tranquilizing agents


Summary: A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.

Top Publications

  1. Dickinson T, Ramsdale S, Speight G. Managing aggression and violence using rapid tranquillisation. Nurs Stand. 2009;24:40-49; quiz 50, 52 pubmed
    ..The procedure is outlined and the importance of patient monitoring to observe for possible adverse effects is discussed. The legal and ethical issues are examined, along with guidance on the use of advance directives. ..
  2. Kokkevi A, Fotiou A, Arapaki A, Richardson C. Prevalence, patterns, and correlates of tranquilizer and sedative use among European adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2008;43:584-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings indicate similarities in adolescent tranquilizer or sedative use between Europe and United States. The implications of the results for prevention policies are discussed. ..
  3. Askenasy J, Lewin I. The impact of missile warfare on self-reported sleep quality. Part 1. Sleep. 1996;19:47-51 pubmed
    ..A small percentage may develop insomnia postbellum. The risk of developing long-lasting insomnia is higher in those who reported experiencing prolonged stress and depressed moods. ..
  4. Thiam M, Faye P, Ba I, Sarr O, Sy A, Sylla O, et al. [Clinical and psychopathological postpartum depression: eleven Senegalese cases report]. Dakar Med. 2007;52:141-7 pubmed
    ..The antidepressant is always essential in the treatment. ..
  5. Fleary S, Heffer R, McKyer E. Dispositional, ecological and biological influences on adolescent tranquilizer, Ritalin, and narcotics misuse. J Adolesc. 2011;34:653-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Prescription drug prevention programs should incorporate demographic, dispositional, and ecological variables and should parallel the guidelines currently used for developing effective substance abuse prevention programs. ..
  6. Weinberger D, Wyatt R. Catatonic stupor and neuroleptic drugs. JAMA. 1978;239:1846 pubmed
  7. Hagwall N, Engstrom E, Hellstrom A, Jacobson L. Periventricular leukomalacia and retinopathy in a term infant born to a mother with asthma. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2006;48:301-3 pubmed
    ..g. severe maternal illness, IUGR, and cortisone treatment) in a term infant may create conditions for developing eye and brain pathologies commonly closely related to preterm birth should be considered...
    ..In our assessment, appropriate and adaptive use of these tranquilizer combinations benefits captured animals without impeding management or research goals. ..
  9. Mitrowska K, Posyniak A, Zmudzki J. Rapid method for the determination of tranquilizers and a beta-blocker in porcine and bovine kidney by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta. 2009;637:185-92 pubmed publisher
    ..3 and 7.6 microgkg(-1), for azaperone was 119.0 microgkg(-1) and for azaperol was 140.0 microgkg(-1). For carazolol in bovine kidney CCbeta was 18.6 microgkg(-1) whereas in porcine kidney was 24.4 microgkg(-1). ..

More Information


  1. Brković A, Pranjic N, Zildzic M, Beganlic A. [Usage of psychoactive substances among adolescents in Tuzla Canton]. Med Arh. 2008;62:88-91 pubmed
  2. Fischer B, Rehm J. Understanding the parameters of non-medical use of prescription drugs: moving beyond mere numbers. Addiction. 2007;102:1931-2 pubmed
  3. Wakakura M, Tsubouchi T, Inouye J. Etizolam and benzodiazepine induced blepharospasm. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:506-7 pubmed
  4. KACLOVA J. [Ataractics in stomatology]. Prakt Zubn Lek. 1962;9:97-102 pubmed
  5. Schepis T, Hakes J. Dose-related effects for the precipitation of psychopathology by opioid or tranquilizer/sedative nonmedical prescription use: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. J Addict Med. 2013;7:39-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This work highlights the importance of screening for the NUPM by clinicians, and it highlights the need for further research to better understand the psychopathology-NUPM interaction. ..
  6. Maggiore W, Palmer R. Exercise restraint. Medical & legal issues you must understand to protect the patient & yourself. JEMS. 2002;27:84-8, 90, 92 passim pubmed
  7. Wagner G, Oliveira L, Barroso L, Nishimura R, Ishihara L, Stempliuk V, et al. Drug use in college students: a 13-year trend. Rev Saude Publica. 2012;46:497-504 pubmed
    ..There was an increase in amphetamine use and a reduction in alcohol use during the preceding 12 months. There was an increase in amphetamine use during the preceding 30 days. ..
  8. Hamelin N, Blatrix C, Brion F, Mathieu C, Goemaere I, Nordmann J. [How patients react when glaucoma is diagnosed?]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2002;25:795-8 pubmed
    ..The psychological impact should be evaluated regularly in order to promote an active role on the part of the patient and avoid a decline in quality of life. ..
  9. Montero I, Martín Baena D, Escribà Agüir V, Ruiz Perez I, Vives Cases C, Talavera M. Intimate partner violence in older women in Spain: prevalence, health consequences, and service utilization. J Women Aging. 2013;25:358-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The high prevalence detected long standing duration, negative health impact, and high healthcare services utilization, calling attention to a need for increased efforts aimed at addressing IPV in older women. ..
  10. Spanemberg J, Cherubini K, de Figueiredo M, Yurgel L, Salum F. Aetiology and therapeutics of burning mouth syndrome: an update. Gerodontology. 2012;29:84-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is also important to evaluate the quality of life for these patients to recognise the potential impact of this condition on their lives. ..
  11. Copersino M, Boyd S, Tashkin D, Huestis M, Heishman S, Dermand J, et al. Cannabis withdrawal among non-treatment-seeking adult cannabis users. Am J Addict. 2006;15:8-14 pubmed
  12. Wójcik A, Brzeski Z, Pajak A, Krakowska A, Borzecki A. [Addictions in young people with different backgrounds]. Przegl Lek. 2004;61 Suppl 3:25-7 pubmed
    ..Acute toxemias among addicts, especially in the group of alcohols, drugs and psychotropic drugs were quite serious. Toxic coma accompanying toxemia is a danger to health and life. ..
  13. Noell C, Meyerhoff W. Tinnitus. Diagnosis and treatment of this elusive symptom. Geriatrics. 2003;58:28-34 pubmed
    ..The degree to which the tinnitus bothers the patient will help determine the extent of treatment necessary. ..
  14. Olmos Carmona M, Hernández Carrasquilla M. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of veterinary tranquillizers in urine: evaluation of method performance. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1999;734:113-20 pubmed
    ..Compliance with European Union criteria for confirmation of GC-MS "positive" results is evaluated and discussed. ..
  15. Wick A, Fink G, Joss A, Siegrist H, Ternes T. Fate of beta blockers and psycho-active drugs in conventional wastewater treatment. Water Res. 2009;43:1060-74 pubmed publisher
  16. Novikova S, Lobanova E, Rabinovich S, Novikov D, Emel ianova T. [Choice criteria of premedication in outpatient stomatologic department]. Stomatologiia (Mosk). 2006;85:24-8 pubmed
    ..The psychological characteristic of people with prevalence of sthenical and asthenical features were given and dependence of the effect of the medicine on individual features was shown. ..
  17. Kamien M. Doctor shoppers' rights: privacy or lunacy?. Med J Aust. 2003;178:248 pubmed
  18. Jain S, Greenbaum M, Rosen C. Concordance between psychotropic prescribing for veterans with PTSD and clinical practice guidelines. Psychiatr Serv. 2012;63:154-60 pubmed publisher
    ..36, p<.03) predicted being prescribed a mood stabilizer. Prescribing patterns appeared generally consistent with treatment guidelines. Notable exceptions and areas worthy of future attention are discussed. ..
  19. Møldrup C, Knudsen P, Traulsen J. [The term happiness pill is a problematic Danish phenomenon]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2005;167:2282-5 pubmed
  20. Wisor J, Jiang P, Striz M, O Hara B. Effects of ramelteon and triazolam in a mouse genetic model of early morning awakenings. Brain Res. 2009;1296:46-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ramelteon and triazolam caused a shift in the timing of wheel-running rhythms in an LD cycle but did so without long-term effects on the functioning of the circadian clock. ..
  21. Vassallo M, Vignaraja R, Sharma J, Briggs R, Allen S. Tranquilliser use as a risk factor for falls in hospital patients. Int J Clin Pract. 2006;60:549-52 pubmed
    ..These data are associational and do not necessarily imply causality. There is however no evidence to recommend the routine withdrawal of tranquillisers from all patients. Any future research needs to include confused patients. ..
  22. Adcock J, Barrow C, Barnett N, Conlan X, Hogan C, Francis P. Chemiluminescence and electrochemiluminescence detection of controlled drugs. Drug Test Anal. 2011;3:145-60 pubmed publisher
  23. Lee C, Lin Y, Hsu C, Chu S, Tsai S. Movement disorder caused by abuse of veterinary anesthesia containing tiletamine. Am J Emerg Med. 2009;27:1022.e5-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Emergency physicians should have high alert to the diverse presentations of drug abuse. This case again highlights that the association between accessibility of scheduled drugs and health care professionals. ..
  24. Gafoor R, O Keane V. Three case reports of secondary mania: evidence supporting a right frontotemporal locus. Eur Psychiatry. 2003;18:32-3 pubmed
  25. Deshevoĭ I, Moroz B, Seredenin S, Lyrshikova A, Lebedev V. [Pharmacological correction of emotional stress after exposure to ionizing radiation and treatment with a radioprotector indralin]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2003;43:56-9 pubmed
    ..The application of tranquilizers stopped the inhibiting action of the emotional stress on the hemopoietic system of the irradiated animals in conditions of radioprotective administering. ..
  26. Messer T, Schmauss M. [The importance of therapeutic drug monitoring for psychotropic drugs]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2006;Spec no. 2:91-2, 94-5 pubmed
    ..For anti-dementia drugs, anxiolytic drugs, hypnotic drugs and medications for treating addiction, monitoring is currently applied to the interpretation of side effects, drug interactions and to forensic questions. ..
  27. Tomasson K, Tomasson H, Zoega T, Sigfússon E, Helgason T. Epidemiology of psychotropic medication use: comparison of sales, prescriptions and survey data in Iceland. Nord J Psychiatry. 2007;61:471-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The difference between self-reported use and prescriptions filled may reflect compliance problems in psychiatric treatment. ..
  28. Walder A, Greil W, Baumann P. Purpura and ecchymosis under carbamazepine, chloral hydrate and melitracen-flupentixol. Eur J Dermatol. 2008;18:103-4 pubmed
  29. Samanidou V, Uddin M, Papadoyannis I. Benzodiazepines: sample preparation and HPLC methods for their determination in biological samples. Bioanalysis. 2009;1:755-84 pubmed publisher
    ..MS interfaced with electrospray ionization offered a similar sensitivity, while negative chemical ionization MS or sonic spray ionization MS provided sensitivity down to 0.1 ng/ml. ..
  30. Namera A, Makita R, Nagao M. [Comparison of four immunoassay screening devices for detection of benzodiazepine and its metabolites in urine: mainly detection of etizolam, thienodiazepine and its metabolites]. Chudoku Kenkyu. 2011;24:27-34 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the types of drugs detected would be increased by combining Triage DOA with AccuSign BZO in ICUs or forensic laboratories. ..
  31. Yoto A, Murao S, Motoki M, Yokoyama Y, Horie N, Takeshima K, et al. Oral intake of ?-aminobutyric acid affects mood and activities of central nervous system during stressed condition induced by mental tasks. Amino Acids. 2012;43:1331-7 pubmed publisher
    ..That is to say, GABA might have alleviated the stress induced by the mental tasks. This effect also corresponded with the results of the POMS scores. ..
  32. Araki K, Yasui Furukori N, Fukasawa T, Aoshima T, Suzuki A, Inoue Y, et al. Inhibition of the metabolism of etizolam by itraconazole in humans: evidence for the involvement of CYP3A4 in etizolam metabolism. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2004;60:427-30 pubmed
    ..The present study suggests that itraconazole inhibits the metabolism of etizolam, providing evidence that CYP3A4 is at least partly involved in etizolam metabolism. ..
  33. Nobay F, Simon B, Levitt M, Dresden G. A prospective, double-blind, randomized trial of midazolam versus haloperidol versus lorazepam in the chemical restraint of violent and severely agitated patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2004;11:744-9 pubmed
    ..8191), and oxygen saturation (p = 0.8991). Midazolam has a significantly shorter time to onset of sedation and a more rapid time to arousal than lorazepam or haloperidol. The efficacies of all three drugs appear to be similar. ..
  34. Lacey J, Sherman M, Hartge P, Schatzkin A, Schairer C. Medication use and risk of ovarian carcinoma: a prospective study. Int J Cancer. 2004;108:281-6 pubmed
    ..5) appeared to increase risk. In our study, neither anti-inflammatory medications nor anti-psychotic medications were associated with ovarian cancer. Potential associations with histamine-receptor antagonists may warrant further study. ..
  35. Benavides F, Ruiz Forès N, Delclos J, Domingo Salvany A. [Consumption of alcohol and other drugs by the active population in Spain]. Gac Sanit. 2013;27:248-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings could serve as a useful reference for companies wanting to carry out preventive programs, and also for future studies assessing the impact of preventive measures. ..
  36. Huf G, Coutinho E, Adams C. Rapid tranquillisation in psychiatric emergency settings in Brazil: pragmatic randomised controlled trial of intramuscular haloperidol versus intramuscular haloperidol plus promethazine. BMJ. 2007;335:869 pubmed
    ..To determine whether haloperidol alone results in swifter and safer tranquillisation and sedation than haloperidol plus promethazine...
  37. Szewczuk Bogusławska M, Grzesiak M, Beszłej J, Kiejna A. [Assessment of CYP2D6 activity as a form of optimizing antidepressant therapy]. Psychiatr Pol. 2004;38:1093-104 pubmed
    ..The knowledge of CYP2D6 phenotype is of special value when drugs characterized by a narrow therapeutic index are used and in polymedicated and older patients. ..
  38. Ambrogi V, Grandolini G, Rossi C, Tiralti M. Studies on annelated 1,4-benzothiazines and 1,5-benzothiazepines. III--Synthesis and CNS activity of some 1-substituted derivatives of the novel heterocyclic system 4,5-dihydro-s-triazolo [3,4-d]-1,5-benzothiazepine. Farmaco Sci. 1987;42:575-83 pubmed
    ..All the described compounds are representative of a novel ring system. Some of these compounds were tested for their CNS activity and effects comparable with the ones of diazepam were observed. ..
  39. Muller Oerlinghausen B, Berghöfer A, Bauer M. Bipolar disorder. Lancet. 2002;359:241-7 pubmed
    ..They also possess well documented antisuicidal effects. Second choice prophylactic treatments are carbamazepine and valproate, although evidence of their effectiveness is weaker. ..
  40. Hefnawy M. Analysis of certain tranquilizers in biological fluids. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2002;27:661-78 pubmed
    ..The review includes the methods adapted in biological fluids. ..
  41. Reeves S, Howard R. Depot injections and nut allergy. Br J Psychiatry. 2002;180:188 pubmed
  42. Trimble M. On the use of tranquillisers in epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2002;43 Suppl 2:25-7 pubmed
    ..It is useful in patients that have catamenial seizures, clusters of seizures, and also in the prevention of postictal syndromes. It is used in childhood epilepsy, and is also helpful in the management of febrile seizures. ..
  43. Safarinejad M. Prevalence and risk factors for erectile dysfunction in a population-based study in Iran. Int J Impot Res. 2003;15:246-52 pubmed
    ..71, 95% CI, 2.51-6.76 and OR 2.80, 95% CI, 1.47-4.32, respectively). This study provides a quantitative estimate of the prevalence and main risk factors for ED in Iranian men. ..
  44. Day L, Jeanmonod R. Serotonin syndrome in a patient taking Lexapro and Flexeril: a case report. Am J Emerg Med. 2008;26:1069.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..With the increasing prevalence of proserotinergic polypharmacy, this uncommon toxidrome should be considered by the alert emergency medicine physician...
  45. Allen M, Currier G, Carpenter D, Ross R, Docherty J. The expert consensus guideline series. Treatment of behavioral emergencies 2005. J Psychiatr Pract. 2005;11 Suppl 1:5-108; quiz 110-2 pubmed
  46. Santillanes G, Gausche Hill M, Sosa B. Preparedness of selected pediatric offices to respond to critical emergencies in children. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2006;22:694-8 pubmed
    ..Even after treating a critically ill child who required advanced cardiac and/or pulmonary support, offices were ill prepared to handle another serious pediatric illness or injury. ..
  47. Luca M, Luca A, Calandra C. Borderline personality disorder and depression: an update. Psychiatr Q. 2012;83:281-92 pubmed publisher
    ..A global assessment is, in fact, fundamental for a successful therapy for the treatment of the several aspects of a complex psychopathological phenomenon. ..
  48. Davidson J, MacLean A, Brundage M, Schulze K. Sleep disturbance in cancer patients. Soc Sci Med. 2002;54:1309-21 pubmed
    ..This study provides new information about sleep-related phenomena in cancer patients, information which will be useful in planning supportive care services for cancer patients. ..
  49. Ali A, Hassiotis A. Managing the violent patient. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2006;67:M142-4 pubmed
  50. Barrera A, Vazquez G, Tannenhaus L, Lolich M, Herbst L. Theory of mind and functionality in bipolar patients with symptomatic remission. Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment. 2013;6:67-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Bipolar patients in symptomatic remission exhibit impairments in several areas of functioning. Cognitive ToM appears more affected than emotional ToM. Deficits in ToM were not related to functional impairment. ..
  51. McCabe S, Cranford J, West B. Trends in prescription drug abuse and dependence, co-occurrence with other substance use disorders, and treatment utilization: results from two national surveys. Addict Behav. 2008;33:1297-305 pubmed publisher
  52. Hazeldine S, Fritschi L, Forbes G. Predicting patient tolerance of endoscopy with conscious sedation. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2010;45:1248-54 pubmed publisher
    ..A majority of patients tolerate endoscopic procedures well when benzodiazepine/opiate sedation is used. Accurately identifying the minority who tolerate these procedures less well remains difficult. ..
  53. Inciardi J, Surratt H, Cicero T, Rosenblum A, Ahwah C, Bailey J, et al. Prescription drugs purchased through the internet: who are the end users?. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010;110:21-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The consistency of this finding across very diverse populations suggests that the Internet is a relatively minor source for illicit purchases of prescription medications by the individual end-users of these drugs. ..