emulsifying agents


Summary: SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS that induce a dispersion of undissolved material throughout a liquid.

Top Publications

  1. Zhang N, Zhang W, Jin Y, Quan D. Studies on preparation of carbamazepine (CBZ) supersaturatable self-microemulsifying (S-SMEDDS) formulation and relative bioavailability in beagle dogs. Pharm Dev Technol. 2011;16:415-21 pubmed publisher
    ..9% compared to the commercial tablet with a dose of 200?mg. Thus, it was concluded that S-SMEDDS provide an effective approach for improving the extent of absorption of CBZ with a low surfactant level. ..
  2. Satpute S, Banat I, Dhakephalkar P, Banpurkar A, Chopade B. Biosurfactants, bioemulsifiers and exopolysaccharides from marine microorganisms. Biotechnol Adv. 2010;28:436-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our present review gives comprehensive information on BS/BE which has been reported to be produced by marine microorganisms and their possible potential future applications...
  3. Wang Z, Sun J, Wang Y, Liu X, Liu Y, Fu Q, et al. Solid self-emulsifying nitrendipine pellets: preparation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation. Int J Pharm. 2010;383:1-6 pubmed publisher
  4. Suresh Kumar A, Mody K, Jha B. Evaluation of biosurfactant/bioemulsifier production by a marine bacterium. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2007;79:617-21 pubmed
    ..07 mN m(-1)). It also decreased interfacial tension of hexane and xylene. Based on the emulsifying and tensiometric properties, this bacterium or its exopolymer could be used for bioremediation, enhanced oil recovery and in cosmetics. ..
  5. Ilori M, Amobi C, Odocha A. Factors affecting biosurfactant production by oil degrading Aeromonas spp. isolated from a tropical environment. Chemosphere. 2005;61:985-92 pubmed
    ..Biosurfactant may be produced with this organism using non-hydrocarbon substrates such as glucose and soybean that are readily available and would not require extensive purification for use in food and pharmaceutical industries. ..
  6. Nazzal S, Khan M. Controlled release of a self-emulsifying formulation from a tablet dosage form: stability assessment and optimization of some processing parameters. Int J Pharm. 2006;315:110-21 pubmed
    ..While optimized controlled release formulations could be attained, further considerations should be made to prepare "liquisolids" that are physically stable at higher storage temperatures. ..
  7. Mata J, Bejar V, Llamas I, Arias S, Bressollier P, Tallon R, et al. Exopolysaccharides produced by the recently described halophilic bacteria Halomonas ventosae and Halomonas anticariensis. Res Microbiol. 2006;157:827-35 pubmed
    ..All strains assayed formed biofilms both in polystyrene wells and borosilicate test tubes...
  8. Agboola S, Ee K, Mallon L, Zhao J. Isolation, characterization, and emulsifying properties of wattle seed (Acacia victoriae Bentham) extracts. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:5858-63 pubmed
    ..25-1% NaCl), and retorting (115 degrees C for 30 min). The study showed that water-soluble wattle extracts have great potential as emulsifiers and stabilizers for the food industry, especially at low pH levels...
  9. Gutierrez T, Mulloy B, Bavington C, Black K, Green D. Partial purification and chemical characterization of a glycoprotein (putative hydrocolloid) emulsifier produced by a marine bacterium Antarctobacter. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;76:1017-26 pubmed
    ..This new high-molecular-weight glycoprotein exhibits interesting functional qualities that are comparable to other biopolymers of this type and shows particular promise as an emulsion-stabilizing agent in biotechnological applications. ..

More Information


  1. Thavasi R, Jayalakshmi S, Balasubramanian T, Banat I. Biosurfactant production by Corynebacterium kutscheri from waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2007;45:686-91 pubmed
    ..Production and characterization of biosurfactant from renewable sources...
  2. Gursoy N, Garrigue J, Razafindratsita A, Lambert G, Benita S. Excipient effects on in vitro cytotoxicity of a novel paclitaxel self-emulsifying drug delivery system. J Pharm Sci. 2003;92:2411-8 pubmed
    ..The drug loading was increased by approximately fivefold compared to the marketed i.v. formulation; the excipients presented a significantly reduced cytotoxicity and led to a stable microemulsion. ..
  3. Umeyor C, Attama A, Uronnachi E, Kenechukwu F, Nwakile C, Nzekwe I, et al. Formulation design and in vitro physicochemical characterization of surface modified self-nanoemulsifying formulations (SNEFs) of gentamicin. Int J Pharm. 2016;497:161-98 pubmed publisher
    ..There was high in vitro diffusion-dependent permeation of gentamicin from the SNEFs. Results obtained in this work showed that oral delivery of gentamicin was improved by formulation as surface modified SNEFs. ..
  4. Huang K, Chen B, Shen F, Young C. Optimization of exopolysaccharide production and diesel oil emulsifying properties in root nodulating bacteria. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;28:1367-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report demonstrating the optimization of diesel emulsification by EPS from root nodulating isolates, and these microbial agents might be used in the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils in a near future. ..
  5. Dissanayake M, Liyanaarachchi S, Vasiljevic T. Functional properties of whey proteins microparticulated at low pH. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95:1667-79 pubmed publisher
    ..However, they created comparatively strong cold acid-set gels. At low pH, a combination of heat and high hydrodynamic pressure produced WP micro-aggregates with improved colloidal stability that affects other functionalities. ..
  6. Wu X, Xu J, Huang X, Wen C. Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system improves curcumin dissolution and bioavailability. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2011;37:15-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The SMEDDS can significantly increase curcumin dissolution in vitro and bioavailability in vivo. ..
  7. Monteiro A, Coutinho J, Júnior A, Rosa C, Siqueira E, Santos V. Characterization of new biosurfactant produced by Trichosporon montevideense CLOA 72 isolated from dairy industry effluents. J Basic Microbiol. 2009;49:553-63 pubmed publisher
    ..03% (9Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid, 14.92% hexadecanoic acid, and 9.63% (E) octadec-9-enoic acid and the carbohydrate portion containing mannose (35.29%), xylose (41.99%), arabinose (17.47%), and glucose (5.25%). ..
  8. Nam H, Park J, Kim K, Kwon I, Jeong S. Lipid-based emulsion system as non-viral gene carriers. Arch Pharm Res. 2009;32:639-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, highlighted are the recent advances in the emulsion-based gene carriers. ..
  9. Yadav M, Parris N, Johnston D, Hicks K. Fractionation, characterization, and study of the emulsifying properties of corn fiber gum. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:4181-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The unfractionated CFG, which contains different molecular species, is the best emulsifier. ..
  10. Sriram K, Lin G, Jefferson A, Goldsmith W, Jackson M, McKinney W, et al. Neurotoxicity following acute inhalation exposure to the oil dispersant COREXIT EC9500A. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011;74:1405-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether such acute molecular aberrations might persist and produce chronic neurological deficits remains to be ascertained. ..
  11. Tang C, Shen L. Role of conformational flexibility in the emulsifying properties of bovine serum albumin. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:3097-110 pubmed publisher
    ..This knowledge could provide an in-depth understanding of the relationships between tertiary conformational flexibility and emulsifying properties of globular proteins. ..
  12. Pichot R, Spyropoulos F, Norton I. Mixed-emulsifier stabilised emulsions: Investigation of the effect of monoolein and hydrophilic silica particle mixtures on the stability against coalescence. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2009;329:284-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This dual manner by which mixed-emulsifier systems induced stability was found to depend on the concentrations of both monoolein and silica particles. ..
  13. Ruiz del Castillo M, Flores G, Blanch G. Exogenous methyl jasmonate diminishes the formation of lipid-derived compounds in boiled potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). J Sci Food Agric. 2010;90:2263-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional advantages of exogenous MJ are a delay in the appearance of sprouting and aging and hence prolongation of the storage life of potato tubers. ..
  14. Yang N, Feng G, Lu L, Liu J, Huang X. [Production of biodemulsifier by Alcaligenes sp. S-XJ-1 using waste diesel oil]. Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2010;31:2171-7 pubmed
    ..It was identified the biodemulsifier produced by S-XJ-1 using waste diesel oil was lipopeptide by TLC and FTIR. ..
  15. Liu J, Huang X, Lu L, Li M, Xu J, Deng H. Turbiscan Lab ® Expert analysis of the biological demulsification of a water-in-oil emulsion by two biodemulsifiers. J Hazard Mater. 2011;190:214-21 pubmed publisher
    ..It is a rapid and accurate method to screen high-efficiency demulsifiers from other bioproducts. ..
  16. Thi T, Van Speybroeck M, Barillaro V, Martens J, Annaert P, Augustijns P, et al. Formulate-ability of ten compounds with different physicochemical profiles in SMEDDS. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2009;38:479-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In general, formulate-ability in SMEDDS was found to depend on the solubility of the drugs in the excipients and log P of the compounds (the optimal log P was found between 2 and 4). ..
  17. Anton M. Egg yolk: structures, functionalities and processes. J Sci Food Agric. 2013;93:2871-80 pubmed publisher
    ..High-pressure or thermal treatments, applied before or after emulsion fabrication, alter their functionalities and could be used to commercially exploit these fractions. ..
  18. Garg B, Katare O, Beg S, Lohan S, Singh B. Systematic development of solid self-nanoemulsifying oily formulations (S-SNEOFs) for enhancing the oral bioavailability and intestinal lymphatic uptake of lopinavir. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2016;141:611-622 pubmed publisher
    ..In a nutshell, the SNEOFs offer a complete and holistic solution for the management of the viral loads in the lymph and blood. ..
  19. Ebrahimpour B, Yamini Y, Moradi M. Application of ionic surfactant as a carrier and emulsifier agent for the microextraction of fluoroquinolones. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2012;66:264-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The obtained results indicate that the proposed method is efficient, fast and inexpensive for extraction and determination of fluoroquinolones in environmental aqueous and urine samples. ..
  20. Chel Guerrero L, Gallegos Tintoré S, Martinez Ayala A, Castellanos Ruelas A, Betancur Ancona D. Functional properties of proteins from Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) seeds. Food Sci Technol Int. 2011;17:119-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The studied Lima bean globulin fractions exhibit functional properties which make them potentially apt for use in some industrial food systems. ..
  21. Parmar N, Singla N, Amin S, Kohli K. Study of cosurfactant effect on nanoemulsifying area and development of lercanidipine loaded (SNEDDS) self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2011;86:327-38 pubmed publisher
    ..05) was observed in 3 months. The results indicate that SNEDDS of LER, owing to nanosized, has potential to enhance the absorption of drug. ..
  22. Alayoubi A, Kanthala S, Satyanarayanajois S, Anderson J, Sylvester P, Nazzal S. Stability and in vitro antiproliferative activity of bioactive "Vitamin E" fortified parenteral lipid emulsions. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2013;103:23-30 pubmed publisher
  23. Frank K, Walz E, Gräf V, Greiner R, Köhler K, Schuchmann H. Stability of anthocyanin-rich w/o/w-emulsions designed for intestinal release in gastrointestinal environment. J Food Sci. 2012;77:N50-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, it was shown that the dominating release mechanism for entrapped matter was coalescence of the interior W(1) -droplets with the surrounding W(2) -phase. ..
  24. Joseph S, Bunjes H. Influence of membrane structure on the preparation of colloidal lipid dispersions by premix membrane emulsification. Int J Pharm. 2013;446:59-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of a stack of four polycarbonate membranes in the large-volume extrusion process led to small particle sizes with monomodal size distributions already after one membrane passage. ..
  25. Fujii S, Yokoyama Y, Miyanari Y, Shiono T, Ito M, Yusa S, et al. Micrometer-sized gold-silica Janus particles as particulate emulsifiers. Langmuir. 2013;29:5457-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, polymer microspheres carrying Au femtoliter cups on their surfaces were successfully fabricated by removal of the silica component from the Janus-particle stabilized microspheres. ..
  26. Baby A, Santoro D, Velasco M, dos Reis Serra C. Emulsified systems based on glyceryl monostearate and potassium cetyl phosphate: scale-up and characterization of physical properties. Int J Pharm. 2008;361:99-103 pubmed publisher
    ..The scale-up provoked more significant alterations on the rheological profile and droplet size on the anionic systems than the non-ionic. ..
  27. Tang C, Sun X, Foegeding E. Modulation of physicochemical and conformational properties of kidney bean vicilin (phaseolin) by glycation with glucose: implications for structure-function relationships of legume vicilins. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:10114-23 pubmed publisher
  28. Ali M, Homann T, Khalil M, Kruse H, Rawel H. Milk whey protein modification by coffee-specific phenolics: effect on structural and functional properties. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:6911-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, adaptation of this modification provides an innovative approach for functionalizing proteins and their uses in the food industry. ..
  29. Akram M, Naqvi S, Khan A. Design and development of insulin emulgel formulation for transdermal drug delivery and its evaluation. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2013;26:323-32 pubmed
    ..On the basis of this study, it has been shown that application of insulin emulgel iontophoretically can be used as alternative (acceptable & painless) to injectable insulin subject to further studies on large animals. ..
  30. Liu J, Huang X, Lu L, Xu J, Wen Y, Yang D, et al. Comparison between waste frying oil and paraffin as carbon source in the production of biodemulsifier by Dietzia sp. S-JS-1. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:6481-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The subtle variation in the distribution of these homologues and high biomass concentration of WFO II cultures may account for the afore-mentioned good demulsification performance. ..
  31. Papalamprou E, Doxastakis G, Kiosseoglou V. Chickpea protein isolates obtained by wet extraction as emulsifying agents. J Sci Food Agric. 2010;90:304-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The method applied for isolate preparation influenced to an appreciable extent the ability of proteins to adsorb to the oil-water interface and stabilize emulsions during long-time ageing or following heat treatment or freezing. ..
  32. Chai G, Sun F, Shi J, Tian B, Tang X. Protective effect of polysaccharides on the stability of parenteral emulsions. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2013;39:646-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, polysaccharides can offer greatly increased protection for parenteral emulsions, and represent a novel protective strategy for improving the stability of this delivery system. ..
  33. Choi S, Decker E, Henson L, Popplewell L, McClements D. Influence of droplet charge on the chemical stability of citral in oil-in-water emulsions. J Food Sci. 2010;75:C536-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the surfactant type used to prepare emulsions should be controlled to improve the chemical stability of citral in emulsion systems. ..
  34. Soradech S, Petchtubtim I, Thongdon A J, Muangman T. Development of Wax-Incorporated Emulsion Gel Beads for the Encapsulation and Intragastric Floating Delivery of the Active Antioxidant from Tamarindus indica L. Molecules. 2016;21:380 pubmed publisher
  35. Ma H, Zhao Q, Wang Y, Guo T, An Y, Shi G. Design and evaluation of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems of Rhizoma corydalis decumbentis extracts. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2012;38:1200-6 pubmed publisher
    ..2% compared with commercial tablets, respectively. Our study indicated that SEDDS has the potential to improve the bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines, in which many active components are hydrophobic, such as RCDE. ..
  36. Saadi S, Ariffin A, Ghazali H, Miskandar M, Abdulkarim S, Boo H. Effect of blending and emulsification on thermal behavior, solid fat content, and microstructure properties of palm oil-based margarine fats. J Food Sci. 2011;76:C21-30 pubmed publisher
  37. Lin H, Luo N, Liu J, Yang J, Li Q. [The sedative and hypnotic effects and safety of oral emulsified isoflurane in rats]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2010;41:862-4, 887 pubmed
    ..15 mL/100 g of 8% emulsified isoflurane had 90% of loss of righting reflex, with a sleeping latency of 15-20 min and up to 60 min of sleeping duration. Oral emulsified isoflurane has obvious sedative and hypnotic effects. ..
  38. del Valle I, Souter A, Maxwell W, Muino Blanco T, Cebrian Perez J. Function of ram spermatozoa frozen in diluents supplemented with casein and vegetable oils. Anim Reprod Sci. 2013;138:213-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The application of vegetable oils as substitutes for egg yolk in diluents for the cryopreservation of ram spermatozoa requires further research. ..
  39. Anderson S, Franko J, Lukomska E, Meade B. Potential immunotoxicological health effects following exposure to COREXIT 9500A during cleanup of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011;74:1419-30 pubmed publisher
    ..COREXIT 9500A did not induce immunosuppression in the murine model. ..
  40. Camacho Chab J, Guezennec J, Chan Bacab M, Ríos Leal E, Sinquin C, Muñiz Salazar R, et al. Emulsifying activity and stability of a non-toxic bioemulsifier synthesized by Microbacterium sp. MC3B-10. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:18959-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The chemical nature and stability of the bioemulsifier suggest its potential application in bioremediation of marine environments and in cosmetics. ..
  41. Wang Y, Yu N, Guo R, Yang M, Shan L, Huang W, et al. Enhancing in vivo Bioavailability in Beagle Dogs of GLM-7 as a Novel Anti-Leukemia Drug through a Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System for Oral Delivery. Curr Drug Deliv. 2016;13:131-42 pubmed
    ..85 ng/ml of reference. Moreover, the area under the curve (AUC) of GLM-7 SEDDS formulation was 13.6 times higher than that of reference, which suggested that the SEDDS formulation remarkably increased the oral bioavailability of GLM-7. ..
  42. Cui X, Zhang H, Ye M, Yang F. [Preparation and characterization of cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol microspheres as a novel precoating reagent in dynamic membrane]. Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2008;29:960-5 pubmed
    ..Morphology of PVA microspheres were observed by SEM. The FTIR results suggested that functional groups varied with the change of aimed cross-linking degrees. ..
  43. Mishra A, Jha B. Isolation and characterization of extracellular polymeric substances from micro-algae Dunaliellasalina under salt stress. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:3382-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Production of EPSs may allow further exploration of D. salina as potential EPSs producer and make it as a promising candidate for biotechnological and industrial exploitation. ..
  44. Albertengo L, Farenzena S, Debbaudt A, Zuniga A, Schulz P, Rodríguez M. Physico-chemical studies and emulsifying properties of N-propyl-N-methylene phosphonic chitosan. Carbohydr Polym. 2013;92:1641-6 pubmed publisher
    ..18% PNMPC and 30:70 o:w ratio exhibited the best emulsifying properties within the test range. This emulsion ratio showed high stability to long time storage and several successive freeze/thaw and heating/cooling cycles. ..
  45. Huang X, Liu J, Lu L, Wen Y, Xu J, Yang D, et al. Evaluation of screening methods for demulsifying bacteria and characterization of lipopeptide bio-demulsifier produced by Alcaligenes sp. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:1358-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The bio-demulsifier was found to be cell-wall combined. After soxhlet extraction and purification through silicon-gel column, the bio-demulsifier was then identified as lipopeptide biosurfactant by TLC and FT-IR. ..
  46. Franzetti A, Gandolfi I, Raimondi C, Bestetti G, Banat I, Smyth T, et al. Environmental fate, toxicity, characteristics and potential applications of novel bioemulsifiers produced by Variovorax paradoxus 7bCT5. Bioresour Technol. 2012;108:245-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In fact, V. paradoxus 7bCT5 bioemulsifiers significantly increased the removal of crude-oil from sandy soil compared to water. ..
  47. Han M, He C, Fang Q, Yang X, Diao Y, Xu D, et al. A novel camptothecin derivative incorporated in nano-carrier induced distinguished improvement in solubility, stability and anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. Pharm Res. 2009;26:926-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The nanoemulsion prepared exhibited an improved MONCPT solubility, stability and anti-tumor activity, providing a promising carrier for cancer chemotherapy using MONCPT. ..
  48. Fernández García E, Rincón F, Pérez Gálvez A. Developing an emulsifier system to improve the bioaccessibility of carotenoids. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:10384-90 pubmed publisher
  49. Jing B, Wang Z, Yang R, Zheng X, Zhao J, Tang S, et al. Enhanced oral bioavailability of felodipine by novel solid self-microemulsifying tablets. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2016;42:506-12 pubmed publisher
  50. Song H, Nie S, Yang X, Li N, Xu H, Zheng L, et al. Characterization and in vivo evaluation of novel lipid-chlorambucil nanospheres prepared using a mixture of emulsifiers for parenteral administration. Int J Nanomedicine. 2010;5:933-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The formulation strategy has the potential for the development of further methods of drug delivery for a wide variety of anticancer drugs. ..
  51. Sharma S, Singh P, Raj M, Chadha B, Saini H. Aqueous phase partitioning of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers by biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa WH-2. J Hazard Mater. 2009;171:1178-82 pubmed publisher
    ..wide range of pH, temperature, and salinity. The data obtained from this study will be helpful in designing suitable bioremediation strategies for huge stock piles of HCH-muck and sites polluted by reckless use/disposal of HCH-isomers. ..
  52. Meena A, Sharma K, Kandaswamy M, Rajagopal S, Mullangi R. Formulation development of an albendazole self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) with enhanced systemic exposure. Acta Pharm. 2012;62:563-80 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that the SEDDS formulation approach can be used to improve the dissolution and systemic exposure of poorly water-soluble drugs such as ABZ. ..
  53. Fuentes M, Colin V, Amoroso M, Benimeli C. Selection of an actinobacteria mixed culture for chlordane remediation. Pesticide effects on microbial morphology and bioemulsifier production. J Basic Microbiol. 2016;56:127-37 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study on the effects that chlordane exerts on microbe morphology and emulsifier production for a defined mixed culture of Streptomyces with ability to remediate the pesticide. ..