indicators and reagents


Summary: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)

Top Publications

  1. Májek P, Riedelová Reicheltová Z, Suttnar J, Dyr J. Staining of proteins for 2D SDS-PAGE using Coomassie Blue--speed versus sensitivity?. Electrophoresis. 2013;34:1972-5 pubmed
    ..PLoS One 2011, 6, e22394) seems to be less sensitive than colloidal Coomassie staining when the number of detected spots is the evaluating criterion. No obvious influence of gel boiling on the protein identification was observed...
  2. Jiang L, Hoogenkamp M, van der Sluis L, Wesselink P, Crielaard W, Deng D. Resazurin metabolism assay for root canal disinfectant evaluation on dual-species biofilms. J Endod. 2011;37:31-5 pubmed publisher
    ..faecalis in dual-species biofilms. Clearly, the high-throughput and low cost resazurin metabolism assay has a great potential for testing novel root canal antimicrobial agents in mixed-species biofilms. ..
  3. Fong B, Tam S, Tsui S, Leung K. Development and validation of a high-throughput double solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of tetrodotoxin in human urine and plasma. Talanta. 2011;83:1030-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The creatinine-adjusted TTX concentration in urine (ranging from 7.4 to 41.1 ng ?mol(-1) creatinine) correlated well with the degree of poisoning as observed from clinical symptoms. ..
  4. Kumar A, Gogia V, Shah V, Nag T. Comparative evaluation of anatomical and functional outcomes using brilliant blue G versus triamcinolone assisted ILM peeling in macular hole surgery in Indian population. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2011;249:987-95 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare anatomical and functional outcomes using brilliant blue G (BBG) vs triamcinolone acetonide (TA)-assisted ILM peeling in macular hole surgery (MHS)...
  5. Awad D, Schrader I, Bartok M, Mohr A, Gabel D. Comparative toxicology of trypan blue, brilliant blue G, and their combination together with polyethylene glycol on human pigment epithelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:4085-90 pubmed publisher
  6. Muto A, Ohkura M, Kotani T, Higashijima S, Nakai J, Kawakami K. Genetic visualization with an improved GCaMP calcium indicator reveals spatiotemporal activation of the spinal motor neurons in zebrafish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5425-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose the GCaMP technology combined with the Gal4FF-UAS system is a powerful tool to study functional neural circuits in zebrafish. ..
  7. Knox K, Carrigan D, Simmons G, Teque F, Zhou Y, Hackett J, et al. No evidence of murine-like gammaretroviruses in CFS patients previously identified as XMRV-infected. Science. 2011;333:94-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with previous reports, we detected MLV sequences in commercial laboratory reagents. Our results indicate that previous evidence linking XMRV and MLVs to CFS is likely attributable to laboratory contamination...
  8. Fier P, Hartwig J. Copper-mediated difluoromethylation of aryl and vinyl iodides. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:5524-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This transformation is surprising, in part, because of the prior observation of the instability of CuCF(2)H...
  9. Zong C, Venot A, Dhamale O, Boons G. Fluorous supported modular synthesis of heparan sulfate oligosaccharides. Org Lett. 2013;15:342-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This tagging methodology made it also possible to perform repeated glycosylations to drive reactions to completion. ..

More Information


  1. Champlot S, Berthelot C, Pruvost M, Bennett E, Grange T, Geigl E. An efficient multistrategy DNA decontamination procedure of PCR reagents for hypersensitive PCR applications. PLoS ONE. 2010;5: pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that this procedure allows efficient reagent decontamination while preserving the efficiency of PCR amplification of minute quantities of DNA. ..
  2. Xu H, Jiang W, Feng L, Liu Y, Wu P, Jiang J, et al. Dietary vitamin C deficiency depresses the growth, head kidney and spleen immunity and structural integrity by regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2, apoptosis and MLCK signaling in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;52:111-38 pubmed publisher
    ..2, 137.5, 135.8 and 129.8 mg/kg diet, respectively. ..
  3. Li X, Yu J, Huang W, Huang Q, Yan J, Liang H, et al. [Risk factors analysis of acute respiratory distress syndrome in intensive care unit traumatic patients]. Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2018;30:978-982 pubmed publisher
    ..89% and specificity was 70.29%. The traumatic patients on admission with hyperglycemia, abnormal PaO2/FiO2 and increased SOFA score are more susceptible to ARDS occurrence. ..
  4. Mokdad A, Forouzanfar M, Daoud F, El Bcheraoui C, Moradi Lakeh M, Khalil I, et al. Health in times of uncertainty in the eastern Mediterranean region, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet Glob Health. 2016;4:e704-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our findings, we call for increased investment in health in the region in addition to reducing the conflicts. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. ..
  5. Allemani C, Matsuda T, Di Carlo V, Harewood R, Matz M, Niksic M, et al. Global surveillance of trends in cancer survival 2000-14 (CONCORD-3): analysis of individual records for 37?513?025 patients diagnosed with one of 18 cancers from 322 population-based registries in 71 countries. Lancet. 2018;391:1023-1075 pubmed publisher
  6. Mao Z, Shen S, Wan Y, Sun W, Chen H, Huang M, et al. Huangkui capsule attenuates renal fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy rats through regulating oxidative stress and p38MAPK/Akt pathways, compared to α-lipoic acid. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015;173:256-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings thus provide the useful information about a clinical combination of HKC and LA in early DN patients. ..
  7. Cai H, Su S, Li Y, Zeng H, Zhu Z, Guo J, et al. Protective effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza on adenine-induced chronic renal failure by regulating the metabolic profiling and modulating the NADPH oxidase/ROS/ERK and TGF-?/Smad signaling pathways. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018;212:153-165 pubmed publisher
  8. Ye J, Mo W, Chen Y, Yang A. [An analysis of laboratory results of parameters of organ function in patients with heat stroke]. Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2015;27:658-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing of CK and decreasing of PLT has some value to assess illness changes. It is helpful of laboratory results for doctors to estimate complications on time. ..
  9. Zheng N, Ding X, Wei D, Dai B, Zheng L, Sumi R, et al. Therapeutic Effects of Coccomyxagloeobotrydiformis on the Metabolic Syndrome in Rats. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018;48:1519-1529 pubmed publisher
    ..CGD has a therapeutic effect on MS and associated cardiovascular complications by eliciting mitochondrial protection and having anti-oxidation and anti-apoptosis effects. CGD could be used for MS treatment. ..
  10. Valenzuela R, Echeverría F, Ortiz M, Rincón Cervera M, Espinosa A, Hernandez Rodas M, et al. Hydroxytyrosol prevents reduction in liver activity of ?-5 and ?-6 desaturases, oxidative stress, and depletion in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content in different tissues of high-fat diet fed mice. Lipids Health Dis. 2017;16:64 pubmed publisher
    ..HT supplementation prevents metabolic alterations in desaturase activities, oxidative stress status, and n-3 LCPUFA content in the liver and extrahepatic tissues of mice fed HFD. ..
  11. de la Maza M, Rodriguez J, Hirsch S, Leiva L, Barrera G, Bunout D. Skeletal muscle ceramide species in men with abdominal obesity. J Nutr Health Aging. 2015;19:389-96 pubmed publisher
    ..28). An association was found between accumulation of specific ceramide species in muscle tissue and abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance and shortening of leukocyte telomeres, although not with muscle oxidative injury or dysfunction. ..
  12. Furll M. [Development and basics of metabolic monitoring in dairy cows. Focus on research in Eastern Germany and at the University of Leipzig, Germany]. Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere. 2016;44:107-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These should be tested once a year/herd, if necessary as an inexpensive pool sample for approximately 50 €. ..
  13. Muthulakshmi S, Maharajan K, Habibi H, Kadirvelu K, Venkataramana M. Zearalenone induced embryo and neurotoxicity in zebrafish model (Danio rerio): Role of oxidative stress revealed by a multi biomarker study. Chemosphere. 2018;198:111-121 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, in the present study we concluded that oxidative stress is the main culprit in ZEA induced developmental, genotoxicity and neurotoxicity in zebrafish embryos. ..
  14. Ojeda M, Nogales F, Muñoz Del Valle P, Díaz Castro J, Murillo M, Carreras O. Metabolic syndrome and selenium in fetal programming: gender differences. Food Funct. 2016;7:3031-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Particularly relevant is the depletion of Se found in the heart of fructose pups, as this element is essential for correct heart function. ..
  15. Rtibi K, Grami D, Wannes D, Selmi S, Amri M, Sebai H, et al. Ficus carica aqueous extract alleviates delayed gastric emptying and recovers ulcerative colitis-enhanced acute functional gastrointestinal disorders in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018;224:242-249 pubmed publisher
    ..The obtained results indicated that FCAE exhibits a natural laxative effect without provoking diarrhea and ameliorates functional gastrointestinal (GI) and motility disorders thus justifying its traditional usage. ..
  16. Tang Y, Zhou G, Yao L, Xue P, Yu D, Xu R, et al. Protective effect of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract, EGb761, on myocardium injury in ischemia reperfusion rats via regulation of TLR-4/NF-?B signaling pathway. Oncotarget. 2017;8:86671-86680 pubmed publisher
    ..It can be concluded that EGb 761 pretreatment was protected against myocardium I/R injury by decreasing oxidative stress, repressing inflammatory cascade in vivo and inhibiting TLR4/NF-?B pathway...
  17. Zhou M, Zhu L, Cui X, Feng L, Zhao X, He S, et al. Influence of diet on leukocyte telomere length, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in individuals with varied glucose tolerance: a Chinese population study. Nutr J. 2016;15:39 pubmed publisher
    ..Diet ingredients significantly impacted on markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, which probably had an effect on LTL. ..
  18. Huang W, Qin S, Sun Y, Yin S, Fan X, Huang Q, et al. [Establishment of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome early warning score in patients with severe trauma and its clinical significance: a multicenter study]. Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2018;30:41-46 pubmed publisher
    ..MODS warning score can be more comprehensive and timely to assess the possibility of MODS and prognosis of patients with severe trauma, and the prediction result is better than the single use of APTT, APACHE II or SOFA score. ..
  19. Feijó Oliveira M, Suda C, Vani G, Donatti L, Rodrigues E, Lavrado H. Metabolic responses of the Antarctic fishes Notothenia rossii and Notothenia coriiceps to sewage pollution. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2015;41:1205-20 pubmed publisher
    ..coriiceps showing greater susceptibility to the toxic effects of the pollutants. The present study suggests that the biochemical responses of these two species are potential indicators of metabolic changes caused by sewage effluents. ..
  20. Cai H, Su S, Qian D, Guo S, Tao W, Cong X, et al. Renal protective effect and action mechanism of Huangkui capsule and its main five flavonoids. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;206:152-159 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrated that Huangkui capsule and the flavonoids components prevent tubulointerstitial fibrosis in CRF rat involvement in the action mechanism of inhibiting NADPH oxidase/ROS/ERK pathway. ..
  21. Ransome Y, Slopen N, Karlsson O, Williams D. The association between alcohol abuse and neuroendocrine system dysregulation: Race differences in a National sample. Brain Behav Immun. 2017;66:313-321 pubmed publisher
    ..Replication of these analyses in larger cohorts are warranted in addition to further studies of underlying mechanisms among Blacks and Whites separately. ..