Summary: Agents causing contraction of the pupil of the eye. Some sources use the term miotics only for the parasympathomimetics but any drug used to induce miosis is included here.

Top Publications

  1. Hsiue G, Guu J, Cheng C. Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) film as a drug delivery system for pilocarpine. Biomaterials. 2001;22:1763-9 pubmed
    ..The pressure decrease was significant for a period longer than 48 h. It confirms that the inserts, as sustainable releasing devices, are promising carriers for ophthalmic drug delivery systems. ..
  2. Lai J, Hsieh A. A gelatin-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) biodegradable in situ gelling delivery system for the intracameral administration of pilocarpine. Biomaterials. 2012;33:2372-87 pubmed publisher
    ..e., miosis and IOP lowering effect and preservation of corneal endothelial cell density). ..
  3. Kwon H, Kim H. A pharmacologic pupillary test in the diagnosis of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2009;23:291-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A simple pharmacologic pupillary test can help manage complications in diabetic patients because patients with pupillary autonomic dysfunction have an increased risk of CAN. ..
  4. Sueur S, Pesant M, Rochette L, Connat J. Antiapoptotic effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide on oxidative stress-induced injury in H9c2 cardiomyocytes via the RAMP1/CRLR complex. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2005;39:955-63 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that CGRP has antiapoptotic properties through the RAMP1/CRLR complex. CGRP could be used to prevent apoptosis in an ischemia-reperfusion context. ..
  5. Auffarth G, Martin M, Fuchs H, Rabsilber T, Becker K, Schmack I. [Validity of anterior chamber depth measurements for the evaluation of accommodation after implantation of an accommodative Humanoptics 1CU intraocular lens]. Ophthalmologe. 2002;99:815-9 pubmed
    ..Evaluation methods for accommodative IOLs should be carefully analysed and further development of objective means for evaluation is needed. ..
  6. Orrico M, Melotti R, Mantovani A, Avesani B, de Marco R, De Leo D. Criminal investigations: pupil pharmacological reactivity as method for assessing time since death is fallacious. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2008;29:304-8 pubmed publisher
  7. Alves M, Cunha D, Calegari V, Saad M, Boschero A, Velloso L, et al. Nuclear factor-kappaB and advanced glycation end-products expression in lacrimal glands of aging rats. J Endocrinol. 2005;187:159-66 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that metabolic events may be related to LG and tear film dysfunctions in aging...
  8. Gschossmann J, Coutinho S, Miller J, Huebel K, Naliboff B, Wong H, et al. Involvement of spinal calcitonin gene-related peptide in the development of acute visceral hyperalgesia in the rat. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2001;13:229-36 pubmed
    ..The development of mechanically induced colorectal hyperalgesia by repeated tonic distension involves the spinal release of CGRP, while peripheral release of CGRP plays only a minor role. ..
  9. Ostrin L, Glasser A. Accommodation measurements in a prepresbyopic and presbyopic population. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2004;30:1435-44 pubmed
    ..0 diopters greater than those measured with objective tests. Measurements of accommodative amplitude are best achieved with objective methods to stimulate and measure accommodation. ..

More Information


  1. Pepić I, Jalsenjak N, Jalsenjak I. Micellar solutions of triblock copolymer surfactants with pilocarpine. Int J Pharm. 2004;272:57-64 pubmed
    ..The best results were obtained for the micellar pilocarpine base solution which exhibits significant prolongation of miotic activity and an increase of AUC for 64%. ..
  2. Patinkin D, Hidmi A, Weiss L, Slavin S, Katzhendler J. The effect of pegylated antisense acetylcholinesterase on hematopoiesis. Oligonucleotides. 2003;13:207-16 pubmed
    ..The use of PEG-AS-ODN, affording specific delivery of AS-ODN to target cells, increased cell proliferation, and enhanced ODN uptake, may be of potential importance in stem cell expansion for BM transplantation and gene therapy. ..
  3. Stachs O, Schneider H, Stave J, Guthoff R. Potentially accommodating intraocular lenses--an in vitro and in vivo study using three-dimensional high-frequency ultrasound. J Refract Surg. 2005;21:37-45 pubmed
    ..Using three-dimensional ultrasound biomicroscopy, corresponding changes in haptic angulation during pharmacological-induced accommodation were observed. ..
  4. Lee H, Jung S, Lee P, Jeong Y. Altered intrinsic functional connectivity in the latent period of epileptogenesis in a temporal lobe epilepsy model. Exp Neurol. 2017;296:89-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings can help enhance our understanding of epileptogenesis, and accordingly, changes in intrinsic functional connectivity can serve as an early diagnosis. ..
  5. Kaise T, Akamatsu Y, Ikemura T, Ohmori K, Ishii A, Karasawa A. Involvement of neuropeptides in the allergic nasal obstruction in guinea pigs. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2001;86:196-202 pubmed
    ..The present results suggest that neuropeptides are involved in the allergic nasal obstruction. ..
  6. Wang Y, Wang D. Prevention of endothelin-1-induced increases in blood pressure: role of endogenous CGRP. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;287:H1868-74 pubmed
    ..3 +/- 0.2) groups. Therefore, our data show that ET-1 infusion leads to increased CGRP release via activation of the ET(A) receptor, which plays a compensatory role in preventing ET-1-induced elevation in blood pressure. ..
  7. Tugushi O, Shliapuzhnikova A, Listopadova N. [Comparative analysis of life quality in patients receiving beta-blockers and xalathane (latanoprost)]. Vestn Oftalmol. 2005;121:41-3 pubmed
  8. Polidori C, Massi M, Guerrini R, Grandi D, Lupo D, Morini G. Peripheral mechanisms involved in gastric mucosal protection by intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal nociceptin in rats. Endocrinology. 2005;146:3861-7 pubmed
    ..The study provides evidence that N/OFQ contributes to neurally mediated gastric mucosal protection...
  9. Knox F, Barry M, McGowan B, O BRIEN C. The rising cost of glaucoma drugs in Ireland 1996-2003. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:162-5 pubmed
    ..In 2003 in the ROI, prostaglandin analogues were the most commonly prescribed class of drug for patients with glaucoma and/or ocular hypertension causing a profound rise in drug expenditure. ..
  10. Marques F, Marques D. Unilateral dysphotopsia after bilateral intraocular lens implantation using the AR40e IOL model: case report. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2007;70:350-4 pubmed
  11. Swanson W, Dul M, Fischer S. Quantifying effects of retinal illuminance on frequency doubling perimetry. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:235-40 pubmed
    ..Application of a quantitative adaptation model provided guidelines for estimating effects of pupil diameter and lens density on FDT perimetry. ..
  12. Bateman D, Clark R, Azuara Blanco A, Bain M, Forrest J. The effects of new topical treatments on management of glaucoma in Scotland: an examination of ophthalmological health care. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002;86:551-4 pubmed
    ..of new products (topical prostaglandins, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, and alpha(2) agonists), at the expense of miotics (47.7% fall), and older sympathomimetics. This change in prescribing pattern was accompanied by a 61...
  13. Titiyal J, Sharma N, Mannan R, Pruthi A, Vajpayee R. Outcomes of reenclavation of subluxated iris-fixated phakic intraocular lenses: comparison with primary surgery outcomes. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2010;36:577-81 pubmed publisher
    ..953). Successful subluxation of iris-fixated pIOLs did not cause significant damage to the ocular structures or lead to serious complications. ..
  14. Deng P, Ye F, Cai W, Deng H, Li Y. Role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the phenol-induced neurogenic hypertension in rats. Regul Pept. 2004;119:155-61 pubmed
  15. Sams Nielsen A, Orskov C, Jansen Olesen I. Pharmacological evidence for CGRP uptake into perivascular capsaicin sensitive nerve terminals. Br J Pharmacol. 2001;132:1145-53 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemical experiments showed that only terminal CGRP is subject to capsaicin-induced depletion in vitro, whereas CGRP-immunoreactivity endures in the nerve fibres. ..
  16. Larpkrajang S, Worasuwannarak W, Peonim V, Udnoon J, Srisont S. The use of pilocarpine eye drops for estimating the time since death. J Forensic Leg Med. 2016;39:100-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study showed that pilocarpine eye drops can be used to estimate the time since death. ..
  17. Sapir Pichhadze R, Blumenthal E. [The medical treatment of glaucoma]. Harefuah. 2003;142:66-9, 76 pubmed
    ..Until a decade ago, topical beta-adrenergic antagonists, adrenergic agonists, miotics and oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors comprised the common medications in use...
  18. Monjok E, Kulkarni K, Kouamou G, McKoy M, Opere C, Bongmba O, et al. Inhibitory action of hydrogen sulfide on muscarinic receptor-induced contraction of isolated porcine irides. Exp Eye Res. 2008;87:612-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, relaxation induced by H(2)S is mediated, at least in part, by K(ATP) channels. Nitric oxide is not involved in the relaxation induced by this gas in the isolated porcine irides. ..
  19. Novak Laus K, Masnec Paskvalin S, Korsić J, Ivekovic R, Zorić Geber M, Mandic Z. [Use of antiglaucoma therapy to reduce acute intraocular pressure rise following neodymium: YAG laser iridotomy in angle-closure glaucoma patients]. Acta Med Croatica. 2006;60:113-6 pubmed
    ..Mean elevation of IOP was less in the groups of patients with local antiglaucoma therapy with pilocarpine at 2 hours postoperatively. Local antiglaucoma therapy may reduce the acute IOP rise following Yag laser iridotomy in PACG eyes. ..
  20. Friedman D, Gazzard G, Foster P, Devereux J, Broman A, Quigley H, et al. Ultrasonographic biomicroscopy, Scheimpflug photography, and novel provocative tests in contralateral eyes of Chinese patients initially seen with acute angle closure. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121:633-42 pubmed
    ..Dynamic measures of the response to luminance changes and pilocarpine therapy indicate that differential reactions to these stimuli are also associated with an AAC attack. ..
  21. Spierer A, Zeeli T. Postoperative miotics for patients with infantile esotropia. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 1997;28:1002-5 pubmed
    ..These differences were not statistically different (P > .05). Echothiophate iodide, given postoperatively for congenital esotropia, does not improve the surgical results during the first postoperative year. ..
  22. Bousquet S, Monet M, Boulay G. Protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) on serine 448 causes channel inhibition. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:40534-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, knocking down PKC? in A7r5 cells potentiated vasopressin-induced Ca(2+) entry. In summary, we provide evidence that PKC? exerts a negative feedback effect on TRPC6 through the phosphorylation of Ser(448). ..
  23. Shaikh M, Mars J. The acute effect of pilocarpine on pulsatile ocular blood flow in ocular hypertension. Eye (Lond). 2001;15:63-6 pubmed
    ..001; median difference 4.60 microl/s; 95% confidence interval, 2.35 to 6.75). Acute application of pilocarpine 2% drops increased POBF to a significant extent in untreated ocular hypertension. ..
  24. Natu M, Sardinha J, Correia I, Gil M. Controlled release gelatin hydrogels and lyophilisates with potential application as ocular inserts. Biomed Mater. 2007;2:241-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The corneal endothelial cell culture tests indicated that the prepared biomaterials are not cytotoxic. ..
  25. Mata A, Marques D, Martínez Burgos M, Silveira J, Marques J, Mesquita M, et al. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on secretory response, calcium mobilisation and caspase-3 activity in the isolated rat parotid gland. Mol Cell Biochem. 2008;319:23-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect of H(2)O(2) may be due to its activity to induce apoptosis in the parotid gland, since H(2)O(2) can stimulate the activity of caspase-3, a marker of cellular apoptosis. ..
  26. Liu L, Ong E, Crowston J. The concave iris in pigment dispersion syndrome. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:66-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Accommodation restored the iris concavity, suggesting that the posterior curvature of the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome is induced and probably maintained, at least in part, by accommodation. ..
  27. Fernandez H, Ross G, Nadelhaft I. Neurogenic calcitonin gene-related peptide: a neurotrophic factor in the maintenance of acetylcholinesterase molecular forms in adult skeletal muscles. Brain Res. 1999;844:83-97 pubmed
    ..Indeed, the findings lend strong support to the hypothesis that nerve-derived CGRP plays a key role in the trophic regulation of AChE forms at the neuromuscular junction. ..
  28. Plainis S, Plevridi E, Pallikaris I. Comparison of the ocular wavefront aberration between pharmacologically-induced and stimulus-driven accommodation. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2009;29:272-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Stimulating accommodation by topical application of pilocarpine is inappropriate for evaluating the efficacy of 'accommodating' IOLs. ..
  29. Kee C, Moon S. Effect of cataract extraction and posterior chamber lens implantation on outflow facility and its response to pilocarpine in Korean subjects. Br J Ophthalmol. 2000;84:987-9 pubmed
    ..Pilocarpine causes an increase in outflow facility which persists after cataract extraction and posterior chamber lens implantation. ..
  30. Reichl S, Bednarz J, Muller Goymann C. Human corneal equivalent as cell culture model for in vitro drug permeation studies. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88:560-5 pubmed
    ..Compared with data from the porcine cornea construct the cultivated human equivalent showed a decreased permeability. The reconstructed human cornea could be appropriate to predict drug absorption into the human eye. ..
  31. Saitoh K, Yoshida K, Hamatsu Y, Tazawa Y. Changes in the shape of the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces caused by mydriasis and miosis: detailed analysis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2004;30:1024-30 pubmed
    ..To date, changes in refractive power from changes in pupil size have been attributed to a change in the refractive power of the crystalline lens; however, it is now thought that changes in corneal refractive power also occur. ..
  32. Miyazaki S, Suzuki S, Kawasaki N, Endo K, Takahashi A, Attwood D. In situ gelling xyloglucan formulations for sustained release ocular delivery of pilocarpine hydrochloride. Int J Pharm. 2001;229:29-36 pubmed
    ..The degree of enhancement of miotic response following sustained release of pilocarpine from the 1.5% w/w xyloglucan gel was similar to that from a 25% w/w Pluronic F127 gel. ..
  33. Muller F, Wagner M, Neubert R. Characterization of the force effect of aqueous and oily eye drops. Pharmazie. 2005;60:283-7 pubmed
    ..The test results show that the consistency of eye drop preparations and their resulting physical-chemical properties like viscosity influence the quantity of the maximal force during the drop impact. ..
  34. Langenbucher A, Huber S, Nguyen N, Seitz B, Kuchle M. Cardinal points and image-object magnification with an accommodative lens implant (1 CU). Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2003;23:61-70 pubmed
  35. Guizzetti M, Moller T, Costa L. Ethanol inhibits muscarinic receptor-mediated DNA synthesis and signal transduction in human fetal astrocytes. Neurosci Lett. 2003;344:68-70 pubmed
  36. Ostrin L, Glasser A. Comparisons between pharmacologically and Edinger-Westphal-stimulated accommodation in rhesus monkeys. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:609-17 pubmed
    ..Pharmacological stimulation results in a greater increase in lens thickness, an overall forward movement of the lens and a greater change in dioptric power. ..
  37. Komatsu Y. [A history of the development of eye drops used to treat glaucoma]. Yakushigaku Zasshi. 2007;42:7-16 pubmed
    ..This paper describes the history of the development of therapeutic agents for glaucoma--with special reference to ophthalmic preparations. ..
  38. Cahill M, Eustace P, de Jesus V. Pupillary autonomic denervation with increasing duration of diabetes mellitus. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001;85:1225-30 pubmed
    ..Pupillary autonomic dysfunction occurs before cardiovascular autonomic changes and detection of pupil denervation hypersensitivity to dilute pilocarpine is an inexpensive way to detect early DAN. ..
  39. Han S, Shin C, Park S, Rhyu S, Park J, Kim Y. Differential expression of activating transcription factor-2 and c-Jun in the immature and adult rat hippocampus following lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus. Yonsei Med J. 2009;50:200-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggested a neuroprotective role of ATF-2 in this maturation-related evolution of neuronal cell death from status epilepticus. ..
  40. Ganapathy K, Cargill P, Jones R. A comparison of methods of inducing lachrymation and tear collection in chickens for detection of virus-specific immuoglobulins after infection with infectious bronchitis virus. Avian Pathol. 2005;34:248-51 pubmed
    ..Collection of IgA in this way was even less productive, and only trace amounts were detected. Possible reasons for these discrepancies have been discussed. ..
  41. Okka M, Tian B, Kaufman P. Effects of latrunculin B on outflow facility, intraocular pressure, corneal thickness, and miotic and accommodative responses to pilocarpine in monkeys. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2004;102:251-7; discussion 257-9 pubmed
    ..Multiple doses reduce IOP more than a single dose. LAT-B dose-dependently relaxes the iris sphincter and ciliary muscle, with some separation of the miotic and accommodative effects. ..
  42. Walcott B, Birzgalis A, Moore L, Brink P. Fluid secretion and the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter in mouse exorbital lacrimal gland. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;289:C860-7 pubmed
    ..Blocking NKCC1 with furosemide reduced the amount of shrinkage by approximately 50%. These data suggest that NKCC1 plays an important role in fluid secretion by the exorbital gland of mice. ..
  43. Radian A. [Ocular hypertension and glaucoma]. Oftalmologia. 2005;49:75-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, the O.H. must be named as pre-campimetry glaucoma, when the IOP exceeds 25-26 mm Hg. ..
  44. Werner M, Bhatti M, Vaishnav H, Pincus D, Eskin T, Yachnis A. Isolated anisocoria from an endodermal cyst of the third cranial nerve mimicking an Adie's tonic pupil. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2005;42:176-9 pubmed
    ..False-positive results may occur with the dilute pilocarpine test...
  45. Muftuoglu O, Hosal B, Karel F, Zilelioglu G. Drug-induced intraocular lens movement and near visual acuity after AcrySof intraocular lens implantation. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2005;31:1298-305 pubmed
    ..This points out pseudoaccommodation rather than pseudophakic accommodation. Ultrasound biomicroscopy is useful in determining the ACD and the relation between the IOL and the surrounding tissues after cataract surgery. ..
  46. Harada N, Okajima K, Uchiba M, Katsuragi T. Ischemia/reperfusion-induced increase in the hepatic level of prostacyclin is mainly mediated by activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in rats. J Lab Clin Med. 2002;139:218-26 pubmed
    ..In the sensory neuron-mediated enhancement of endothelial production of prostacyclin, CGRP-induced activation of both endothelial NOS and cyclooxygenase-1 may be critically involved. ..
  47. Moore M, Ma T, Yang B, Verkman A. Tear secretion by lacrimal glands in transgenic mice lacking water channels AQP1, AQP3, AQP4 and AQP5. Exp Eye Res. 2000;70:557-62 pubmed
    ..The requirement for aquaporins in salivary but not lacrimal gland secretion, may involve the substantially slower fluid secretion rate across lacrimal gland acinar cells. ..
  48. Kałuzny J, Szaflik J, Czechowicz Janicka K, Kałuzny J, Orzałkiewicz A, Zaleska Zmijewska A, et al. [Timolol 0.5%/dorzolamide 2% fixed combination versus timolol 0.5%/pilocarpine 2% fixed combination in primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertensive patients]. Klin Oczna. 2004;106:241-2 pubmed
    ..5%/pilocarpine 2% fixed combination can provide at least similar efficacious reduction in IOP as timolol 0.5 %/dorzolamide 2% fixed combination in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. ..
  49. Brzozowski T, Konturek P, Konturek S, Kwiecien S, Drozdowicz D, Bielanski W, et al. Exogenous and endogenous ghrelin in gastroprotection against stress-induced gastric damage. Regul Pept. 2004;120:39-51 pubmed
    ..We conclude that ghrelin exerts a potent protective action on the stomach of rats exposed to ethanol and WRS, and these effects depend upon vagal activity, sensory nerves and hyperemia mediated by NOS-NO and COX-PG systems. ..
  50. Kharasch E, Hoffer C, Whittington D, Sheffels P. Role of hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 3A and 2B6 in the metabolism, disposition, and miotic effects of methadone. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004;76:250-69 pubmed
    ..Interindividual variability and drug interactions affecting intestinal transporter and hepatic CYP3A and CYP2B6 activity may alter methadone disposition. ..
  51. Hori N, Takamori M, Hirayama M, Watanabe H, Nakamura T, Yamashita F, et al. Pupillary supersensitivity and visual disturbance in Parkinson's disease. Clin Auton Res. 2008;18:20-7 pubmed publisher
    ..PD patients have both parasympathetic and sympathetic postganglionic impairments affecting the pupil. Our findings demonstrate that parasympathetic dysfunction contributes significantly to visual disturbance in PD. ..
  52. Lütjen Drecoll E, Kruse F. [Primary open angle glaucoma. Morphological bases for the understanding of the pathogenesis and effects of antiglaucomatic substances]. Ophthalmologe. 2007;104:167-78; quiz 179 pubmed
    ..Conventional outflow is increased by the administration of miotics. The uveoscleral outflow can be increased by prostaglandin derivates...
  53. Johnstone P, Peng Y, May B, Inouye W, Niemtzow R. Acupuncture for pilocarpine-resistant xerostomia following radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001;50:353-7 pubmed
    ..Nine patients had benefit of over 10 points on the XI. Acupuncture reduces xerostomia in some patients who are otherwise refractory to best current management. ..