intravenous fat emulsions


Summary: Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.

Top Publications

  1. Wanten G, Calder P. Immune modulation by parenteral lipid emulsions. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85:1171-84 pubmed
  2. Sclafani A, Rinaman L, Vollmer R, Amico J. Oxytocin knockout mice demonstrate enhanced intake of sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R1828-33 pubmed
    ..Instead, the absence of OT may increase daily intake of palatable sweet and nonsweet solutions of carbohydrate (but not fat) by selectively blunting or masking processes that contribute to postingestive satiety. ..
  3. Driscoll D. Globule-size distribution in injectable 20% lipid emulsions: Compliance with USP requirements. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007;64:2032-6 pubmed
    ..Among seven injectable lipid emulsions tested for GSD, all met USP chapter 729 MDD requirements and three, all from the same manufacturer and packaged in plastic, did not meet PFAT(5) requirements. ..
  4. Mateu de Antonio J, Grau S, Luque S, Marín Casino M, Albert I, Ribes E. Comparative effects of olive oil-based and soyabean oil-based emulsions on infection rate and leucocyte count in critically ill patients receiving parenteral nutrition. Br J Nutr. 2008;99:846-54 pubmed
  5. Versleijen M, Oyen W, Roelofs H, van Emst de Vries S, Willems P, Jansen J, et al. Immune function and leukocyte sequestration under the influence of parenteral lipid emulsions in healthy humans: a placebo-controlled crossover study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:539-47 pubmed
    ..These disparate findings cannot be explained by MCT-induced leukocyte sequestration. ..
  6. Mirtallo J, Dasta J, Kleinschmidt K, Varon J. State of the art review: Intravenous fat emulsions: Current applications, safety profile, and clinical implications. Ann Pharmacother. 2010;44:688-700 pubmed publisher
    To review the current state of the science regarding intravenous fat emulsions (IVFEs), with an emphasis on their safety profile...
  7. de Meijer V, Gura K, Le H, Meisel J, Puder M. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions prevent and reverse parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease: the Boston experience. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2009;33:541-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A prospective randomized trial that is currently under way at the authors' institution will objectively determine the place of fish oil monotherapy in the prevention of PNALD. ..
  8. Wichmann M, Thul P, Czarnetzki H, Morlion B, Kemen M, Jauch K. Evaluation of clinical safety and beneficial effects of a fish oil containing lipid emulsion (Lipoplus, MLF541): data from a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:700-6 pubmed
    ..Administration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the postoperative period can be considered a valuable choice for patients requiring parenteral nutrition after major abdominal surgery. ..
  9. Park E, Wong V, Guan X, Oprescu A, Giacca A. Salicylate prevents hepatic insulin resistance caused by short-term elevation of free fatty acids in vivo. J Endocrinol. 2007;195:323-31 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that inhibition of IKKbeta prevents FFA-induced impairment of hepatic insulin signaling, thus implicating IKKbeta as a causal mediator of hepatic insulin resistance caused by acutely elevated plasma FFA. ..

More Information


  1. Waitzberg D, Torrinhas R, Jacintho T. New parenteral lipid emulsions for clinical use. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2006;30:351-67 pubmed
    ..The omega-3 PUFA used alone or as component of a new and complex LE (soy, MCT, olive and fish oil) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. ..
  2. Umpierrez G, Smiley D, Robalino G, Peng L, Kitabchi A, Khan B, et al. Intravenous intralipid-induced blood pressure elevation and endothelial dysfunction in obese African-Americans with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:609-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The model of FFA-induced hypertension may be useful in examining disease mechanisms associated with the development of hypertension in obese subjects. ..
  3. Garcia de Lorenzo A, Denia R, Atlan P, Martinez Ratero S, Le Brun A, Evard D, et al. Parenteral nutrition providing a restricted amount of linoleic acid in severely burned patients: a randomised double-blind study of an olive oil-based lipid emulsion v. medium/long-chain triacylglycerols. Br J Nutr. 2005;94:221-30 pubmed
    ..04). Although fatty acid metabolism and TPN tolerability were similar with both lipid emulsions, the preservation of liver function noted with the use of the olive oil-based lipid emulsions deserves confirmation. ..
  4. Versleijen M, Roelofs H, Preijers F, Roos D, Wanten G. Parenteral lipids modulate leukocyte phenotypes in whole blood, depending on their fatty acid composition. Clin Nutr. 2005;24:822-9 pubmed
  5. Vinagre C, Ficker E, Finazzo C, Alves M, de Angelis K, Irigoyen M, et al. Enhanced removal from the plasma of LDL-like nanoemulsion cholesteryl ester in trained men compared with sedentary healthy men. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;103:1166-71 pubmed
    ..These results show that exercise training increases LDE plasma removal, which in turn suggests that it also increases LDL receptors or LDL receptor activity. ..
  6. Driscoll D. Lipid injectable emulsions: Pharmacopeial and safety issues. Pharm Res. 2006;23:1959-69 pubmed
    ..Adoption of Chapter <729> of the USP seems appropriate at this time. ..
  7. Lavoie J, Rouleau T, Chessex P. Effect of coadministration of parenteral multivitamins with lipid emulsion on lung remodeling in an animal model of total parenteral nutrition. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2005;40:53-6 pubmed
    ..Specific roles of peroxides, components of MVP, and light exposure on lung remodeling need to be explored before LIP + MVP can be recommended as an alternative mode of parenteral vitamin delivery. ..
  8. Buenestado A, Cortijo J, Sanz M, Naim Abu Nabah Y, Martinez Losa M, Mata M, et al. Olive oil-based lipid emulsion's neutral effects on neutrophil functions and leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2006;30:286-96 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemistry showed LPS-induced increase in P-selectin expression attenuated by LCT and LCT-MCT but not LCT-MUFA. LCT-MUFA showed lower in vitro and in vivo impact on neutrophil function compared with LCT and LCT-MCT. ..
  9. Grimm H, Mertes N, Goeters C, Schlotzer E, Mayer K, Grimminger F, et al. Improved fatty acid and leukotriene pattern with a novel lipid emulsion in surgical patients. Eur J Nutr. 2006;45:55-60 pubmed
    ..4 +/- 2.0 vs. 20.4 +/- 10.0 days, p < 0.05). Treatment with the new emulsion SMOFlipid is well tolerated and modulates FA and leukotriene pattern suggesting favourable anti-inflammatory effects and further clinical benefits. ..
  10. Drenckpohl D, McConnell C, Gaffney S, Niehaus M, Macwan K. Randomized trial of very low birth weight infants receiving higher rates of infusion of intravenous fat emulsions during the first week of life. Pediatrics. 2008;122:743-51 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no significant differences in other outcomes. Very low birth weight infants can tolerate higher rates of infusion of intravenous fat emulsion solutions during the first week of life without significant adverse events. ..
  11. Goulet O, de Potter S, Antebi H, Driss F, Colomb V, Bereziat G, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of a new olive oil-based intravenous fat emulsion in pediatric patients: a double-blind randomized study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:338-45 pubmed
    ..The olive oil-based emulsion was well tolerated, maintained a normal EFA status, and may be more suitable for prevention of lipid peroxidation than the soybean-oil-based emulsion. ..
  12. Wanten G, Curfs J, Meis J, Naber A. Phagocytosis and killing of Candida albicans by human neutrophils after exposure to structurally different lipid emulsions. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2001;25:9-13 pubmed
    ..albicans depending on the triglyceride chain length. ..
  13. Carpentier Y, Dupont I. Advances in intravenous lipid emulsions. World J Surg. 2000;24:1493-7 pubmed
    ..Hence lipid emulsions should no longer be considered only as a means of providing energy substrates; they also modulate key metabolic functions. Such improved knowledge may lead to optimizing the metabolic care of certain patients. ..
  14. Suchner U, Katz D, Furst P, Beck K, Felbinger T, Senftleben U, et al. Effects of intravenous fat emulsions on lung function in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome or sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2001;29:1569-74 pubmed
    To investigate whether rapid or slowly infused intravenous fat emulsions affect the ratio of prostaglandin I2/thromboxane A2 in arterial blood, pulmonary hemodynamics, and gas exchange...
  15. Mayer K, Gokorsch S, Fegbeutel C, Hattar K, Rosseau S, Walmrath D, et al. Parenteral nutrition with fish oil modulates cytokine response in patients with sepsis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;167:1321-8 pubmed
    ..Use of lipid infusions might allow us to combine intravenous alimentation with differential impact on inflammatory events and immunologic functions in patients with sepsis. ..
  16. Kashyap S, Belfort R, Gastaldelli A, Pratipanawatr T, Berria R, Pratipanawatr W, et al. A sustained increase in plasma free fatty acids impairs insulin secretion in nondiabetic subjects genetically predisposed to develop type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2003;52:2461-74 pubmed
  17. Yu C, Chen Y, Cline G, Zhang D, Zong H, Wang Y, et al. Mechanism by which fatty acids inhibit insulin activation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in muscle. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:50230-6 pubmed
    ..This in turn leads to decreased IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and decreased activation of IRS-1-associated PI3-kinase activity resulting in decreased insulin-stimulated glucose transport activity. ..
  18. Grau T, Ruiz de Adana J, Zubillaga S, Fuerte S, Giron C. [Randomized study of two different fat emulsions in total parenteral nutrition of malnourished surgical patients;effect of infectious morbidity and mortality]. Nutr Hosp. 2003;18:159-66 pubmed
    ..Patients without cancer may obtain more benefit from the use of these mixtures. ..
  19. Driscoll D, Etzler F, Barber T, Nehne J, Niemann W, Bistrian B. Physicochemical assessments of parenteral lipid emulsions: light obscuration versus laser diffraction. Int J Pharm. 2001;219:21-37 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that light obscuration is superior to laser diffraction in identifying unstable intravenous fat emulsions.
  20. Silvers K, Sluis K, Darlow B, McGill F, Stocker R, Winterbourn C. Limiting light-induced lipid peroxidation and vitamin loss in infant parenteral nutrition by adding multivitamin preparations to Intralipid. Acta Paediatr. 2001;90:242-9 pubmed
    ..This procedure should be considered for routine use as well as with phototherapy. ..
  21. Driscoll D, Giampietro K, Wichelhaus D, Peterss H, Nehne J, Niemann W, et al. Physicochemical stability assessments of lipid emulsions of varying oil composition. Clin Nutr. 2001;20:151-7 pubmed
  22. Driscoll D, Nehne J, Peterss H, Klütsch K, Bistrian B, Niemann W. Physicochemical stability of intravenous lipid emulsions as all-in-one admixtures intended for the very young. Clin Nutr. 2003;22:489-95 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that AIOs made from MCT/LCT-containing IVLEs are more stable than those made from pure LCTs. ..
  23. Manuel y Keenoy B, Nonneman L, De Bosscher H, Vertommen J, Schrans S, Klütsch K, et al. Effects of intravenous supplementation with alpha-tocopherol in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition containing medium- and long-chain triglycerides. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56:121-8 pubmed
    ..This study was partly financed by B Braun Medical NVSA, Diegem, Belgium. ..
  24. Göbel Y, Koletzko B, Böhles H, Engelsberger I, Forget D, Le Brun A, et al. Parenteral fat emulsions based on olive and soybean oils: a randomized clinical trial in preterm infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2003;37:161-7 pubmed
    ..The olive oil-based emulsion is a valuable alternative for parenteral feeding of preterm infants who are often exposed to oxidative stress, while their antioxidative defense is weak. ..
  25. Antebi H, Mansoor O, Ferrier C, Tetegan M, Morvan C, Rangaraj J, et al. Liver function and plasma antioxidant status in intensive care unit patients requiring total parenteral nutrition: comparison of 2 fat emulsions. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2004;28:142-8 pubmed
    ..They could, together with higher delivery of omega-3 fatty acids to peripheral tissues, contribute positively to survival rate of stressed patients. ..
  26. Mayer K, Fegbeutel C, Hattar K, Sibelius U, Krämer H, Heuer K, et al. Omega-3 vs. omega-6 lipid emulsions exert differential influence on neutrophils in septic shock patients: impact on plasma fatty acids and lipid mediator generation. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29:1472-81 pubmed
    ..Lipid-based parenteral nutrition in septic patients may thus exert profound influence on sequelae and status of immunocompetence and inflammation. ..
  27. Wanten G, Geijtenbeek T, Raymakers R, van Kooyk Y, Roos D, Jansen J, et al. Medium-chain, triglyceride-containing lipid emulsions increase human neutrophil beta2 integrin expression, adhesion, and degranulation. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2000;24:228-33 pubmed
    ..Apart from other emulsion constituents, triglyceride chain length might therefore be a key feature in the interaction of lipid emulsions and the phagocyte immune system. ..
  28. Williams H, Barrett D, Ward R, Hardy I, Melia C. A liquid chromatography method for quantifying caffeine dissolution from pharmaceutical formulations into colloidal, fat-rich media. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2010;878:1739-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Good reproducibility was obtained in both extended and immediate release dissolution tests. The method provides high-throughput quantification of this common drug in fat emulsions used as biorelevant dissolution media. ..
  29. Yildirim S, Kervancioglu M, Saritas B, Varan B, Mercan S, Tokel K. Octreotide infusion for the treatment of chylothorax in pediatric cardiac intensive care unit. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg. 2005;5:317-8 pubmed
  30. Jang J, Kim C, Choi H, Sung J. Preparation and evaluation of 2-(allylthio)pyrazine-loaded lipid emulsion with enhanced stability and liver targeting. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2009;35:363-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the lipid emulsion with soybean oil and lecithin could be used as a potential dosage form with the liver-targeting property and enhanced stability of sparingly water-soluble 2-AP. ..
  31. Kawaguchi E, Shimokawa K, Ishii F. Physicochemical properties of structured phosphatidylcholine in drug carrier lipid emulsions for drug delivery systems. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2008;62:130-5 pubmed
    ..We considered it could be used for the preparations of nanoparticle dispersion systems in drug delivery systems. ..
  32. von Rettberg H, Hannman T, Subotic U, Brade J, Schaible T, Waag K, et al. Use of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate-containing infusion systems increases the risk for cholestasis. Pediatrics. 2009;124:710-6 pubmed publisher
    ..0004). Using DEHP-containing polyvinylchloride infusions systems contributes to the development of cholestasis. Therefore, the use of DEHP-free infusion systems for TPN is recommended, especially in premature and newborn infants. ..
  33. Shibuya K, Ishiyama T, Ichikawa M, Sato H, Okuyama K, Sessler D, et al. The direct effects of propofol on pial microvessels in rabbits. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2009;21:40-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The results confirm our hypothesis: clinically relevant concentrations of propofol, that is, approximately 10 mol/L, do not dilate pial arterioles or venules. ..
  34. Picard J, Ward S, Meek T. Antidotes to anesthetic catastrophe: lipid emulsion and dantrolene. Anesth Analg. 2007;105:283-4; author reply 284 pubmed
  35. Castro Cabezas M, Verseyden C, Meijssen S, Jansen H, Erkelens D. Effects of atorvastatin on the clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in familial combined hyperlipidemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:5972-80 pubmed
    ..Fasting plasma TG should be reduced more aggressively in FCHL to overcome the lipolytic disturbance causing delayed clearance of postprandial TRLs. ..
  36. Wong G, Joo D, McDonnell C. Lipid resuscitation in a carnitine deficient child following intravascular migration of an epidural catheter. Anaesthesia. 2010;65:192-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Blood samples taken before and after the lipid bolus did not demonstrate toxic concentrations of bupivacaine. This case suggests that carnitine deficiency may increase susceptibility to bupivacaine cardiotoxicity. ..
  37. Loff P, Subotic U, Oulmi Kagermann J, Kränzlin B, Reinecke M, Staude C. Diethylhexylphthalate extracted by typical newborn lipid emulsions from polyvinylchloride infusion systems causes significant changes in histology of rabbit liver. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2007;31:188-93 pubmed
    ..For this reason, it is likely that DEHP is the substance that causes hepatobiliary dysfunction in newborns under PN. Possible modes of action of DEHP are proposed. ..
  38. Aya A, Ripart J, Sebbane M, de La Coussaye J. [Lipid emulsions for the treatment of systemic local anesthetic toxicity: Efficacy and limits]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2010;29:464-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanisms of cardiac toxicity and those of lipid emulsion therapy are summarized, and the clinical experience of this therapy and its limits are presented. ..
  39. Gray H. Role of intralipid in the management of local anaesthetic toxicity. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2006;34:518 pubmed
  40. Varshika E, Prabhakar K, Kishan V. Preparation, characterization, and in vivo pharmacodynamic evaluation of parenteral diclofenac submicron lipid emulsions. PDA J Pharm Sci Technol. 2009;63:380-9 pubmed
    ..No such decrease was noticed regarding the optimized formulations for a period extending up to 12 h. Beyond 12 h, activity persisted up to 24 h with a slight reduction in effect. ..
  41. Yang X, Ma H, Yang Z, Liu A, Luo N, Zhang W, et al. Comparison of minimum alveolar concentration between intravenous isoflurane lipid emulsion and inhaled isoflurane in dogs. Anesthesiology. 2006;104:482-7 pubmed
    ..05). No significant difference was found between the two groups in the time course of washout of isoflurane. The MAC of intravenous anesthesia with 8% ILE was less than that of inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane vapor in dogs. ..
  42. Bandschapp O, Filitz J, Ihmsen H, Berset A, Urwyler A, Koppert W, et al. Analgesic and antihyperalgesic properties of propofol in a human pain model. Anesthesiology. 2010;113:421-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Propofol showed short-lasting analgesic properties during its administration, whereas the solvent-like formulation 10% Intralipid had no effect on pain perception. ..
  43. Ekelund M, Qader S, Jimenez Feltstrom J, Salehi A. Selective induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase in pancreatic islet of rat after an intravenous glucose or intralipid challenge. Nutrition. 2006;22:652-60 pubmed
    ..This may subsequently result in an exclusive production of nitric oxide, which is deleterious for beta-cells. ..
  44. Bania T, Chu J, Perez E, Su M, Hahn I. Hemodynamic effects of intravenous fat emulsion in an animal model of severe verapamil toxicity resuscitated with atropine, calcium, and saline. Acad Emerg Med. 2007;14:105-11 pubmed
    ..01). Standard resuscitation and IFE increase MAP and survival in an animal model of severe verapamil toxicity compared with standard resuscitation alone. ..
  45. Penno E, Johansson L, Ahlstrom H, Johnsson C. Ultrasmall iron oxide particle contrast agent and MRI can be used to monitor the effect of anti-rejection treatment. Transplantation. 2007;84:374-9 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that the effect of anti-rejection treatment can be detected using a blood pool agent and MR imaging, as a change in SI corresponding to changes in the vascular permeability. ..
  46. Umpierrez G, Smiley D, Gosmanov A, Thomason D. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes: effect of hyperglycemia on beta-cell function and skeletal muscle insulin signaling. Endocr Pract. 2007;13:283-90 pubmed
    ..These results indicate the importance of glucose toxicity in the pathogenesis of ketosis-prone diabetes in obese African American patients. ..
  47. Caldarella M, Milano A, Laterza F, Sacco F, Balatsinou C, Lapenna D, et al. Visceral sensitivity and symptoms in patients with constipation- or diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): effect of a low-fat intraduodenal infusion. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100:383-9 pubmed
    ..Lipids may be responsible for the postprandial symptoms exacerbation in IBS. ..
  48. Davoodi N, Kalinichev M, Clifton P. Comparative effects of olanzapine and ziprasidone on hypophagia induced by enhanced histamine neurotransmission in the rat. Behav Pharmacol. 2008;19:121-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that olanzapine may be directly modulating histaminergic neurotransmission associated with the regulation of feeding behaviour. ..
  49. Carpentier Y, Hacquebard M, Portois L, Dupont I, Deckelbaum R, Malaisse W. Rapid cellular enrichment of eicosapentaenoate after a single intravenous injection of a novel medium-chain triacylglycerol:fish-oil emulsion in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91:875-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Bolus intravenous injection of a novel MCT:FO emulsion allows rapid enrichment of cells with n-3 PUFAs. ..
  50. Rosenblatt M, Abel M, Fischer G, Itzkovich C, Eisenkraft J. Successful use of a 20% lipid emulsion to resuscitate a patient after a presumed bupivacaine-related cardiac arrest. Anesthesiology. 2006;105:217-8 pubmed
  51. Hagi A, Nakayama M, Miura Y, Yagasaki K. Effects of a fish oil-based emulsion on rat hepatoma cell invasion in culture. Nutrition. 2007;23:871-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the fish oil-based emulsion may have anti-invasive effects. Changes in the membranous fatty acid composition and consequent changes in the prostaglandins produced may be involved in this inhibitory effect. ..
  52. Li Z, Yang J, Liu J, Gong C, Gan J, Zhang X, et al. Reversible conduction block in isolated toad sciatic nerve by emulsified isoflurane. Anesth Analg. 2010;110:1024-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05), and the half maximal inhibition concentration of EI was 5.46%. EI produced completely reversible and dose-dependent nerve conduction inhibition, which had slower onset and faster recovery compared with those produced by lidocaine. ..
  53. West P, McKeown N, Hendrickson R. Iatrogenic lipid emulsion overdose in a case of amlodipine poisoning. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010;48:393-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultracentrifugation of blood allowed for detection of a metabolic panel 3 h after the infusion. Centrifuged hematocrits appeared to be higher than expected. ..