siderophores

Summary

Summary: Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)

Top Publications

  1. Cuív P, Keogh D, Clarke P, O CONNELL M. The hmuUV genes of Sinorhizobium meliloti 2011 encode the permease and ATPase components of an ABC transport system for the utilization of both haem and the hydroxamate siderophores, ferrichrome and ferrioxamine B. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:1261-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, the remaining components of the transport system for the siderophores are HmuU and HmuV...
  2. Braun V, Hantke K. Recent insights into iron import by bacteria. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2011;15:328-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The bacteria cope with the iron deficiency by using host heme or siderophores synthesized by themselves or other microbes...
  3. Correnti C, Strong R. Mammalian siderophores, siderophore-binding lipocalins, and the labile iron pool. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:13524-31 pubmed publisher
    Bacteria use tight-binding, ferric-specific chelators called siderophores to acquire iron from the environment and from the host during infection; animals use proteins such as transferrin and ferritin to transport and store iron...
  4. Achard M, Chen K, Sweet M, Watts R, Schroder K, Schembri M, et al. An antioxidant role for catecholate siderophores in Salmonella. Biochem J. 2013;454:543-9 pubmed
    ..In the case of Salmonella it is established that catecholate siderophores are important for full virulence...
  5. Naikare H, Butcher J, Flint A, Xu J, Raymond K, Stintzi A. Campylobacter jejuni ferric-enterobactin receptor CfrA is TonB3 dependent and mediates iron acquisition from structurally different catechol siderophores. Metallomics. 2013;5:988-96 pubmed publisher
    Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 does not produce any endogenous siderophores of its own yet requires the CfrA enterobactin transporter for in vivo colonization. In addition, the genome of C...
  6. Markel E, Maciak C, Butcher B, Myers C, Stodghill P, Bao Z, et al. An extracytoplasmic function sigma factor-mediated cell surface signaling system in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 regulates gene expression in response to heterologous siderophores. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:5775-83 pubmed publisher
    ..syringae pyoverdine cluster. Additionally, we identified siderophores that induce the activity of PSPTO_1203 and used this information to investigate the functional components of ..
  7. Li W, He J, Xie L, Chen T, Xie J. Comparative genomic insights into the biosynthesis and regulation of mycobacterial siderophores. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2013;31:1-13 pubmed publisher
    Iron is essential for nearly all biological events. Siderophores are indispensable for most organisms to obtain iron from iron-limiting milieus...
  8. Blatzer M, Schrettl M, Sarg B, Lindner H, Pfaller K, Haas H. SidL, an Aspergillus fumigatus transacetylase involved in biosynthesis of the siderophores ferricrocin and hydroxyferricrocin. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:4959-66 pubmed publisher
    The opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus produces four types of siderophores, low-molecular-mass iron chelators: it excretes fusarinine C (FsC) and triacetylfusarinine C (TAFC) for iron uptake and accumulates ferricrocin (..
  9. Pi H, Jones S, Mercer L, Meador J, Caughron J, Jordan L, et al. Role of catecholate siderophores in gram-negative bacterial colonization of the mouse gut. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50020 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the importance of the production of catecholate siderophores, and the utilization of their iron (III) complexes, to colonization of the mouse intestinal tract by Escherichia coli...

More Information

Publications83

  1. Sandy M, Butler A. Chrysobactin siderophores produced by Dickeya chrysanthemi EC16. J Nat Prod. 2011;74:1207-12 pubmed publisher
  2. Traxler M, Seyedsayamdost M, Clardy J, Kolter R. Interspecies modulation of bacterial development through iron competition and siderophore piracy. Mol Microbiol. 2012;86:628-44 pubmed publisher
    ..AA4. Collectively these results suggest that competition for iron via siderophore piracy and species-specific siderophores can alter patterns of gene expression and morphological differentiation during actinomycete interactions.
  3. Koulman A, Lee T, Fraser K, Johnson L, Arcus V, Lott J, et al. Identification of extracellular siderophores and a related peptide from the endophytic fungus Epichloë festucae in culture and endophyte-infected Lolium perenne. Phytochemistry. 2012;75:128-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Epichloënin A is unusual among ferrichrome siderophores in comprising an octapeptide rather than hexapeptide sequence, and in incorporating a glutamine residue...
  4. Garenaux A, Caza M, Dozois C. The Ins and Outs of siderophore mediated iron uptake by extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli. Vet Microbiol. 2011;153:89-98 pubmed publisher
    ..One of these strategies is the use of siderophores, which are small secreted molecules with high affinity for iron...
  5. López Berges M, Capilla J, Turrà D, Schafferer L, Matthijs S, Jöchl C, et al. HapX-mediated iron homeostasis is essential for rhizosphere competence and virulence of the soilborne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Plant Cell. 2012;24:3805-22 pubmed publisher
    ..oxysporum in the tomato rhizosphere. These results establish a conserved role for HapX-mediated iron homeostasis in fungal infection of plants and mammals. ..
  6. Salvail H, Massé E. Regulating iron storage and metabolism with RNA: an overview of posttranscriptional controls of intracellular iron homeostasis. Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA. 2012;3:26-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These recent findings have shed light on the complexity of iron homeostasis. ..
  7. Cao Y, Zhang X, Deng J, Zhao Q, Xu H. Lead and cadmium-induced oxidative stress impacting mycelial growth of Oudemansiella radicata in liquid medium alleviated by microbial siderophores. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;28:1727-37 pubmed publisher
    In this study, the effects of siderophores produced by six bacteria on mycelium growth, Cd and Pb accumulation, lipid peroxidation, protein content and antioxidant enzyme in Oudemansiella radicata were investigated in Cd and Pb-containing ..
  8. Lee J, Passalacqua K, Hanna P, Sherman D. Regulation of petrobactin and bacillibactin biosynthesis in Bacillus anthracis under iron and oxygen variation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20777 pubmed publisher
    Bacillus anthracis produces two catecholate siderophores, petrobactin and bacillibactin, under iron-limited conditions...
  9. Brickman T, Cummings C, Liew S, Relman D, Armstrong S. Transcriptional profiling of the iron starvation response in Bordetella pertussis provides new insights into siderophore utilization and virulence gene expression. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:4798-812 pubmed publisher
    ..membrane transporter system, fbpABC, that is required for the utilization of multiple structurally distinct siderophores including alcaligin, enterobactin, ferrichrome, and desferrioxamine B...
  10. Adler C, Corbalán N, Seyedsayamdost M, Pomares M, de Cristóbal R, Clardy J, et al. Catecholate siderophores protect bacteria from pyochelin toxicity. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46754 pubmed publisher
    Bacteria produce small molecule iron chelators, known as siderophores, to facilitate the acquisition of iron from the environment...
  11. Petrik M, Haas H, Schrettl M, Helbok A, Blatzer M, Decristoforo C. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of selected 68Ga-siderophores for infection imaging. Nucl Med Biol. 2012;39:361-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Siderophores are low-molecular-mass iron chelators serving as iron transporters for almost all bacteria, fungi and some plants...
  12. Schalk I, Hannauer M, Braud A. New roles for bacterial siderophores in metal transport and tolerance. Environ Microbiol. 2011;13:2844-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Siderophores are chelators with extremely strong affinity for ferric iron and are best known for their capacity to feed microorganisms with this metal...
  13. Rosconi F, Davyt D, Martinez V, Martinez M, Abin Carriquiry J, Zane H, et al. Identification and structural characterization of serobactins, a suite of lipopeptide siderophores produced by the grass endophyte Herbaspirillum seropedicae. Environ Microbiol. 2013;15:916-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Structures of siderophores produced by bacterial endophytes have not yet been elucidated...
  14. Yasmin S, Alcazar Fuoli L, Gründlinger M, Puempel T, Cairns T, Blatzer M, et al. Mevalonate governs interdependency of ergosterol and siderophore biosyntheses in the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E497-504 pubmed publisher
    ..Concordant with bilateral demand for mevalonate, iron starvation decreased the ergosterol content and composition, a phenotype that is mitigated in TAFC-lacking mutants...
  15. Watts R, Totsika M, Challinor V, Mabbett A, Ulett G, De Voss J, et al. Contribution of siderophore systems to growth and urinary tract colonization of asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 2012;80:333-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we utilize ABU E. coli strain 83972 as a model to dissect the contribution of siderophores to iron acquisition, growth, fitness, and colonization of the urinary tract. We show that E...
  16. Ferreras J, Gupta A, Amin N, Basu A, Sinha B, Worgall S, et al. Chemical scaffolds with structural similarities to siderophores of nonribosomal peptide-polyketide origin as novel antimicrobials against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011;21:6533-7 pubmed publisher
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and Yersinia pestis (Yp) produce siderophores with scaffolds of nonribosomal peptide-polyketide origin...
  17. Madigan C, Cheng T, Layre E, Young D, McConnell M, DeBono C, et al. Lipidomic discovery of deoxysiderophores reveals a revised mycobactin biosynthesis pathway in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1257-62 pubmed publisher
    ..tuberculosis survival, and the organism imports this metal using mycobactin and carboxymycobactin siderophores. Detection of an unexpected siderophore variant and deletions of genes for iron scavenging has led to a revised ..
  18. Gauglitz J, Zhou H, Butler A. A suite of citrate-derived siderophores from a marine Vibrio species isolated following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. J Inorg Biochem. 2012;107:90-5 pubmed publisher
    ..response to these low iron conditions, many bacteria produce low-molecular-weight iron-binding molecules called siderophores to aid in iron uptake...
  19. Reimmann C. Inner-membrane transporters for the siderophores pyochelin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enantio-pyochelin in Pseudomonas fluorescens display different enantioselectivities. Microbiology. 2012;158:1317-24 pubmed publisher
    Iron uptake and transcriptional regulation by the enantiomeric siderophores pyochelin (Pch) and enantio-pyochelin (EPch) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens, respectively, are stereospecific processes...
  20. Martin L, Reid D, Sharples K, Lamont I. Pseudomonas siderophores in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis. Biometals. 2011;24:1059-67 pubmed publisher
    ..P. aeruginosa can acquire this element by secreting pyoverdine and pyochelin, iron-chelating compounds (siderophores) that scavenge iron and deliver it to the bacteria...
  21. Matsuo Y, Kanoh K, Jang J, Adachi K, Matsuda S, Miki O, et al. Streptobactin, a tricatechol-type siderophore from marine-derived Streptomyces sp. YM5-799. J Nat Prod. 2011;74:2371-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The production of 1 was regulated by an iron concentration in the culture. The iron-chelating activity of the compounds was evaluated by the chrome azurol sulfonate assay. ..
  22. Wyckoff E, Payne S. The Vibrio cholerae VctPDGC system transports catechol siderophores and a siderophore-free iron ligand. Mol Microbiol. 2011;81:1446-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, has an absolute requirement for iron. It transports the catechol siderophores vibriobactin, which it synthesizes and secretes, and enterobactin...
  23. Seyedsayamdost M, Traxler M, Zheng S, Kolter R, Clardy J. Structure and biosynthesis of amychelin, an unusual mixed-ligand siderophore from Amycolatopsis sp. AA4. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:11434-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The iron binding affinity of amychelin was determined using EDTA competition assays, and a biosynthetic cluster was identified and annotated to provide a tentative biosynthetic scheme for amychelin. ..
  24. Petrik M, Franssen G, Haas H, Laverman P, Hörtnagl C, Schrettl M, et al. Preclinical evaluation of two 68Ga-siderophores as potential radiopharmaceuticals for Aspergillus fumigatus infection imaging. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2012;39:1175-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We have shown that siderophores can be labelled with (68)Ga and can be used for PET imaging of A. fumigatus infection in rats...
  25. Saha R, Saha N, Donofrio R, Bestervelt L. Microbial siderophores: a mini review. J Basic Microbiol. 2013;53:303-17 pubmed publisher
    ..readily available in the preferred form, microorganisms produce small high affinity chelating molecules called siderophores for its acquisition...
  26. Kvitko B, Goodyear A, Propst K, Dow S, Schweizer H. Burkholderia pseudomallei known siderophores and hemin uptake are dispensable for lethal murine melioidosis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1715 pubmed publisher
    ..pseudomallei used iron-acquisition systems commonly found in other bacteria, for example siderophores. However, our previous discovery of a clinical isolate carrying a large chromosomal deletion missing the entire ..
  27. Peuckert F, Ramos Vega A, Miethke M, Schwörer C, Albrecht A, Oberthür M, et al. The siderophore binding protein FeuA shows limited promiscuity toward exogenous triscatecholates. Chem Biol. 2011;18:907-19 pubmed publisher
    Iron acquisition by siderophores is crucial for survival and virulence of many microorganisms...
  28. Proschak A, Lubuta P, Grün P, Lohr F, Wilharm G, De Berardinis V, et al. Structure and biosynthesis of fimsbactins A-F, siderophores from Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter baylyi. Chembiochem. 2013;14:633-8 pubmed publisher
    Novel chatechol/hydroxamate siderophores (named "fimsbactins") were identified in Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978 and Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. The major compound, fimsbactin A, was isolated from low-iron cultures of A...
  29. Cotton J, Tao J, Balibar C. Identification and characterization of the Staphylococcus aureus gene cluster coding for staphyloferrin A. Biochemistry. 2009;48:1025-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Siderophores are key virulence factors that allow bacteria to grow in iron-restricted environments...
  30. Manning T, Thomas J, Osiro S, Smith J, Abadi G, Noble L, et al. Computational studies of Fe(III) binding to bryostatins, bryostatin analogs, siderophores and marine natural products: arguments for ferric complexes in medicinal applications. Nat Prod Res. 2008;22:399-413 pubmed publisher
    ..The average Fe-O bond distances and bond angles are compared to those of known marine and terrestrial siderophores. From these two data sets, we then examined other known marine natural products (MNPs) that can form a ..
  31. Bosello M, Robbel L, Linne U, Xie X, Marahiel M. Biosynthesis of the siderophore rhodochelin requires the coordinated expression of three independent gene clusters in Rhodococcus jostii RHA1. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:4587-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the efficient cross-talk between distantly located secondary metabolite gene clusters and outline new insights into the comprehension of natural product biosynthesis...
  32. Chocklett S, Sobrado P. Aspergillus fumigatus SidA is a highly specific ornithine hydroxylase with bound flavin cofactor. Biochemistry. 2010;49:6777-83 pubmed publisher
    ..NADP(+) is a competitive inhibitor with respect to NADPH, demonstrating that Af SidA forms a ternary complex with NADP(+) and l-ornithine during catalysis. The data suggest that Af SidA likely proceeds by a sequential kinetic mechanism. ..
  33. Hof C, Eisfeld K, Antelo L, Foster A, Anke H. Siderophore synthesis in Magnaporthe grisea is essential for vegetative growth, conidiation and resistance to oxidative stress. Fungal Genet Biol. 2009;46:321-32 pubmed publisher
    The plant pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe grisea excretes siderophores of the coprogen-type for iron acquisition and uses ferricrocin for intracellular iron storage...
  34. Dimise E, Widboom P, Bruner S. Structure elucidation and biosynthesis of fuscachelins, peptide siderophores from the moderate thermophile Thermobifida fusca. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15311-6 pubmed publisher
    ..adenylation domain specificity supports the assignment of this gene cluster as the producer of the fuscachelin siderophores. The proposed nonribosomal peptide biosynthetic pathway exhibits several atypical features, including a ..
  35. Aoyama T, Kobayashi T, Takahashi M, Nagasaka S, Usuda K, Kakei Y, et al. OsYSL18 is a rice iron(III)-deoxymugineic acid transporter specifically expressed in reproductive organs and phloem of lamina joints. Plant Mol Biol. 2009;70:681-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that OsYSL18 is an iron-phytosiderophore transporter involved in the translocation of iron in reproductive organs and phloem in joints. ..
  36. Möllmann U, Heinisch L, Bauernfeind A, Köhler T, Ankel Fuchs D. Siderophores as drug delivery agents: application of the "Trojan Horse" strategy. Biometals. 2009;22:615-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We synthesized biomimetic siderophores as shuttle vectors for active transport of antibiotics through the bacterial membrane...
  37. Brickman T, Armstrong S. Temporal signaling and differential expression of Bordetella iron transport systems: the role of ferrimones and positive regulators. Biometals. 2009;22:33-41 pubmed publisher
    ..As inducers, the iron sources function as chemical signals termed ferrimones. Ferrimone-sensing allows the pathogen to adapt and exploit early and late events in the infection process...
  38. Lee T, Johnson L, Johnson R, Koulman A, Lane G, Lott J, et al. Structure of a eukaryotic nonribosomal peptide synthetase adenylation domain that activates a large hydroxamate amino acid in siderophore biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:2415-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this new structure will provide a basis for improving prediction methods for eukaryotic NRPS enzymes that play important and diverse roles in the biology of fungi. ..
  39. Pandey A, Sonti R. Role of the FeoB protein and siderophore in promoting virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae on rice. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:3187-203 pubmed publisher
    ..This study represents the first report describing a role for feoB in virulence of any plant-pathogenic bacterium and the first functional characterization of a siderophore-biosynthetic gene cluster in any xanthomonad. ..
  40. Barry S, Challis G. Recent advances in siderophore biosynthesis. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2009;13:205-15 pubmed publisher
    The biosynthesis of the microbial small molecule iron scavengers known as siderophores has been of interest since their discovery in the middle of the past century. Two main pathways for siderophore biosynthesis exist...
  41. Siegrist M, Unnikrishnan M, McConnell M, Borowsky M, Cheng T, Siddiqi N, et al. Mycobacterial Esx-3 is required for mycobactin-mediated iron acquisition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18792-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Mycobacteria thus require a specialized secretion system for acquiring iron from siderophores.
  42. Miller M, Zhu H, Xu Y, Wu C, Walz A, Vergne A, et al. Utilization of microbial iron assimilation processes for the development of new antibiotics and inspiration for the design of new anticancer agents. Biometals. 2009;22:61-75 pubmed publisher
    ..and active transport relies on the biosyntheses and use of microbe-selective iron-chelating compounds called siderophores. Our studies, and those of others, demonstrate that siderophores and analogs can be used for iron transport-..
  43. Antunes L, Imperi F, Towner K, Visca P. Genome-assisted identification of putative iron-utilization genes in Acinetobacter baumannii and their distribution among a genotypically diverse collection of clinical isolates. Res Microbiol. 2011;162:279-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrated that all A. baumannii isolates tested share the coding potential for two endogenous siderophores, a heme-acquisition and a ferrous iron-uptake system...
  44. Cornelis P. Iron uptake and metabolism in pseudomonads. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;86:1637-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Like for other bacteria, iron is a key nutrient for pseudomonads. The fluorescent pseudomonads produce siderophores, the best known being the fluorescent high-affinity peptidic pyoverdines...
  45. Taguchi F, Suzuki T, Inagaki Y, Toyoda K, Shiraishi T, Ichinose Y. The siderophore pyoverdine of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605 is an intrinsic virulence factor in host tobacco infection. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:117-26 pubmed publisher
    ..tabaci 6605 are indispensable for virulence in host tobacco infection and that AHL may negatively regulate tolerance to antibiotics. ..
  46. Homann V, Sandy M, Tincu J, Templeton A, Tebo B, Butler A. Loihichelins A-F, a suite of amphiphilic siderophores produced by the marine bacterium Halomonas LOB-5. J Nat Prod. 2009;72:884-8 pubmed publisher
    A suite of amphiphilic siderophores, loihichelins A-F, were isolated from cultures of the marine bacterium Halomonas sp. LOB-5...
  47. Dimkpa C, Svatos A, Merten D, Büchel G, Kothe E. Hydroxamate siderophores produced by Streptomyces acidiscabies E13 bind nickel and promote growth in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) under nickel stress. Can J Microbiol. 2008;54:163-72 pubmed publisher
    The siderophore-producing ability of nickel-resistant Streptomyces acidiscabies E13 and the role of the elicited siderophores in promoting plant growth under iron and nickel stress are described. Siderophore assays indicated that S...
  48. Caza M, Lepine F, Dozois C. Secretion, but not overall synthesis, of catecholate siderophores contributes to virulence of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli. Mol Microbiol. 2011;80:266-82 pubmed publisher
    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) use siderophores to sequester iron during infection. Enterobactin and salmochelins are catecholate siderophores produced by some ExPEC strains and other pathogenic enterobacteria...
  49. Sandy M, Han A, Blunt J, Munro M, Haygood M, Butler A. Vanchrobactin and anguibactin siderophores produced by Vibrio sp. DS40M4. J Nat Prod. 2010;73:1038-43 pubmed publisher
    ..trivanchrobactin (1), a related new biscatecholamide compound, divanchrobactin (2), and the previously reported siderophores vanchrobactin (3) and anguibactin (4)...
  50. Henderson J, Crowley J, Pinkner J, Walker J, Tsukayama P, Stamm W, et al. Quantitative metabolomics reveals an epigenetic blueprint for iron acquisition in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000305 pubmed publisher
    ..a novel quantitative metabolomic approach based on stable isotope dilution to compare the complement of siderophores produced by Escherichia coli strains associated with intestinal colonization or urinary tract disease...
  51. Wang W, Chi Z, Chi Z, Li J, Wang X. Siderophore production by the marine-derived Aureobasidium pullulans and its antimicrobial activity. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100:2639-41 pubmed publisher
    ..1mg/ml of the siderophore. The crude siderophore produced by the yeast strain HN6.2 was able to inhibit cell growth of Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, isolated from the diseased marine animals. ..
  52. Wichard T, Bellenger J, Loison A, Kraepiel A. Catechol siderophores control tungsten uptake and toxicity in the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:2408-13 pubmed
    ..We showthatthe catechol siderophores produced by A...
  53. Hwang L, Mayfield J, Rine J, Sil A. Histoplasma requires SID1, a member of an iron-regulated siderophore gene cluster, for host colonization. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000044 pubmed publisher
    ..H. capsulatum acquires iron through the action of ferric reductases and the production of siderophores, but the genes responsible for these activities and their role in virulence have not been determined...
  54. Tunca S, Barreiro C, Coque J, Martin J. Two overlapping antiparallel genes encoding the iron regulator DmdR1 and the Adm proteins control siderophore [correction of sedephore] and antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). FEBS J. 2009;276:4814-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The Adm protein seems to have a major effect on the control of secondary metabolism, and its formation is probably tightly controlled, as expected for a key regulator...
  55. Abergel R, Clifton M, Pizarro J, Warner J, Shuh D, Strong R, et al. The siderocalin/enterobactin interaction: a link between mammalian immunity and bacterial iron transport. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:11524-34 pubmed publisher
    ..immune system protein, Siderocalin (Scn), which acts as an antibacterial agent by specifically sequestering siderophores and their ferric complexes during infection...
  56. Hoette T, Abergel R, Xu J, Strong R, Raymond K. The role of electrostatics in siderophore recognition by the immunoprotein Siderocalin. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:17584-92 pubmed publisher
    Iron is required for virulence of most bacterial pathogens, many of which rely on siderophores, small-molecule chelators, to scavenge iron in mammalian hosts...
  57. Schmelz S, Kadi N, McMahon S, Song L, Oves Costales D, Oke M, et al. AcsD catalyzes enantioselective citrate desymmetrization in siderophore biosynthesis. Nat Chem Biol. 2009;5:174-82 pubmed publisher
    ..strategies to do this, one being the biosynthesis and excretion of small, high-affinity iron chelators known as siderophores. The biosynthesis of siderophores is an important area of study, not only for potential therapeutic ..
  58. Kraepiel A, Bellenger J, Wichard T, Morel F. Multiple roles of siderophores in free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Biometals. 2009;22:573-81 pubmed publisher
    ..gram-negative soil diazotroph, excretes in its external medium catechol compounds, previously identified as siderophores, that bind a variety of metals in addition to iron...
  59. Beasley F, Vines E, Grigg J, Zheng Q, Liu S, Lajoie G, et al. Characterization of staphyloferrin A biosynthetic and transport mutants in Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Microbiol. 2009;72:947-63 pubmed publisher
    Iron is critical for virtually all forms of life. The production of high-affinity iron chelators, siderophores, and the subsequent uptake of iron-siderophore complexes are a common strategy employed by microorganisms to acquire iron...
  60. Jones C, Niederweis M. Mycobacterium tuberculosis can utilize heme as an iron source. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:1767-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that Mycobacterium tuberculosis can utilize heme as an iron source, suggesting that M. tuberculosis possesses a yet-unknown heme acquisition system. ..
  61. Sandy M, Butler A. Microbial iron acquisition: marine and terrestrial siderophores. Chem Rev. 2009;109:4580-95 pubmed publisher
  62. Kontoghiorghes G, Efstathiou A, Kleanthous M, Michaelides Y, Kolnagou A. Risk/benefit assessment, advantages over other drugs and targeting methods in the use of deferiprone as a pharmaceutical antioxidant in iron loading and non iron loading conditions. Hemoglobin. 2009;33:386-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies in the above and other conditions and optimization of the L1 therapy in each individual will increase the prospects of the application and role of L1 as a universal antioxidant pharmaceutical...
  63. Wensing A, Braun S, Buttner P, Expert D, Völksch B, Ullrich M, et al. Impact of siderophore production by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 22d/93 on epiphytic fitness and biocontrol activity against Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea 1a/96. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:2704-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work we demonstrated that P. syringae pv. syringae 22d/93 produced a significantly larger amount of siderophores than the pathogen P. syringae pv. glycinea produced. While P. syringae pv. syringae 22d/93 and P. syringae pv...
  64. Noinaj N, Guillier M, Barnard T, Buchanan S. TonB-dependent transporters: regulation, structure, and function. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2010;64:43-60 pubmed publisher
    ..transporters (TBDTs) are bacterial outer membrane proteins that bind and transport ferric chelates, called siderophores, as well as vitamin B(12), nickel complexes, and carbohydrates...
  65. Devireddy L, Hart D, Goetz D, Green M. A mammalian siderophore synthesized by an enzyme with a bacterial homolog involved in enterobactin production. Cell. 2010;141:1006-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Siderophore-depleted mammalian cells and zebrafish embryos fail to synthesize heme, an iron-dependent mitochondrial process. Our results reveal features of intracellular iron homeostasis that are conserved from bacteria through humans. ..
  66. Schrettl M, Beckmann N, Varga J, Heinekamp T, Jacobsen I, Jöchl C, et al. HapX-mediated adaption to iron starvation is crucial for virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001124 pubmed publisher
    ..Pathways positively affected by HapX include production of the ribotoxin AspF1 and siderophores, which are known virulence determinants...
  67. Hartney S, Mazurier S, Kidarsa T, Quecine M, Lemanceau P, Loper J. TonB-dependent outer-membrane proteins and siderophore utilization in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. Biometals. 2011;24:193-213 pubmed publisher
    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 produces two siderophores, a pyoverdine and enantio-pyochelin, and its proteome includes 45 TonB-dependent outer-membrane proteins, which commonly function in uptake of siderophores and ..
  68. Nozoye T, Nagasaka S, Kobayashi T, Takahashi M, Sato Y, Sato Y, et al. Phytosiderophore efflux transporters are crucial for iron acquisition in graminaceous plants. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:5446-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Bacteria and mammals also secrete siderophores to acquire iron...
  69. Wuest W, Sattely E, Walsh C. Three siderophores from one bacterial enzymatic assembly line. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:5056-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Siderophores play a vital role in the survival of bacteria, as they facilitate the transport of iron in low-concentration environments...
  70. Bushley K, Ripoll D, Turgeon B. Module evolution and substrate specificity of fungal nonribosomal peptide synthetases involved in siderophore biosynthesis. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:328 pubmed publisher
    Most filamentous ascomycete fungi produce high affinity iron chelators called siderophores, biosynthesized nonribosomally by multimodular adenylating enzymes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs)...
  71. Vraspir J, Butler A. Chemistry of marine ligands and siderophores. Ann Rev Mar Sci. 2009;1:43-63 pubmed
    ..In the case of iron, siderophores have been identified and structurally characterized...
  72. Dimkpa C, Svatos A, Dabrowska P, Schmidt A, Boland W, Kothe E. Involvement of siderophores in the reduction of metal-induced inhibition of auxin synthesis in Streptomyces spp. Chemosphere. 2008;74:19-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, the simultaneous production of siderophores and auxins by Streptomyces was studied to gain insight for future application in plant growth and ..
  73. Seifert M, Nairz M, Schroll A, Schrettl M, Haas H, Weiss G. Effects of the Aspergillus fumigatus siderophore systems on the regulation of macrophage immune effector pathways and iron homeostasis. Immunobiology. 2008;213:767-78 pubmed publisher
    ..fumigatus. This fungus synthesizes three major siderophores. It excretes triacetylfusarinine C to capture iron, while it accumulates ferricrocin and hydroxyferricrocin for ..
  74. Francisco A, de Abreu Vieira P, Arantes J, Pedrosa M, Martins H, Silva M, et al. Trypanosoma cruzi: effect of benznidazole therapy combined with the iron chelator desferrioxamine in infected mice. Exp Parasitol. 2008;120:314-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that modification in iron stores increases BZ efficacy. ..