Summary: Chemical agents injected into blood vessels and lymphatic sinuses to shrink or cause localized THROMBOSIS; FIBROSIS, and obliteration of the vessels. This treatment is applied in a number of conditions such as VARICOSE VEINS; HEMORRHOIDS; GASTRIC VARICES; ESOPHAGEAL VARICES; PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE.
- Kaji N, Kurita M, Ozaki M, Takushima A, Harii K, Narushima M, et al. Experience of sclerotherapy and embolosclerotherapy using ethanolamine oleate for vascular malformations of the head and neck. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 2009;43:126-36 pubmed publisher..We consider EO to be equivalent or superior to other sclerosants such as ethanol. ..
- Kiyosue H, Tanoue S, Kondo Y, Maruno M, Takaji R, Matsuoto S, et al. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of complex gastric varices assisted by temporary balloon occlusion of the splenic artery. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2011;22:1045-8 pubmed publisher..Temporary balloon occlusion of the splenic artery is a useful additional technique for complete obliteration of gastric varices in selected cases. ..
- Topouchian V, Mazda K, Hamze B, Laredo J, Pennecot G. Aneurysmal bone cysts in children: complications of fibrosing agent injection. Radiology. 2004;232:522-6 pubmed..To report complications of direct fibrosing agent injection in the treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) in children...
- Agarwal R, Aggarwal A, Gupta D. Efficacy and safety of iodopovidone pleurodesis through tube thoracostomy. Respirology. 2006;11:105-8 pubmed..Iodopovidone can be used as an effective and safe agent for (chemical) pleurodesis (through tube thoracostomy), which is inexpensive and readily available. ..
- Falci Júnior R, Lucon A, Cerri L, Danilovic A, Da Rocha P, Arap S. Treatment of simple renal cysts with single-session percutaneous ethanol sclerotherapy without drainage of the sclerosing agent. J Endourol. 2005;19:834-8 pubmed..Single-session percutaneous sclerotherapy with ethanol is a good option for the treatment of symptomatic renal cysts, as it is highly effective and offers the benefits of a less-invasive procedure. ..
- Lin Y, Pan H, Liang H, Chung H, Chen C, Huang J, et al. Single-session alcohol-retention sclerotherapy for simple renal cysts: comparison of 2- and 4-hr retention techniques. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;185:860-6 pubmed..149. The single-session prolonged ethanol-retention technique is safe and efficacious for the treatment of renal cysts. There is no statistical difference in therapeutic efficacy between 2- and 4-hr ethanol-retention techniques. ..
- Mol W, Furukawa H, Sasaki S, Tomaru U, Hayashi T, Saito A, et al. Evaluation of the sclerotherapeutic efficacy of ethanol, polidocanol, and OK-432 using an in vitro model. Dermatol Surg. 2007;33:1452-9 pubmed..OK-432 may mediate its effect by inducing inflammatory response of the endothelium via ICAM-1 expression. This in vitro model may be useful in evaluating other sclerosants as well. ..
- Yamaki T, Nozaki M, Sakurai H, Takeuchi M, Soejima K, Kono T. Prospective randomized efficacy of ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy compared with ultrasound-guided liquid sclerotherapy in the treatment of symptomatic venous malformations. J Vasc Surg. 2008;47:578-84 pubmed publisher..002). No major complications related to sclerotherapy were encountered in both groups. These findings suggest that UGFS could have greater promise compared with UGLS in the treatment of VMs. ..
- Hanna R, Dahniya M. Aspiration and sclerotherapy of symptomatic simple renal cysts: value of two injections of a sclerosing agent. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996;167:781-3 pubmed..Our sonographic finding of pseudotumors at the sites of previously aspirated giant cysts in two patients is recorded. ..
- Zerem E, Imamovic G, Omerović S. Symptomatic simple renal cyst: comparison of continuous negative-pressure catheter drainage and single-session alcohol sclerotherapy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008;190:1193-7 pubmed publisher..Continuous catheter drainage with negative pressure is more efficient than single-session alcohol sclerotherapy in the management of giant cysts. For moderately large cysts, the two methods have similar results. ..
- Cabrera J, Garcia Olmedo M. Sclerosants in microfoam. A new approach in angiology. Int Angiol. 2001;20:322-9 pubmed..Controlled trials on a standardised sclerosant microfoam are now required to confirm these results to make the method widely available. ..
- Jain R, Bandhu S, Sawhney S, Mittal R. Sonographically guided percutaneous sclerosis using 1% polidocanol in the treatment of vascular malformations. J Clin Ultrasound. 2002;30:416-23 pubmed..This technique is especially effective in cases of soft tissue venous malformation and lymphangioma. ..
- Dagenais S, Ogunseitan O, Haldeman S, Wooley J, Newcomb R. Side effects and adverse events related to intraligamentous injection of sclerosing solutions (prolotherapy) for back and neck pain: A survey of practitioners. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;87:909-13 pubmedTo study the side effects and adverse events related to intraligamentous injection of sclerosing solutions (prolotherapy) for back and neck pain. Practitioner postal survey...
- Yamamoto K, Sakaguchi H, Anai H, Tanaka T, Morimoto K, Kichikawa K, et al. Sclerotherapy for simple cysts with use of ethanolamine oleate: preliminary experience. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2005;28:751-5 pubmed..Although two patients had a low-grade fever after sclerotherapy, it was easily controlled. It is suggested that the sclerotherapy with EO might be a safe, effective, well-tolerated treatment for symptomatic hepatic or renal cysts. ..
- Smithers C, Vogel A, Kozakewich H, Freedman D, Burrows P, Fauza D, et al. An injectable tissue-engineered embolus prevents luminal recanalization after vascular sclerotherapy. J Pediatr Surg. 2005;40:920-5 pubmed..This novel therapeutic approach may prevent recurrence of vascular malformations after sclerotherapy, thus reducing the need for repeated procedures and morbid operative resections. ..
- Lee B, Do Y, Byun H, Choo I, Kim D, Huh S. Advanced management of venous malformation with ethanol sclerotherapy: mid-term results. J Vasc Surg. 2003;37:533-8 pubmed..Long-term assessment of the complication's sequelae is warranted. ..
- Egilmez H, Gok V, Oztoprak I, Atalar M, Cetin A, Arslan M, et al. Comparison of CT-guided sclerotherapy with using 95% ethanol and 20% hypertonic saline for managing simple renal cyst. Korean J Radiol. 2007;8:512-9 pubmed..Sclerotherapy with 95% ethanol is more effective than 20% HS sclerotherapy. Sclerotherapy with HS may be an option for patients preferring to undergo a less painful treatment procedure. ..
- Guex J, Allaert F, Gillet J, Chleir F. Immediate and midterm complications of sclerotherapy: report of a prospective multicenter registry of 12,173 sclerotherapy sessions. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31:123-8; discussion 128 pubmed..A femoral vein thrombosis was the only severe adverse event in this study. This study demonstrates that sclerotherapy is a safe technique. ..
- Akahoshi T, Hashizume M, Tomikawa M, Kawanaka H, Yamaguchi S, Konishi K, et al. Long-term results of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration for gastric variceal bleeding and risky gastric varices: a 10-year experience. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23:1702-9 pubmed publisher..We believe that B-RTO can become a first-choice radical treatment following hemostasis for gastric variceal bleeding and prophylactic treatment for risky GVx. ..
- Lee C, Chen S. Direct percutaneous ethanol sclerotherapy for treatment of a recurrent venous malformation in the periorbital region. ANZ J Surg. 2004;74:1126-7 pubmed
- Mimura H, Kanazawa S, Yasui K, Fujiwara H, Hyodo T, Mukai T, et al. Percutaneous sclerotherapy for venous malformations using polidocanol under fluoroscopy. Acta Med Okayama. 2003;57:227-34 pubmed..The efficacy is especially good for resolving pain, and complications are minor. It is desirable to use fluoroscopy for these procedures ..
- Cho S, Shin S, Lee I, Do Y, Choo S, Park K, et al. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices: outcomes and complications in 49 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;189:W365-72 pubmed..Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration is an effective treatment for the obliteration of gastric varices. However, application of this procedure to severely compromised patients should be considered carefully. ..
- Akinci D, Akhan O, Ozmen M, Gumus B, Ozkan O, Karcaaltincaba M, et al. Long-term results of single-session percutaneous drainage and ethanol sclerotherapy in simple renal cysts. Eur J Radiol. 2005;54:298-302 pubmed..High volume, up to 200 ml ethanol can be used without adverse effects for large renal cysts. ..
- Yamagami T, Kato T, Hirota T, Yoshimatsu R, Matsumoto T, Nishimura T. Infusion of 50% glucose solution before injection of ethanolamine oleate during balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration. Australas Radiol. 2007;51:334-8 pubmed..In three patients, embolization of collateral vessels with coils was unnecessary. There were no complications. In conclusion, retrograde infusion of 50% glucose solution assists in effectively carrying out BRTO. ..
- Lee C, Chen S. Direct percutaneous ethanol instillation for treatment of venous malformation in the face and neck. Br J Plast Surg. 2005;58:1073-8 pubmed..Direct percutaneous injection of absolute ethanol provides a simple and reliable alternative treatment for venous malformation in the face and neck. ..
- Adamsbaum C, Mascard E, Guinebretiere J, Kalifa G, Dubousset J. Intralesional Ethibloc injections in primary aneurysmal bone cysts: an efficient and safe treatment. Skeletal Radiol. 2003;32:559-66 pubmed..Ethibloc is a fibrogenic and thrombogenic agent recently proposed for the treatment of bone cysts. The purpose of this study is to report the results of direct Ethibloc injection in primary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) in children...
- Kitamoto M, Imamura M, Kamada K, Aikata H, Kawakami Y, Matsumoto A, et al. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric fundal varices with hemorrhage. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;178:1167-74 pubmed..Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration followed by any hemostatic procedure might be effective for both prophylaxis of rebleeding and eradication of gastric fundal varices, even in urgent cases. ..
- Teixeira L, Vargas F, Acencio M, Bumlai R, Antonangelo L, Marchi E. Experimental pleurodesis induced by antibiotics (macrolides or quinolones). Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2006;61:559-64 pubmed..Additional research is required to identify sclerosing agents capable of inducing pleurodesis. ..
- Demir E, Alan C, Kilciler M, Bedir S. Comparison of ethanol and sodium tetradecyl sulfate in the sclerotherapy of renal cyst. J Endourol. 2007;21:903-5 pubmed..Our aim was to compare the efficacy and side effects of ethanol and sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STDS) as sclerosants for symptomatic simple renal cyst...
- Rimon U, Garniek A, Galili Y, Golan G, Bensaid P, Morag B. Ethanol sclerotherapy of peripheral venous malformations. Eur J Radiol. 2004;52:283-7 pubmed..All patients fully recovered. Sclerotherapy with 96% ethanol for venous malformations was found to be effective for symptomatic improvement, but serious complications can occur. ..
- Peraud A, Drake J, Armstrong D, Hedden D, Babyn P, Wilson G. Fatal ethibloc embolization of vertebrobasilar system following percutaneous injection into aneurysmal bone cyst of the second cervical vertebra. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004;25:1116-20 pubmed..The course of events and technical considerations are discussed. ..
- Burrows P, Mason K. Percutaneous treatment of low flow vascular malformations. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2004;15:431-45 pubmed..It is generally recommended that the treatment of vascular malformations be performed in a multidisciplinary setting by practitioners with appropriate training and support. ..
- Okeke A, Mitchelmore A, Keeley F, Timoney A. A comparison of aspiration and sclerotherapy with laparoscopic de-roofing in the management of symptomatic simple renal cysts. BJU Int. 2003;92:610-3 pubmed..7 months. Evaluation including a diagnostic aspiration is essential to diagnose a symptomatic cyst. When treatment is indicated, laparoscopic de-roofing appears to be more effective than sclerotherapy. ..
- Cho D, Ahn H, Kim S, Kim Y, Kim S, Jeon G, et al. Sclerotherapy of renal cysts using acetic acid: a comparison with ethanol sclerotherapy. Br J Radiol. 2008;81:946-9 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, acetic acid is a safe and effective sclerosing agent, with clinical results superior to those of ethanol, and is an alternative to ethanol for sclerotherapy of renal cysts. ..
- Gelbert F, Enjolras O, Deffrenne D, Aymard A, Mounayer C, Merland J. Percutaneous sclerotherapy for venous malformation of the lips: a retrospective study of 23 patients. Neuroradiology. 2000;42:692-6 pubmed..For larger lesions the treatment is more complex and combined long term sclerotherapy and surgery procedures may be required over several years. ..
- Kairaluoma M, Leinonen A, Stahlberg M, Paivansalo M, Kiviniemi H, Siniluoto T. Percutaneous aspiration and alcohol sclerotherapy for symptomatic hepatic cysts. An alternative to surgical intervention. Ann Surg. 1989;210:208-15 pubmed..We recommend it as the treatment of choice in cases with high surgical risk or polycystic liver disease. ..
- Bean W. Renal cysts: treatment with alcohol. Radiology. 1981;138:329-31 pubmed..There was one recurrence at three months. Minor complications of hematuria and temperature elevation were no more prevalent than with diagnostic aspiration alone. There were no major complications. ..
- Akita S, Akino K, Tanaka K, Anraku K, Yano H, Hirano A. Therapeutic choice for craniofacial venous malformations. J Craniofac Surg. 2006;17:729-35 pubmed
- Pascarella L, Bergan J, Yamada C, Mekenas L. Venous angiomata: treatment with sclerosant foam. Ann Vasc Surg. 2005;19:457-64 pubmed..Use of foam sclerotherapy in this experience has proven the technique to be effective, essentially pain-free, and durable in the short term. ..
- Rautio R, Laranne J, Kähärä V, Saarinen J, Keski Nisula L. Long-term results and quality of life after endovascular treatment of venous malformations in the face and neck. Acta Radiol. 2004;45:738-45 pubmed..Endovascular treatment for venous malformations is effective. Results and quality of life proved to be better when the endovascular treatment was begun before puberty and the patients had regular clinical controls after therapy. ..
- Akinci D, Gumus B, Ozkan O, Ozmen M, Akhan O. Single-session percutaneous ethanol sclerotherapy in simple renal cysts in children: long-term follow-up. Pediatr Radiol. 2005;35:155-8 pubmed..Percutaneous treatment of symptomatic simple renal cysts in children with single-session ethanol sclerotherapy is a safe, effective and minimally invasive procedure. Calcification owing to sclerotherapy can be observed on follow-up. ..
- Choi Y, Han M, O Ki K, Cha S, Chang K. Craniofacial cavernous venous malformations: percutaneous sclerotherapy with use of ethanolamine oleate. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2002;13:475-82 pubmed..However, renal function was not specifically evaluated after treatment, and therefore occult renal dysfunction cannot be excluded. ..
- Lee B, Kim D, Huh S, Kim H, Choo I, Byun H, et al. New experiences with absolute ethanol sclerotherapy in the management of a complex form of congenital venous malformation. J Vasc Surg. 2001;33:764-72 pubmed..No recurrence or deterioration of the therapy results was observed during the follow-up period (average, 10.2 months) after the completion of multistaged therapy. ..
- Yamaki T, Nozaki M, Sasaki K. Color duplex-guided sclerotherapy for the treatment of venous malformations. Dermatol Surg. 2000;26:323-8 pubmed..This procedure prevents intra-arterial injection accidents. Although patients with venous malformations showed greater coagulability, no serious thrombotic sequelae were found. ..
- Ali Khan A, Orlando A, Kenealy J. Erythromycin sclerotherapy in the management of seroma. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009;62:e55-8 pubmed publisher..The technique was found, in a series of patients, to be effective, simple and without serious complications...
- Kang H, Lee W, Kim Y, Kwon B, Kang M, Kim S, et al. Ruptured duodenal varices arising from the main portal vein successfully treated with endoscopic injection sclerotherapy: a case report. Korean J Hepatol. 2011;17:152-6 pubmed publisher..Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy with cyanoacrylate was successful in achieving hemostasis, and resulted in the near eradication of duodenal varices at a 6-month follow-up. ..
- Elias S, Raines J. Mechanochemical tumescentless endovenous ablation: final results of the initial clinical trial. Phlebology. 2012;27:67-72 pubmed publisher..7%. Mechanochemical ablation appears to be safe and efficacious. The ClariVein(®) technique eliminates the need for tumescent anaesthesia. The great majority of incompetent GSVs can be treated with this technique. ..
- Cameron E, Chen T, Connor D, Behnia M, Parsi K. Sclerosant foam structure and stability is strongly influenced by liquid air fraction. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2013;46:488-94 pubmed publisher..To determine the effects of sclerosant foam preparation and composition on foam structure, the time course of liquid drainage, and foam coarsening...
- Leyon J, Littlehales T, Rangarajan B, Hoey E, Ganeshan A. Endovascular embolization: review of currently available embolization agents. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2014;43:35-53 pubmed publisher..For the purpose of this review, we have classified embolization agents into mechanical occlusion devices, particulate agents, and liquid agents, with some degree of overlap between some of the agents. ..
- Cooley Andrade O, Connor D, Ma D, Weisel J, Parsi K. Morphological changes in vascular and circulating blood cells following exposure to detergent sclerosants. Phlebology. 2016;31:177-91 pubmed publisher..The observed morphological changes are consistent with cell activation, apoptosis, and oncosis. The cellular response is concentration dependent, cell-specific, and sclerosant specific. ..
- Chen A, Wang T, Huang Y, Liu S. Multistage Sclerotherapy for Extensive Lymphatic Malformations With Airway Involvement in Infant: A Protocol to Prevent Tracheotomy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017;75:1882-1890 pubmed publisher..Multistage sclerotherapy with bleomycin A5 is a safe and effective treatment for extensive head and neck LMs in infants with airway involvement. A routine perioperative protocol is essential for decreasing airway complications. ..