respiratory system agents


Summary: Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.

Top Publications

  1. Anand A, Srivastava N, Raj H. Effect of sublingual nitrate on respiratory reflexes arising from stimulation of juxta-pulmonary capillary (J) receptors by i.v. lobeline and short duration exercise. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2012;181:259-66 pubmed publisher
  2. Dolovich M. Influence of inspiratory flow rate, particle size, and airway caliber on aerosolized drug delivery to the lung. Respir Care. 2000;45:597-608 pubmed
  3. Lin S, Reibman J, Bowers J, Hwang S, Hoerning A, Gomez M, et al. Upper respiratory symptoms and other health effects among residents living near the World Trade Center site after September 11, 2001. Am J Epidemiol. 2005;162:499-507 pubmed
    ..Further analyses are needed to examine whether these increases were related to environmental exposures and to monitor long-term health effects. ..
  4. Hoffman A, Swanson L, Bruns S, Kuehn H, Bedenice D. Effects of tension of the girth strap on respiratory system mechanics in horses at rest and during hyperpnea induced by administration of lobeline hydrochloride. Am J Vet Res. 2005;66:1167-74 pubmed
    ..Although tension of the girth strap caused measurable changes in respiratory mechanics (loss of rib motion and increased pulmonary resistance), there was no evidence that ventilation was limited. ..
  5. Al Showair R, Tarsin W, Assi K, Pearson S, Chrystyn H. Can all patients with COPD use the correct inhalation flow with all inhalers and does training help?. Respir Med. 2007;101:2395-401 pubmed
    ..Some COPD patients have problems achieving required PIFs through DPIs but training is useful to help some exceed the minimum required rate despite only small improvements. The patients found it easier to slow their PIF through the MDI. ..
  6. Wouters E. The burden of COPD in The Netherlands: results from the Confronting COPD survey. Respir Med. 2003;97 Suppl C:S51-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, smoking cessation intervention at the early stages of the disease could help to reduce the high costs associated with severe COPD in this country. ..
  7. Wouters E. Economic analysis of the Confronting COPD survey: an overview of results. Respir Med. 2003;97 Suppl C:S3-14 pubmed
  8. Aït Khaled N, Enarson D, Ottmani S, El Sony A, Eltigani M, Sepulveda R. Chronic airflow limitation in developing countries: burden and priorities. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2007;2:141-50 pubmed
  9. Behr J, Demedts M, Buhl R, Costabel U, Dekhuijzen R, Jansen H, et al. Lung function in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis--extended analyses of the IFIGENIA trial. Respir Res. 2009;10:101 pubmed publisher
    ..Most importantly, less progressed disease as indicated by a CPI of 50 points or lower at baseline was more responsive to therapy in this study. ..

More Information


  1. Bergeron C, Boulet L. Structural changes in airway diseases: characteristics, mechanisms, consequences, and pharmacologic modulation. Chest. 2006;129:1068-87 pubmed
    ..The potential of novel therapeutic agents to reverse or prevent airway remodeling is an exciting avenue and warrants further evaluation. ..
  2. Halpern M, Stanford R, Borker R. The burden of COPD in the U.S.A.: results from the Confronting COPD survey. Respir Med. 2003;97 Suppl C:S81-9 pubmed
    ..The results of the survey suggest that interventions that improve COPD outcomes by decreasing symptoms and preventing acute exacerbations could substantially decrease the costs associated with this disease. ..
  3. Raghu G, Collard H, Anstrom K, Flaherty K, Fleming T, King T, et al. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: clinically meaningful primary endpoints in phase 3 clinical trials. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;185:1044-8 pubmed publisher
    ..For patients with IPF, there are currently no validated surrogate endpoints. ..
  4. Bradley B, Branley H, Egan J, Greaves M, Hansell D, Harrison N, et al. Interstitial lung disease guideline: the British Thoracic Society in collaboration with the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand and the Irish Thoracic Society. Thorax. 2008;63 Suppl 5:v1-58 pubmed publisher
  5. Britton M. The burden of COPD in the U.K.: results from the Confronting COPD survey. Respir Med. 2003;97 Suppl C:S71-9 pubmed
  6. Chapman K, Bourbeau J, Rance L. The burden of COPD in Canada: results from the Confronting COPD survey. Respir Med. 2003;97 Suppl C:S23-31 pubmed
    ..Early diagnosis and the application of available but underused interventions (e.g. smoking cessation, inhaled drug therapies and pulmonary rehabilitation) could reduce the morbidity and costs of COPD in this country. ..
  7. Dal Negro R, Rossi A, Cerveri I. The burden of COPD in Italy: results from the Confronting COPD survey. Respir Med. 2003;97 Suppl C:S43-50 pubmed
  8. Izquierdo J. The burden of COPD in Spain: results from the Confronting COPD survey. Respir Med. 2003;97 Suppl C:S61-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, introducing interventions to reduce the progression to severe COPD could also reduce the impact of the disease. ..
  9. Lenney W, Boner A, Bont L, Bush A, Carlsen K, Eber E, et al. Medicines used in respiratory diseases only seen in children. Eur Respir J. 2009;34:531-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Corticosteroids are the treatment of choice in croup. Minimal or no information is available for the treatment of congenital lung abnormalities, bronchiolitis obliterans and interstitial lung disease. ..
  10. Snijders D, Calgaro S, Bertozzi I, Quartesan S, Kožuh I, Lunardi F, et al. Inhaled mucoactive drugs for treating non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in children. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2013;26:529-34 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed on inhaled mucoactive drugs for the treatment of children with nCFb. ..
  11. Boswell Smith V, Spina D. PDE4 inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of COPD-focus on roflumilast. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2007;2:121-9 pubmed
    ..This review will discuss the current standing of PDE4 inhibitors like roflumilast as novel treatments for COPD and the potential for developing nonemetic anti-inflammatory drugs. ..
  12. Lin F, Lee T, Wong P, Pickard A. Evaluation of changes in guidelines for medication management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Eval Clin Pract. 2013;19:953-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the large number of recommendations with lower grade levels, there continues to be substantial opportunity to inform gaps in the evidence base with high-quality studies. ..
  13. Yamanaka Y, Sakamoto E, Sakuma Y, Uno H, Koyama T, Izawa Y, et al. Lipidosis of the dorsal root ganglia in rats treated with an almitrine metabolite. Arch Toxicol. 1995;69:391-6 pubmed
    ..The lysosomal lamellated bodies, which were not induced by almitrine, were produced also in cultured rat macrophages exposed to over 1 x 10(-5) M DTMA. ..
  14. Hoe S, Young P, Rogueda P, Traini D. Determination of reference ultrasound parameters for model and hydrofluoroalkane propellants using high-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2008;9:605-11 pubmed publisher
    ..With ultrasonic velocity alone, dispersion concentration and stability monitoring for experimental pMDI formulations is possible using HRUS. However, at this point in time measurement of particle size is not feasible. ..
  15. Sullivan G, Apergis J, Gorman J, LeDoux J. Rodent doxapram model of panic: behavioral effects and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;53:863-70 pubmed
    ..The effect of doxapram may result from activation of neurons in the amygdala. Doxapram, by inducing hyperventilation, may be a useful adjunct to existing animal anxiety models for improving validity for panic anxiety. ..
  16. Xu F, Zhuang J, Zhou T, Lee L. Ovalbumin sensitization alters the ventilatory responses to chemical challenges in guinea pigs. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005;99:1782-8 pubmed
  17. Silvestri J, Lister G, Corwin M, Smok Pearsall S, Baird T, Crowell D, et al. Factors that influence use of a home cardiorespiratory monitor for infants: the collaborative home infant monitoring evaluation. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159:18-24 pubmed
    ..The study suggests that a major focus of home monitoring should be adherence in the first week, although it remains to be tested whether this adherence can be altered. ..
  18. Dalibon N, Moutafis M, Liu N, Law Koune J, Monsel S, Fischler M. Treatment of hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation using intravenous almitrine. Anesth Analg. 2004;98:590-4, table of contents pubmed
    ..IV almitrine improves oxygenation during one-lung ventilation without hemodynamic modification. Such treatment could be used when conventional ventilatory strategy fails to treat hypoxemia or cannot be used. ..
  19. Semark B, Engstrom S, Brudin L, Tagerud S, Fredlund K, Borgquist L, et al. Factors influencing the prescription of drugs of different price levels. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2013;22:286-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the average price for the cheaper drugs versus more costly drugs in each diagnostic group was between 19% and 69%, there is a risk that factors other than medical needs are influencing the choice of drug. ..
  20. Barnes P, Bonini S, Seeger W, Belvisi M, Ward B, Holmes A. Barriers to new drug development in respiratory disease. Eur Respir J. 2015;45:1197-207 pubmed publisher
  21. Robineau P, Dhainaut A, Canet E. An almitrine analog acts as hypoxia in isolated rat lungs. Respir Physiol. 1996;105:225-33 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the almitrine analog and hypoxia act at least partly through the same cellular mechanism, involving a DPI-sensitive protein. ..
  22. Boe J, Dennis J, O Driscoll B, Bauer T, Carone M, Dautzenberg B, et al. [Adaptations of the European Respiratory Society guidelines by the Aerosol Therapy Group of the French Lung Society on the use of aerosol therapy through nebulization]. Rev Mal Respir. 2004;21:1033-8 pubmed
  23. Muensterer O, Flemmer A, Bergmann F, Hajek K, Lu H, Simbruner G, et al. Postnatal lung mechanics, lung composition, and surfactant synthesis after tracheal occlusion vs prenatal intrapulmonary instillation of perfluorocarbon in fetal rabbits. J Pediatr Surg. 2005;40:26-31 pubmed
    ..Conversely, instillation of PFOB preserved lung compliance and surfactant synthesis. ..
  24. Ryan C. Sleep x 9: an approach to treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome including upper airway surgery. Thorax. 2005;60:595-604 pubmed
    ..To a considerable extent, treatment recommendations are based on data from uncontrolled studies, case series, consensus guidelines, practice parameters, and other less rigorous forms of evidence. ..
  25. Wang Y, Santos J, Sakurai R, Shin E, Cerny L, Torday J, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists enhance lung maturation in a neonatal rat model. Pediatr Res. 2009;65:150-5 pubmed publisher
  26. Kessler R, Partridge M, Miravitlles M, Cazzola M, Vogelmeier C, Leynaud D, et al. Symptom variability in patients with severe COPD: a pan-European cross-sectional study. Eur Respir J. 2011;37:264-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Patient-perceived COPD symptoms vary over the day and the week, and impact on daily activities; morning being the worst time of day. The majority of patients appear not to adjust treatment when symptoms worsen. ..
  27. Kim D, Joo J, In J, Jeon Y, Jung H, Jeon K, et al. Comparison of the recovery and respiratory effects of aminophylline and doxapram following total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil. J Clin Anesth. 2013;25:173-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The more rapid emergence correlates with higher BIS values when compared with the saline control group. The arousal and respiratory effects of aminophylline were comparable to those of doxapram. ..
  28. McGuire M, Carey M, O Connor J. Almitrine and doxapram decrease fatigue and increase subsequent recovery in isolated rat diaphragm. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1997;83:52-8 pubmed
    ..These effects may be due to changes in intracellular calcium, ADP/ATP ratios, or oxygen free radical scavenging. ..
  29. Ibrahim B, Jun S, Lee M, Kang S, Yeo Y. Development of inhalable dry powder formulation of basic fibroblast growth factor. Int J Pharm. 2010;385:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..2+/-5.4% and mass median aerodynamic diameter of 4.7+/-0.9 microm) and 98.1+/-7% recovery of bioactive bFGF. This result warrants further investigation of the biological activity of the inhaled bFGF in a disease model. ..
  30. Rogers D, Barnes P. Treatment of airway mucus hypersecretion. Ann Med. 2006;38:116-25 pubmed
    ..More information is required on these differences to identify specific therapeutic targets which, in turn, should lead to rational design of anti-hypersecretory drugs for treatment of airway mucus hypersecretion in asthma and COPD. ..
  31. Cotten J. TASK-1 (KCNK3) and TASK-3 (KCNK9) tandem pore potassium channel antagonists stimulate breathing in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. Anesth Analg. 2013;116:810-6 pubmed publisher
    ..PK-THPP and A1899 effects on breathing were of greater magnitude and/or duration relative to that of doxapram. PK-THPP and A1899 or related compounds may have therapeutic potential for treating breathing disorders. ..
  32. Jiao H, Zhang Z, Xu F, Tian Y, Zhang B, Chen Y. The pharmacokinetics of orally administered fudosteine in healthy Chinese volunteers. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2006;31:65-71 pubmed
    ..69+/-0.36 h and 0.53+/-0.12 h and t1/2 to 2.33+/-0.63 h and 2.40+/-0.37 h, respectively. No significant differences were found between single- and multiple-dose oral administration, although gender differences were observed. ..
  33. Hadinoto K, Zhu K, Tan R. Drug release study of large hollow nanoparticulate aggregates carrier particles for pulmonary delivery. Int J Pharm. 2007;341:195-206 pubmed
  34. Boe J, Dennis J, O Driscoll B, Bauer T, Carone M, Dautzenberg B, et al. European Respiratory Society Guidelines on the use of nebulizers. Eur Respir J. 2001;18:228-42 pubmed
  35. Saaresranta T, Polo O. Long-term progestin therapy for female chronic respiratory insufficiency?. Respir Med. 2004;98:194-5 pubmed
    ..This case documents successful control of chronic respiratory failure with medroxyprogesterone in a postmenopausal woman during 1-year follow-up. ..
  36. Leiva Fernández J, Vázquez Alarcón R, Aguiar Leiva V, Lobnig Becerra M, Leiva Fernández F, Barnestein Fonseca P. Efficacy of an educational intervention in primary health care in inhalation techniques: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. Trials. 2016;17:144 pubmed publisher
    ..Now we are seeking to know if we can improve it when the monitor is the GP (the real care provider in daily practise). ISRCTN Registry identifier ISRCTN93725230 . Registered on 18 August 2014. ..
  37. Boyle M, De Boeck K. A new era in the treatment of cystic fibrosis: correction of the underlying CFTR defect. Lancet Respir Med. 2013;1:158-63 pubmed publisher
    ..With analysis of continuing trials and available patient registries, here we assess mutation types and the number and geographical distribution of patients who are likely to benefit from CFTR-correcting treatment. ..
  38. Richeldi L. Clinical trials of investigational agents for IPF: a review of a Cochrane report. Respir Res. 2013;14 Suppl 1:S4 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, there are numerous ongoing trials investigating potential therapeutic agents which provides hope for IPF patients and their doctors. ..
  39. Suntornsuk L. Separation of cold medicine ingredients by capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis. 2001;22:139-43 pubmed
    ..0. The carrier electrolyte gave a baseline separation of phenylpropanolamine, dextromethorphan, chlorpheniramine maleate, and paracetamol with a resolution of 1.2, and the total migration time was 11.38 min. ..
  40. Kobayashi K, Lemke R, Greer J. Ultrasound measurements of fetal breathing movements in the rat. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;91:316-20 pubmed
    ..Exposing the dam to 10% O(2) caused a rapid, marked suppression of FBMs (5-fold decrease) that was readily reversed on exposure to room air. ..
  41. Antic N, McEvoy R. Primary alveolar hypoventilation and response to the respiratory stimulant almitrine. Intern Med J. 2002;32:622-4 pubmed
  42. Qureshi A, Lee Chiong T. Medical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;26:96-108 pubmed
    ..The mechanisms by which these drugs improve sleep-disordered breathing include increasing ventilatory drive and upper airway muscle tone, reducing the amount of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and enhancing daytime wakefulness. ..
  43. Dani C, Bertini G, Pezzati M, Pratesi S, Filippi L, Tronchin M, et al. Brain hemodynamic effects of doxapram in preterm infants. Biol Neonate. 2006;89:69-74 pubmed
    ..Caution must be recommended in prescribing this drug for apnea of prematurity. ..
  44. Arinzon Z, Peisakh A, Zuta A, Berner Y. Drug use in a geriatric long-term care setting: comparison between newly admitted and institutionalised patients. Drugs Aging. 2006;23:157-65 pubmed
  45. Manens J, Bolognin M, Bernaerts F, Diez M, Kirschvink N, Clercx C. Effects of obesity on lung function and airway reactivity in healthy dogs. Vet J. 2012;193:217-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This combination of basal respiratory parameters, bronchoreactivity testing and pharmacological stimulation testing using non-invasive BWBP can help characterize pulmonary function and airway responsiveness in obese dogs. ..
  46. Markos F, Campion D, Carey M, O Connor J. An investigation into the mechanism of action of almitrine on isolated rat diaphragm muscle fatigue. Respiration. 2002;69:339-43 pubmed
    ..Also, almitrine was shown to have an anti-oxidant effect, but it does not act like a typical anti-oxidant. ..
  47. Desai S, Aher A, Kadaskar P. Methods for reduction of cohesive forces between carrier and drug in DPI formulation. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2013;39:1589-98 pubmed publisher
    ..This review provides information on various processes involved in reducing the cohesive forces between drug and carrier, to a required level. ..
  48. Zhang L, Wood C. Ammonia as a stimulant to ventilation in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2009;168:261-71 pubmed publisher
  49. Yamazaki T, Kajiwara M, Itahashi K, Fujimura M. Low-dose doxapram therapy for idiopathic apnea of prematurity. Pediatr Int. 2001;43:124-7 pubmed
    ..Patients with AOP unresponsive to treatment with methylxanthines may benefit from the addition of low-dose doxapram. ..
  50. Young P, Kwok P, Adi H, Chan H, Traini D. Lactose composite carriers for respiratory delivery. Pharm Res. 2009;26:802-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Composite based carriers are a potential route to control drug-carrier adhesion forces and variability thus allowing more precise control of formulation performance. ..
  51. Antoniu S. Discontinued drugs, 2007: pulmonary-allergy, dermatological, gastrointestinal and arthritis drugs. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008;17:1651-61 pubmed
    ..Information for this perspective was derived from a search of the Pharmaprojects database for drugs discontinued after reaching Phase I - III clinical trials. ..
  52. Angus R, Ahmed A, Fenwick L, Peacock A. Comparison of the acute effects on gas exchange of nasal ventilation and doxapram in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. 1996;51:1048-50 pubmed
    ..NIPPV may be more effective than doxapram in the management of acute ventilatory failure complicating COPD. ..
  53. Das B, Sarkar C, Majumder A. Medication use for pediatric upper respiratory tract infections. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2006;20:385-90 pubmed
    ..The main aim of the initiative is the need for more rational medicine use in URTIs in children for improvement of clinical effectiveness, cost effectiveness and reduction of potential useless risk of side effects. ..