anti dyskinesia agents


Summary: Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or cholinergic systems. Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias.

Top Publications

  1. Padberg M, de Bruijn S, de Haan R, Tavy D. Treatment of chronic tension-type headache with botulinum toxin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Cephalalgia. 2004;24:675-80 pubmed
    ..Botulinum toxin was not proven effective in treatment of chronic tension-type headache. Increased muscle tenderness might not be as important in pathophysiology of chronic tension-type headache as hitherto believed. ..
  2. Whitney C. Benign essential blepharospasm. Neurologist. 2005;11:193-4 pubmed
  3. Holmes S. Botulinum toxin: a deadly substance with great therapeutic effect. Prof Nurse. 2003;19:85-7 pubmed
    ..Therapy is primarily carried out in outpatients as part of a wider management regimen, so it is vital for nurses to not only be aware of how BTX works but also of its deadly toxic properties. ..
  4. Zagui R, Matayoshi S, Moura F. [Adverse effects associated with facial application of botulinum toxin: a systematic review with meta-analysis]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2008;71:894-901 pubmed
    ..It is necessary to perform a pattern of adverse effects related for better understanding the relationship between adverse effects and use of botulinum toxin. ..
  5. Roubertie A, Leydet J, Rivier F, Humbertclaude V, Cheminal R, Echenne B. [Movement disorders in childhood: therapeutic update]. Arch Pediatr. 2004;11:951-4 pubmed
    ..Given the successful results of pallidal stimulation in dystonia, the indication of this procedure has been discussed in other types of abnormal movements. ..
  6. Fusco F, Pompa A, Bernardi G, Ottaviani F, Giampà C, Laurenti D, et al. A case of PANDAS treated with tetrabenazine and tonsillectomy. J Child Neurol. 2010;25:614-5 pubmed publisher
    ..5 mg twice daily with remission of the neurological symptoms. Subsequently, the patient underwent tonsillectomy and has been asymptomatic since, with antistreptolysin O titer levels in range. ..
  7. Kowing D. Madarosis and facial alopecia presumed secondary to botulinum a toxin injections. Optom Vis Sci. 2005;82:579-82 pubmed
    ..This is the first case report documenting an idiosyncratic unilateral madarosis and facial alopecia as adverse side effects presumed secondary to botulinum A toxin injections. ..
  8. Attupurath R, Aziz R, Wollman D, Muralee S, Tampi R. Chorea associated with gabapentin use in an elderly man. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2009;7:220-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reports a case of chorea in an elderly patient who was receiving gabapentin for the treatment of anxiety. After gabapentin discontinuation, the chorea resolved completely, indicating a probable adverse drug reaction. ..
  9. Swope D, Barbano R. Treatment recommendations and practical applications of botulinum toxin treatment of cervical dystonia. Neurol Clin. 2008;26 Suppl 1:54-65 pubmed
    ..As a deeper understanding of disease pathophysiology and disease progression is gained, treatment efforts will be refined for optimal outcome and patient satisfaction. ..

More Information


  1. Simon O, Raibaut P, Faucher M, Sheik Ismael S, Amarenco G. [Botulinum toxin in headache]. Ann Readapt Med Phys. 2003;46:312-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we take stock about pathophysiological data on the effect of botulinum toxin on pain. Then, we'll report a review of clinical studies available on literature. ..
  2. Apkon S, Cassidy D. Safety considerations in the use of botulinum toxins in children with cerebral palsy. PM R. 2010;2:282-4 pubmed publisher
    ..S. Food and Drug Administration, as well as the safety profile and pharmacokinetics of botulinum toxins. Finally, the authors will offer their perspective on the safe use of botulinum toxins. ..
  3. Bishnoi M, Chopra K, Kulkarni S. Protective effect of Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia and associated behavioural, biochemical and neurochemical changes in rat brain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008;88:511-22 pubmed
  4. Das C, Dressler D, Hallett M. Botulinum toxin therapy of writer's cramp. Eur J Neurol. 2006;13 Suppl 1:55-9 pubmed
    ..Weakness of target muscles interfering with other non-writing activities is a frequently encountered adverse effect. Studies have shown that BT is a safe long-term therapy option. ..
  5. Tunc T, Cavdar L, Karadağ Y, Okuyucu E, Coskun O, Inan L. Differences in improvement between patients with idiopathic versus neurovascular hemifacial spasm after botulinum toxin treatment. J Clin Neurosci. 2008;15:253-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, patients with idiopathic hemifacial spasm experienced a greater improvement after treatment with botulinum toxin than did patients with neurovascular hemifacial spasm. ..
  6. Das C, Prabhakar S, Truong D. Clinical profile of various sub-types of writer's cramp. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2007;13:421-4 pubmed
    ..Some patients had abnormal posturing of the neck (n=5) and of the oromandibular region (n=3) only while writing. Those receiving botulinum toxin fared significantly better than those on oral therapy, at 1 month post treatment...
  7. Bishnoi M, Chopra K, Kulkarni S. Possible anti-oxidant and neuroprotective mechanisms of zolpidem in attenuating typical anti-psychotic-induced orofacial dyskinesia: a biochemical and neurochemical study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31:1130-8 pubmed
    ..Result of the present study support the therapeutic use of zolpidem in the treatment of typical anti-psychotic-induced orofacial dyskinesia. ..
  8. Dressler D, Benecke R. Pharmacology of therapeutic botulinum toxin preparations. Disabil Rehabil. 2007;29:1761-8 pubmed
    ..With the advent of new competitors comparative studies amongst different therapeutic BT preparations will become more and more interesting. ..
  9. Tyvaert L, Krystkowiak P, Cassim F, Houdayer E, Kreisler A, Destee A, et al. Myoclonus of peripheral origin: two case reports. Mov Disord. 2009;24:274-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Nerve injury induces ephaptic transmission and ectopic excitation. The physiopathological mechanisms of this type of myoclonus involve a peripheral generator that induces central (spinal) generator activity. ..
  10. Chu N. Orolingual dyskinesia in central pontine myelinolysis. Acta Neurol Taiwan. 2004;13:156-7 pubmed
  11. Kotzailias N, Finsterer J, Aull S, Eichler H, Pratscher B, Jilma B. Influence of tiapride on platelet counts in healthy volunteers and patients with movement disorders. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2003;27:595-9 pubmed
    ..However, in elderly patients with movement disorders tiapride treatment is associated with markedly increased platelet counts. ..
  12. Cruz F, Silva C. Botulinum toxin in the management of lower urinary tract dysfunction: contemporary update. Curr Opin Urol. 2004;14:329-34 pubmed
    ..In addition, it might be expected that urethral botulinum toxin injections improve bladder emptying in patients with dysfunctional voiding problems besides detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia. ..
  13. Dressler D. Routine use of Xeomin in patients previously treated with Botox: long term results. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16 Suppl 2:2-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, its real potential can only be assessed, when it is used outside of study design restrictions, in an independent setting, in off-label indications and during continued use...
  14. Daniel D. Recent developments in pharmacotherapy for the acutely psychotic patient. J Emerg Nurs. 2002;28:S12-20 pubmed
  15. Asanuma K, Kaji R. [Treatment of facial spasm using botulinum toxin]. No Shinkei Geka. 2003;31:487-91 pubmed
  16. Schroeder A, Berweck S, Lee S, Heinen F. Botulinum toxin treatment of children with cerebral palsy - a short review of different injection techniques. Neurotox Res. 2006;9:189-96 pubmed
    ..The additional information gained by each injection technique is weighed in terms of the clinical impact for children with cerebral palsy. ..
  17. Utzig M, Kroesen A, Buhr H. Concepts in pathogenesis and treatment of chronic anal fissure--a review of the literature. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003;98:968-74 pubmed
    ..Lateral sphincterotomy should be offered to patients with relapse and therapeutic failure of prior pharmacological treatment. ..
  18. Chanson J, Anheim M, Lagha Boukbiza O, Fleury M, Sellal F, Tranchant C. [Severe generalized dystonia due to postradiotherapy cerebral calcifications]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2008;164:477-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This case illustrates a severe complication of cranial irradiation which should be considered in the indications of this treatment, especially for children. ..
  19. Hawthorne M. The use of botulinum toxin in head and neck disorders. Hosp Med. 2003;64:460-3 pubmed
    ..Not only can botulinum toxin be used for cervical and laryngeal dystonia but in this article its use and complications in the management of oromandibular dystonia, Frey's syndrome, crocodile tears and drooling is described. ..
  20. Chillag K, DeRoos S. Oxcarbazepine use in paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia: report on four patients. Pediatr Neurol. 2009;40:295-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Each patient achieved complete resolution of signs with low-dose oxcarbazepine monotherapy. ..
  21. Adan Manes J, Garcia Parajua P. Aripiprazole in combination with other antipsychotic drugs may worsen psychosis. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2009;34:245-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that clinicians should be cautious when adding aripiprazole to patients under treatment with dopamine antagonists with a high affinity for D2 and D3 receptors...
  22. Ramstad K, Karstensen A, Risberg K, Bergsaker D, Sommer F. [Experiences with botulinum toxin injections against spasticity in children]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2006;126:450-2 pubmed
    ..Treatment can safely be given at the paediatrics department in a local hospital. Injection in superficial muscles of the lower limbs is an easy task, while injection in small muscles and deep-seated muscles requires more special skills. ..
  23. Chaddock J, Marks P. Clostridial neurotoxins: structure-function led design of new therapeutics. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63:540-51 pubmed
    ..These advances have facilitated a greater understanding of the potential use of individual domains for a wide variety of purposes, including the development of new therapeutics. ..
  24. Cadeddu F, Brisinda G, Maria G. Botulinum toxin and hemorrhoids. Dis Colon Rectum. 2006;49:1799-800; author reply 1800-1 pubmed
  25. Restivo D, Marchese Ragona R, Lauria G, Squatrito S, Gullo D, Vigneri R. Botulinum toxin treatment for oropharyngeal dysphagia associated with diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:2650-3 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest a potential benefit from BoNT/A treatment in dysphagia associated with diabetic neuropathy. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this observation. ..
  26. Dave S. Pilocarpine for the treatment of refractory dry mouth (xerostomia) associated with botulinum toxin type B. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;87:684-6 pubmed publisher
    ..She was then given pilocarpine (a muscarinic agonist) at a dose of 5 mg, three times a day, to which she responded well. This report describes another treatment option in rare cases of severe dry mouth after administration of BoNTB. ..
  27. Antonucci F, Bozzi Y, Caleo M. Intrahippocampal infusion of botulinum neurotoxin E (BoNT/E) reduces spontaneous recurrent seizures in a mouse model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2009;50:963-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Frequency of SRS was significantly decreased for at least 5 days following BoNT/E, but not vehicle, infusion. Our findings demonstrate that BoNT/E can effectively reduce seizure incidence in a mouse model of MTLE. ..
  28. Hennings J, Krause E, Bötzel K, Wetter T. Successful treatment of tardive lingual dystonia with botulinum toxin: case report and review of the literature. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32:1167-71 pubmed
    ..A review of the literature that is part of this article adverts BTX-A injection as a potential beneficial approach of various kinds of TD. ..
  29. Keren Capelovitch T, Jarus T, Fattal Valevski A. Upper extremity function and occupational performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy following lower extremity botulinum toxin injections. J Child Neurol. 2010;25:694-700 pubmed publisher
    ..Botulinum toxin A injections to the lower extremities in children with cerebral palsy improve upper limb body function and occupational performance. ..
  30. Panicker J, Muthane U. Botulinum toxins: pharmacology and its current therapeutic evidence for use. Neurol India. 2003;51:455-60 pubmed
    ..Active research is underway to determine the parameters for which the type B toxin can be used in these conditions, as covered in this review. Botulinum toxin use has spread to several fields of medicine. ..
  31. MacDonald K, Wilson M, Minassian A, Vilke G, Perez R, Cobb P, et al. A retrospective analysis of intramuscular haloperidol and intramuscular olanzapine in the treatment of agitation in drug- and alcohol-using patients. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2010;32:443-5 pubmed publisher
  32. Kurillo G, Gregoric M, Goljar N, Bajd T. Grip force tracking system for assessment and rehabilitation of hand function. Technol Health Care. 2005;13:137-49 pubmed
    ..g. physiotherapy, functional electrical stimulation, drug treatment) to follow the influence of the therapy on patient's muscular strength and grip force control. ..
  33. Naumann M, Eberhardt B, Laskawi R, Porta M, Schnider P, Sostak P, et al. Botulinum toxin in rare pain syndromes. J Neurol. 2004;251 Suppl 1:I39-40 pubmed
  34. Kuroiwa Y, Doi H, Nukina N. [Huntington disease]. Nihon Rinsho. 2004;62 Suppl:102-7 pubmed
  35. Adelson R. Botulinum neurotoxins: fundamentals for the facial plastic surgeon. Am J Otolaryngol. 2007;28:260-6 pubmed
  36. Arts J, Van Gool S, Caenepeel P, Verbeke K, Janssens J, Tack J. Influence of intrapyloric botulinum toxin injection on gastric emptying and meal-related symptoms in gastroparesis patients. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006;24:661-7 pubmed
    ..001, two-way anova). Botulinum toxin improves solid but not liquid gastric emptying in gastroparesis, and this is accompanied by significant improvement of several meal-related symptoms. ..
  37. Zackrisson T, Eriksson B, Hosseini N, Johnels B, Krogstad A. Patients with hyperhidrosis have changed grip force, coefficient of friction and safety margin. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008;117:279-84 pubmed
    ..These measurements showed, for the first time, that hyperhidrosis of the palms may cause an objective perturbation of the hand function which may be partially corrected by botulinum toxin treatment. ..
  38. Scott A, Miller J, Shieh K. Treating strabismus by injecting the agonist muscle with bupivacaine and the antagonist with botulinum toxin. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2009;107:104-9 pubmed
    ..BUP-injected muscles increased size by 5.8%. Of 2 patients with LR weakness, one without LR atrophy was changed by 55Delta, but another with LR atrophy was corrected only 4Delta. ..
  39. Peritogiannis V, Tsouli S. Can atypical antipsychotics improve tardive dyskinesia associated with other atypical antipsychotics? Case report and brief review of the literature. J Psychopharmacol. 2010;24:1121-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It is unclear whether some atypical antipsychotics are more effective than others in the treatment of TD. Differences in this property and the underlying mechanism require further study. ..
  40. Kimaid P, Quagliato E, Crespo A, Wolf A, Viana M, Resende L. Laryngeal electromyography in movement disorders: preliminary data. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2004;62:741-4 pubmed
    ..The different LEMG patterns and significant improvement in our patients from botulinum toxin therapy has led us to perform laryngeal electromyography as a routine in UNICAMP movement disorders ambulatory. ..
  41. Balash Y, Giladi N. Efficacy of pharmacological treatment of dystonia: evidence-based review including meta-analysis of the effect of botulinum toxin and other cure options. Eur J Neurol. 2004;11:361-70 pubmed
  42. Khan Z, Jinnah H. Paroxysmal dyskinesias in the lethargic mouse mutant. J Neurosci. 2002;22:8193-200 pubmed
    ..The lethargic mutants provide additional evidence that calcium channelopathies can produce paroxysmal dyskinesias and provide a novel model for studying this unusual movement disorder. ..
  43. Jackson C, Gronseth G, Rosenfeld J, Barohn R, Dubinsky R, Simpson C, et al. Randomized double-blind study of botulinum toxin type B for sialorrhea in ALS patients. Muscle Nerve. 2009;39:137-43 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no significant adverse events, including dysphagia, in the BTxb group, and there was no significant increase in the rate of decline of vital capacity. ..
  44. Tammenmaa I, Sailas E, McGrath J, Soares Weiser K, Wahlbeck K. Systematic review of cholinergic drugs for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2004;28:1099-107 pubmed
    ..In addition, two trials were found on novel cholinergic Alzheimer drugs in tardive dyskinesia, one of which was ongoing. Further investigation of the clinical effects of novel cholinergic agents in tardive dyskinesia is warranted. ..
  45. Jost W. Other indications of botulinum toxin therapy. Eur J Neurol. 2006;13 Suppl 1:65-9 pubmed
    ..Anal fissure is considered a particularly common indication. Controlled studies for many indications are frequently lacking because of the limited incidence of some of these disorders and symptoms. ..
  46. He Y, Kang Y, Leung Y, Xia F, Gao X, Xie H, et al. Modulation of Kv2.1 channel gating and TEA sensitivity by distinct domains of SNAP-25. Biochem J. 2006;396:363-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that different domains within SNAP-25 can form distinct complexes with Kv2.1 to execute a fine allosteric regulation of channel gating and the architecture of the outer pore structure in order to modulate cell excitability. ..
  47. Dawson E, Maino A, Lee J. A unique use for a corneal tattoo. Strabismus. 2009;17:98-100 pubmed publisher
    ..This is a novel application of corneal tattooing for the alleviation of intractable binocular diplopia. ..
  48. Kunzel H, Ackl N, Hatzinger M, Held K, Holsboer Trachsler E, Ising M, et al. Outcome in delusional depression comparing trimipramine monotherapy with a combination of amitriptyline and haloperidol--a double-blind multicenter trial. J Psychiatr Res. 2009;43:702-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The cortisol and ACTH response in the Dex/CRH test decreased between days 1 and 42 in both groups. Serious side effects were not reported. In all, trimipramine monotherapy appears to be an effective treatment in delusional depression. ..
  49. Marchese Ragona R, Galzignato P, Marioni G, Guarda Nardini L, Tregnaghi A, Restivo D, et al. Endoscopic diagnosis of rhino-parotid fistula and successful treatment with botulinum toxin. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:2062-4 pubmed
  50. Smith C, Somogyi G, Chancellor M. Emerging role of botulinum toxin in the treatment of neurogenic and non-neurogenic voiding dysfunction. Curr Urol Rep. 2002;3:382-7 pubmed
  51. Halum S, Miller P, Early K. Laryngeal granulomas associated with superior laryngeal nerve paresis. J Voice. 2010;24:490-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Vocal process granulomas can be associated with unilateral SLN paresis, potentially related to altered contact points between the vocal processes of the arytenoids. ..
  52. Kwon J, Kim J, Lee W. Anatomic localization of motor points of hip adductors. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2009;88:336-41 pubmed publisher
    ..9% +/- 7.8%; adductor brevis, 24.9% +/- 7.4%; and adductor magnus, 33.6% +/- 5.9%. Identification of these motor points facilitates the efficacy and efficiency of a neural blockade and decreases undesirable complications. ..
  53. Urban P. Pregabalin as add-on treatment to botulinum toxin in idiopathic hemifacial spasm. Neurology. 2006;66:1781 pubmed