radioactive air pollutants
Summary: Pollutants present in air which exhibit radioactivity.
- Valles I, Camacho A, Ortega X, Serrano I, Blazquez S, Perez S. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in airborne particulate samples collected in Barcelona (Spain). J Environ Radioact. 2009;100:102-7 pubmed publisher..An inverse relationship was observed between the (7)Be, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs concentrations and weekly rainfall, indicating washout of atmospheric aerosols carrying these radionuclides...
- Takeyasu M, Iida T, Tsujimoto T, Yamasaki K, Ogawa Y. Concentrations and their ratio of (222)Rn decay products in rainwater measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using a low-background Ge detector. J Environ Radioact. 2006;88:74-89 pubmed
- Li X, Zheng B, Wang Y, Wang X. A survey of radon level in underground buildings in China. Environ Int. 2006;32:600-5 pubmed..The radon level in underground buildings has the lowest value in winter and the highest value in summer. ..
- Synnott H, Hanley O, Fenton D, Colgan P. Radon in Irish schools: the results of a national survey. J Radiol Prot. 2006;26:85-96 pubmed..A programme of remediation of schools with radon concentrations above 200 Bq m(-3) has been put in place. ..
- Miller G, Cheng Y, Traub R, Little T, Guilmette R. Methods used to calculate doses resulting from inhalation of Capstone depleted uranium aerosols. Health Phys. 2009;96:306-27 pubmed publisher..A Markov Chain Monte Carlo Bayesian analysis technique was employed, which straightforwardly calculates the uncertainties in doses. Extensive quality control checking of the various computer codes used is described. ..
- Dilbeck G, Taylor B, Leitch J, Silverstone M, Moore B, Honsa P. A novel technique for the rapid identification of alpha emitters released during a radiological incident. Health Phys. 2006;91:311-7 pubmed..The laboratory quickly identified and determined the ratios of all four contaminants on the tape samples using sequential alpha spectrometry and gamma-ray spectroscopy without chemical separations. ..
- Kalinowski M, Tuma M. Global radioxenon emission inventory based on nuclear power reactor reports. J Environ Radioact. 2009;100:58-70 pubmed publisher..According to this inventory, a total of 1.3PBq of radioxenon isotopes are released by nuclear power plants as continuous or pulsed emissions in a generic year. ..
- Degerlier M, Celebi N. Indoor radon concentrations in Adana, Turkey. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;131:259-64 pubmed publisher..This value is below the worldwide indoor radon concentration distribution of 46 Bq m(-3). The annual effective dose equivalent from (222)Rn was 0.9 mSv y(-1). ..
- Ciolini R, Mazed D. Indoor radon concentration in geothermal areas of central Italy. J Environ Radioact. 2010;101:712-6 pubmed publisher..The measured radon concentrations were always well below the intervention levels in both areas, and health risks for students and personnel in the examined schools were excluded. ..
- Groves Kirkby C, Denman A, Crockett R, Phillips P, Gillmore G. Identification of tidal and climatic influences within domestic radon time-series from Northamptonshire, UK. Sci Total Environ. 2006;367:191-202 pubmed..These results suggest that astronomical influences, including tides, play a part in controlling radon release from the soil. ..
- Chen X, Cheng Y, Rong Z. Recent results from a study of thorium lung burdens and health effects among miners in China. J Radiol Prot. 2005;25:451-60 pubmed
- Kramer G, Hauck B. The Human Monitoring Laboratory's new lung counter: calibration and comparison with the previous system and the Cameco Corporation's lung counter. Health Phys. 2005;89:383-92 pubmed..The dosimetric implications of the new system's minimum detectable activities are put into perspective using (57)Co, (235)U, (238)U, (239)Pu, (241)Am, and natural uranium as example radionuclides. ..
- Yarar Y, Günaydi T, Celebi N. Determination of radon concentrations of the Dikili geothermal area in western Turkey. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2006;118:78-81 pubmed..Soil samples collected from each location were analysed and (226)Ra concentrations were determined using a gamma ray spectrometer connected to an HPGe detector. Annual effective doses from radon inhalation and ingestion were calculated. ..
- Guseva Canu I, Paquet F, Goldberg M, Auriol B, Berard P, Collomb P, et al. Comparative assessing for radiological, chemical, and physical exposures at the French uranium conversion plant: Is uranium the only stressor?. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2009;212:398-413 pubmed publisher..Results of this study will be used for further investigation of association between exposure and mortality among uranium conversion workers cohort. ..
- Chen X, Cheng Y. The establishment of a portable high sensitivity exhaled thoron activity measurement system. J Radiol Prot. 2008;28:195-204 pubmed publisher..007 Bq of thoron activity outside the body. The total standard error of this system is 47% for a thorium lung burden of 0.22 Bq. The average background of this scintillation detector was 0.003 counts min(-1). ..
- Doering C, Akber R. Describing the annual cyclic behaviour of 7Be concentrations in surface air in Oceania. J Environ Radioact. 2008;99:1703-7 pubmed publisher..Vertical transport of air within the troposphere also seems to influence the observed annual cycle. Seasonality in rainfall is not thought to control the annual cyclic behaviour of 7Be in surface air. ..
- Franic Z, Sega K, Petrinec B, Marovic G. Long-term investigations of post-Chernobyl radiocaesium in fallout and air in North Croatia. Environ Monit Assess. 2009;148:315-23 pubmed publisher..5 and decreasing according to differential radioactive decay. The similar ratio has been observed in most of the other environmental samples. ..
- Sundal A, Valen V, Soldal O, Strand T. The influence of meteorological parameters on soil radon levels in permeable glacial sediments. Sci Total Environ. 2008;389:418-28 pubmed
- Gillmore G, Phillips P, Denman A. The effects of geology and the impact of seasonal correction factors on indoor radon levels: a case study approach. J Environ Radioact. 2005;84:469-79 pubmed..This work is based on case studies taken from the Northamptonshire region and comparisons made to other permeable geologies in the UK. ..
- Denman A, Groves Kirkby N, Groves Kirkby C, Crockett R, Phillips P, Woolridge A. Health implications of radon distribution in living rooms and bedrooms in U.K. dwellings--a case study in Northamptonshire. Environ Int. 2007;33:999-1011 pubmed..Homes with higher mean annual radon concentrations showed lower BR/LR ratios, supporting our proposal that, in some homes, radon emanation from building materials may comprise a significant component of the overall radon level. ..
- Nikolopoulos D, Vogiannis E. Modelling radon progeny concentration variations in thermal spas. Sci Total Environ. 2007;373:82-93 pubmed..001 h, 0.05 h and 0.40 h respectively, while attached 218Po, 214Pb and 214Bi progenies 0.05 h, 0.45 h and 0.65 h respectively. ..
- Overcamp T. Solutions to the Gaussian cloud approximation for gamma absorbed dose. Health Phys. 2007;92:78-81 pubmed..The I2 solution was also extended for the Berger buildup factor. These enable rapid computation of I1 and I2 to estimate the dose rate. ..
- Al Jundi J, Ulanovsky A, Pröhl G. Doses of external exposure in Jordan house due to gamma-emitting natural radionuclides in building materials. J Environ Radioact. 2009;100:841-6 pubmed publisher..The obtained organ and effective dose conversion coefficients can be conveniently used in practical dose assessment tasks for the rooms of similar geometry and varying activity concentrations and local-specific occupancy factors. ..
- Rottger A, Honig A, Schmidt V, Buchröder H, Rox A, Butterweck G, et al. Radon activity concentration--a Euromet and BIPM supplementary comparison. Appl Radiat Isot. 2006;64:1102-7 pubmed..This makes a careful correlation analysis necessary to achieve an appropriate comparison reference value. The results of the comparison as well as the complex analysis of the correlated set of data is presented and discussed. ..
- Tomás Zerquera J, Prendes Alonso M, Fernández Gómez I, Rodríguez Castro G, Martínez Ricardo N, López Bejerano G, et al. Studies on internal exposure doses received by the cuban population due to the intake of radionuclides from the environmental sources. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2006;121:168-74 pubmed
- Likuku A. Factors influencing ambient concentrations of (210)Pb and (7)Be over the city of Edinburgh (55.9 degrees N, 03.2 degrees W). J Environ Radioact. 2006;87:289-304 pubmed..21+/-0.01 and 2.50+/-0.04 mBq m(-3), respectively; which agrees closely with the corresponding values reported for coastal air measurements in Europe. ..
- Kitto M, Fielman E, Hartt G, Gillen E, Semkow T, Parekh P, et al. Long-term monitoring of radioactivity in surface air and deposition in New York State. Health Phys. 2006;90:31-7 pubmed
- Chege M, Rathore I, Chhabra S, Mustapha A. The influence of meteorological parameters on indoor radon in selected traditional Kenyan dwellings. J Radiol Prot. 2009;29:95-103 pubmed publisher..e., designs, materials, etc). However, these variations are not significant (at 1% significance level). ..
- Duenas C, Fernandez M, Canete S, Pérez Barea J, Perez M. Effects of collector types in sampling of atmospheric depositional fluxes. J Environ Radioact. 2009;100:198-202 pubmed publisher..A good correlation of the depositional flux of (7)Be has been obtained from both collectors. ..
- Whicker J, Justus A. Probabilistic model evaluation of continuous air monitor response for meeting radiation protection goals. Health Phys. 2009;97:228-41 pubmed publisher..The sensitivity analysis showed that ventilation-driven dilution had the greatest impact on exposure reduction with the selected counting interval for alarm decisions and the alarm set point as secondarily important. ..
- Pöllänen R, Toivonen H, Peräjärvi K, Karhunen T, Ilander T, Lehtinen J, et al. Radiation surveillance using an unmanned aerial vehicle. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009;67:340-4 pubmed publisher..When a gamma-ray spectrometer is used, minimum detectable concentrations for several fission products such as (137)Cs and (131)I are of the order of 1 Bq m(-3). ..
- Qiu S, Xiao D, Liu L. First intercomparison of Tn-Rn discriminative measurements in China. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2008;128:124-7 pubmed..The discussion on the reason of these differences reveals the necessity of improvement on monitor calibration, Tn source make and the necessity of more international intercomparisons. ..
- Harris J, Miller D, Foster D. Tritium recapture behavior at a nuclear power reactor due to airborne releases. Health Phys. 2008;95:203-12 pubmed publisher..A maximum dose of 1.1 x 10(-10) mSv (1.1 x 10(-8) mrem) total body was calculated to determine the health impact of the tritium detected. ..
- Maged A. Estimating the radon concentration in water and indoor air. Environ Monit Assess. 2009;152:195-201 pubmed publisher..2 +/- 7.7, and 462 +/- 422 Bq m(-3) respectively. These values lead to average effective dose equivalent rates of 1.3 +/- 0.4 and 23 +/- 21 mSv year(-1), respectively. ..
- Reigner P, Carron P, Egger E, Yersin B. [Terrorism: nuclear and radiologic risks]. Rev Med Suisse. 2008;4:669-70, 672-5 pubmed
- Munyon W, Reilly D, Webb J. AGHCF gaseous-effluent tritium sampling system: design considerations and performance testing results. Health Phys. 2008;94:75-85 pubmed..The overall uncertainty associated with the total quantity of tritium discharged to the environment based on the results of the performance testing was estimated to be +/-24% at the 95% confidence level. ..
- Kam E, Bozkurt A. Environmental radioactivity measurements in Kastamonu region of northern Turkey. Appl Radiat Isot. 2007;65:440-4 pubmed..83 microSv. The measurement results obtained in this study indicate that the region has a background radiation level that is within the natural limits and shows no significant departure from the other parts of the country. ..
- Choi M, Lee D, Choi J, Cha H, Yi H. 239+240Pu concentration and isotope ratio (240Pu/239Pu) in aerosols during high dust (Yellow Sand) period, Korea. Sci Total Environ. 2006;370:262-70 pubmed..191+/-0.014 close to those of global fallout. These facts indicate that Yellow Sand plays an important role in the behavior of Pu in the environment like other concomitant metals such as Al, Fe etc. ..
- Field R, Krewski D, Lubin J, Zielinski J, Alavanja M, Catalan V, et al. An overview of the North American residential radon and lung cancer case-control studies. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2006;69:599-631 pubmed..Eleven WLM(5-19) is approximately equivalent to an average residential radon exposure of 4 pCi/L for 15 yr, assuming a 70% home occupancy. ..
- Osmanlioglu A. Natural radioactivity and evaluation of effective dose equivalent of granites in Turkey. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2006;121:325-9 pubmed..073 to 0.185 Bq m(-2) h(-1) exhalation depends on the specific concentration of uranium. The dose rate due to this highest activity which have been evaluated by a Monte Carlo transport calculations does not exceed 0.4 mSv a(-1). ..
- Kreisheimer M. The inverse dose-rate effect for radon induced lung cancer: a modified approach for risk modelling. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2006;45:27-32 pubmed..At the same time, a linear slope at low exposures that is independent of the dose-rate of exposure is attained. ..
- Pöllänen R, Siiskonen T. High-resolution alpha spectrometry under field conditions - fast identification of alpha particle emitting radionuclides from air samples. J Environ Radioact. 2006;87:279-88 pubmed..This value is higher than in the case when sampling is performed using a porous membrane filter. A measurement system consisting of standard components is mounted in a vehicle designed for rapid field measurements. ..
- Eisenstein M. Positive fallout from the bomb. Nat Methods. 2005;2:638-9 pubmed..Atmospheric isotopes left behind by atomic weapons tests provide the foundation for an unusual method for determining the age and turnover rate of human cells. ..
- Ma J, Lei Y, Ye T. [Study on the ecological association between natural radioactivity and childhood leukemia in Guangdong province]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2008;29:343-5 pubmed..59, P = 0.042). The natural radioactivity was likely to be a causative factor for childhood leukemia in Guangdong. ..
- Levett J. Radiological terrorism scenarios. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2007;22:346 pubmed
- Tomás Zerquera J, Prendes Alonso M, Díaz Rizo O. Distribution of doses received by Cuban population due to environmental sources of radioactivity. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2007;123:118-21 pubmed..1 +/- 0.3 mSv y(-1). This low dose value is in the range of doses estimated by UNSCEAR for world population due to natural background and can be explained by the specifics of the Cuban environment. ..
- Vaupotic J, Kobal I. Radon survey and exposure assessment in hospitals. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2006;121:158-67 pubmed..1 and 7.3 mSv. The results warn that in an environment with generally low radon levels, 'hot' points may be found, and therefore radon surveys should be carefully designed and performed in order not to miss them. ..
- Mohamed A. Study on radon and radon progeny in some living rooms. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2005;117:402-7 pubmed..These activities amount to a radium equivalent (Ra(eq)) of 126 Bq kg(-1) and to a mean value of external hazard index of 0.34...