ganglionic stimulants


Summary: Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.

Top Publications

  1. Guo J, Chu M, Abbeyquaye T, Chen C. Persistent nicotine treatment potentiates amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase gene in rat lung epithelial cells as a consequence of Ras activation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:30422-31 pubmed
    ..Under p53-deficient conditions, the establishment of a full oncogenic transformation, in response to long term nicotine exposure, is achieved through the cooperation of multiple signaling pathways. ..
  2. Dar R, Kaplan R, Shaham L, Frenk H. Euphoriant effects of nicotine in smokers: fact or artifact?. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007;191:203-10 pubmed
  3. Olausson P, Jentsch J, Taylor J. Repeated nicotine exposure enhances responding with conditioned reinforcement. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004;173:98-104 pubmed
  4. Chen X, Stacy A, Zheng H, Shan J, Spruijt Metz D, Unger J, et al. Sensations from initial exposure to nicotine predicting adolescent smoking in China: a potential measure of vulnerability to nicotine. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5:455-63 pubmed
    ..Self-reported sensations from initial exposure to nicotine may be a useful indicator of an individual's vulnerability to nicotine. This information can be used for adolescent smoking prevention and cessation interventions. ..
  5. Yang L, Tong E, Mao Z, Hu T. Exposure to secondhand smoke and associated factors among non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands in Sichuan province, China. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010;89:549-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The high prevalence rate of SHS exposure suggests that it is important for non-smoking pregnant women, especially rural women, to establish smoke-free home rules and increase knowledge and negative attitudes towards SHS. ..
  6. Vorisek I, Hajek M, Tintera J, Nicolay K, Sykova E. Water ADC, extracellular space volume, and tortuosity in the rat cortex after traumatic injury. Magn Reson Med. 2002;48:994-1003 pubmed
    ..Thus, both ADC(W) and ADC(TMA) decreased in regions wherein alpha did not change but CSPG increased. An increase in extracellular matrix expression may therefore impose diffusion barriers for water as well as for TMA molecules. ..
  7. Smith A, Wellmann K, Lundblad T, Carter M, Barron S, Dwoskin L. Lobeline attenuates neonatal ethanol-mediated changes in hyperactivity and dopamine transporter function in the prefrontal cortex in rats. Neuroscience. 2012;206:245-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings provide support that lobeline may be a useful pharmacotherapy for some of the deficits associated with neonatal ethanol exposure...
  8. Nakajima M, AL ABSI M. Predictors of risk for smoking relapse in men and women: a prospective examination. Psychol Addict Behav. 2012;26:633-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings remained significant after statistically controlling for smoking-related variables, providing preliminary evidence that different factors may be associated with nicotine withdrawal and smoking relapse in men and women. ..
  9. Bajanowski T, Brinkmann B, Mitchell E, Vennemann M, Leukel H, Larsch K, et al. Nicotine and cotinine in infants dying from sudden infant death syndrome. Int J Legal Med. 2008;122:23-8 pubmed
    ..It can be concluded that nicotine intake by passive smoking is much more important than by breast-feeding. We conclude that both interview data and biochemical measures should be sought to understand the true exposure to tobacco smoke. ..

More Information


  1. Liu L, Shang F, Morgan M, King D, Lubowski D, Burcher E. Cyclooxygenase-dependent alterations in substance P-mediated contractility and tachykinin NK1 receptor expression in the colonic circular muscle of patients with slow transit constipation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;329:282-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also indicate some malfunction of the enteric nervous system in STC. ..
  2. Leeman R, O Malley S, White M, McKee S. Nicotine and food deprivation decrease the ability to resist smoking. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010;212:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Tobacco craving was predictive of outcome in both conditions. These findings support the hypothesis that food deprivation can undermine a smoker's ability to resist smoking. ..
  3. Chou K, Chen R, Lee J, Ku C, Lu R. The effectiveness of nicotine-patch therapy for smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia. Int J Nurs Stud. 2004;41:321-30 pubmed
    ..The point-prevalence rates of abstinence from smoking were an abstinence of 26.9% at 8 weeks and 26.9% at a 3-month follow-up. At the 3-month follow-up, the rate of continuous smoking abstinence in the nicotine-patch group was 23.1%. ..
  4. Wittebole X, Castanares Zapatero D, Laterre P. Toll-like receptor 4 modulation as a strategy to treat sepsis. Mediators Inflamm. 2010;2010:568396 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this paper is to focus on the recent data of various drugs targeting TLR4 expression and pathway and their potential role as adjunctive therapy in severe sepsis and septic shock. ..
  5. Bonfante S, Bosco A, Luize D, de Almeida J, Cestari T, Taga R. Influence of nicotine on healing process of autogenous bone block grafts in the mandible: a histomorphometric study in rats. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2008;23:437-44 pubmed
    ..75% +/- 6.18% versus 51.31% +/- 8.31%) and 28 days (42.44% +/- 8.70% versus 73.00% +/- 4.99%). Nicotine did jeopardize the early healing process of autogenous bone block grafts in rats but did not prevent it. ..
  6. Hecht S, Murphy S, Carmella S, Li S, Jensen J, Le C, et al. Similar uptake of lung carcinogens by smokers of regular, light, and ultralight cigarettes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:693-8 pubmed
    ..The results are consistent with epidemiologic studies that show no difference in lung cancer risk in smokers of these cigarettes. ..
  7. McRobbie H, Hajek P, Gillison F. The relationship between smoking cessation and mouth ulcers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6:655-9 pubmed
    ..Patients should be reassured that the lesions are a result of stopping smoking and not a side-effect of smoking cessation medication. ..
  8. DiFranza J, Wellman R. Sensitization to nicotine: how the animal literature might inform future human research. Nicotine Tob Res. 2007;9:9-20 pubmed
    ..Sensitization is incorporated into two theories of addiction: incentive-sensitization and sensitization-homeostasis. Whether sensitization occurs in humans and how it is expressed is unclear, as is its role in human addiction. ..
  9. Salmon A, Damaj M, Marubio L, Epping Jordan M, Merlo Pich E, Changeux J. Altered neuroadaptation in opiate dependence and neurogenic inflammatory nociception in alpha CGRP-deficient mice. Nat Neurosci. 2001;4:357-8 pubmed
  10. Percival J. The place of pharmacotherapy products in smoking cessation. Prof Nurse. 2003;19:113-7 pubmed
    ..This paper looks at the evidence supporting the use of pharmacotherapy products and explains the options available, as well as considering the nurse's role in helping people quit. ..
  11. Stepanov I, Hecht S, Lindgren B, Jacob P, Wilson M, Benowitz N. Relationship of human toenail nicotine, cotinine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol to levels of these biomarkers in plasma and urine. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16:1382-6 pubmed
    ..53; P = 0.005). The results of this study provide essential validation data for the use of toenail biomarkers in investigations of the role of chronic tobacco smoke exposure in human cancer. ..
  12. Carter B, Long T, Cinciripini P. A meta-analytic review of the CYP2A6 genotype and smoking behavior. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6:221-7 pubmed
    ..What role, if any, the CYP2A6 gene plays in smoking behavior will be understood only if future research addresses these methodological concerns. ..
  13. Shenassa E, McCaffery J, Swan G, Khroyan T, Shakib S, Lerman C, et al. Intergenerational transmission of tobacco use and dependence: a transdisciplinary perspective. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5 Suppl 1:S55-69 pubmed
    ..Research gaps that exist between scientific disciplines are highlighted, and some directions for future research are suggested. ..
  14. Covey L, Weissman J, LoDuca C, Duan N. A comparison of abstinence outcomes among gay/bisexual and heterosexual male smokers in an intensive, non-tailored smoking cessation study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009;11:1374-7 pubmed publisher
  15. Gullu H, Caliskan M, Ciftci O, Erdogan D, Topcu S, Yildirim E, et al. Light cigarette smoking impairs coronary microvascular functions as severely as smoking regular cigarettes. Heart. 2007;93:1274-7 pubmed
    ..48) (p = 0.001). Smoking low-tar, low-nicotine cigarettes impairs the CFVR as severely as smoking regular cigarettes. CFVR values are similar in light cigarette and regular cigarette smokers and significantly lower than in controls. ..
  16. Buccafusco J, Terry A. The potential role of cotinine in the cognitive and neuroprotective actions of nicotine. Life Sci. 2003;72:2931-42 pubmed
  17. Rusted J, Alvares T. Nicotine effects on retrieval-induced forgetting are not attributable to changes in arousal. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008;196:83-92 pubmed
    ..We consider these changes to relate to the direct modulation of information processing by nicotine. ..
  18. Ferayorni A, Gunville C, Grow W. Nicotine decreases agrin signaling and acetylcholine receptor clustering in C2C12 myotube culture. J Neurobiol. 2004;60:51-60 pubmed
    ..We conclude that nicotine interferes with postsynaptic scaffold formation by preventing the tyrosine phosphorylation of AChRs, an agrin signaling event that precedes AChR clustering. ..
  19. Pasumarthi R, Reznikov L, Fadel J. Activation of orexin neurons by acute nicotine. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;535:172-6 pubmed
    ..The orexin system is likely to play an important role in the coordination of physiological and behavioral responses to acute nicotine treatment. ..
  20. Rong Zhou J, Shirasaki T, Soeda F, Takahama K. Potentiation of nicotinic currents by bradykinin in the paratracheal ganglia neurons of rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;531:96-102 pubmed
  21. Huali Y, Songting G, Jianfang F, Shuokui H. Trace analysis of nicotine in indoor air by a SPME method. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2002;68:485-9 pubmed
  22. Liechti M, Markou A. Interactive effects of the mGlu5 receptor antagonist MPEP and the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY341495 on nicotine self-administration and reward deficits associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;554:164-74 pubmed
  23. Erat M, Ciftci M, Gumustekin K, Gul M. Effects of nicotine and vitamin E on glutathione reductase activity in some rat tissues in vivo and in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;554:92-7 pubmed
    ..These results show that vitamin E administration generally restores the inactivation of glutathione reductase activity due to nicotine administration in various rat tissues in vivo, and also in vitro. ..
  24. Dwyer J, Broide R, Leslie F. Nicotine and brain development. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2008;84:30-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Although not the only constituent of tobacco smoke, there is now abundant evidence that nicotine is a neural teratogen. Thus, alternatives to NRT should be sought as tobacco cessation treatments in pregnant women. ..
  25. Balatsouka D, Gotfredsen K, Sørensen L, Lindh C, Berglundh T. Effect of systemic administration of nicotine on healing in osseous defects. An experimental study in rabbits. Part II. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2006;17:488-94 pubmed
  26. Pollak K, Oncken C, Lipkus I, Peterson B, Swamy G, Pletsch P, et al. Challenges and solutions for recruiting pregnant smokers into a nicotine replacement therapy trial. Nicotine Tob Res. 2006;8:547-54 pubmed
    ..This paper discusses specific obstacles for recruitment and solutions. Knowing the potential pitfalls to recruiting pregnant women into these trials can lead to better studies and thus improved outcomes. ..
  27. Bizarro L, Stolerman I. Attentional effects of nicotine and amphetamine in rats at different levels of motivation. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2003;170:271-277 pubmed publisher
    ..Motivational levels did not confound assessments of the attentional effects of the drugs in terms of response accuracy. ..
  28. Hurt R, Patten C, Offord K, Croghan I, Decker P, Morris R, et al. Treating nondepressed smokers with alcohol dependence in sustained full remission: nicotine patch therapy tailored to baseline serum cotinine. J Stud Alcohol. 2005;66:506-16 pubmed
    ..However, percentage replacement did not predict smoking abstinence. We achieved > 80% replacement in most subjects, and there was no evidence of severe nicotine toxicity associated with the tailored dose of nicotine patch therapy. ..
  29. Balatsouka D, Gotfredsen K, Lindh C, Berglundh T. The impact of nicotine on osseointegration. An experimental study in the femur and tibia of rabbits. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2005;16:389-95 pubmed
    ..Nicotine exposure for a short period of time even in a high dose did not have a significant impact on implant osseointegration in rabbits. ..
  30. Lee C, Wang C, Lin H, Chai C, Hong M, Ho C. Toxicity of tetramethylammonium hydroxide: review of two fatal cases of dermal exposure and development of an animal model. Toxicol Ind Health. 2011;27:497-503 pubmed publisher
  31. Ashwin C, Watts K. Exploring the views of women on using nicotine replacement therapy in pregnancy. Midwifery. 2010;26:401-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Although these findings could be adopted and utilized by practitioners, there is still the need for further research in this area on a larger scale. ..
  32. Alen F, Gomez R, González Cuevas G, Navarro M, Lopez Moreno J. Nicotine causes opposite effects on alcohol intake: Evidence in an animal experimental model of abstinence and relapse from alcohol. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009;11:1304-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we provide evidence that depending on the timing of exposure, the same dose of nicotine can have opposite effects on alcohol consumption. ..
  33. Das S, Neogy S, Gautam N, Roy S. In vitro nicotine induced superoxide mediated DNA fragmentation in lymphocytes: protective role of Andrographis paniculata Nees. Toxicol In Vitro. 2009;23:90-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, A. paniculata can be used as therapeutic means against nicotine mediated lymphocytes function. ..
  34. Lacy R, Mactutus C, Harrod S. Prenatal IV nicotine exposure produces a sex difference in sensorimotor gating of the auditory startle reflex in adult rats. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2011;29:153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..An important implication of this research is that "chipping" with smoked-tobacco products during pregnancy may produce enduring changes in sensorimotor processing. ..
  35. Williams J, Gandhi K, Lu S, Steinberg M, Benowitz N. Nicotine intake and smoking topography in smokers with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2012;14:618-27 pubmed publisher
  36. Brielmaier J, McDonald C, Smith R. Immediate and long-term behavioral effects of a single nicotine injection in adolescent and adult rats. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007;29:74-80 pubmed
    ..Such findings are extended here by showing that these differences are seen following only a single pretreatment dose and persist for at least one month after pretreatment. ..
  37. Tanabe J, Tregellas J, Martin L, Freedman R. Effects of nicotine on hippocampal and cingulate activity during smooth pursuit eye movement in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;59:754-61 pubmed
    ..Nicotine may improve SPEM performance in people with schizophrenia through cholinergic stimulation of the hippocampus and cingulate gyrus. Potential mechanisms include improved inhibitory function and attention. ..
  38. Keithly L, Ferris Wayne G, Cullen D, Connolly G. Industry research on the use and effects of levulinic acid: a case study in cigarette additives. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005;7:761-71 pubmed
    ..The use of levulinic acid illustrates the need for regulatory authority over tobacco products as well as better understanding of the role of additives in cigarettes and other tobacco products. ..
  39. Zheng G, Dwoskin L, Deaciuc A, Zhu J, Jones M, Crooks P. Lobelane analogues as novel ligands for the vesicular monoamine transporter-2. Bioorg Med Chem. 2005;13:3899-909 pubmed
    ..The most potent analogues in this series were the cis-2,6-piperidino analogues, 25b, 27b, 28b, and 30b, with K(i) values ranging from 430 to 580 nM. ..
  40. Hamilton D, Kolb B. Differential effects of nicotine and complex housing on subsequent experience-dependent structural plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Behav Neurosci. 2005;119:355-65 pubmed
    ..The findings indicate that there are important differences in the capacity of drugs and experience to influence subsequent modifications in dendritic structure. ..
  41. Alberg A, Patnaik J, May J, Hoffman S, Gitchell J, Comstock G, et al. Nicotine replacement therapy use among a cohort of smokers. J Addict Dis. 2005;24:101-13 pubmed
    ..Compared to nonusers, ever users of NRT were less likely to have stopped smoking and equally likely to cut down the frequency of smoking. This may reflect a tendency to turn to NRT for help after failing to quit by other means. ..
  42. Juliano L, Brandon T. Smokers' expectancies for nicotine replacement therapy vs. cigarettes. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004;6:569-74 pubmed
    ..In summary, cigarette smokers' positive expectancies about cigarettes do not appear to generalize to NRT products, which may limit their use and effectiveness. ..
  43. Guan G, Kramer S, Bellinger L, Wellman P, Kramer P. Intermittent nicotine administration modulates food intake in rats by acting on nicotine receptors localized to the brainstem. Life Sci. 2004;74:2725-37 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the MEC effect was due primarily to an increase in dark phase meal size, which suggests neurons localized to the brainstem transmit NIC signals that regulate feeding behavior by affecting meal size. ..
  44. Perkins K, Sayette M, Conklin C, Caggiula A. Placebo effects of tobacco smoking and other nicotine intake. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5:695-709 pubmed
    ..Future research also should explore the moderating influences of the environmental context and of individual difference factors on placebo effects of smoking and other nicotine intake. ..
  45. Johnstone E, Benowitz N, Cargill A, Jacob R, Hinks L, Day I, et al. Determinants of the rate of nicotine metabolism and effects on smoking behavior. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006;80:319-30 pubmed
    ..05, P = .04). In this cohort the rate of nicotine metabolism is related to age, sex, CYP2A6 genotype, and CYP2B6 genotype and may affect the level of tobacco consumption. ..
  46. Serrao P, Vale Pereira R, Costa Lima J, Roncon Albuquerque R. Plasma catecholamines in Buerger's disease: effects of cigarette smoking and surgical sympathectomy. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2002;24:338-43 pubmed
    ..This might be clinically relevant given the association between cigarette smoking and the manifestations of Buerger's disease and the controversy on the effectiveness of sympathectomy in the management of the disease. ..
  47. Arcury T, Quandt S, Preisser J, Bernert J, Norton D, Wang J. High levels of transdermal nicotine exposure produce green tobacco sickness in Latino farmworkers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5:315-21 pubmed
    ..Treatment of GTS must address nicotine poisoning. GTS affects laborers with limited resources. Research must disclose the extent of this occupational illness and investigate ways to prevent it. ..
  48. Saxon A, Baer J, Davis T, Sloan K, Malte C, Fitzgibbons K, et al. Smoking cessation treatment among dually diagnosed individuals: preliminary evaluation of different pharmacotherapies. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5:589-96 pubmed
    ..Additional research is needed to assess medication effects in randomized trials, to explore effects of more intensive treatments, and to assess possible harm reduction from smoking interventions within this population. ..
  49. Ayo Yusuf O, Swart T, Pickworth W. Nicotine delivery capabilities of smokeless tobacco products and implications for control of tobacco dependence in South Africa. Tob Control. 2004;13:186-9 pubmed
    ..The increasing use of SLT by women of childbearing age support the need for intensified policy action to control its use. ..
  50. Nishimura H, Furumiya J, Nakanishi A, Hashimoto Y. Forensic implication of muscle level of nicotine in an adipocere body found in the sea. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2009;11 Suppl 1:S565-7 pubmed publisher
  51. Xu Z, Seidler F, Tate C, Garcia S, Slikker W, Slotkin T. Sex-selective hippocampal alterations after adolescent nicotine administration: effects on neurospecific proteins. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003;5:955-60 pubmed
    ..We conclude that administration of nicotine to adolescent rats alters neuroproteins in the female hippocampus during withdrawal, effects that could contribute to neurobehavioral deficits. ..
  52. Wu C, Su S, Chen J, Chang C, Guo H. Tetramethylammonium ion causes respiratory failure related mortality in a rat model. Resuscitation. 2012;83:119-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Atropinization prolonged survival time in the present study that possibly bought time for further management. ..
  53. Møller A, Villebro N, Pedersen T, Tønnesen H. Effect of preoperative smoking intervention on postoperative complications: a randomised clinical trial. Lancet. 2002;359:114-7 pubmed
    ..An effective smoking intervention programme 6-8 weeks before surgery reduces postoperative morbidity, and we recommend, on the basis of our results, this programme be adopted. ..