pharmaceutic adjuvants


Summary: Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.

Top Publications

  1. Narishetty S, Panchagnula R. Transdermal delivery of zidovudine: effect of terpenes and their mechanism of action. J Control Release. 2004;95:367-79 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of permeation enhancement of AZT by terpenes was explained with thermodynamic activity, SC/vehicle partition coefficient, activation energy and molecular modeling studies. ..
  2. Artusi M, Nicoli S, Colombo P, Bettini R, Sacchi A, Santi P. Effect of chemical enhancers and iontophoresis on thiocolchicoside permeation across rabbit and human skin in vitro. J Pharm Sci. 2004;93:2431-8 pubmed
    ..The mechanism by which iontophoresis enhanced thiocolchicoside transport across the skin was electroosmosis. The permeation of thiocolchicoside across the skin can be enhanced using chemical or physical penetration enhancers. ..
  3. Kim M, Doh H, Choi M, Chung S, Shim C, Kim D, et al. Skin permeation enhancement of diclofenac by fatty acids. Drug Deliv. 2008;15:373-9 pubmed
    ..These results, therefore, suggest that the cis-monounsaturated configuration and the carboxylic acid moiety of an 18-carbon unit fatty acid in PG are the optimum requirements for the effective skin permeation of diclofenac. ..
  4. Femenía Font A, Balaguer Fernández C, Merino V, López Castellano A. Combination strategies for enhancing transdermal absorption of sumatriptan through skin. Int J Pharm. 2006;323:125-30 pubmed
    ..The flux obtained with porcine skin in vitro is approximately double that obtained in human skin. ..
  5. Hikima T, Tojo K, Maibach H. Skin metabolism in transdermal therapeutic systems. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2005;18:153-9 pubmed
    ..This paper overviews the effects of (a) chemical enhancers and additives, (b) drug structure, and (c) physical enhancement on skin metabolism. ..
  6. Demana P, Davies N, Hook S, Rades T. Quil A-lipid powder formulations releasing ISCOMs and related colloidal structures upon hydration. J Control Release. 2005;103:45-59 pubmed
    ..The findings obtained in this study are important for the formulation of solid Quil A-containing lipid articles as controlled particulate adjuvant containing antigen delivery systems. ..
  7. Okimoto K, Tokunaga Y, Ibuki R, Irie T, Uekama K, Rajewski R, et al. Applicability of (SBE)7m-beta-CD in controlled-porosity osmotic pump tablets (OPTs). Int J Pharm. 2004;286:81-8 pubmed
    ..The present results confirmed that (SBE)7m-beta-CD serves as both a solubility modulator and as an osmotic pumping agent for OPTs, from which the release rate of both water-soluble and poorly water-soluble drugs can be controlled. ..
  8. Sasaki K, Yonebayashi S, Yoshida M, Shimizu K, Aotsuka T, Takayama K. Improvement in the bioavailability of poorly absorbed glycyrrhizin via various non-vascular administration routes in rats. Int J Pharm. 2003;265:95-102 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the rectum and nasal cavity are useful administration routes for systemic delivery of GL. It was also found that the fatty acids were enhancers for the absorption of GL. ..
  9. El Maghraby G, Williams A. Vesicular systems for delivering conventional small organic molecules and larger macromolecules to and through human skin. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2009;6:149-63 pubmed
    ..This article will critically evaluate vesicular systems for dermal and transdermal delivery of drugs, considering both their efficacy and their potential mechanisms of action. ..

More Information


  1. Lee S, Zhang B, He M, Chang V, Kung H. Screening of active ingredients of herbal medicine for interaction with CYP450 3A4. Phytother Res. 2007;21:1096-9 pubmed
  2. Biragyn A. Defensins--non-antibiotic use for vaccine development. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2005;6:53-60 pubmed
    ..This review analyzes the biological meaning of the immunomodulatory and immunoenhancing features of defensins and their use for the development of novel vaccines to combat cancer and clinically relevant diseases. ..
  3. Von Seggern R, Adelman J. Cost considerations in headache treatment. Part 2: Acute migraine treatment. Headache. 1996;36:493-502 pubmed
    ..Sophisticated comparative studies are needed to evaluate, not only the direct costs of medications, but all costs of treatment of an acute migraine attack, as well as indirect costs to the patient, family, and society. ..
  4. Valenta C, Auner B. The use of polymers for dermal and transdermal delivery. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2004;58:279-89 pubmed
    ..Finally, two promising future trends of polymeric systems, gene delivery and tissue engineering, are discussed. ..
  5. Tartour E, Ciree A, Haicheur N, Benchetrit F, Fridman W. Development of non-live vectors and procedures (liposomes, pseudo-viral particles, toxin, beads, adjuvantsellipsis) as tools for cancer vaccines. Immunol Lett. 2000;74:45-50 pubmed
    ..Other strategies using toxins or antigens fused or incorporated into various oil or lipid based chemical adjuvants have also succeeded in the induction of CTL response and in some cases have been shown to be efficient as cancer vaccine. ..
  6. Shaker D, Ghanem A, Li S, Warner K, Hashem F, Higuchi W. Mechanistic studies of the effect of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin on in vitro transdermal permeation of corticosterone through hairless mouse skin. Int J Pharm. 2003;253:1-11 pubmed
  7. Narang S, Gibson D, Wasan A, Ross E, Michna E, Nedeljkovic S, et al. Efficacy of dronabinol as an adjuvant treatment for chronic pain patients on opioid therapy. J Pain. 2008;9:254-64 pubmed
    ..The results of our preliminary study suggest that dronabinol, a synthetic THC, may have an additive effect on pain relief. ..
  8. Tanabe M, Watanabe M, Yanagi M, Nishizawa S, Chigono Y, Matsuda J, et al. Controlled indomethacin release from mucoadhesive film: in vitro and clinical evaluations. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2008;128:1673-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that IM film with EC added may be useful clinically, since it shows both immediate analgesic effects and prolonged duration of release. ..
  9. Garçon N, Chomez P, Van Mechelen M. GlaxoSmithKline Adjuvant Systems in vaccines: concepts, achievements and perspectives. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2007;6:723-39 pubmed
    ..Altogether, the promising clinical results strongly support the concept of Adjuvant Systems and allow for further development of new vaccines, best adapted to the target population and the immune mechanisms of protection...
  10. Ringborg U, Pownall M. Interferon therapy discussed at the Sixth International Conference on the Adjuvant Therapy of Malignant Melanoma, Stockholm, Sweden, 15-17 June 2006. Melanoma Res. 2007;17:56-8 pubmed
  11. Lysakowski C, Dumont L, Czarnetzki C, Tramer M. Magnesium as an adjuvant to postoperative analgesia: a systematic review of randomized trials. Anesth Analg. 2007;104:1532-9, table of contents pubmed
  12. Eberlein B, Eicke C, Reinhardt H, Ring J. Adjuvant treatment of atopic eczema: assessment of an emollient containing N-palmitoylethanolamine (ATOPA study). J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2008;22:73-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduced use of topical corticosteroids is important in view of safety and pharmacoeconomic implications in the treatment of atopic eczema. ..
  13. Petrik M, Wong M, Tabata R, Garry R, Shaw C. Aluminum adjuvant linked to Gulf War illness induces motor neuron death in mice. Neuromolecular Med. 2007;9:83-100 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest a possible role for the aluminum adjuvant in some neurological features associated with GWI and possibly an additional role for the combination of adjuvants. ..
  14. Ahuja M, Dhake A, Majumdar D. Effect of formulation factors on in-vitro permeation of diclofenac from experimental and marketed aqueous eye drops through excised goat cornea. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2006;126:1369-75 pubmed
    ..The marketed formulations showed corneal hydration >83% suggesting corneal damaging potential. ..
  15. Miyake M, Minami T, Hirota M, Toguchi H, Odomi M, Ogawara K, et al. Novel oral formulation safely improving intestinal absorption of poorly absorbable drugs: utilization of polyamines and bile acids. J Control Release. 2006;111:27-34 pubmed
    ..Taken all together, polyamines, especially SPM, and its combinatorial use with STC could improve the absorption of poorly absorbable drugs without any significant changes in gastrointestinal tract after oral administration in rats. ..
  16. Jage J, Laufenberg Feldmann R, Heid F. [Drugs for postoperative analgesia: routine and new aspects: Part 2: opioids, ketamine and gabapentinoids]. Anaesthesist. 2008;57:491-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The main aim of the review is to describe the use, risks and cost of some substances to facilitate the differential indication. New aspects concerning the use of gabapentinoids and ketamine are discussed. ..
  17. Fang L, Numajiri S, Kobayashi D, Morimoto Y. The use of complexation with alkanolamines to facilitate skin permeation of mefenamic acid. Int J Pharm. 2003;262:13-22 pubmed
  18. Reddy S, Swartz M, Hubbell J. Targeting dendritic cells with biomaterials: developing the next generation of vaccines. Trends Immunol. 2006;27:573-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we review the latest advances in biomaterial drug vehicles, such as polymer microparticles and nanoparticles, and liposomes, that are being used to target DCs in new strategies for vaccination. ..
  19. Matrisciano F, Panaccione I, Zusso M, Giusti P, Tatarelli R, Iacovelli L, et al. Group-II metabotropic glutamate receptor ligands as adjunctive drugs in the treatment of depression: a new strategy to shorten the latency of antidepressant medication?. Mol Psychiatry. 2007;12:704-6 pubmed
  20. Kampf G, Pitten F, Heeg P, Christiansen B. Efficacy of two ethanol-based skin antiseptics on the forehead at shorter application times. BMC Microbiol. 2007;7:85 pubmed
    ..5 min on the skin of the forehead fulfilled the efficacy requirements for skin antisepsis. The shorter application time on skin with a high density of sebaceous glands will allow to act more efficiently in clinical practice. ..
  21. Kanwar J, Palmano K, Sun X, Kanwar R, Gupta R, Haggarty N, et al. 'Iron-saturated' lactoferrin is a potent natural adjuvant for augmenting cancer chemotherapy. Immunol Cell Biol. 2008;86:277-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, bLf is a potent natural adjuvant and fortifying agent for augmenting cancer chemotherapy, but needs to be saturated with iron to be effective. ..
  22. Zhong W. Application of solid-phase extraction in the method development for determination of SEPA, an acronym for soft enhancement of percutaneous absorption, in human, rat, and rabbit serum using GC-FID method. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1998;16:1179-87 pubmed
    ..2 mm x 0.33 micron, Avondale, PA, USA). The assay demonstrated a lower limit of quantitation of 2.5 ng ml-1 and a linear range of 2.5 to 250 ng ml-1 with intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy of < or = 10%. ..
  23. Koberle D, Thurlimann B. Anastrozole: pharmacological and clinical profile in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2001;1:169-76 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the biochemical properties and clinical efficacy of anastrozole, providing an overview of the current clinical status and possible future applications. ..
  24. Mukaizawa F, Taniguchi K, Miyake M, Ogawara K, Odomi M, Higaki K, et al. Novel oral absorption system containing polyamines and bile salts enhances drug transport via both transcellular and paracellular pathways across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Int J Pharm. 2009;367:103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Voltage-clamp study clearly showed that their combinatorial use improved rebamipide transport via both paracellular and transcellular pathways, and that the contribution of transcellular route could be larger than paracellular route. ..
  25. Deicher R, Horl W. Hormonal adjuvants for the treatment of renal anaemia. Eur J Clin Invest. 2005;35 Suppl 3:75-84 pubmed
    ..It should not be given to women, however, because of serious side effects. Collectively, hormonal interventions offer the potential to reduce requirements of erythropoietic agents, and some may also improve physical performance. ..
  26. Ofokansi K, Adikwu M, Okore V. Preparation and evaluation of mucin-gelatin mucoadhesive microspheres for rectal delivery of ceftriaxone sodium. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2007;33:691-700 pubmed
  27. Sunada H. [Revealing the essence of powders: from the base to the application]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2008;128:1087-107 pubmed
    ..As the chair man of the Standard Formulation Research Council, I have obtained many variable and excellent results. Several results are shown as follow. ..
  28. Sesardic D, Rijpkema S, Patel B. New adjuvants: EU regulatory developments. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2007;6:849-61 pubmed
    ..The emphasis is on regulatory expectations regarding safety at preclinical and clinical stages. The article highlights regulatory concerns and existing bottlenecks that have led to a slow approval process for new adjuvants. ..
  29. Fetih G, Habib F, Katsumi H, Okada N, Fujita T, Attia M, et al. Excellent absorption enhancing characteristics of NO donors for improving the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbable compound compared with conventional absorption enhancers. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2006;21:222-9 pubmed
    ..They can enhance intestinal absorption of CF from all intestinal regions and they are effective at very low concentrations. ..
  30. Kaushal A, Gupta P, Bansal A. Amorphous drug delivery systems: molecular aspects, design, and performance. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst. 2004;21:133-93 pubmed
    ..The review also addresses the various barriers in the design of amorphous delivery systems, use of amorphous form in controlled release delivery systems, and their in vivo performance. ..
  31. Breitbart W. Psychotropic adjuvant analgesics for pain in cancer and AIDS. Psychooncology. 1998;7:333-45 pubmed
    ..The appropriate and timely use of psychotropic adjuvant analgesic drugs represents an opportunity for active psychiatric contribution to the multidisciplinary management of cancer and AIDS pain. ..
  32. Dubey S, Siegfried J, Traynor A. Non-small-cell lung cancer and breast carcinoma: chemotherapy and beyond. Lancet Oncol. 2006;7:416-24 pubmed
    ..The optimum application of hormonal manipulation to prevent or treat lung cancer will depend on a more-complete understanding of lung-specific ER signalling. Early trials have assessed the interaction between the ER and EGFR signalling. ..
  33. Swarcewicz M, Skórska E. Influence of an adjuvant on the distribution of herbicides in a sediment/water system. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2006;71:147-54 pubmed
    ..Atpolan 80 EC also caused an increase of Kd and Koc values of atrazine. ..
  34. Desai M, Armstrong D. Analysis of derivatized and underivatized theanine enantiomers by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure ionization-mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2004;18:251-6 pubmed
    ..Five of the six products contained significant amounts of D-theanine. Only one product, SunTheanine, appeared to contain only the L-theanine enantiomer. ..
  35. Brandt K. Non-surgical treatment of osteoarthritis: a half century of "advances". Ann Rheum Dis. 2004;63:117-22 pubmed
  36. Light D, Beck J. Characterization of microencapsulated pear ester, (2E,4Z)-ethyl-2,4-decadienoate, a kairomonal spray adjuvant against neonate codling moth larvae. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:7838-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrated that application of PE-MEC concurrent with insecticides may increase neonate foliar wandering, thereby disrupting host location and enhancing mortality by prolonging its exposure to insecticide. ..
  37. Sheahan P, Sexton S, Russell J. Is intralesional cidofovir worthwhile in juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis?. J Laryngol Otol. 2006;120:561-5 pubmed
    ..To investigate the efficacy of intralesional cidofovir in the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) in children...
  38. Kapadia S, Bajzer C, Ziada K, Bhatt D, Wazni O, Silver M, et al. Initial experience of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition with abciximab during carotid stenting: a safe and effective adjunctive therapy. Stroke. 2001;32:2328-32 pubmed
    ..This adjunctive therapy with potent glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition may help to reduce periprocedural adverse events in patients undergoing carotid stenting. ..
  39. Pathan S, Iqbal Z, Sahani J, Talegaonkar S, Khar R, Ahmad F. Buccoadhesive drug delivery systems--extensive review on recent patents. Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul. 2008;2:177-88 pubmed
    ..It is the objective of this article to extensively review buccal drug delivery by discussing the recent patents available. Buccal dosage forms will also be reviewed with an emphasis on bioadhesive polymeric based delivery systems. ..
  40. Hirshkowitz M, Black J, Wesnes K, Niebler G, Arora S, Roth T. Adjunct armodafinil improves wakefulness and memory in obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. Respir Med. 2007;101:616-27 pubmed
    ..Armodafinil also reduced fatigue and the impact of sleepiness on daily activities in patients with OSA/HS who have residual excessive sleepiness notwithstanding regular use of nCPAP. Armodafinil was well tolerated. ..
  41. Surini S, Akiyama H, Morishita M, Nagai T, Takayama K. Release phenomena of insulin from an implantable device composed of a polyion complex of chitosan and sodium hyaluronate. J Control Release. 2003;90:291-301 pubmed
    ..Although both the ANN and HSI successfully represented a non-linear relationship between the formulation factors and the release rate constant, HSI methodology gave a better estimation than that of the ANN. ..
  42. Richard S, Moslemi S, Sipahutar H, Benachour N, Seralini G. Differential effects of glyphosate and roundup on human placental cells and aromatase. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113:716-20 pubmed
    ..We conclude that endocrine and toxic effects of Roundup, not just glyphosate, can be observed in mammals. We suggest that the presence of Roundup adjuvants enhances glyphosate bioavailability and/or bioaccumulation. ..
  43. Sato K, Itamura S. [Trends and perspectives in development of influenza vaccines]. Nihon Rinsho. 2010;68:1697-701 pubmed
    ..More effective and safer influenza vaccine in a single formulation is desirable for both seasonal and pandemic use. ..
  44. Ishida S, McCormick F, Smith McCune K, Hanahan D. Enhancing tumor-specific uptake of the anticancer drug cisplatin with a copper chelator. Cancer Cell. 2010;17:574-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify the copper transporter as a therapeutic target, which can be manipulated with copper chelating drugs to selectively enhance the benefits of platinum-containing chemotherapeutic agents. ..
  45. Kimmick G, Anderson R, Camacho F, Bhosle M, Hwang W, Balkrishnan R. Adjuvant hormonal therapy use among insured, low-income women with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:3445-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Improving use of adjuvant hormonal therapy may lead to lower breast cancer-specific mortality in this population. ..
  46. Garcia Diaz J, Palau L, Pankey G. Resolution of rhinocerebral zygomycosis associated with adjuvant administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32:e145-50 pubmed
    ..All patients are currently free of disease. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor should be considered as adjuvant therapy for rhinocerebral zygomycosis; however, optimum dose and length of therapy are unknown. ..
  47. Ren C, Fang L, Ling L, Wang Q, Liu S, Zhao L, et al. Design and in vivo evaluation of an indapamide transdermal patch. Int J Pharm. 2009;370:129-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This sustained activity was due to the controlled release of drug into the systemic circulation following transdermal administration. ..
  48. Gouveia E, Silva I, Onselem V, Corrêa R, Silva C. Use of mannanoligosacharides as an adjuvant treatment for gastrointestinal diseases and their effects on E.coli inactivated in dogs. Acta Cir Bras. 2006;21 Suppl 4:23-6 pubmed
    ..coli. The mannanoligosacharides is effective in the control of pathogenic E. coli and it can be indicated as an adjuvant treatment for gastroenteritis in dogs. ..
  49. Zhou X, Xu J, Yao K, Liu D, Wang L, Wang X, et al. Interaction of 1-dodecyl-azacycloheptan-2-one with mouse stratum corneum. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2005;16:563-74 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that Azone can partially convert the SC protein from an alpha-helix conformation to a beta-sheet conformation and loosen the aggregating SC keratins at room temperature. ..
  50. Ambalavanar R, Yallampalli C, Yallampalli U, Dessem D. Injection of adjuvant but not acidic saline into craniofacial muscle evokes nociceptive behaviors and neuropeptide expression. Neuroscience. 2007;149:650-9 pubmed
    ..m. acidification in craniofacial muscle evokes different responses than in hindlimb muscle and imply that disparate proton sensing mechanisms underlie these discrepancies...
  51. Upadhyay A, Singh S, Chhipa R, Vijayakumar M, Ajay A, Bhat M. Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin enhances the susceptibility of human breast cancer cells to carboplatin and 5-fluorouracil: involvement of Akt, NF-kappaB and Bcl-2. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006;216:177-85 pubmed
  52. Varum F, Veiga F, Sousa J, Basit A. An investigation into the role of mucus thickness on mucoadhesion in the gastrointestinal tract of pig. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2010;40:335-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Mucus thickness plays a role on the mucoadhesion, as thicker mucus provides deeper polymer chain diffusion and entanglements; however, other factors are also involved in this complex process. ..
  53. Gocgeldi E, Uysal B, Korkmaz A, Ogur R, Reiter R, Kurt B, et al. Establishing the use of melatonin as an adjuvant therapeutic against paraquat-induced lung toxicity in rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008;233:1133-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This difference was also apparent when tissues were histologically compared. In conclusion, Mel exhibited strong additive beneficial effects with Dex and can be considered as a safe treatment modality against PQ toxicity. ..