ligands

Summary

Summary: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Banski M, Podhorodecki A, Misiewicz J. NaYF4 nanocrystals with TOPO ligands: synthesis-dependent structural and luminescent properties. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013;15:19232-41 pubmed publisher
    ..PL excitation and absorbance spectra to determine the influence of crystal symmetry, surface to volume ratio and ligands on the optical properties of doped Eu(3+) ions...
  2. Harms M, Eick G, Goswami D, Colucci J, Griffin P, Ortlund E, et al. Biophysical mechanisms for large-effect mutations in the evolution of steroid hormone receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:11475-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This work shows how the protein's architecture and dynamics shaped its evolution, amplifying a few biochemically subtle mutations into major shifts in the energetics and function of the protein. ..
  3. Herre J, Gr nlund H, Brooks H, Hopkins L, Waggoner L, Murton B, et al. Allergens as immunomodulatory proteins: the cat dander protein Fel d 1 enhances TLR activation by lipid ligands. J Immunol. 2013;191:1529-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Fel d 1 and Can f 6 belong to a group of allergen immunomodulatory proteins that enhance innate immune signaling and promote airway hypersensitivity reactions in diseases such as asthma...
  4. Zheng W, Vargiu A, Vargiu A, Rohrdanz M, Carloni P, Clementi C. Molecular recognition of DNA by ligands: roughness and complexity of the free energy profile. J Chem Phys. 2013;139:145102 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, LSDMap in combination with metadynamics (and possibly every equivalent method) emerges as a powerful method to describe the energetics of ligand binding to DNA without resorting to intuitive ad hoc reaction coordinates. ..
  5. Rexer B, Ghosh R, Narasanna A, Estrada M, Chakrabarty A, Song Y, et al. Human breast cancer cells harboring a gatekeeper T798M mutation in HER2 overexpress EGFR ligands and are sensitive to dual inhibition of EGFR and HER2. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19:5390-401 pubmed publisher
    ..BT474-T798M cells showed increased expression of the EGFR ligands EGF, TGF?, amphiregulin, and HB-EGF...
  6. Cauli A, Shaw J, Giles J, Hatano H, Ryśnik O, Payeli S, et al. The arthritis-associated HLA-B*27:05 allele forms more cell surface B27 dimer and free heavy chain ligands for KIR3DL2 than HLA-B*27:09. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013;52:1952-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in the formation of FHC ligands for KIR3DL2 by HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*27:09 could contribute to the differential association of these alleles with ..
  7. Schmidt M, Townson S, Andreucci A, King B, Schirmer E, Murillo A, et al. Crystal structure of an HSA/FcRn complex reveals recycling by competitive mimicry of HSA ligands at a pH-dependent hydrophobic interface. Structure. 2013;21:1966-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations open the way for the creation of biotherapeutics with significantly improved pharmacokinetics. ..
  8. Davis P, Mousa S, Cody V, Tang H, Lin H. Small molecule hormone or hormone-like ligands of integrin ?V?3: implications for cancer cell behavior. Horm Cancer. 2013;4:335-42 pubmed publisher
    Integrins are heterodimeric structural components of the plasma membrane whose ligands include a large number of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins...
  9. Waldschmidt I, Pirottin D, Art T, Audigie F, Bureau F, Tosi I, et al. Experimental model of equine alveolar macrophage stimulation with TLR ligands. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013;155:30-7 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR2, 3, and 4 expression in AMs was studied and their responses to commercial ligands (respectively FSL-1, Poly(I:C), and LPS) were evaluated after determination of the appropriate dose and time of ..
  10. Satkunanathan S, Kumar N, Bajorek M, Purbhoo M, Culley F. Respiratory syncytial virus infection, TLR3 ligands, and proinflammatory cytokines induce CD161 ligand LLT1 expression on the respiratory epithelium. J Virol. 2014;88:2366-73 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR3 and TLR2/6 ligands led to a rapid increase in LLT1 mRNA in respiratory epithelial cells, as did the proinflammatory cytokines type I ..

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Banski M, Podhorodecki A, Misiewicz J. NaYF4 nanocrystals with TOPO ligands: synthesis-dependent structural and luminescent properties. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013;15:19232-41 pubmed publisher
    ..PL excitation and absorbance spectra to determine the influence of crystal symmetry, surface to volume ratio and ligands on the optical properties of doped Eu(3+) ions...
  2. Harms M, Eick G, Goswami D, Colucci J, Griffin P, Ortlund E, et al. Biophysical mechanisms for large-effect mutations in the evolution of steroid hormone receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:11475-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This work shows how the protein's architecture and dynamics shaped its evolution, amplifying a few biochemically subtle mutations into major shifts in the energetics and function of the protein. ..
  3. Herre J, Gr nlund H, Brooks H, Hopkins L, Waggoner L, Murton B, et al. Allergens as immunomodulatory proteins: the cat dander protein Fel d 1 enhances TLR activation by lipid ligands. J Immunol. 2013;191:1529-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Fel d 1 and Can f 6 belong to a group of allergen immunomodulatory proteins that enhance innate immune signaling and promote airway hypersensitivity reactions in diseases such as asthma...
  4. Zheng W, Vargiu A, Vargiu A, Rohrdanz M, Carloni P, Clementi C. Molecular recognition of DNA by ligands: roughness and complexity of the free energy profile. J Chem Phys. 2013;139:145102 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, LSDMap in combination with metadynamics (and possibly every equivalent method) emerges as a powerful method to describe the energetics of ligand binding to DNA without resorting to intuitive ad hoc reaction coordinates. ..
  5. Rexer B, Ghosh R, Narasanna A, Estrada M, Chakrabarty A, Song Y, et al. Human breast cancer cells harboring a gatekeeper T798M mutation in HER2 overexpress EGFR ligands and are sensitive to dual inhibition of EGFR and HER2. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19:5390-401 pubmed publisher
    ..BT474-T798M cells showed increased expression of the EGFR ligands EGF, TGF?, amphiregulin, and HB-EGF...
  6. Cauli A, Shaw J, Giles J, Hatano H, Ryśnik O, Payeli S, et al. The arthritis-associated HLA-B*27:05 allele forms more cell surface B27 dimer and free heavy chain ligands for KIR3DL2 than HLA-B*27:09. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013;52:1952-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in the formation of FHC ligands for KIR3DL2 by HLA-B*27:05 and HLA-B*27:09 could contribute to the differential association of these alleles with ..
  7. Schmidt M, Townson S, Andreucci A, King B, Schirmer E, Murillo A, et al. Crystal structure of an HSA/FcRn complex reveals recycling by competitive mimicry of HSA ligands at a pH-dependent hydrophobic interface. Structure. 2013;21:1966-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations open the way for the creation of biotherapeutics with significantly improved pharmacokinetics. ..
  8. Davis P, Mousa S, Cody V, Tang H, Lin H. Small molecule hormone or hormone-like ligands of integrin ?V?3: implications for cancer cell behavior. Horm Cancer. 2013;4:335-42 pubmed publisher
    Integrins are heterodimeric structural components of the plasma membrane whose ligands include a large number of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins...
  9. Waldschmidt I, Pirottin D, Art T, Audigie F, Bureau F, Tosi I, et al. Experimental model of equine alveolar macrophage stimulation with TLR ligands. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013;155:30-7 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR2, 3, and 4 expression in AMs was studied and their responses to commercial ligands (respectively FSL-1, Poly(I:C), and LPS) were evaluated after determination of the appropriate dose and time of ..
  10. Satkunanathan S, Kumar N, Bajorek M, Purbhoo M, Culley F. Respiratory syncytial virus infection, TLR3 ligands, and proinflammatory cytokines induce CD161 ligand LLT1 expression on the respiratory epithelium. J Virol. 2014;88:2366-73 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR3 and TLR2/6 ligands led to a rapid increase in LLT1 mRNA in respiratory epithelial cells, as did the proinflammatory cytokines type I ..
  11. Pawson A, Sharman J, Benson H, Faccenda E, Alexander S, Buneman O, et al. The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY: an expert-driven knowledgebase of drug targets and their ligands. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:D1098-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Each of the ?6000 small molecule and peptide ligands is annotated with manually curated 2D chemical structures or amino acid sequences, nomenclature and database ..
  12. Han S, Komatsu Y, Murayama A, Steffensen K, Nakagawa Y, Nakajima Y, et al. Estrogen receptor ligands ameliorate fatty liver through a nonclassical estrogen receptor/Liver X receptor pathway in mice. Hepatology. 2014;59:1791-802 pubmed publisher
    ..confirm that a nonclassical ER/LXR pathway regulates ER?-dependent inhibition of LXR activation, we screened ER? ligands that were able to repress LXR activation without enhancing ER? transcriptional activity, and, as a result, we ..
  13. Di Leva F, Zizza P, Cingolani C, D Angelo C, Pagano B, Amato J, et al. Exploring the chemical space of G-quadruplex binders: discovery of a novel chemotype targeting the human telomeric sequence. J Med Chem. 2013;56:9646-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the best candidates, in vitro binding experiments allowed identification of three novel G4 ligands. Among them, the best compound features an unprecedented binding selectivity for the human telomeric DNA G-..
  14. Shiizaki K, Ohsako S, Kawanishi M, Yagi T. Identification of amino acid residues in the ligand-binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor causing the species-specific response to omeprazole: possible determinants for binding putative endogenous ligands. Mol Pharmacol. 2014;85:279-89 pubmed publisher
    ..that OME-mediated AhR target gene transcription is due to AhR activation by increasing amounts of putative AhR ligands in serum by inhibition of CYP1A1 activity...
  15. Ammayappan A, Peng K, Russell S. Characteristics of oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus displaying tumor-targeting ligands. J Virol. 2013;87:13543-55 pubmed publisher
    We sought proof of principle that tumor-targeting ligands can be displayed on the surface of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) by engineering its glycoprotein...
  16. Zlotos D, Jockers R, Cecon E, Rivara S, Witt Enderby P. MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors: ligands, models, oligomers, and therapeutic potential. J Med Chem. 2014;57:3161-85 pubmed publisher
    ..A great number of MT2-selective ligands and, more recently, several MT1-selective agents have been reported to date...
  17. Brylinski M, Feinstein W. eFindSite: improved prediction of ligand binding sites in protein models using meta-threading, machine learning and auxiliary ligands. J Comput Aided Mol Des. 2013;27:551-67 pubmed publisher
    ..accuracy is 75-78 %, which can be further improved by 3-4 % by including auxiliary information on binding ligands extracted from biomedical literature...
  18. Tomasevich L, Collum D. Structure determination using the method of continuous variation: lithium phenolates solvated by protic and dipolar aprotic ligands. J Org Chem. 2013;78:7498-507 pubmed publisher
    ..Dimers, trimers, and tetramers were observed, depending on the precise lithium phenolate-solvent combinations. Competition experiments (solvent swaps) provide insights into the relative propensities toward mixed solvation. ..
  19. Kasahara K, Kinoshita K. GIANT: pattern analysis of molecular interactions in 3D structures of protein-small ligand complexes. BMC Bioinformatics. 2014;15:12 pubmed publisher
    ..hgc.jp/. ..
  20. Böger C, Kalthoff H, Goodman S, Behrens H, Rocken C. Integrins and their ligands are expressed in non-small cell lung cancer but not correlated with parameters of disease progression. Virchows Arch. 2014;464:69-78 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of integrins, their ligands, and integrin signaling-related molecules in a cohort of human primary non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC)...
  21. Conway A, Vazin T, Spelke D, Rode N, Healy K, Kane R, et al. Multivalent ligands control stem cell behaviour in vitro and in vivo. Nat Nanotechnol. 2013;8:831-8 pubmed publisher
    ..features may enable control over multivalent interactions, which involve the simultaneous binding of multiple ligands on one entity to multiple receptors on another and are ubiquitous throughout biology...
  22. Bai Q, Zhang Y, Ban Y, Liu H, Yao X. Computational study on the different ligands induced conformation change of ?2 adrenergic receptor-Gs protein complex. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68138 pubmed publisher
    ..This process could be modulated by different types of ligands. But the details about this modulation process were still not depicted...
  23. Morino Koga S, Uchi H, Tsuji G, Takahara M, Kajiwara J, Hirata T, et al. Reduction of CC-chemokine ligand 5 by aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands. J Dermatol Sci. 2013;72:9-15 pubmed publisher
    ..a large number of xenobiotics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dioxins, and some endogenous ligands. Despite numerous investigations targeting AhR ligands, the precise physiological role of AhR remains unknown...
  24. Lam A, Bert N, Ho S, Shen Y, Tang L, Xiong G, et al. RAE1 ligands for the NKG2D receptor are regulated by STING-dependent DNA sensor pathways in lymphoma. Cancer Res. 2014;74:2193-2203 pubmed publisher
    The immunoreceptor NKG2D originally identified in natural killer (NK) cells recognizes ligands that are upregulated on tumor cells...
  25. Knapp B, Dorffner G, Schreiner W. Early relaxation dynamics in the LC 13 T cell receptor in reaction to 172 altered peptide ligands: a molecular dynamics simulation study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64464 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we performed systematic molecular dynamics simulations of 172 closely related altered peptide ligands in the same T cell receptor/major histocompatibility complex system...
  26. Banerjee A, Maschauer S, Hubner H, Gmeiner P, Prante O. Click chemistry based synthesis of dopamine D4 selective receptor ligands for the selection of potential PET tracers. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23:6079-82 pubmed publisher
  27. Violin J, Crombie A, Soergel D, Lark M. Biased ligands at G-protein-coupled receptors: promise and progress. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2014;35:308-16 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses how biased ligands may deliver safer, better tolerated, and more efficacious drugs, and highlights several biased ligands that are ..
  28. Tan Q, Zhu Y, Li J, Chen Z, Han G, Kufareva I, et al. Structure of the CCR5 chemokine receptor-HIV entry inhibitor maraviroc complex. Science. 2013;341:1387-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These high-resolution insights into CCR5 can enable structure-based drug discovery for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. ..
  29. Van der Westhuizen E, Breton B, Christopoulos A, Bouvier M. Quantification of ligand bias for clinically relevant ?2-adrenergic receptor ligands: implications for drug taxonomy. Mol Pharmacol. 2014;85:492-509 pubmed publisher
    ..2-adrenergic receptor as a model, we present a proof of concept study that assessed the bias of 19 ?-adrenergic ligands, including many clinically used compounds, across four pathways [cAMP production, extracellular signal-regulated ..
  30. Makki N, Thiel K, Miller F. The epidermal growth factor receptor and its ligands in cardiovascular disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:20597-613 pubmed publisher
    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family and its ligands serve as a switchboard for the regulation of multiple cellular processes...
  31. Sola B, Poirot M, de Medina P, Bustany S, Marsaud V, Silvente Poirot S, et al. Antiestrogen-binding site ligands induce autophagy in myeloma cells that proceeds through alteration of cholesterol metabolism. Oncotarget. 2013;4:911-22 pubmed
    ..The binding of specific ligands to the AEBS was accompanied by alteration of cholesterol metabolism and in particular accumulation of sterols: ..
  32. Nakimuli A, Chazara O, Farrell L, Hiby S, Tukwasibwe S, Knee O, et al. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes and their HLA-C ligands in a Ugandan population. Immunogenetics. 2013;65:765-75 pubmed publisher
    ..HLA-C molecules, the dominant ligands for KIR, are present in all individuals and are discriminated by two KIR epitopes, C1 and C2...
  33. Wooderchak Donahue W, McDonald J, O Fallon B, Upton P, Li W, Roman B, et al. BMP9 mutations cause a vascular-anomaly syndrome with phenotypic overlap with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Am J Hum Genet. 2013;93:530-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data confirm a genetic cause of a vascular-anomaly syndrome that has phenotypic overlap with HHT...
  34. Roche D, Buenavista M, McGuffin L. The FunFOLD2 server for the prediction of protein-ligand interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:W303-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results page also includes a list of the most likely binding site residues and the types of predicted ligands and their frequencies in similar structures...
  35. Zhu J, Zhu J, Springer T. Complete integrin headpiece opening in eight steps. J Cell Biol. 2013;201:1053-68 pubmed publisher
    ..RGD concentration requirements in soaking suggested a >200-fold higher affinity after opening. The thermodynamic cycle shows how higher affinity pays the energetic cost of opening. ..
  36. da Silva F, dos Santos J, Campos J, Mafud A, Polikarpov I, Figueira A, et al. Structure-based identification of novel PPAR gamma ligands. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23:5795-802 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of MRL-24 and GQ-16, ligands that can partially activate PPAR? and prevent weight gain and fluid retention, showed that a submaximal receptor ..
  37. Spear P, Wu M, Sentman M, Sentman C. NKG2D ligands as therapeutic targets. Cancer Immun. 2013;13:8 pubmed
    ..By recognizing ligands induced on infected or tumor cells, NKG2D modulates lymphocyte activation and promotes immunity to eliminate ..
  38. Schreyer A, Blundell T. CREDO: a structural interactomics database for drug discovery. Database (Oxford). 2013;2013:bat049 pubmed publisher
    ..The database can be accessed through a web-based interface, downloads of data sets and web services at http://www-cryst.bioc.cam.ac.uk/credo. Database URL: http://www-cryst.bioc.cam.ac.uk/credo. ..
  39. Vachali P, Besch B, Gonzalez Fernandez F, Bernstein P. Carotenoids as possible interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) ligands: a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based study. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2013;539:181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that further studies should be carried out to evaluate whether IRBP has a physiologically relevant role in binding lutein and zeaxanthin in the interphotoreceptor matrix...
  40. Camarda V, Ruzza C, Rizzi A, Trapella C, Guerrini R, Reinscheid R, et al. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological characterization of the novel neuropeptide S receptor ligands QA1 and PI1. Peptides. 2013;48:27-35 pubmed publisher
    The pharmacological activity of the novel neuropeptide S (NPS) receptor (NPSR) ligands QA1 and PI1 was investigated...
  41. Wootten D, Christopoulos A, Sexton P. Emerging paradigms in GPCR allostery: implications for drug discovery. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2013;12:630-44 pubmed publisher
    Allosteric ligands bind to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; also known as seven-transmembrane receptors) at sites that are distinct from the sites to which endogenous ligands bind...
  42. Jahromi A, Fu Y, Miller K, Nguyen L, Luu L, Baranger A, et al. Developing bivalent ligands to target CUG triplet repeats, the causative agent of myotonic dystrophy type 1. J Med Chem. 2013;56:9471-9481 pubmed publisher
    ..reported to be active in an in vitro assay, we present the synthesis of a small library containing 10 dimeric ligands (4-13) that differ in length, composition, and attachment point of the linking chain...
  43. Anisimov A, Leppänen V, Tvorogov D, Zarkada G, Jeltsch M, Holopainen T, et al. The basis for the distinct biological activities of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 ligands. Sci Signal. 2013;6:ra52 pubmed publisher
  44. Patnode M, Cheng C, Chou C, Singer M, Elin M, Uchimura K, et al. Galactose 6-O-sulfotransferases are not required for the generation of Siglec-F ligands in leukocytes or lung tissue. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:26533-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Although endogenous ligands for Siglec-F have yet to be biochemically defined, binding studies using glycan arrays have implicated galactose ..
  45. Bittner M, Kraus D, Lindeman S, Popescu C, Fiedler A. Synthetic, spectroscopic, and DFT studies of iron complexes with iminobenzo(semi)quinone ligands: implications for o-aminophenol dioxygenases. Chemistry. 2013;19:9686-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of these results for the mechanism of APDOs and other ring-cleaving dioxygenases are discussed. ..
  46. St Paul M, Paolucci S, Sharif S. Characterization of responses initiated by different Toll-like receptor 2 ligands in chicken spleen cells. Res Vet Sci. 2013;95:919-23 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ligands for TLRs are conserved structural motifs of pathogens termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns...
  47. Prati F, Bartolini M, Simoni E, De Simone A, Pinto A, Andrisano V, et al. Quinones bearing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory fragments as multitarget ligands for Alzheimer's disease. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23:6254-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The balanced amyloid/cholinesterase inhibitory profile is an added value that makes the present series of compounds promising leads against Alzheimer's disease. ..
  48. Ghosh A, Parham G, Martyr C, Nyalapatla P, Osswald H, Agniswamy J, et al. Highly potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors with novel tricyclic P2 ligands: design, synthesis, and protein-ligand X-ray studies. J Med Chem. 2013;56:6792-802 pubmed publisher
    ..evaluation of a series of HIV-1 protease inhibitors incorporating stereochemically defined fused tricyclic P2 ligands are described...
  49. Mak P, Gregory M, Sligar S, Kincaid J. Resonance Raman spectroscopy reveals that substrate structure selectively impacts the heme-bound diatomic ligands of CYP17. Biochemistry. 2014;53:90-100 pubmed publisher
  50. Korn C, Scholz B, Hu J, Srivastava K, Wojtarowicz J, Arnsperger T, et al. Endothelial cell-derived non-canonical Wnt ligands control vascular pruning in angiogenesis. Development. 2014;141:1757-66 pubmed publisher
    Multiple cell types involved in the regulation of angiogenesis express Wnt ligands. Although ?-catenin dependent and independent Wnt signaling pathways have been shown to control angiogenesis, the contribution of individual cell types to ..
  51. Iannello A, Thompson T, Ardolino M, Lowe S, Raulet D. p53-dependent chemokine production by senescent tumor cells supports NKG2D-dependent tumor elimination by natural killer cells. J Exp Med. 2013;210:2057-69 pubmed publisher
  52. Myers B, Sever N, Chong Y, Kim J, Belani J, Rychnovsky S, et al. Hedgehog pathway modulation by multiple lipid binding sites on the smoothened effector of signal response. Dev Cell. 2013;26:346-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Exogenous Smo ligands previously identified include the plant sterol cyclopamine (and its therapeutically useful synthetic mimics) and ..
  53. Thrasivoulou C, Millar M, Ahmed A. Activation of intracellular calcium by multiple Wnt ligands and translocation of ?-catenin into the nucleus: a convergent model of Wnt/Ca2+ and Wnt/?-catenin pathways. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:35651-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a convergent model of Wnt signaling network where Ca(2+) and ?-catenin pathways may act in a coordinated, interdependent, rather than independent, manner. ..
  54. Reining A, Nozinovic S, Schlepckow K, Buhr F, Fürtig B, Schwalbe H. Three-state mechanism couples ligand and temperature sensing in riboswitches. Nature. 2013;499:355-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The translational adenine-sensing riboswitch represents the first example, to our knowledge, of a temperature-compensated regulatory RNA element. ..
  55. Lieu C, Tran H, Jiang Z, Mao M, Overman M, Lin E, et al. The association of alternate VEGF ligands with resistance to anti-VEGF therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e77117 pubmed publisher
    ..Evaluation of alterations in levels of VEGF ligands may provide insights into possible resistance mechanisms...
  56. Hinz C, Namekawa I, Namekawa R, Behrmann Godel J, Oppelt C, Jaeschke A, et al. Olfactory imprinting is triggered by MHC peptide ligands. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2800 pubmed publisher
    ..Responses to MHC peptides overlapped spatially with responses to kin odour but not food odour, consistent with the hypothesis that MHC peptides are natural signals for olfactory imprinting...
  57. Panda A, Grammatikakis I, Yoon J, Abdelmohsen K. Posttranscriptional regulation of insulin family ligands and receptors. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:19202-29 pubmed publisher
    Insulin system including ligands (insulin and IGFs) and their shared receptors (IR and IGFR) are critical regulators of insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis...
  58. Mahanti P, Bose N, Bethke A, Judkins J, Wollam J, Dumas K, et al. Comparative metabolomics reveals endogenous ligands of DAF-12, a nuclear hormone receptor, regulating C. elegans development and lifespan. Cell Metab. 2014;19:73-83 pubmed publisher
    Small-molecule ligands of nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) govern the transcriptional regulation of metazoan development, cell differentiation, and metabolism...
  59. Kruse A, Weiss D, Rossi M, Hu J, Hu K, Eitel K, et al. Muscarinic receptors as model targets and antitargets for structure-based ligand discovery. Mol Pharmacol. 2013;84:528-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor family exemplifies these problems; thousands of ligands are known, but few are receptor subtype-selective and nearly all are cationic in nature...
  60. Fernández M, Varela J, Correia I, Birriel E, Castiglioni J, Moreno V, et al. A new series of heteroleptic oxidovanadium(IV) compounds with phenanthroline-derived co-ligands: selective Trypanosoma cruzi growth inhibitors. Dalton Trans. 2013;42:11900-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The compounds were characterized in the solid state and in solution. EPR spectroscopy suggests that the NN ligands act as bidentate through both nitrogen donor atoms in an axial-equatorial mode...
  61. Tenthorey J, Kofoed E, Daugherty M, Malik H, Vance R. Molecular basis for specific recognition of bacterial ligands by NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasomes. Mol Cell. 2014;54:17-29 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a molecular basis for how NLRs detect ligands and assemble into inflammasomes.
  62. Zhan N, Palui G, Safi M, Ji X, Mattoussi H. Multidentate zwitterionic ligands provide compact and highly biocompatible quantum dots. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:13786-95 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this, we designed a set of metal coordinating ligands where we combined two lipoic acid groups, bis(LA)-ZW, (as a multicoordinating anchor) with a zwitterion group for ..