antifoaming agents


Summary: Agents used to prevent the formation of foam or to treat flatulence or bloat.

Top Publications

  1. Calik P, Ileri N, Erdinç B, Aydogan N, Argun M. Novel antifoam for fermentation processes: fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon hybrid unsymmetrical bolaform surfactant. Langmuir. 2005;21:8613-9 pubmed
  2. Kanabar D. Infantile colic. J Fam Health Care. 2004;14:suppl 1-2 pubmed
    ..Dipak Kanabar believes that failure of lactose digestion has an important part to play in colic and in this bulletin he reviews the causes of infantile colic and the available management options. ..
  3. Chen S, Yen Z, Lee C, Liu Y, Chen W, Lai H, et al. Nonsurgical management of partial adhesive small-bowel obstruction with oral therapy: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ. 2005;173:1165-9 pubmed
    ..Oral therapy with magnesium oxide, L. acidophilus and simethicone was effective in hastening the resolution of conservatively treated partial adhesive small-bowel obstruction and shortening the hospital stay. ..
  4. Tsimmerman I, Vologzhanina L. [Gastroesophageal reflux disease: pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnostics, and treatment]. Klin Med (Mosk). 2005;83:16-24 pubmed
  5. Winterburn J, Martin P. Foam mitigation and exploitation in biosurfactant production. Biotechnol Lett. 2012;34:187-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, recent work which has aimed at taking advantage of some of these phenomena in order to intensify the biosurfactant production process is discussed in detail. ..
  6. Sivagurunathan P, Anburajan P, Kumar G, Bakonyi P, Nemestóthy N, Bélafi Bakó K, et al. Effects of anti-foaming agents on biohydrogen production. Bioresour Technol. 2016;213:121-128 pubmed publisher
    The effects of antifoaming agents on fermentative hydrogen production using galactose in batch and continuous operations were investigated...
  7. Brecevic L, Bosan Kilibarda I, Strajnar F. Mechanism of antifoaming action of simethicone. J Appl Toxicol. 1994;14:207-11 pubmed
  8. Patil A, K P, Mulimani V, Veeranagouda Y, Lee K. alpha-Galactosidase from Bacillus megaterium VHM1 and its application in removal of flatulence-causing factors from soymilk. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;20:1546-54 pubmed
    ..The B megaterium VHM1 enzyme treatment completely hydrolyzed flatulence-causing sugars of soymilk within one and half hour...
  9. Wei W, Ge Z, Lu H, Gao Y, Hu Y, Xiao S. Purgative bowel cleansing combined with simethicone improves capsule endoscopy imaging. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:77-82 pubmed
    ..Purgative bowel cleansing combined with simethicone before CE improved the quality of imaging of the entire small bowel as well as the visualization of the mucosa in the proximal and distal small intestine. ..

More Information


  1. Headley J, Northstone K. Medication administered to children from 0 to 7.5 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2007;63:189-95 pubmed
    ..The use of medicinal products by young children is high and does not always conform to the product labelling. ..
  2. Savino F, Pelle E, Palumeri E, Oggero R, Miniero R. Lactobacillus reuteri (American Type Culture Collection Strain 55730) versus simethicone in the treatment of infantile colic: a prospective randomized study. Pediatrics. 2007;119:e124-30 pubmed
    ..In our cohort, L. reuteri improved colicky symptoms in breastfed infants within 1 week of treatment, compared with simethicone, which suggests that probiotics may have a role in the treatment of infantile colic. ..
  3. de la Portilla F, Ynfante I, Fernandez A, Bejarano D, Carranza G. Improved quality of anorectal endoluminal ultrasonography using emulsion of dimethicone. Dis Colon Rectum. 2003;46:1436-7 pubmed
    ..We found that use of a dimethicone-degassed water mixture is simple, not expensive, safe, effective, and may reduce frequency of sonographic distortion in presence of air bubbles. ..
  4. Ansorg R, von Recklinghausen G, Heintschel von Heinegg E. Susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to simethicone and other non-antibiotic drugs. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1996;37:45-52 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that gabexate mesilate, ketoconazole and, particularly, simethicone are candidates for treatment of H. pylori infection. ..
  5. Hong Bin C, Yue H, Chun H, Shu Ping X, Yue Z, Xiao Lin L. Randomized controlled trial of cholestyramine and hydrotalcite to eliminate bile for capsule endoscopy. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2016;22:122-6 pubmed publisher
    ..7365, P = 0.000) segments, but not for the distal small-bowel (t = -0.552, P = 0.581) segments. Cholestyramine and hydrotalcite were ineffective in eliminating bile and improving small-bowel preparation. ..
  6. Guedez A, Frömmel S, Diehl P, Püttmann W. Occurrence and temporal variations of TMDD in the river Rhine, Germany. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2010;17:321-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The stability of TMDD under anaerobic conditions in groundwater is also unknown and should be studied. ..
  7. Chen S, Lee C, Yen Z, Lin G, Chen W, Lee P, et al. Specific oral medications decrease the need for surgery in adhesive partial small-bowel obstruction. Surgery. 2006;139:312-6 pubmed
    ..This cocktail of oral medications can decrease the need for operative intervention in patients with presumed adhesive, partial small-bowel obstruction. ..
  8. Khairnar K, Chandekar R, Nair A, Pal P, Paunikar W. Novel application of bacteriophage for controlling foaming in wastewater treatment plant- an eco-friendly approach. Bioengineered. 2016;7:46-9 pubmed publisher
    ..All the phages show pH sensitivity. There is a variance observed in the behavior of these phages. Also, applicability of the phage based system to large scale reactors is studied and discussed here. ..
  9. Munn S. The way to a man's heart is through his stomach: much 'diaphragmatic' attenuation is likely gastric, and effervescent granules enhance cardiac imaging. Eur J Radiol. 2004;52:271-5 pubmed
    ..These benefits may also apply to other sorts of cardiac radionuclide imaging. The significance of this new imaging method is discussed and various avenues of research are proposed. ..
  10. Day A, Sayegh M. Infacol to reduce the bubble effect at endoscopic ultrasonography. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2008;90:347 pubmed
  11. Tongprasert S, Sobhonslidsuk A, Rattanasiri S. Improving quality of colonoscopy by adding simethicone to sodium phosphate bowel preparation. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:3032-7 pubmed
    ..The addition of simethicone is of benefit for colonoscopic bowel preparation by diminishing air bubbles, which results in enhanced visibility. Endoscopist and patient satisfaction is also increased. ..
  12. Balapatabendi M, Harris D, Shenoy S. Drug interaction of levothyroxine with infant colic drops. Arch Dis Child. 2011;96:888-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinicians and parents need to be aware of this interaction to avoid unnecessary undertreatment and prevent potential long-term neurological sequelae. ..
  13. Burapatana V, Butler E, Chauhan G, Hartig S, Kincaid H, Wang T, et al. Effect of lidocaine on ovalbumin and egg albumin foam stability. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2003;105 -108:905-11 pubmed
    ..The foam stability was evaluated as the decay rate constant of the foam, determined from a change in height (or volume) of the foam over a given time period. ..
  14. Kragelund C, Nilsson B, Eskilsson K, Bøgh A, Nielsen P. Full-scale control of Mycolata foam by FEX-120 addition. Water Sci Technol. 2010;61:2443-50 pubmed publisher
    ..10 weeks. In two WWTPs with unknown Mycolata organisms, no reduction was observed. ..
  15. Chen H, Huang Y, Chen S, Song H, Li X, Dai D, et al. Small bowel preparations for capsule endoscopy with mannitol and simethicone: a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2011;45:337-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Small bowel preparation that involves split-dose oral mannitol plus single-dose simethicone for CE can improve mucosal visualization and subsequent diagnostic yield when compared with 10-hours overnight fasting. ..
  16. Bueno L, Beaufrand C, Theodorou V, Andro Delestrain M. Influence of simethicone and alverine on stress-induced alterations of colonic permeability and sensitivity in rats: beneficial effect of their association. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2013;65:567-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that both simethicone and alverine have visceral antinociceptive effects by two different mechanisms and that simethicone exerts a potentiating effect on the antinociceptive action of alverine. ..
  17. Bernard D. OTC product: Gas-X Thin Strips. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2007;47:432 pubmed
  18. Pelton R. A review of antifoam mechanisms in fermentation. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2002;29:149-54 pubmed
    ..Reviewed are the types of defoamers and their mode of operation. Also presented is a simple model, which simulates foam growth as functions of defoamer concentration, air hold-up, reactor volume and air flow rate. ..
  19. Guilbert J, Flamant C, Hallalel F, Doummar D, Frata A, Renolleau S. Anti-flatulence treatment and status epilepticus: a case of camphor intoxication. Emerg Med J. 2007;24:859-60 pubmed
    ..This case highlights the importance of systematic questioning and recalls the extreme danger associated with camphor even when administered transcutaneously...
  20. Langevin D. Aqueous foams: a field of investigation at the frontier between chemistry and physics. Chemphyschem. 2008;9:510-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This article presents the general concepts used to describe the monolayers and the films and also some of the recent advances being made in this area. ..
  21. Siqueira P, Karp S, Carvalho J, Sturm W, Rodríguez León J, Tholozan J, et al. Production of bio-ethanol from soybean molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae at laboratory, pilot and industrial scales. Bioresour Technol. 2008;99:8156-63 pubmed publisher
    ..8L at the laboratory scale to 163.6 and 162.7L of absolute ethanol per ton of dry molasses, obtained at pilot and industrial scales, respectively. ..
  22. Routledge S, Hewitt C, Bora N, Bill R. Antifoam addition to shake flask cultures of recombinant Pichia pastoris increases yield. Microb Cell Fact. 2011;10:17 pubmed publisher
    ..A particular problem in these formats is foaming, which is commonly prevented by the addition of chemical antifoaming agents. Intriguingly, antifoams are often added without prior consideration of their effect on the yeast cells, the ..
  23. Hamedi J, Khodagholi F, Hassani Nasab A. Increased erythromycin production by alginate as a medium ingredient or immobilization support in cultures of Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Biotechnol Lett. 2005;27:661-4 pubmed
    ..Highest titer of erythromycin (2.3 times more than that of the control) was achieved in medium containing 1 g agar/l. ..
  24. Papasavas P, Keenan R, Yeaney W, Caushaj P, Gagne D, Landreneau R. Effectiveness of laparoscopic fundoplication in relieving the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and eliminating antireflux medical therapy. Surg Endosc. 2003;17:1200-5 pubmed
    ..Laparoscopic fundoplication can successfully eliminate GERD symptoms and improve quality of life. Significant reduction in the need for chronic GERD medical treatment 2 years after antireflux surgery can be anticipated. ..
  25. Ackermann D, Jewell D, Stedman M, Burapatana V, Atukorale P, Pinson M, et al. Breathing air from protein foam. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2003;105 -108:659-71 pubmed
    ..Preliminary results for the modified mask indicate feasibility of breathing air from air-filled protein foam. ..
  26. van Blankenstein J, Slager C, Soei L, Boersma H, Stijnen T, Schuurbiers J, et al. Cardiac depression after experimental air embolism in pigs: role of addition of a surface-active agent. Cardiovasc Res. 1997;34:473-82 pubmed
    ..These observations can be explained by a model derived from Laplace's law. ..
  27. Routledge S, Bill R. The effect of antifoam addition on protein production yields. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;866:87-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The foaming associated with culturing it on a large scale is commonly prevented by the addition of chemical antifoaming agents or "antifoams...
  28. Shi Z, Chen J. The influence of defoamer on removal of PAHs in soil washing. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2013;63:80-6 pubmed
    ..After all, the results do not provide any indication of the influence on the solubilization micelles. It is thus questionable whether other components of PDMS oil could improve the PAH solubilization. ..
  29. Kougias P, Tsapekos P, Boe K, Angelidaki I. Antifoaming effect of chemical compounds in manure biogas reactors. Water Res. 2013;47:6280-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The antifoamers were more efficient in reducing foam when added directly into the liquid phase rather than added in the headspace of the reactor. ..
  30. Wiedemann B. [Peppermint drop--irritable intestine--cardiac insufficiency. What does flatus want to tell us?]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2003;145:4-6 pubmed
  31. Reinemann P. Treatment of diseases due to infections and old age using anti-foaming agents. Med Hypotheses. 2003;60:903-6 pubmed
    ..Anti-foaming agents (solutions, all types of dispersions, micro-emulsions) based on polydimethylsiloxane but also based on fatty acid esters (preferably unsaturated fatty acids) are proposed for treatment purposes. ..
  32. Hermann J, Hoff S, Yoon K, Burkhardt A, Evans R, Zimmerman J. Optimization of a sampling system for recovery and detection of airborne porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and swine influenza virus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:4811-8 pubmed
  33. Vakil N. Nonulcer dyspepsia. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2002;4:455-8 pubmed
    ..They are promising but need further study. Data are limited on 5-HT(3) antagonists and hypnotherapy. New treatment approaches are necessary for this common and often chronic condition. ..
  34. Christiano S, Fey K. Silicone antifoam performance enhancement by nonionic surfactants in potato medium. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2003;30:13-21 pubmed
    ..At the SCAFC, desorption is not complete, yet the rate of bubble rupture is sufficiently enhanced to provide excellent foam control. ..
  35. Enns R. Capsule endoscopy: in search of the ideal image. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:83-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In theory, this will lead to an improved diagnostic ability to limit excessive reading duration. ..
  36. Suciu N, Ferrari T, Ferrari F, Trevisan M, Capri E. Pesticide removal from waste spray-tank water by organoclay adsorption after field application: an approach for a formulation of cyprodinil containing antifoaming/defoaming agents. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2012;19:1229-36 pubmed publisher
  37. Coffin B, Bortolloti C, Bourgeois O, Denicourt L. Efficacy of a simethicone, activated charcoal and magnesium oxide combination (Carbosymag®) in functional dyspepsia: results of a general practice-based randomized trial. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2011;35:494-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A simethicone, activated charcoal and magnesium oxide combination (Carbosymag(®)) was significantly more effective than a placebo on overall symptom intensity in dyspeptic patients consulting a general practitioner. ..
  38. Winterburn J, Russell A, Martin P. Characterisation of HFBII biosurfactant production and foam fractionation with and without antifoaming agents. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;90:911-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This study illustrates the potential of foam fractionation for efficient recovery of HFBII through simultaneous high enrichment and recovery which are greater than those reported for similar systems. ..
  39. da Silva K, de Andrade C, Sotomaior C. Influence of simethicone and fasting on the quality of abdominal ultrasonography in New Zealand White rabbits. Acta Vet Scand. 2017;59:48 pubmed publisher
    ..The image quality scores for gallbladder, right kidney, and left kidney was similar for all groups, but for the jejunum, a higher number of images with acceptable scores was found within the FS group. ..
  40. Wittmann T, Paradowski L, Ducrotte P, Bueno L, Andro Delestrain M. Clinical trial: the efficacy of alverine citrate/simeticone combination on abdominal pain/discomfort in irritable bowel syndrome--a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010;31:615-24 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). Reported adverse events were similar in both groups. Alverine citrate/simeticone combination was significantly more effective than placebo in relieving abdominal pain/discomfort in patients with IBS. ..
  41. Hanauer S, DuPont H, Cooper K, Laudadio C. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of loperamide plus simethicone versus loperamide alone and simethicone alone in the treatment of acute diarrhea with gas-related abdominal discomfort. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007;23:1033-43 pubmed
  42. Kanwar L, Gogoi B, Goswami P. Production of a Pseudomonas lipase in n-alkane substrate and its isolation using an improved ammonium sulfate precipitation technique. Bioresour Technol. 2002;84:207-11 pubmed
    ..05% (v/v) in the culture medium. High recovery of the lipase protein (83%) from the culture broth was achieved by treating the culture supernatant with Silicone 21 Defoamer followed by ammonium sulfate (60% saturation) fractionation. ..
  43. Schügerl K. Recovery of proteins and microorganisms from cultivation media by foam flotation. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol. 2000;68:191-233 pubmed
    ..Floatable and non-floatable microorganisms are characterized by their surface envelope properties. A mathematical model for cell recovery by flotation is presented. Possible application areas of cell recovery by flotation are discussed. ..
  44. Pursell M, Mendes M, Stuckey D. Interactions between surfactants and biomass during liquid-liquid extraction. Biotechnol Prog. 2009;25:1686-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction between the antifoaming agent polypropylene glycol 2000 and extraction system components was also investigated, with both positive and negative effects being recorded under varying conditions. ..
  45. Jansen S, Goedhard J, Winkens B, van Deursen C. Preparation before colonoscopy: a randomized controlled trial comparing different regimes. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;23:897-902 pubmed publisher
    ..2-l PEG+ascorbic acid was noninferior to the 4-l PEG solution in bowel cleansing quality and was better in taste and compliance. NaP was inferior to 4-l PEG in bowel cleansing quality. Addition of simethicone gave no improvement. ..
  46. Rogovik A, Goldman R. Treating infants' colic. Can Fam Physician. 2005;51:1209-11 pubmed
    ..Several behavioural and complementary therapies have been suggested, but they have not been found effective. Addressing parental concerns and explaining about colic is the best solution until the colic goes away. ..
  47. Khezri S, Shariat S, Tabibian S. Evaluation of extracting titanium dioxide from water-based paint sludge in auto-manufacturing industries and its application in paint production. Toxicol Ind Health. 2013;29:697-703 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, not only the amount of sludge decreased to as much as 70% but also the fresh paint required annually will be reduced by 21%. Furthermore, all heavy metals and toxic wastes will be removed as an environmental challenge. ..
  48. Abu Yousef M, El Zein Y. Improved US visualization of the pancreatic tail with simethicone, water, and patient rotation. Radiology. 2000;217:780-5 pubmed
    ..The simethicone-water-rotation technique is simple, safe, inexpensive, and effective for improving pancreatic tail visualization in ambulatory patients and is superior to the use of water alone. ..
  49. Torrado G, Garcia Arieta A, de los Ríos F, Menendez J, Torrado S. Quantitative determination of dimethicone in commercial tablets and capsules by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and antifoaming activity test. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1999;19:285-92 pubmed
    ..The antifoaming activity test is able to detect incompatibilities between dimethicone and other constituents. The presence of certain enzymes in some medicinal products increases the defoaming properties of these formulations. ..
  50. Kaplan M, Prior M, Ash R, McKonly K, Helzner E, Nelson E. Loperamide-simethicone vs loperamide alone, simethicone alone, and placebo in the treatment of acute diarrhea with gas-related abdominal discomfort. A randomized controlled trial. Arch Fam Med. 1999;8:243-8 pubmed
    ..The combination is well tolerated. ..
  51. Kim H, Raju G. Bowel preparation and colonoscopy technique to detect non-polypoid colorectal neoplasms. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2010;20:437-48 pubmed publisher
    ..This article discusses the methods that are useful to improve the quality of bowel preparation and examination technique. ..
  52. Nouda S, Morita E, Murano M, Imoto A, Kuramoto T, Inoue T, et al. Usefulness of polyethylene glycol solution with dimethylpolysiloxanes for bowel preparation before capsule endoscopy. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;25:70-4 pubmed publisher
    ..0011) in the second half. Bowel preparation using 1 L PEG with dimethylpolysiloxane 3 h before CE significantly reduced residue and intraluminal gas bubbles, and was considered to be a useful method for CE. ..
  53. Gooch E. Determination of traces of silicone defoamer in fruit juices by solvent extraction/atomic absorption spectroscopy. J AOAC Int. 1993;76:581-3 pubmed
    ..Silicone concentrations as low as about 1 ppm can be measured. The juices are accurately spiked for recovery studies by the addition of silicone dispersed in D-sorbitol. ..