urinary anti infective agents


Summary: Substances capable of killing agents causing urinary tract infections or of preventing them from spreading.

Top Publications

  1. Pape L, Gunzer F, Ziesing S, Pape A, Offner G, Ehrich J. [Bacterial pathogens, resistance patterns and treatment options in community acquired pediatric urinary tract infection]. Klin Padiatr. 2004;216:83-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the policies for treatment of UTI in children should be re-evaluated every 5 years according to local resistance rates. ..
  2. Fourcroy J, Berner B, Chiang Y, Cramer M, Rowe L, Shore N. Efficacy and safety of a novel once-daily extended-release ciprofloxacin tablet formulation for treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:4137-43 pubmed
    ..Additionally, ciprofloxacin ER was associated with significantly reduced frequencies of nausea and diarrhea. ..
  3. Christiaens T, De Meyere M, Verschraegen G, Peersman W, Heytens S, De Maeseneer J. Randomised controlled trial of nitrofurantoin versus placebo in the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection in adult women. Br J Gen Pract. 2002;52:729-34 pubmed
    ..In patients with clinically suspected UTI the symptomatic effect was statistically significant after ..
  4. Yu H, Lee J, Kang H, Jeong Y, Lee E, Choi C, et al. Prevalence of dfr genes associated with integrons and dissemination of dfrA17 among urinary isolates of Escherichia coli in Korea. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;53:445-50 pubmed
    ..coli in Korea, and the prevalence of dfrA17 was mainly due to the horizontal transfer of class 1 integrons through conjugative plasmids. ..
  5. Leydon G, Turner S, Smith H, Little P. The journey from self-care to GP care: a qualitative interview study of women presenting with symptoms of urinary tract infection. Br J Gen Pract. 2009;59:e219-25 pubmed publisher
  6. Barry H, Ebell M, Hickner J. Evaluation of suspected urinary tract infection in ambulatory women: a cost-utility analysis of office-based strategies. J Fam Pract. 1997;44:49-60 pubmed
    ..This study confirms that empiric therapy, while frowned upon by some, is a cost-effective strategy. Other strategies may be considered, but at greater marginal cost. Ultimately these findings need to be confirmed in clinical trials. ..
  7. Colgan R, Hooton T, Gupta K, Gomolin I, Childs S, Gould M. Urinary tract infections. Current approaches, future directions. Postgrad Med. 2000;108:7-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Given these risks and the public health burden associated with the condition, it is important that clinicians have up-to-date information regarding the classification, symptoms, pathogenesis, and empiric treatment of UTIs. ..
  8. Böttiger Y, Brattström C, Backman L, Claesson K, Burke J. Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole does not affect the pharmacokinetics of sirolimus in renal transplant recipients. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005;60:566-9 pubmed
    ..The mean difference in the dose-corrected AUC((0-24 h)) was 0.40% (-9.4, +10). A single dose of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole does not affect the pharmacokinetics of sirolimus in renal transplant patients. ..
  9. Kahan N, Friedman N, Lomnicky Y, Hemo B, Heymann A, Shapiro M, et al. Physician speciality and adherence to guidelines for the treatment of unsubstantiated uncomplicated urinary tract infection among women. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2005;14:357-61 pubmed

More Information


  1. Vellinga A, Cormican M, Hanahoe B, Murphy A. Predictive value of antimicrobial susceptibility from previous urinary tract infection in the treatment of re-infection. Br J Gen Pract. 2010;60:511-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Resistance to nitrofurantoin is low and, once detected, decays relatively quickly. Nitrofurantoin should be considered as a first-line agent for initial and repeat treatment. ..
  2. Honderlick P, Cahen P, Gravisse J, Vignon D. [Uncomplicated urinary tract infections, what about fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin in 2006?]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2006;54:462-6 pubmed
  3. Shahverdi A, Fazeli M, Rafii F, Kakavand M, Jamalifar H, Hamedi J. Inhibition of nitrofurantoin reduction by menthol leads to enhanced antimicrobial activity. J Chemother. 2003;15:449-53 pubmed
    ..inactivate the bactericidal activity of nitrofurantoin. Also we demonstrated a synergistic effect between menthol and nitrofurantoin bactericidal activities against nitrofurantoin susceptible Enterobacteriaceae. ..
  4. Lhiaubet Vallet V, Sarabia Z, Hernandez D, Castell J, Miranda M. In vitro studies on DNA-photosensitization by different drug stereoisomers. Toxicol In Vitro. 2003;17:651-6 pubmed
    ..In the case of carprofen the (S) isomer appears to be somewhat less active than its (R) enantiomer. However, due to the small differences found, the possible stereoselectivity has to be confirmed by future studies. ..
  5. Hillier S, Roberts Z, Dunstan F, Butler C, Howard A, Palmer S. Prior antibiotics and risk of antibiotic-resistant community-acquired urinary tract infection: a case-control study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;60:92-9 pubmed
    ..Within the community setting, exposure to antibiotics is a strong risk factor for a resistant E. coli UTI. High-dose, shorter-duration antibiotic regimens may reduce the pressure on the emergence of antibiotic resistance. ..
  6. Waheeb S, Feldman F, Velos P, Pavlin C. Ultrasound biomicroscopic analysis of drug-induced bilateral angle-closure glaucoma associated with supraciliary choroidal effusion. Can J Ophthalmol. 2003;38:299-302 pubmed
  7. Botto H. [Acute bacterial cystitis]. Rev Prat. 2002;52:23-7 pubmed
    ..The management of complicated lower urinary tract infection is very different however and requires a more extensive workup followed by a dual therapy, namely antibiotics and eradication of the complicating factor, if possible. ..
  8. Jackson M. Evidence-based practice for evaluation and management of female urinary tract infection. Urol Nurs. 2007;27:133-6 pubmed
    ..Interventions in the scenario are examined against available guidelines, revealing that some practices are supported, others are contraindicated, and gaps are identified. ..
  9. Butler C, Dunstan F, Heginbothom M, Mason B, Roberts Z, Hillier S, et al. Containing antibiotic resistance: decreased antibiotic-resistant coliform urinary tract infections with reduction in antibiotic prescribing by general practices. Br J Gen Pract. 2007;57:785-92 pubmed
    ..Reducing antibiotic dispensing at general-practice level is associated with reduced local antibiotic resistance. These findings should further encourage clinicians and patients to use antibiotics conservatively. ..
  10. Shahverdi A, Rafii F, Tavassoli F, Bagheri M, Attar F, Ghahraman A. Piperitone from Mentha longifolia var. chorodictya Rech F. reduces the nitrofurantoin resistance of strains of enterobacteriaceae. Phytother Res. 2004;18:911-4 pubmed
    ..1 microl of the piperitone fraction decreased the MIC of nitrofurantoin 3-20 fold for the different strains of Enterobacteriaceae tested...
  11. Saari L, Peltonen K. Novel source of semicarbazide: levels of semicarbazide in cooked crayfish samples determined by LC/MS/MS. Food Addit Contam. 2004;21:825-32 pubmed
    ..2 and 0.5 ng g(-1) fresh crayfish meat, respectively. All the tested samples (n = 18) contained traces of semicarbazide, the highest amount being 12 ng g(-1) fresh crayfish meat. ..
  12. Saeed S, Tariq P. Antibacterial activities of Emblica officinalis and Coriandrum sativum against Gram negative urinary pathogens. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2007;20:32-5 pubmed
    ..paratyphi A (2), S. paratyphi B (1) and Serratia marcescens (2) but did not show any antibacterial activity against Gram negative urinary pathogens...
  13. Grude N, Tveten Y, Jenkins A, Kristiansen B. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Bacterial findings and efficacy of empirical antibacterial treatment. Scand J Prim Health Care. 2005;23:115-9 pubmed
  14. Weis S, Karagülle D, Kornhuber J, Bayerlein K. Cotrimoxazole-induced psychosis: a case report and review of literature. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2006;39:236-7 pubmed
    ..Following discontinuation of antibiotic therapy, including cessation of treatment with cotrimoxazole and the induction of antipsychotic treatment, her mental state resolved to a stable premorbid level within 36 hours. ..
  15. Bedenic B, Topic M, Budimir A, Bubonja M. Urinary bactericidal activity of oral antibiotics against common urinary tract pathogens in an ex vivo model. Chemotherapy. 2006;52:293-7 pubmed
    ..Average urinary bactericidal activity can be predicted from in vitro susceptibility testing, but we expect that there will be patients with a low level of urinary bactericidal activity. ..
  16. Schønheyder H, Thrane N, Sørensen H. [Repeat antibiotic prescriptions following treatment with sulfonamide or pivmecillinam. A survey of prescriptions among women aged 15-50 years in the county of Nordjylland]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2001;164:43-6 pubmed
    ..Controlled clinical trials should be performed before revision of current Danish recommendations are considered. ..
  17. Ferry S, Holm S, Stenlund H, Lundholm R, Monsen T. Clinical and bacteriological outcome of different doses and duration of pivmecillinam compared with placebo therapy of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection in women: the LUTIW project. Scand J Prim Health Care. 2007;25:49-57 pubmed
    ..Pivmecillinam therapies are superior to placebo and seven days regimens are more efficient than three days. Pivmecillinam 200 mg x 2 x 7 days is recommended as a first-line therapy for LUTIW. ..
  18. Malani A, Kauffman C. Candida urinary tract infections: treatment options. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2007;5:277-84 pubmed
    ..Rarely, amphotericin B or flucytosine are used. Newer azole agents and echinocandins are not recommended for the treatment of urinary tract infections since they fail to achieve adequate urine concentrations. ..
  19. Breen D, Wanserski G, Smith P. Clinical inquiries. What is the recommended workup for a man with a first UTI?. J Fam Pract. 2007;56:657-8, 61 pubmed
  20. Zhang Y, Wang H, Unadkat J, Mao Q. Breast cancer resistance protein 1 limits fetal distribution of nitrofurantoin in the pregnant mouse. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007;35:2154-8 pubmed
    ..6 +/- 77.4 ng . min/g of fetus). These results clearly suggest that Bcrp1 significantly limits fetal distribution of NFT in the pregnant mouse, but has only a minor effect on the systemic clearance of the drug...
  21. Bessler W, Puce K, vor dem Esche U, Kirschning C, Huber M. Immunomodulating effects of OM-89, a bacterial extract from Escherichia coli, in murine and human leukocytes. Arzneimittelforschung. 2009;59:571-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The activation of immune cells is likely to be mediated via Toll like receptors (TLRs); thus, the binding of components of the extract to TLR-4 and marginally to TLR-2 could be shown. ..
  22. Loiseau P, Bories C, Sanon A. The chitinase system from Trichomonas vaginalis as a potential target for antimicrobial therapy of urogenital trichomoniasis. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002;56:503-10 pubmed
    ..vaginalis were in the range 62-85 microM. These results indicate that chitinases of T. vaginalis are involved in pathogenicity and they could be an interesting target for drugs since chitinase inhibitors also inhibit parasite growth. ..
  23. Bent S, Saint S. The optimal use of diagnostic testing in women with acute uncomplicated cystitis. Dis Mon. 2003;49:83-98 pubmed
    ..Randomized controlled trials are needed to more closely examine the outcomes, costs of care, and patient satisfaction from different diagnostic and management strategies. ..
  24. Raz R, Colodner R, Rohana Y, Battino S, Rottensterich E, Wasser I, et al. Effectiveness of estriol-containing vaginal pessaries and nitrofurantoin macrocrystal therapy in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in postmenopausal women. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:1362-8 pubmed
  25. Wagenlehner F, Wagenlehner C, Schinzel S, Naber K. Prospective, randomized, multicentric, open, comparative study on the efficacy of a prophylactic single dose of 500 mg levofloxacin versus 1920 mg trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole versus a control group in patients undergoing TUR of the prostate. Eur Urol. 2005;47:549-56 pubmed
    ..Therefore we conclude that at least patients at risk should receive antibiotic prophylaxis prior to TUR-P. ..
  26. Weber P, Dib C, Durand C, Moniot Ville N. [Evaluation of levofloxacin susceptibility against strains isolated from lower urinary tract infections in the community]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2005;53:125-8 pubmed
    ..coli, which is by far the most prevalent pathogen, 90% of strains, with more than 97% of strains being susceptible. ..
  27. Prelog M, Schiefecker D, Fille M, Wurzner R, Brunner A, Zimmerhackl L. Febrile urinary tract infection in children: ampicillin and trimethoprim insufficient as empirical mono-therapy. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008;23:597-602 pubmed publisher
    ..coli cultures from patients with VUR (37.8%) than from those without VUR (25.8%). Treatment with TMP, SXT and AMP alone appeared to be insufficient in many cases because of high resistance rates of E. coli and other uropathogens. ..
  28. Dybowski B, Jabłońska O, Radziszewski P, Gromadzka Ostrowska J, Borkowski A. Ciprofloxacin and furagin in acute cystitis: comparison of early immune and microbiological results. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008;31:130-4 pubmed
    ..Secretion rates of all four substances dropped significantly, but the changes over time were similar in both groups. ..
  29. Garnier A, El Marabet E, Kwon T, Peuchmaur M, Mourier O, Baudouin V, et al. Acute renal failure in a 3-year-old child as part of the drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome following hepatitis A. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008;23:667-9 pubmed
    ..The final diagnosis was of the syndrome drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or DRESS, induced by cefixime or cotrimoxazole and possibly triggered by the hepatitis A virus infection. ..
  30. Vignesh R, Shankar E, Murugavel K, Kumarasamy N, Sekar R, Irene P, et al. Urinary infections due to multi-drug-resistant Escherichia coli among persons with HIV disease at a tertiary AIDS care centre in South India. Nephron Clin Pract. 2008;110:c55-7 pubmed publisher
  31. McEwen L, Farjo R, Foxman B. Antibiotic prescribing for cystitis: how well does it match published guidelines?. Ann Epidemiol. 2003;13:479-83 pubmed
    ..Steps should be taken to educate physicians and patients on the choice and dosage of antibiotics for cystitis to minimize emergence of antibiotic resistance. ..
  32. Høiby N. [Kernicterus and sulfamethizole treatment]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2006;168:1349-50; author reply 1350-1 pubmed
  33. Hellerstein S. Antibiotic treatment for urinary tract infections in pediatric patients. Minerva Pediatr. 2003;55:395-406 pubmed
    ..If the response is satisfactory and the culture shows an organism susceptible to the antibiotic used, complete 5 to 7 days of treatment with the oral antibiotic. ..
  34. Koulaouzidis A, Bhat S, Moschos J, Tan C, De Ramon A. Nitrofurantoin-induced lung- and hepatotoxicity. Ann Hepatol. 2007;6:119-21 pubmed
    ..Nitrofurantoin-induced pneumonitis and hepatotoxicity was diagnosed. The patient responded both clinically and biochemically to withdrawal of nitrofurantoin. This combination of adverse reaction to nitrofurantoin is rare. ..
  35. Roed C, Friis Møller A, Høgh B. [A study of the validity of urinary tract infection diagnosis in children younger than two years of age at Hvidovre Hospital]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2008;170:2432-4 pubmed
    ..70 out of 87 patients (80%, 95% confidence limits 70-88%) had a valid UTI diagnosis. We consider a diagnostic validity of 80% as satisfactory although our aim is to increase the validity to 90%. ..
  36. Matsukawa M, Kunishima Y, Takahashi S, Takeyama K, Tsukamoto T. Time courses of bacterial density in urine during antibacterial chemotherapy and influential factors in patients having positive bacteriuria with a complicated urinary tract. J Infect Chemother. 2007;13:99-104 pubmed
  37. Bjerrum L, Gahrn Hansen B, Grinsted P. Pivmecillinam versus sulfamethizole for short-term treatment of uncomplicated acute cystitis in general practice: a randomized controlled trial. Scand J Prim Health Care. 2009;27:6-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Five days after initiation of treatment there was no significant difference in clinical and bacteriological cure between the two antibiotic regimes. ..
  38. Ismaili K, Hall M, Piepsz A, Wissing K, Collier F, Schulman C, et al. Primary vesicoureteral reflux detected in neonates with a history of fetal renal pelvis dilatation: a prospective clinical and imaging study. J Pediatr. 2006;148:222-7 pubmed
    ..In most infants with VUR, the reflux is of low grade and resolves rapidly. In those children with high-grade VUR, spontaneous resolution is rare at age 2 years, but persistent reflux rarely impairs the maturation of renal function. ..
  39. Bruns T, Piechota H, Schneede P. [Symptomatic urinary tract infection of the female--diagnostics]. Urologe A. 2006;45:421-7 pubmed
    ..While these factors only play a subordinate role during the premenopausal phase, they gain in importance during the postmenopausal phase. A key role is also attributed to local estrogen deficiency. ..
  40. Mentler P, Kuhn B, Gandhi G. Risk stratification for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance in community-acquired, uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2006;63:1588, 1590 pubmed
  41. Narchi H, Al Hamdan M. Antibiotic resistance trends in paediatric community-acquired first urinary tract infections in the United Arab Emirates. East Mediterr Health J. 2010;16:45-50 pubmed
    ..4% to 35.6%), with a significant increasing trend over the 4 years. ..
  42. Lettgen B, Tröster K. [Prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections in children. Results of an open, controlled and randomized study about the efficacy and tolerance of cefixime compared to nitrofurantoin]. Klin Padiatr. 2002;214:353-8 pubmed
    ..Low-dose cefixime, however, could become an alternative to standard regimens in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections. This should be investigated in further studies. ..
  43. Kashanian J, Hakimian P, Blute M, Wong J, Khanna H, Wise G, et al. Nitrofurantoin: the return of an old friend in the wake of growing resistance. BJU Int. 2008;102:1634-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Nitrofurantoin is an acceptable treatment for uncomplicated UTIs and should now be considered the first-line treatment. A reconsideration of UTI treatment guidelines might now be appropriate. ..
  44. Martin J, Mourton S, Nicholls G. Severe hyperkalaemia with prescription of potassium-retaining agents in an elderly patient. N Z Med J. 2003;116:U542 pubmed
  45. Ruxer J, Mozdzan M, Loba J, Markuszewski L. [Fosfomycin, co-trimoxazole and nitrofurantoin in the treatment of recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections in type 2 diabetes mellitus]. Wiad Lek. 2007;60:235-40 pubmed
    ..Fosfomycin is associated with rarely recurrence of UTI than nitrofurantoin and co-trimoxazole in the period without its taking. ..
  46. Lees P, Stefaniak A, Emmett E, Dalton P. Exposure assessment for study of olfactory function in workers exposed to styrene in the reinforced-plastics industry. Am J Ind Med. 2003;44:12-23 pubmed
    ..This quantitative exposure evaluation has provided a well-characterized population, with documented exposure histories stable over time and in the range suitable for the purposes of the associated study of olfactory function. ..
  47. Kunin C. Inappropriate medication use in older adults: does nitrofurantoin belong on the list for the reasons stated?. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:1701 pubmed
  48. Christie M, Wong K, Ting R, Tam P, Sikaneta T. Generalized seizure and toxic epidermal necrolysis following levofloxacin exposure. Ann Pharmacother. 2005;39:953-5 pubmed
    ..Further fluoroquinolone use should be avoided in such patients. ..
  49. Arakawa S, Nakano Y, Miura T, Shigemura K, Tanaka K, Fujisawa M. Clinical study of complicated urinary tract infection using 'The UTI Criteria (Draft Fourth Edition)': measurement methods for pyuria. Int J Urol. 2006;13:1484-7 pubmed
    ..1%), moderate in 27 (22.7%) and poor in 24 (20.2%) with an efficacy rate of 79.8% using the conventional sedimentation method No significant difference was seen between the two methods of WBC count in urine. ..
  50. Vahlensieck W, Bauer H. [Prevention and alternative methods for prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections in women]. Urologe A. 2006;45:443-4, 446-50 pubmed
    ..There are also promising therapy modalities such as changing bacterial gut flora, general immune response (acupuncture, inpatient rehabilitation) and urine acidity. ..
  51. Orrett F, Davis G. A comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility profile of urinary pathogens for the years, 1999 and 2003. West Indian Med J. 2006;55:95-9 pubmed
    ..The feasibility of using the fluoroquinolones as a first line of therapy in urinary tract infection should be considered. ..
  52. Sun H, Li L, Chen X. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of ofloxacin and levofloxacin in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids. Anal Sci. 2006;22:1145-9 pubmed
    ..This method has been successfully applied for the determination of ofloxacin and levofloxacin in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids with satisfactory results. ..
  53. Williams E, Triller D. Recurrent acute nitrofurantoin-induced pulmonary toxicity. Pharmacotherapy. 2006;26:713-8 pubmed
    ..Patients should be advised to contact a physician if breathing difficulties or unusual symptoms develop while taking nitrofurantoin, as this could result in earlier recognition of this drug reaction. ..