Genomes and Genes
Summary: Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.
- Rosenoff S, Gabrail N, Conklin R, Hohneker J, Berg W, Warsi G, et al. A multicenter, randomized trial of long-acting octreotide for the optimum prevention of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea: results of the STOP trial. J Support Oncol. 2006;4:289-94 pubmed..Adverse events were balanced between the two groups. No specific recommendations can be made from this trial regarding the use of 30 mg versus 40 mg of octreotide LAR for CID. ..
- Joshi P, Shirkhedkar A, Prakash K, Maheshwari V. Antidiarrheal activity, chemical and toxicity profile of Berberis aristata. Pharm Biol. 2011;49:94-100 pubmed publisher..This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antidiarrheal activity, oral acute toxicological profile, and developed a chemical fingerprint of Berberis aristata Linn. (Berberidaceae)...
- Ataka K, Ito M, Shibata T. New views on antidiarrheal effect of wood creosote: is wood creosote really a gastrointestinal antiseptic?. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2005;125:937-50 pubmed
- Zachariah B, Gwede C, James J, Ajani J, Chin L, Donath D, et al. Octreotide acetate in prevention of chemoradiation-induced diarrhea in anorectal cancer: randomized RTOG trial 0315. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102:547-56 pubmed publisher..In this study, the prophylactic use of LAO did not prevent the incidence or reduce the severity of diarrhea and had no notable impact on patient-reported bowel function or QoL. ..
- Winch P, Gilroy K, Doumbia S, Patterson A, Daou Z, Coulibaly S, et al. Prescription and administration of a 14-day regimen of zinc treatment for childhood diarrhea in Mali. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;74:880-3 pubmed..The levels of correct administration were very good but might be lower under non-research conditions. ..
- Verkman A, Lukacs G, Galietta L. CFTR chloride channel drug discovery--inhibitors as antidiarrheals and activators for therapy of cystic fibrosis. Curr Pharm Des. 2006;12:2235-47 pubmed..Small molecule modulators of CFTR function may be useful in the treatment of cystic fibrosis, secretory diarrhea and polycystic kidney disease. ..
- Cottreau J, Tucker A, Crutchley R, Garey K. Crofelemer for the treatment of secretory diarrhea. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;6:17-23 pubmed publisher..Less clear, but interesting, results have been observed in other diarrheal diseases associated with a mixed pathology, including diarrhea in patients with HIV and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. ..
- Thiagarajah J, Verkman A. CFTR inhibitors for treating diarrheal disease. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012;92:287-90 pubmed publisher..The data from proof-of-concept studies in animal models support the development of CFTR inhibitors for antidiarrheal therapy...
- Brijesh S, Daswani P, Tetali P, Rojatkar S, Antia N, Birdi T. Studies on Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre leaves: understanding the mechanism(s) of action in infectious diarrhea. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2006;7:665-74 pubmed..The observed results indicated that the crude decoction of P. pinnata has selective antidiarrheal action with efficacy against cholera and enteroinvasive bacterial strains causing bloody diarrheal episodes...
- Palombo E. Phytochemicals from traditional medicinal plants used in the treatment of diarrhoea: modes of action and effects on intestinal function. Phytother Res. 2006;20:717-24 pubmed..However, with the increased popularity of plant-derived and herbal medicines in Western society, the benefits and potential dangers of these medicines must be considered. ..
- Adeyemi O, Akindele A, Ogunleye E. Evaluation of the antidiarrhoeal effect of Sanseviera liberica Gerome & Labroy (Agavaceae) root extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;123:459-63 pubmed publisher..The aqueous root extract of Sansevieraliberica (Agavaceae), SL, is used in Traditional African Medicine (TAM) for the treatment of diarrhoea. However, the scientific basis for this usage has not been established...
- Lauti M, Scott D, Thompson Fawcett M. Fibre supplementation in addition to loperamide for faecal incontinence in adults: a randomized trial. Colorectal Dis. 2008;10:553-62 pubmed publisher..This study provides evidence that treatment with more or less fibre in addition to loperamide has similar clinical effectiveness overall, however individual tailoring of treatment seems important to achieve the best outcome. ..
- Baker D. Loperamide: a pharmacological review. Rev Gastroenterol Disord. 2007;7 Suppl 3:S11-8 pubmed..Common adverse reactions to loperamide include cramps and nausea. Loperamide is an effective treatment for patients with painless diarrhea and is considered to be free of abuse potential. ..
- Scrimgeour A, Lukaski H. Zinc and diarrheal disease: current status and future perspectives. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2008;11:711-7 pubmed publisher..Thus, oral zinc supplementation is a practical therapeutic intervention for the treatment of diarrhea in children, and by extension, should be provided to adults. ..
- Tradtrantip L, Namkung W, Verkman A. Crofelemer, an antisecretory antidiarrheal proanthocyanidin oligomer extracted from Croton lechleri, targets two distinct intestinal chloride channels. Mol Pharmacol. 2010;77:69-78 pubmed publisher..5 microM. The dual inhibitory action of crofelemer on two structurally unrelated prosecretory intestinal Cl(-) channels may account for its intestinal antisecretory activity...
- Zhang J, Wang S, Li Y, Xu P, Chen F, Tan Y, et al. Anti-diarrheal constituents of Alpinia oxyphylla. Fitoterapia. 2013;89:149-56 pubmed publisher..These results suggested that A. oxyphylla might exhibit its anti-diarrhea effect partially by affecting the proteins of NHE3 and AQP4 with its active ingredient Tectochrysin...
- Greenwood Van Meerveld B, Tyler K, Kuge T, Ogata N. Anti-diarrhoeal effects of seirogan in the rat small intestine and colon examined in vitro. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1999;13:97-102 pubmed..The ability of seirogan to decrease basal transmural PD in the jejunum, and inhibit the ACh-induced electrical responses, may contribute to its anti-diarrhoeal action. ..
- Baqui A, Black R, El Arifeen S, Yunus M, Chakraborty J, Ahmed S, et al. Effect of zinc supplementation started during diarrhoea on morbidity and mortality in Bangladeshi children: community randomised trial. BMJ. 2002;325:1059 pubmed..49, 0.25 to 0.94). The lower rates of child morbidity and mortality with zinc treatment represent substantial benefits from a simple and inexpensive intervention that can be incorporated in existing efforts to control diarrhoeal disease. ..
- Venkatesan N, Thiyagarajan V, Narayanan S, Arul A, Raja S, Vijaya Kumar S, et al. Anti-diarrhoeal potential of Asparagus racemosus wild root extracts in laboratory animals. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2005;8:39-46 pubmed..Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Asparagus racemosus for its antidiarrhoeal potential against several experimental models of diarrhoea in Albino Wistar rats...
- Edge V, Pollari F, Lim G, Aramini J, Sockett P, Martin S, et al. Syndromic surveillance of gastrointestinal illness using pharmacy over-the-counter sales. A retrospective study of waterborne outbreaks in Saskatchewan and Ontario. Can J Public Health. 2004;95:446-50 pubmed
- Ogata N, Shibata T. Antidiarrheal activity of wood creosote: inhibition of muscle contraction and enterotoxin-induced fluid secretion in rabbit small intestine. Pharmacology. 2001;62:181-7 pubmed..These data provide further evidence that the antidiarrheal activity of wood creosote is attributable to its antisecretory and antimotility effects. ..
- Hill D. Occurrence and self-treatment of diarrhea in a large cohort of Americans traveling to developing countries. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2000;62:585-9 pubmed..Diarrhea is common despite pre-travel advice. Because travelers usually treat themselves, they should be provided with clear instructions on appropriate self-treatment. ..
- Atta A, Mouneir S. Antidiarrhoeal activity of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;92:303-9 pubmed..Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones and proteins/amino acids as major constituents. ..
- Lewis S, Heaton K. Stool form scale as a useful guide to intestinal transit time. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1997;32:920-4 pubmed..001) but best with change in stool form (r = -0.65, P < 0.001). This study has shown that a stool form scale can be used to monitor change in intestinal function. Such scales have utility in both clinical practice and research. ..
- Biswas S, Murugesan T, Sinha S, Maiti K, Gayen J, Pal M, et al. Antidiarrhoeal activity of Strychnos potatorum seed extract in rats. Fitoterapia. 2002;73:43-7 pubmed
- Kuge T, Shibata T, Willett M. Multiple-dose escalation, safety, and tolerability study of wood creosote, the principal active ingredient of seirogan, an herbal antidiarrheal medication, in healthy subjects. J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;43:284-90 pubmed..Wood creosote doses ranging from 45 to 135 mg per dose, which are commonly administered antidiarrheal doses in Asia, were associated with minimal side effects. ..
- Szilagyi A, Shrier I. Systematic review: the use of somatostatin or octreotide in refractory diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001;15:1889-97 pubmed..While this review strengthens the consensus guidelines on the use of somatostatin and octreotide for refractory diarrhoea, evidence-based support requires additional studies. ..
- Kuge T, Shibata T, Willett M. Wood creosote, the principal active ingredient of seirogan, an herbal antidiarrheal medicine: a single-dose, dose-escalation safety and pharmacokinetic study. Pharmacotherapy. 2003;23:1391-400 pubmed..Also, the doses of wood creosote were rapidly absorbed, conjugated, and eliminated. Such a rapid onset and short duration of action would appear desirable in the treatment of acute nonspecific diarrhea. ..
- Thiagarajah J, Verkman A. CFTR pharmacology and its role in intestinal fluid secretion. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2003;3:594-9 pubmed..Small-molecule CFTR inhibitors reduce enterotoxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in animal models. CFTR inhibition might also reduce intestinal fluid losses in cholera and possibly in other infectious and non-infectious diarrheas. ..
- Barbounis V, Koumakis G, Vassilomanolakis M, Demiri M, Efremidis A. Control of irinotecan-induced diarrhea by octreotide after loperamide failure. Support Care Cancer. 2001;9:258-60 pubmed..We conclude that octreotide is effective against loperamide-refractory diarrhea resulting from irinotecan-based chemotherapy. ..
- Tangpu V, Yadav A. Antidiarrhoeal activity of Rhus javanica ripen fruit extract in albino mice. Fitoterapia. 2004;75:39-44 pubmed..No mortality and visible signs of general weakness was observed in the mice following the test extract administration up to 2000 mg/kg dose. ..
- Benson A, Ajani J, Catalano R, Engelking C, Kornblau S, Martenson J, et al. Recommended guidelines for the treatment of cancer treatment-induced diarrhea. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:2918-26 pubmed..With vigilant monitoring and aggressive therapy for cancer treatment-induced diarrhea, particularly in patients with early warning signs of severe complications, morbidity and mortality may be reduced. ..
- Atta A, Mouneir S. Evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for antidiarrhoeal activity. Phytother Res. 2005;19:481-5 pubmed..Higher concentrations caused rapid muscle relaxation. Tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones and proteins/amino acids were reported as major active constituents of the tested plants...
- Kuge T, Venkova K, Greenwood Van Meerveld B. In vitro effects of wood creosote on enterotoxin-induced secretion measured electrophysiologically in the rat jejunum and colon. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001;24:623-7 pubmed..In summary, our findings demonstrate that wood creosote possesses antidiarrheal activity suppressing E. coli enterotoxin-induced secretion in both the small intestine and colon. ..
- Gurgel L, Silva R, Santos F, Martins D, Mattos P, Rao V. Studies on the antidiarrhoeal effect of dragon's blood from Croton urucurana. Phytother Res. 2001;15:319-22 pubmed..These results suggest a potential usefulness of the red sap from Croton urucurana Baill. in the control of secretory diarrhoea associated pathologies. ..
- Shoba F, Thomas M. Study of antidiarrhoeal activity of four medicinal plants in castor-oil induced diarrhoea. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;76:73-6 pubmed..The methanolic plant extracts significantly reduced induction time of diarrhoea and total weight of the faeces. The result obtained establish the efficacy of these plant extracts as antidiarrhoeal agents. ..
- Noumi E, Yomi A. Medicinal plants used for intestinal diseases in Mbalmayo region, Central Province, Cameroon. Fitoterapia. 2001;72:246-54 pubmed..Seventy-six plant species from 46 botanical families, traditionally used to treat intestinal diseases in Mbalmayo region are recorded. The local names and the way the plants are used are indicated. ..
- Chen J, Ho T, Chang Y, Wu S, Hsiang C. Anti-diarrheal effect of Galla Chinensis on the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin and ganglioside interaction. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;103:385-91 pubmed..In conclusion, these data suggested that Galla Chinensis and gallic acid might be potent drugs for the treatment of LT-induced diarrhea. ..
- Chitme H, Chandra M, Kaushik S. Studies on anti-diarrhoeal activity of Calotropis gigantea R.Br. in experimental animals. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2004;7:70-5 pubmed..001) weight and volume of intestinal content. The remarkable anti-diarrheal effect of C.gigantea extract against castor oil-induced diarrhea model attests to its utility in a wide range of diarrheal states ..
- Agbor G, Léopold T, Jeanne N. The antidiarrhoeal activity of Alchornea cordifolia leaf extract. Phytother Res. 2004;18:873-6 pubmed..Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins and flavonoids which may account for the increased colonic water and electrolyte reabsorption, a mechanism suggested for the antidiarrhoeal activity of A. cordifolia. ..
- Bhandari N, Mazumder S, Taneja S, Dube B, Black R, Fontaine O, et al. A pilot test of the addition of zinc to the current case management package of diarrhea in a primary health care setting. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2005;41:685-7 pubmed..Reduction in use of drugs during diarrhea ranged from 34% for tablets to 64% for injections 6 months later. The cost of treatment to families declined significantly. These findings need confirmation in a randomized controlled trial. ..
- Thürmann P, Neff A, Fleisch J. Interference of Uzara glycosides in assays of digitalis glycosides. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004;42:281-4 pubmed
- Jin B, Thiagarajah J, Verkman A. Convective washout reduces the antidiarrheal efficacy of enterocyte surface-targeted antisecretory drugs. J Gen Physiol. 2013;141:261-72 pubmed publisher..Efficacy of a surface-targeted permeable inhibitor delivered from the blood requires high inhibitor permeability and blood concentration (relative to K(d)). ..
- McGrath C, Leder K. Travellers' diarrhoea-a survey of practice. J Travel Med. 2017;24: pubmed publisher..Evidence-based guidelines that address the competing issues of patient health and morbidity vs the risk of colonization with resistant organisms may lead to more consistent antibiotic prescribing practices. ..
- Tong H, Chow A, Chan H, Chow A, Wan Y, Williams I, et al. Process-induced phase transformation of berberine chloride hydrates. J Pharm Sci. 2010;99:1942-54 pubmed publisher..The present findings have important implications in the regulation of the hydrate forms of BCl in the finished products using specific excipients. ..
- Koo H, Koo D, Musher D, DuPont H. Antimotility agents for the treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhea and colitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:598-605 pubmed publisher..Further study of the role of antimotility agents in providing symptomatic relief and reducing environmental contamination with infectious stool may be warranted. ..
- Klein N, Fröhlich F, Krief S. Geophagy: soil consumption enhances the bioactivities of plants eaten by chimpanzees. Naturwissenschaften. 2008;95:325-31 pubmed publisher..Our results provide a new evidence to view geophagy as a practice for maintaining health, explaining its persistence through evolution. ..
- Bzik V, Medani M, Baird A, Winter D, Brayden D. Mechanisms of action of zinc on rat intestinal epithelial electrogenic ion secretion: insights into its antidiarrhoeal actions. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012;64:644-53 pubmed publisher..Zinc is a useful addition to oral rehydration therapy for acute diarrhoea. We have assessed the mechanism of its epithelial antisecretory action when intestinal epithelial tight junctions were pharmacologically opened...
- Barone F, Barton M, White R, Legos J, Kikkawa H, Shimamura M, et al. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 4 decreases stress-induced defecation in rats and mice. Pharmacology. 2008;81:11-7 pubmed
- Camilleri M. Current and future pharmacological treatments for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013;14:1151-60 pubmed publisher..While symptomatic treatment of diarrhea is effective, there is a need for new treatments for the IBS-D complex. Greater understanding of the mechanisms in IBS-D has led to promising approaches to develop more efficacious therapies. ..
- McFarland L. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the prevention of traveler's diarrhea. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2007;5:97-105 pubmed..No serious adverse reactions were reported in the 12 trials. Probiotics may offer a safe and effective method to prevent TD. ..