reducing agents


Summary: Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Eigler S, Grimm S, Enzelberger Heim M, MULLER P, Hirsch A. Graphene oxide: efficiency of reducing agents. Chem Commun (Camb). 2013;49:7391-3 pubmed publisher
    The efficiency of reducing agents for the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) could be probed by scanning Raman spectroscopy. A film of graphene flakes derived from GO was probed to be graphene like...
  2. Alriksson B, Cavka A, Jönsson L. Improving the fermentability of enzymatic hydrolysates of lignocellulose through chemical in-situ detoxification with reducing agents. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:1254-63 pubmed publisher
    Inhibitory lignocellulose hydrolysates were treated with the reducing agents dithionite and sulfite to achieve improved fermentability. Addition of these reducing agents (in the concentration range 5.0-17...
  3. Soudham V, Alriksson B, Jönsson L. Reducing agents improve enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates in the presence of pretreatment liquid. J Biotechnol. 2011;155:244-50 pubmed publisher
    ..When the reducing agents were added to reaction mixtures without pretreatment liquid, there was a 13-39% decrease in saccharification ..
  4. Nelson M, Woo J, Kang H, Vitko I, Barrett P, Perez Reyes E, et al. Reducing agents sensitize C-type nociceptors by relieving high-affinity zinc inhibition of T-type calcium channels. J Neurosci. 2007;27:8250-60 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that reducing agents as well as endogenous metal chelators sensitize C-type dorsal root ganglion nociceptors by chelating Zn2+ ..
  5. Flashman E, Davies S, Yeoh K, Schofield C. Investigating the dependence of the hypoxia-inducible factor hydroxylases (factor inhibiting HIF and prolyl hydroxylase domain 2) on ascorbate and other reducing agents. Biochem J. 2010;427:135-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether alternative reducing agents (glutathione and dithiothreitol) could be used to promote HIF hydroxylase activity, and found partial ..
  6. Johnston P, Soares K, Shinde S, Foster C, Shun T, Takyi H, et al. Development of a 384-well colorimetric assay to quantify hydrogen peroxide generated by the redox cycling of compounds in the presence of reducing agents. Assay Drug Dev Technol. 2008;6:505-18 pubmed publisher
    ..384-well colorimetric assay to measure H(2)O(2) generated by the redox cycling of compounds incubated with reducing agents in high-throughput screening (HTS) assay buffers...
  7. Imamura M, Kato N, Okada H, Iwamaru Y, Shimizu Y, Mohri S, et al. Strain-specific effects of reducing agents on the cell-free conversion of recombinant prion protein into a protease-resistant form. Microbiol Immunol. 2011;55:633-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The resulting classification is similar to that derived from biological and biochemical strain-specific features. ..
  8. Dmitrenko O, Thorpe C, Bach R. Mechanism of SN2 disulfide bond cleavage by phosphorus nucleophiles. Implications for biochemical disulfide reducing agents. J Org Chem. 2007;72:8298-307 pubmed
  9. Newman J, Blanchard G. Formation of gold nanoparticles using amine reducing agents. Langmuir. 2006;22:5882-7 pubmed
    We report on the use of amines as reducing agents in the formation of gold nanoparticles. We can predict whether the amines will function as reducing agents in this reaction based on their redox properties...

More Information


  1. Kieronczyk A, Cachon R, Feron G, Yvon M. Addition of oxidizing or reducing agents to the reaction medium influences amino acid conversion to aroma compounds by Lactococcus lactis. J Appl Microbiol. 2006;101:1114-22 pubmed
    ..lactis in reaction media in which E(h) was modified by the addition of oxidizing or reducing agents. Oxidative condition (+300 mV) favoured the production of aldehydes and volatile sulfur compounds responsible ..
  2. Chen H, Chang C, Chen Y. Hemoprotein-mediated reduction of nitrated DNA bases in the presence of reducing agents. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003;34:254-68 pubmed
    ..and cytochrome c, mediate reduction of 8NG and 8NX to their corresponding amino analogues in the presence of reducing agents under physiologically relevant conditions...
  3. Retamal M, Cortes C, Reuss L, Bennett M, Saez J. S-nitrosylation and permeation through connexin 43 hemichannels in astrocytes: induction by oxidant stress and reversal by reducing agents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4475-80 pubmed
    ..b>Reducing agents did not affect dephosphorylation of Cx43 hemichannels but reduced dye uptake and S-nitrosylation...
  4. Chigaev A, Zwartz G, Buranda T, Edwards B, Prossnitz E, Sklar L. Conformational regulation of alpha 4 beta 1-integrin affinity by reducing agents. "Inside-out" signaling is independent of and additive to reduction-regulated integrin activation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:32435-43 pubmed
    ..and conformation: conformational changes induced by separation of the C-terminal tails, divalent ions, and reducing agents. Recently, we described a fluorescent LDV-containing small molecule that was used to monitor VLA-4 affinity ..
  5. Lambert G, Forster I, Biber J, Murer H. Cysteine residues and the structure of the rat renal proximal tubular type II sodium phosphate cotransporter (rat NaPi IIa). J Membr Biol. 2000;176:133-41 pubmed
    ..A revised secondary structure is proposed which includes two partially repeated motifs that are connected by disulfide bridges formed between cysteine pairs C306-C334 and C225-C520. ..
  6. Perrocheau L, Bakan B, Boivin P, Marion D. Stability of barley and malt lipid transfer protein 1 (LTP1) toward heating and reducing agents: relationships with the brewing process. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:3108-13 pubmed
    ..Glycation had no or weak effect on heat-induced unfolding. Finally, it was shown that unfolding occurred on wort boiling before fermentation and that the reducing conditions are provided by malt extract. ..
  7. Lambert G, Traebert M, Biber J, Murer H. Cleavage of disulfide bonds leads to inactivation and degradation of the type IIa, but not type IIb sodium phosphate cotransporter expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. J Membr Biol. 2000;176:143-9 pubmed
    ..Sequence comparisons suggest the involvement/presence of different disulfide bonds in type IIa and type IIb Na/P(i)-cotransporters. ..
  8. Papi A, Papadopoulos N, Stanciu L, Bellettato C, Pinamonti S, Degitz K, et al. Reducing agents inhibit rhinovirus-induced up-regulation of the rhinovirus receptor intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in respiratory epithelial cells. FASEB J. 2002;16:1934-6 pubmed
    ..implicated in inflammatory responses via molecular signaling mechanisms, here we studied the effects of reducing agents on rhinovirus-induced ICAM-1 expression, mRNA up-regulation, promoter activation, and nuclear factor ..
  9. Muñoz J, Tárrega C, Blanco Aparicio C, Pulido R. Differential interaction of the tyrosine phosphatases PTP-SL, STEP and HePTP with the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2 and p38alpha is determined by a kinase specificity sequence and influenced by reducing agents. Biochem J. 2003;372:193-201 pubmed
    ..C-terminal regions of the PTPs, which have been termed kinase-specificity sequences, and is influenced by reducing agents. Under control conditions, PTP-SL bound preferentially to ERK1/2, whereas STEP and HePTP bound preferentially ..
  10. Moukadiri I, Jaafar L, Zueco J. Identification of two mannoproteins released from cell walls of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mnn1 mnn9 double mutant by reducing agents. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:4741-5 pubmed
    ..polypeptides that are extracted from purified cell walls of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mnn1 mnn9 strain by reducing agents. Treatment of the purified cell walls of this strain with beta-mercaptoethanol releases several mannoproteins,..
  11. Matyjaszewski K, Jakubowski W, Min K, Tang W, Huang J, Braunecker W, et al. Diminishing catalyst concentration in atom transfer radical polymerization with reducing agents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:15309-14 pubmed
    ..Additionally, various organic reducing agents (derivatives of hydrazine and phenol) are used to continuously regenerate the Cu(I) activator in activators ..
  12. McDonagh B. Diagonal electrophoresis for the detection of protein disulfides. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;869:309-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This technique therefore allows for the detection and identification of protein disulfides. ..
  13. Sharma S, Gupta N, Srivastava S. Modulating electron transfer properties of gold nanoparticles for efficient biosensing. Biosens Bioelectron. 2012;37:30-7 pubmed publisher
    ..g. uric acid and ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the electrochemical biosensor has excellent long term stability- retaining greater than 85% of the biosensor activity up to 60 days. ..
  14. Kaviya S, Santhanalakshmi J, Viswanathan B, Muthumary J, Srinivasan K. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using citrus sinensis peel extract and its antibacterial activity. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2011;79:594-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs act as an effective antibacterial agent...
  15. Song W, Ding J, Liang R, Qin W. Potentiometric flow injection system for determination of reductants using a polymeric membrane permanganate ion-selective electrode based on current-controlled reagent delivery. Anal Chim Acta. 2011;704:68-72 pubmed publisher
    ..8×10(-8), 1.0×10(-7) and 1.0×10(-7)M. The proposed system has been successfully applied to the determination of reductants in pharmaceutical preparations and vegetables, and the results agree well with those of iodimetric analysis. ..
  16. Lawler J, Kim J, Kwak H, Barnes W. Redox modulation of diaphragm contractility: Interaction between DHPR and RyR channels. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;49:1969-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are consistent with the hypothesis that DHPR redox state and RyR function are modulated in an interactive manner, affecting contractility in intact diaphragm fiber bundles. ..
  17. McWhinney R, Badali K, Liggio J, Li S, Abbatt J. Filterable redox cycling activity: a comparison between diesel exhaust particles and secondary organic aerosol constituents. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47:3362-9 pubmed publisher
  18. Hong Y, Guo J, Sun G. Energy generation coupled to azoreduction by membranous vesicles from Shewanella decolorationis S12. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;19:37-41 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this study offers solid evidence of a mechanism of microbial dissimilatory azoreduction on a subcell level...
  19. Proskurnin M, Ageeva E, Senyuta V, Orlova N, Fokin A, Ovchinnikov O, et al. Comparison of optoacoustic and photothermal-lens determination of lipopolysaccharides. Talanta. 2010;81:377-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In the case of the 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid reaction, the sampling stage time is decreased twofold, and the possibility of substitution of the toxic metaarsenite for sulfite with better sensitivity is shown. ..
  20. David C, Foley S, Enescu M. Protein S-S bridge reduction: a Raman and computational study of lysozyme interaction with TCEP. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2009;11:2532-42 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, Raman measurements, as well as the molecular dynamics simulations, strongly suggest that the protein global unfolding following S-S bridge cleavage has only limited effects in stabilizing the reaction products. ..
  21. White R. Biochemical origins of lactaldehyde and hydroxyacetone in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. Biochemistry. 2008;47:5037-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Hydroxyacetone was also readily formed by the condensation of pyruvate with formaldehyde. The product of the MJ0663 gene was shown to catalyze this condensation reaction. ..
  22. Li K, Zhou L, Zhang J, Chen S, Zhang Z, Zhang J, et al. "Self-activating" chemical nuclease: ferrocenyl cyclen Cu(II) complexes act as efficient DNA cleavage reagents in the absence of reductant. Eur J Med Chem. 2009;44:1768-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The interactions of cyclen Cu(II) complexes functionalized by ferrocenyl group with plasmid DNA indicated that these complexes have high cleavage efficiency via an oxidative mechanism in the absence of any reductant or oxidant. ..
  23. Khan Z, Al Thabaiti S, Obaid A, Khan Z, Al Youbi A. Shape-directing role of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in the preparation of silver nanoparticles. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2012;367:101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Spectrophotometric measurement also shows that the average size and the polydispersity of AgNP increase with [CTAB] in the solution. CTAB acted as a shape-directing agent. ..
  24. Paquete C, Turner D, Louro R, Xavier A, Catarino T. Thermodynamic and kinetic characterisation of individual haems in multicentre cytochromes c3. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1767:1169-79 pubmed
    ..The accessibility for the reducing agent seems to play an important role in controlling the kinetic rates, although is clearly not the only factor. ..
  25. Kumar C, Loh W, Ooi C, Quah C, Fun H. Heteroaryl chalcones: design, synthesis, X-ray crystal structures and biological evaluation. Molecules. 2013;18:12707-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The compounds 3d, 3e, 3f and 3i showed good ferric and cupric reducing abilities, and the compounds 3b and 3c showed the weakest reducing power in the series. ..
  26. Walia G, Surolia A. Insights into the regulatory characteristics of the mycobacterial dephosphocoenzyme A kinase: implications for the universal CoA biosynthesis pathway. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21390 pubmed publisher
    ..Cysteine mutagenesis and the effects of reducing agents on mycobacterial CoaE oligomerization further validate that the latter is not cysteine-mediated or reduction-..
  27. Han L, Kim Y, Cho S, Park Y. Invertebrate water extracts as biocompatible reducing agents for the green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles. Nat Prod Commun. 2013;8:1149-52 pubmed
    We report the use of water extracts of two invertebrates, snail body and earthworm, as biocompatible reducing agents for the green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles...
  28. Dong Y, He J, Sun S, Ma M, Fu L, Sun R. Environmentally friendly microwave ionic liquids synthesis of hybrids from cellulose and AgX (X=Cl, Br). Carbohydr Polym. 2013;98:168-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This environmentally friendly microwave-assisted ionic liquids method is beneficial to the hybrids with high dispersion. ..
  29. Kim H. Glutaredoxin serves as a reductant for methionine sulfoxide reductases with or without resolving cysteine. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2012;44:623-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to the previous report, 2-Cys MsrB containing a resolving Cys was reducible by the glutaredoxins. Collectively, this study demonstrates that glutaredoxins reduce MsrAs and MsrBs with or without resolving Cys. ..
  30. Lei Q, Boatright W. Lipoxygenase independent hexanal formation in isolated soy proteins induced by reducing agents. J Food Sci. 2008;73:C464-8 pubmed
    ..Data from the current investigation demonstrate the existence of LOX independent hexanal formation induced by reducing agents in ISP and the potential requirement of iron as a catalyst.
  31. Bankar A, Joshi B, Kumar A, Zinjarde S. Banana peel extract mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2010;80:45-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The BPE mediated nanoparticles displayed efficient antimicrobial activity towards most of the tested fungal and bacterial cultures. ..
  32. Zhang H, Li J, Xia J, Lin S. Antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of an acidic polysaccharide from Morinda officinalis. Int J Biol Macromol. 2013;58:7-12 pubmed publisher
    ..APMO predominantly consisted of galacturonic acid, arabinose and galactose. Galacturonic acid was assigned to be 1?4 glycosyl linkage in the skeleton of APMO. ..
  33. Chandra S, Kumar A. Modulation of synthetic parameters of novel zinc nanoparticles and reducing agent: powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and spectral studies. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2012;97:935-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that nanoparticles of zinc are of high purity and 20 nm in size. ..
  34. Bouacem K, Bouanane Darenfed A, Zaraî Jaouadi N, Joseph M, Hacene H, Ollivier B, et al. Novel serine keratinase from Caldicoprobacter algeriensis exhibiting outstanding hide dehairing abilities. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016;86:321-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These properties make KERCA a potential promising and eco-friendly alternative to the conventional chemicals used for the dehairing of goat, sheep, and bovine hides in the leather processing industry. ..
  35. Shang Z, Lu C, Chen S, Hua L, Qian R. Effect of H?S on the circadian rhythm of mouse hepatocytes. Lipids Health Dis. 2012;11:23 pubmed publisher
  36. Lippa A, Goulian M. Perturbation of the oxidizing environment of the periplasm stimulates the PhoQ/PhoP system in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:1457-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that a decrease in the oxidizing activity of the periplasm stimulates PhoQ/PhoP and may reveal a new input stimulus for this important two-component system...
  37. Kan A, Orhan I, Coksari G, Sener B. In-vitro neuroprotective properties of the Maydis stigma extracts from four corn varieties. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012;63:1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Total phenol and flavonoid contents in the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. ..
  38. Mills A, Hazafy D. A solvent-based intelligence ink for oxygen. Analyst. 2008;133:213-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism of this novel, UV-activated, solvent-based, colorimetric oxygen indicator is discussed, along with its possible applications. ..
  39. Carrillo Carrión C, Simonet B, Valcarcel M. Rapid fluorescence determination of diquat herbicide in food grains using quantum dots as new reducing agent. Anal Chim Acta. 2011;692:103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..01 mg kg(-1).The lineal range was between 0.05 and 0.5 mg kg(-1). The time of analysis per sample, including extraction, reaction and fluorescent measurement was only of 6 min. ..
  40. Chastain B, Kral T. Approaching Mars-like geochemical conditions in the laboratory: omission of artificial buffers and reductants in a study of biogenic methane production on a smectite clay. Astrobiology. 2010;10:889-97 pubmed publisher
    ..In typical studies of methanogenic metabolism, nutrient-rich buffered media and reducing agents are added to the cultures in an attempt to optimize the environment for methanogen survival and growth...
  41. Premkumar T, Geckeler K. Cucurbit[7]uril as a tool in the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Chem Asian J. 2010;5:2468-76 pubmed publisher the presence of sodium hydroxide at room temperature without introducing any kind of traditional reducing agents and/or external energy...
  42. Zengin G, Cakmak Y, Guler G, Aktumsek A. In vitro antioxidant capacities and fatty acid compositions of three Centaurea species collected from Central Anatolia region of Turkey. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:2638-41 pubmed publisher
    ..pulchella and C. tchihatcheffii, and alpha-linolenic acid from C. patula. The study concluded that the Centaurea species can be used as a source of natural antioxidants and essential fatty acids. ..
  43. Feron G, Mauvais G, Lherminier J, Michel J, Wang X, Viel C, et al. Metabolism of fatty acid in yeast: addition of reducing agents to the reaction medium influences beta-oxidation activities, gamma-decalactone production, and cell ultrastructure in Sporidiobolus ruinenii cultivated on ricinoleic acid methyl ester. Can J Microbiol. 2007;53:738-49 pubmed
    The sensitivity of Sporidiobolus ruinenii yeast to the use of reducing agents, reflected in changes in the oxidoreduction potential at pH 7 (Eh7) environment, ricinoleic acid methyl ester catabolism, gamma-decalactone synthesis, cofactor ..
  44. Borges V, Nogueira C. The role of thiol-reducing agents on modulation of glutamate binding induced by heavy metals in platelets. Toxicol In Vitro. 2008;22:438-43 pubmed
    In the present study, we investigated if thiol-reducing agents are capable of altering mercury (Hg2+), lead (Pb2+) and cadmium (Cd2+) effects on platelet glutamatergic system...
  45. Zhao L, Jiang D, Cai Y, Ji X, Xie R, Yang W. Tuning the size of gold nanoparticles in the citrate reduction by chloride ions. Nanoscale. 2012;4:5071-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach could also be extended to other reaction systems, for example, the size of gold nanoparticles prepared by NaBH(4) reduction increased from 3 to 12 nm as the chloride ion concentration was increased from 0 to 20 mM. ..
  46. Schnebelen A, Sweat K, Marshall J, Bornhorst J. Alleviation of IgM monoclonal protein interference in nephelometric assays by sample treatment with reducing agent in a chaotropic salt solution. Am J Clin Pathol. 2012;137:26-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are consistent with dissociation of higher order IgM complexes, leading to reduction of nonspecific light scattering by IgM complexes in IgA and IgG nephelometric reactions. ..
  47. Chang K, Jeong Y, Kwak C, Choi O, Kim J. Effect of mild-thiol reducing agents and alpha2,3-sialyltransferase expression on secretion and sialylation of recombinant EPO in CHO cells. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;23:699-706 pubmed
    ..Intriguingly, all mild reducing agents examined including mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (MESNA), thiolactic acid (TLA), and thioglycolate (TG) were ..
  48. Tao Z, Raffel R, Souid A, Goodisman J. Kinetic studies on enzyme-catalyzed reactions: oxidation of glucose, decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and their combination. Biophys J. 2009;96:2977-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Added NaCN inhibited O2 consumption completely, confirming that oxidation occurred in the cellular mitochondrial respiratory chain. ..
  49. Mucci V, Arenas G, Duchowicz R, Cook W, Vallo C. Influence of thermal expansion on shrinkage during photopolymerization of dental resins based on bis-GMA/TEGDMA. Dent Mater. 2009;25:103-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Results obtained in this research highlight the inherent interlinking of non-isothermal photopolymerization and volumetric changes in bulk polymerizing systems. ..
  50. Choi I, Lee H, Shin J, Kim H. Evaluation of the effectiveness of five odor reducing agents for sewer system odors using an on-line total reduced sulfur analyzer. Sensors (Basel). 2012;12:16892-906 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the effectiveness of five different commercial odor-reducing agents (i.e...
  51. Kim S, Lee S, Park K, Kwon D, Hong S. A study on the reaction characteristics of vanadium-impregnated natural manganese oxide in ammonia selective catalytic reduction. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2011;61:552-8 pubmed
    ..From the NH3 temperature programmed desorption and oxygen on/off test, it was confirmed that the amount of Lewis acid site and active lattice oxygen of the catalyst affects the catalytic performance at low temperature. ..
  52. van den Akker J, Vanbavel E, van Geel R, Matlung H, Guvenc Tuna B, Janssen G, et al. The redox state of transglutaminase 2 controls arterial remodeling. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23067 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these results show that a reduced state induces smooth muscle membrane-bound TG2 activity. Inward remodeling results from the cross-linking of vicinal matrix proteins, causing a stiffening of the arterial wall. ..
  53. Palmeira C, Rolo A. Mitochondrial membrane potential (??) fluctuations associated with the metabolic states of mitochondria. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;810:89-101 pubmed publisher
    ..The main focus is given to the evaluation of ?? in isolated mitochondria. ..