we have found intermediate delta(18)O signatures which lie between typical signatures for upland and wetland sites and give evidence for the input of upland soil material through erosion. ..
  15. Ogiyama S, Takeda H, Ishii N, Uchida S. Migration of (14)C in the paddy soil-to-rice plant system after (14)C-acetic acid breakdown by microorganisms below the plow layer. J Environ Radioact. 2010;101:177-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Migration of (14)C derived from (14)C-acetic acid relied heavily upon changes of chemical forms and characteristics of (14)C-compound as caused by microorganisms in soil. ..
  16. Ogiyama S, Suzuki H, Inubushi K, Takeda H, Uchida S. Root-uptake of (14)C derived from acetic acid and (14)C transfer to rice edible parts. Appl Radiat Isot. 2010;68:256-64 pubmed publisher
    ..It was suggested that rice plant absorbed and assimilated (14)C through the plant roots not because of uptake of (14)C-acetic acid but because of uptake of (14)C in gaseous forms such as (14)CO(2). ..
  17. Mabit L, Bernard C. Assessment of spatial distribution of fallout radionuclides through geostatistics concept. J Environ Radioact. 2007;97:206-19 pubmed
    ..The cross-validation analysis showed that in the case of spatially structured data, OK is a better interpolation method than IDW1 or IDW2 for the assessment of potential radioactive contamination and/or pollution. ..
  18. Li J, Li Y, Wang Y, Wu J, Funk R, Hoffmann C. Applicability study of using in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry technique for 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) inventories measurement in grassland environments. Appl Radiat Isot. 2010;68:1143-9 pubmed publisher
  19. Saito Kokubu Y, Esaka F, Yasuda K, Magara M, Miyamoto Y, Sakurai S, et al. Plutonium isotopes derived from Nagasaki atomic bomb in the sediment of Nishiyama reservoir at Nagasaki, Japan. Appl Radiat Isot. 2007;65:465-8 pubmed
    ..The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in two layers were higher than the average, which showed that plutonium in these layers were made of those of nuclear tests added to those of the atomic bomb...
  20. Pace M, Mayes M, Jardine P, McKay L, Yin X, Mehlhorn T, et al. Transport of Sr2+ and SrEDTA2- in partially-saturated and heterogeneous sediments. J Contam Hydrol. 2007;91:267-87 pubmed
    ..Our results suggested that the sequestration of Sr(2+) in partially-saturated, heterogeneous sediments was most likely due to the formation of immobile water in drier regions having low hydraulic conductivities. ..
  21. Golikov V, Wallstrom E, Wohni T, Tanaka K, Endo S, Hoshi M. Evaluation of conversion coefficients from measurable to risk quantities for external exposure over contaminated soil by use of physical human phantoms. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2007;46:375-82 pubmed
    ..5 g cm(-2). Calculated and measured conversion coefficients from air kerma free-in-air to effective dose agreed within 12%. ..
  22. Appleton J, Miles J, Green B, Larmour R. Pilot study of the application of Tellus airborne radiometric and soil geochemical data for radon mapping. J Environ Radioact. 2008;99:1687-97 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the ways of validating radon maps modelled on the Tellus Project data will be to carry out additional indoor measurements in these areas. ..
  23. Saghirzadeh M, Gharaati M, Mohammadi S, Ghiassi Nejad M. Evaluation of DNA damage in the root cells of Allium cepa seeds growing in soil of high background radiation areas of Ramsar-Iran. J Environ Radioact. 2008;99:1698-702 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed high genotoxicity of radioactively contaminated soils. Also the linear increase in the DNA damage indicates that activation of repair enzymes is not triggered by exposure to radiation in HBRA. ..
  24. Abbady A. Evaluation of heat generation by radioactive decay of sedimentary rocks in Eastern Desert and Nile Valley, Egypt. Appl Radiat Isot. 2010;68:2020-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The corresponding values in Gebel Sarai are 69.6%, 26.9% and 3.5%, respectively. These data can be used to discuss the effects of the lateral variation of the RHP rate on the heat flux and the temperature fields in the upper crust. ..
  25. Othman I, Al Masri M. Impact of phosphate industry on the environment: a case study. Appl Radiat Isot. 2007;65:131-41 pubmed
    ..These results can be considered as baseline data and can be used to prove the effectiveness of any future pollution controls adopted. ..
  26. Ali M, Wasim M, Arif M, Zaidi J, Anwar Y, Saif F. Determination of the natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in the soil of Gilgit--a town in the foothills of Hindukush range. Health Phys. 2010;98 Suppl 2:S69-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The median annual effective dose rate produced by 137Cs was 0.11 microSv y-1. ..
  27. Neves O, Abreu M. Are uranium-contaminated soil and irrigation water a risk for human vegetables consumers? A study case with Solanum tuberosum L., Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Lactuca sativa L. Ecotoxicology. 2009;18:1130-6 pubmed publisher
  28. Dye S, Guillian E. Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino flux measurements. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:44-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This would require major, new antineutrino detection projects. The results of such projects could yield a greatly improved understanding of the deep interior of the Earth...
  29. Rahman S, Matiullah -, Mujahid S, Hussain S. Assessment of the radiological hazards due to naturally occurring radionuclides in soil samples collected from the north western areas of Pakistan. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;128:191-7 pubmed
    ..The aim of this work was to make a baseline data of natural radioactive elements for the soil of the area and to assess it radiological significance if used as a building material for the construction of houses. ..
  30. Oh J, Warwick P, Croudace I. Spatial distribution of (241)Am, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239,240)Pu and (241)Pu over 17 year periods in the Ravenglass saltmarsh, Cumbria, UK. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:1484-92 pubmed publisher
    ..There is evidence of surface erosion of the saltmarsh and redistribution of radionuclides in the saltmarsh using isotopic ratios of measured Pu. ..
  31. Ajayi O. Measurement of activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th for assessment of radiation hazards from soils of the southwestern region of Nigeria. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2009;48:323-32 pubmed publisher
    ..95 +/- 5.04 to 963.15 +/- 41.87 Bq kg(-1). Only the mean value of the representative level index exceeds the limit for areas of normal background radiation. All other indices show mean values that are lower than the recommended limits...
  32. Ateba J, Ateba P, Ben Bolie G, Abiama P, Abega C, Mvondo S. Natural background dose measurements in south Cameroon. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2010;140:81-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The corresponding annual effective dose rates in air were determined to be 0.267 mSv y(-1) in Ngombas and 0.307 mSv y(-1) in Bikoue. The level of radioactivity in the studied area is relatively high...
  33. Saghatchi F, Salouti M, Eslami A, Sharafi A. Natural radioactivity levels of (226)RA and (40)K in soil of Zanjan province, Iran. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2010;141:86-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1 Bq kg(-1) with the mean value of 497.4 + or - 162.6 Bq kg(-1). The mean values for absorbed dose rate in air and annual effective dose were determined as 62.6 + or - 16.5 nGy h(-1) and 0.076 + or - 0.02 mSv, respectively. ..
  34. Moon J, Roh Y, Phelps T, Phillips D, Watson D, Kim Y, et al. Physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of soil-saprolite cores from a field research site, Tennessee. J Environ Qual. 2006;35:1731-41 pubmed
    ..5.5 and <4, respectively), indicate that with appropriate addition of electron donors and nutrients bioremediation of U by metal reducing microorganisms may be possible. ..
  35. Jibiri N, Farai I, Alausa S. Estimation of annual effective dose due to natural radioactive elements in ingestion of foodstuffs in tin mining area of Jos-Plateau, Nigeria. J Environ Radioact. 2007;94:31-40 pubmed
    ..It ranged between 0.2 microSv y-1 (beans) and 2164 microSv y-1 (yam) while the annual external gamma effective dose in the farms due to soil radioactivity ranged between 228 microSv and 4065 microSv...
  36. Saxén R, Ilus E. Transfer and behaviour of 137Cs in two Finnish lakes and their catchments. Sci Total Environ. 2008;394:349-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Perch and pike were more efficient accumulators of caesium than the best indicators among the aquatic plants. In the terrestrial environment, caesium was most effectively accumulated by mushrooms. ..
  37. Abusini M, Al Ayasreh K, Al Jundi J. Determination of uranium, thorium and potassium activity concentrations in soil cores in Araba valley, Jordan. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;128:213-6 pubmed
    ..High potassium and iron content in some samples might be attributed to the active faults, which refer to the Dead sea transform fault. ..
  38. Chamizo E, Jimenez Ramos M, Wacker L, Vioque I, Calleja A, Garcia Leon M, et al. Isolation of Pu-isotopes from environmental samples using ion chromatography for accelerator mass spectrometry and alpha spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta. 2008;606:239-45 pubmed
    ..Some samples prepared with TEVA resins were measured as well by AMS. As it is shown in the text, there is a comfortable agreement between AS and AMS, which adequately validates the method. ..
  39. Al Masri M, Al Akel B, Nashawani A, Amin Y, Khalifa K, Al Ain F. Transfer of (40)K, (238)U, (210)Pb, and (210)Po from soil to plant in various locations in south of Syria. J Environ Radioact. 2008;99:322-31 pubmed
    ..In addition, several parameters affecting transfer factors of the radionuclides were evaluated. The results can be considered as base values for TF of natural radionuclides in the region. ..
  40. Moeller D, Ryan M, Cherry R, Sun L. Significance of 14C and 228Ra in terms of the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository. Health Phys. 2006;91:238-48 pubmed
    ..While it was recognized that, due to the time spans involved, these analyses were primarily an academic exercise, it is believed that the perspectives and accompanying insights are useful. ..
  41. Burger J, Gochfeld M, Kosson D, Powers C, Friedlander B, Stabin M, et al. Radionuclides in marine fishes and birds from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutians: establishing a baseline. Health Phys. 2007;92:265-79 pubmed
  42. Seftelis I, Nicolaou G, Trassanidis S, Tsagas F. Diurnal variation of radon progeny. J Environ Radioact. 2007;97:116-23 pubmed
    ..A mathematical model has been developed to describe the diurnal variation of the alpha-radioactivity in the air near the ground in terms of the above meteorological variables and ground level gamma-radioactivity. ..
  43. Frelon S, Chazel V, Tourlonias E, Blanchardon E, Bouisset P, Pourcelot L, et al. Risk assessment after internal exposure to black sand from Camargue: uptake and prospective dose calculation. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;127:64-7 pubmed
    ..Prospective dose assessment for both routes of intake show low risk after internal exposure to this sand. ..
  44. Pereira R, Antunes S, Marques S, Goncalves F. Contribution for tier 1 of the ecological risk assessment of Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Central Portugal): I soil chemical characterization. Sci Total Environ. 2008;390:377-86 pubmed
    ..The exclusion of other sites under evaluation, from the risk assessment process, requires additional data provided by soil screening ecotoxicological assays. ..
  45. Tomita J, Satake H, Fukuyama T, Sasaki K, Sakaguchi A, Yamamoto M. Radium geochemistry in Na-Cl type groundwater in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. J Environ Radioact. 2010;101:201-10 pubmed publisher
  46. Velasco H, Ayub J, Sansone U. Influence of crop types and soil properties on radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer factors in tropical and subtropical environments. J Environ Radioact. 2009;100:733-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Using these quantities, the Fv distributions of each data set was explored. Fv probability distribution is discussed to clarify the use of this empirical parameter in radioecological and radiological assessment models. ..
  47. Turhan S, Aykamis A, Kiliç A. Natural radionuclide content and radiological hazard associated with usage of quartzite sand samples from Ovacik-Silifke-Mersin open pit as building material in Turkey. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2009;136:101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..20 to 0.75, with a mean of 0.34 +/- 0.11, 0.23 to 0.77 with a mean of 0.39 +/- 0.12, 58.27 to 201.51 nGy h(-1) with a mean of 93.33 +/- 27.63 nGy h(-1) and 0.29 to 0.99 mSv with a mean of 0.46 +/- 0.14 mSv, respectively...
  48. Richards Z, Beger M, Pinca S, Wallace C. Bikini Atoll coral biodiversity resilience five decades after nuclear testing. Mar Pollut Bull. 2008;56:503-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest the highly diverse Rongelap Atoll to the east of Bikini may have contributed larval propagules to facilitate the partial resilience of coral biodiversity in the absence of additional anthropogenic threats. ..
  49. Ningappa C, Sannappa J, Chandrashekara M, Paramesh L. Concentrations of radon and its daughter products in and around Bangalore city. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;130:459-65 pubmed publisher
    ..0 to 163.6 with a median of 112.8 The concentrations of indoor radon and its daughter products and equivalent effective dose are discussed...
  50. Weesner A, Fairchild R. Concentration of (137)Cs in soil across Nebraska. Health Phys. 2008;94:574-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Dry soil bulk densities were calculated for each site based on soil type and used to calculate the area density of deposition. Area deposition densities up to 13,100 Bq m(-2) were measured, consistent with published estimates. ..
  51. Sobecky P, Coombs J. Horizontal gene transfer in metal and radionuclide contaminated soils. Methods Mol Biol. 2009;532:455-72 pubmed publisher
    ..e., toxic heavy metals and radionuclides). In addition, we present directions for future studies that could provide even greater insights into the contributions of HGT to adaptation for survival in mixed waste sites. ..
  52. Eikenberg J, Jaggi M, Beer H, Rüthi M, Zumsteg I. Separation techniques for low-level determination of actinides in soil samples. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:776-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The separation between U and Am is obtained quantitatively by decreasing the HNO(3) concentration from 3 to 0.25 M (stripping of the U-fraction) while Am can be easily eluted thereafter using 0.25 M HCl as complexation compound...
  53. Reyes E, Marques L. Uranium series disequilibria in ground waters from a fractured bedrock aquifer (Morungaba Granitoids--Southern Brazil): implications to the hydrochemical behavior of dissolved U and Ra. Appl Radiat Isot. 2008;66:1531-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Slightly acidic ground water percolation through heterogeneous host rock, associated with different recharge processes, may explain uranium and radium isotope behavior. ..