bronchoconstrictor agents


Summary: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.

Top Publications

  1. Koh Y, Choi S. Blood eosinophil counts for the prediction of the severity of exercise-induced bronchospasm in asthma. Respir Med. 2002;96:120-5 pubmed
    ..These findings not only suggest that a simple blood test for eosinophils may be useful in the prediction of the severity of EIB, but also reinforce the view that airway eosinophilic inflammation may play a major role in EIB in asthma. ..
  2. Cockcroft D, Davis B. The bronchoprotective effect of inhaling methacholine by using total lung capacity inspirations has a marked influence on the interpretation of the test result. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117:1244-8 pubmed
    ..We recommend that the dosimeter method not be performed as outlined by the American Thoracic Society and that methacholine should be administered by means of submaximal inhalations or tidal breathing...
  3. Bates J, Cojocaru A, Lundblad L. Bronchodilatory effect of deep inspiration on the dynamics of bronchoconstriction in mice. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;103:1696-705 pubmed
  4. Anderson S, Kippelen P. Airway injury as a mechanism for exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122:225-35; quiz 236-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In those who are allergic, AHR can also be expressed as EIB. The role of beta(2)-receptor agonists in inhibiting and enhancing the development of AHR and EIB is discussed...
  5. Munoz P, Gómez F, Manrique H, Roca J, Barbera J, Young I, et al. Pulmonary gas exchange response to exercise- and mannitol-induced bronchoconstriction in mild asthma. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;105:1477-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Va/Q inequalities during both challenges most likely reflect uneven airway narrowing and blood flow redistribution generating distinctive Va/Q patterns, including the development of areas with low and high Va/Q ratios. ..
  6. Bozanich E, Janosi T, Collins R, Thamrin C, Turner D, Hantos Z, et al. Methacholine responsiveness in mice from 2 to 8 wk of age. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;103:542-6 pubmed
    ..The results from the present study do not show systematic differences in MCh responsiveness in mice from 2 to 8 wk of age...
  7. von Ungern Sternberg B, Habre W, Regli A, Pache J, Fontao F, Janosi T, et al. Precapillary pulmonary hypertension leads to reversible bronchial hyperreactivity in rats. Exp Lung Res. 2010;36:129-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This may be consequent to the altered mechanical interdependence between the pulmonary vasculature and the respiratory tract...
  8. Bozanich E, Gualano R, Zosky G, Larcombe A, Turner D, Hantos Z, et al. Acute Influenza A infection induces bronchial hyper-responsiveness in mice. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2008;162:190-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that intrinsic muscle properties are not altered but MCh has greater access to airway smooth muscle during acute infection...
  9. Pedersen L, Winther S, Backer V, Anderson S, Larsen K. Airway responses to eucapnic hyperpnea, exercise, and methacholine in elite swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40:1567-72 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Schweitzer C, Demoulin B, Bello G, Bertin N, Leblanc A, Marchal F. Deep inhalation prevents the respiratory elastance response to methacholine in rats. Pediatr Res. 2006;59:646-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, DI significantly alters Ers and its response to Mch. Computer simulations suggested reversal of increased viscoelasticity and/or inhomogeneous behavior by the DI in that model. ..
  2. Brown R, Mitzner W. Airway response to deep inspiration: role of inflation pressure. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;91:2574-8 pubmed
    ..The precise mechanism underlying these observations is uncertain, but it seems to be related to an interaction between intrinsic properties of the contracted airway smooth muscle and the response to mild stretch...
  3. Berkman N, Avital A, Breuer R, Bardach E, Springer C, Godfrey S. Exhaled nitric oxide in the diagnosis of asthma: comparison with bronchial provocation tests. Thorax. 2005;60:383-8 pubmed
    ..5%, specificity 86.7%); and PC20-AMP: < or = 150 mg/ml (sensitivity 89.5%, specificity 95.6%). Measurement of eNO can be used as a safe, simple and rapid test for the diagnosis of asthma and is as good as bronchial provocation tests. ..
  4. Hirai T, Bates J. Effects of deep inspiration on bronchoconstriction in the rat. Respir Physiol. 2001;127:201-15 pubmed
    ..Our results thus suggest that the DIs that we administered were neither bronchodilatory nor bronchoprotective, but that they were able to reduce the amount of airway closure occurring following bronchoconstriction. ..
  5. Crummy F, Livingston M, Ennis M, Heaney L. Mast cell mediator release in nonasthmatic subjects after endobronchial adenosine challenge. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;114:34-9 pubmed
    ..There was no significant increase in any mediator in either of the other 2 groups. This study suggests dissociation between mediator release and bronchoconstriction in response to AMP. ..
  6. van der Woude H, Boorsma M, Bergqvist P, Winter T, Aalbers R. Budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler rapidly relieves methacholine-induced moderate-to-severe bronchoconstriction. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2004;17:89-95 pubmed
    ..55 units; P < 0.05) and placebo (-0.23 units; P < 0.001). Budesonide/formoterol provides immediate bronchodilation, faster than salmeterol/fluticasone, which patients can feel during acute methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. ..
  7. Collins R, Sly P, Turner D, Herbert C, Kumar R. Site of inflammation influences site of hyperresponsiveness in experimental asthma. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2003;139:51-61 pubmed
    ..Chronic inhalational exposure of sensitized mice to low-mass concentrations of OVA induces airway-specific hyperresponsiveness. ..
  8. Choi I, Hong S, Lee Y, Koh Y, Jang A, Lee H. Asthmatic airway inflammation is more closely related to airway hyperresponsiveness to hypertonic saline than to methacholine. Korean J Intern Med. 2003;18:83-8 pubmed
    ..285, p < 0.05) and IFN-gamma/IL-5 ratio (r = 0.293, p < 0.05) in sputum were significantly related to HS-PD15, but not to MCh-PC20. HS-AHR may reflect allergic asthmatic airway inflammation more closely than MCh-AHR. ..
  9. Gunst S, Shen X, Ramchandani R, Tepper R. Bronchoprotective and bronchodilatory effects of deep inspiration in rabbits subjected to bronchial challenge. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2001;91:2511-6 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the possibility that reorganization of the contractile apparatus caused by stretch of ASM during DI contributes to depression of the airway response. ..
  10. Hemingson H, Davis B, Cockcroft D. Seasonal fluctuations in airway responsiveness in elite endurance athletes. Can Respir J. 2004;11:399-401 pubmed
    ..The specific stimuli that cause this are unknown, but it is speculated to be due to exposure to cold, dry air and/or inhaled irritants that may be present in indoor training facilities. ..
  11. Koh Y, Choi I, Lim H. Atopy may be related to exercise-induced bronchospasm in asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2002;32:532-6 pubmed
    ..01). This relationship was maintained even after the exclusion of EIB-negative asthmatic subjects. Atopy defined as skin test reactivity may contribute to the development of EIB in asthma, independently of AHR to methacholine. ..
  12. Tomioka S, Bates J, Irvin C. Airway and tissue mechanics in a murine model of asthma: alveolar capsule vs. forced oscillations. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002;93:263-70 pubmed
  13. Watanabe K, Myou S, Fujimura M, Tachibana H, Kita T, Nakao S. Importance of the angiotensin type 1 receptor in angiotensin II-induced bronchoconstriction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in the guinea pig. Exp Lung Res. 2004;30:207-21 pubmed
    ..The authors conclude that Ang II caused bronchoconstriction and induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine via the AT1 receptors and that this effect did not involve the release of other bronchoactive mediators. ..
  14. Luijk B, Kempsford R, Wright A, Zanen P, Lammers J. Duration of effect of single-dose inhaled fluticasone propionate on AMP-induced bronchoconstriction. Eur Respir J. 2004;23:559-64 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that adenosine-5'-monophosphate challenge can be used as a sensitive marker to study the duration of action of inhaled corticosteroids. ..
  15. Black L, Henderson A, Atileh H, Israel E, Ingenito E, Lutchen K. Relating maximum airway dilation and subsequent reconstriction to reactivity in human lungs. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004;96:1808-14 pubmed
    ..We conclude that preventing DIs does not ensure that healthy subjects will transition entirely to an asthmatic-like hyperreactive lung state. ..
  16. Sundblad B, Larsson K. Effect of deep inhalations after a bronchial methacholine provocation in asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects. Respir Med. 2002;96:477-81 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, deep inhalations attenuate the methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction in both asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects. Thus, the effect of deep inhalations did not discriminate between asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects. ..
  17. Holzer K, Anderson S, Douglass J. Exercise in elite summer athletes: Challenges for diagnosis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;110:374-80 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the pathogenesis of EIB in elite athletes might be different from that of asthma, and as such, neither symptoms nor the methacholine challenge test should be used exclusively for identifying EIB. ..
  18. Ketchell R, Jensen M, Lumley P, Wright A, Allenby M, O Connor B. Rapid effect of inhaled fluticasone propionate on airway responsiveness to adenosine 5'-monophosphate in mild asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;110:603-6 pubmed
    ..We have demonstrated a reduction in AR to AMP but not AR to histamine within 2 hours of a single inhalation of FP. This reflects a rapid, topical anti-inflammatory action of inhaled FP by a mechanism of action that remains unknown. ..
  19. Zosky G, von Garnier C, Stumbles P, Holt P, Sly P, Turner D. The pattern of methacholine responsiveness in mice is dependent on antigen challenge dose. Respir Res. 2004;5:15 pubmed
    ..These findings require further systematic study to determine whether different mechanisms underlie airway and parenchymal hyperresponsiveness post antigen challenge. ..
  20. Ameredes B, Sethi J, Liu H, Choi A, Calhoun W. Enhanced nitric oxide production associated with airway hyporesponsiveness in the absence of IL-10. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005;288:L868-73 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that airway NO production can modulate airway smooth muscle contractility, resulting in airway hyporesponsiveness when IL-10 is absent. ..
  21. Skloot G, Togias A. Bronchodilation and bronchoprotection by deep inspiration and their relationship to bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2003;24:55-72 pubmed
    ..In addition, possible mechanisms leading to the impairment of these functions in subjects with BHR are discussed. ..
  22. Petak F, Banfi A, Toth Szuki V, Barati L, Bari F, Szekely E, et al. Airway responsiveness and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid profiling in individual rats: effects of different ovalbumin exposures. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2010;170:76-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The substantial interindividual variability confirmed the need for a technique that permits follow-up of lung responsiveness and BALF profile. This approach evidenced strong associations between the severity of BHR and the eosinophilia. ..
  23. Cojocaru A, Irvin C, Haverkamp H, Bates J. Computational assessment of airway wall stiffness in vivo in allergically inflamed mouse models of asthma. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;104:1601-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the notion that acutely inflamed BALB/c mice represent an animal model of functionally normal airway smooth muscle in a transiently abnormal lung. ..
  24. Matsunaga K, Ichikawa T, Yanagisawa S, Akamatsu K, Koarai A, Hirano T, et al. Clinical application of exhaled breath condensate analysis in asthma: prediction of FEV1 improvement by steroid therapy. Respiration. 2009;78:393-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, changes in FEV1 values were significantly associated with reductions in IL-4 and RANTES levels. EBC measurements of IL-4, RANTES and IP-10 might be useful for predicting the steroid-mediated FEV1 improvement in asthma. ..
  25. Ewart L, Haley M, Bickerton S, Bright J, Elliott K, McCarthy A, et al. Pharmacological validation of a telemetric model for the measurement of bronchoconstriction in conscious rats. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2010;61:219-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Improved restraint methods or alternative models in conscious animals should therefore be explored. In the meantime, assessment of airway resistance is best confined to the anaesthetised rat. ..
  26. Wicher I, Ribeiro M, Marmo D, Santos C, Toro A, Mendes R, et al. Effects of swimming on spirometric parameters and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in children and adolescents with moderate persistent atopic asthma. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2010;86:384-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Participants in the swimming group also showed improvement in elastic recoil of the chest wall. ..
  27. Barreno R, Richards J, Schneider D, Cromar K, Nadas A, Hernandez C, et al. Endogenous osteopontin promotes ozone-induced neutrophil recruitment to the lungs and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2013;305:L118-29 pubmed publisher
  28. Siddiq M, Dolan K. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Food Chem. 2017;218:216-220 pubmed publisher
    ..0mM. Benzoic acid and cinnamic acid series inhibitors showed relatively weak inhibition of PPO (21.8-27.6%), even at as high as 2.0mM concentration. ..
  29. Mokra D, Mokry J, Drgova A, Bulikova J, Petraskova M, Calkovska A. Single-dose versus two-dose dexamethasone effects on lung inflammation and airway reactivity in meconium-instilled rabbits. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;58 Suppl 5:379-87 pubmed
    ..We conclude that two-dose dexamethasone is superior to single-dose dexamethasone in prevention lung injury in meconium-instilled rabbits. ..
  30. Imboden M, Rochat T, Brutsche M, Schindler C, Downs S, Gerbase M, et al. Glutathione S-transferase genotype increases risk of progression from bronchial hyperresponsiveness to asthma in adults. Thorax. 2008;63:322-8 pubmed
    ..58 to 3.39; p for interaction = 0.023). If confirmed by independent studies, our results suggest that GSTP1 Ile105Val genotype strongly determines the progression of BHR to physician-diagnosed asthma in the general population. ..
  31. Sorkness R, Bleecker E, Busse W, Calhoun W, Castro M, Chung K, et al. Lung function in adults with stable but severe asthma: air trapping and incomplete reversal of obstruction with bronchodilation. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;104:394-403 pubmed
    ..We conclude that air trapping is a characteristic feature of the severe asthma population, suggesting that there is a pathological process associated with severe asthma that makes airways more vulnerable to this component. ..
  32. Watson A, Ind P, Pride N. Effects of repeated deep inspirations on recovery from methacholine-induced airway narrowing in normal subjects. J Asthma. 2007;44:443-8 pubmed
    ..Recovery from induced bronchoconstriction with methacholine was slow (approximately 2%/min) and not accelerated by frequent DI. ..
  33. Jonasson S, Swedin L, Lundqvist M, Hedenstierna G, Dahlen S, Hjoberg J. Different effects of deep inspirations on central and peripheral airways in healthy and allergen-challenged mice. Respir Res. 2008;9:23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our current results point to potent protective effects of DI on peripheral parts of chronically inflamed murine lungs and that the presence of DI may blunt airway hyperreactivity. ..
  34. Cloots R, Sankaranarayanan S, de Theije C, Poynter M, Terwindt E, Van Dijk P, et al. Ablation of Arg1 in hematopoietic cells improves respiratory function of lung parenchyma, but not that of larger airways or inflammation in asthmatic mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2013;305:L364-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Arg1 ablation in the lung improved peripheral lung function and affected arginine metabolism but had little effect on airway inflammation. ..
  35. Cirillo I, Vizzaccaro A, Tosca M, Negrini S, Negrini A, Marseglia G, et al. Bronchial hyperreactivity and spirometric impairment in patients with allergic rhinitis. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2005;63:79-83 pubmed
    ..This study evidences that an impairment of spirometric parameters and BHR may be observed in patients with allergic rhinitis alone. Thus, careful evaluation of lower airways should be performed in patients with allergic rhinitis alone. ..
  36. Chinn S, Janson C, Svanes C, Dharmage S, Jarvis D. The relation of adult bronchial responsiveness to serious childhood respiratory illness in the ECRHS. Respir Med. 2007;101:983-8 pubmed
    ..The relation of BHR to BMI was confined to smokers. We found an effect of serious childhood respiratory infection on adult BHR, but this was small in comparison to relations of BHR to IgE-sensitization and airway caliber. ..
  37. Reynaert N, Aesif S, McGovern T, Brown A, Wouters E, Irvin C, et al. Catalase overexpression fails to attenuate allergic airways disease in the mouse. J Immunol. 2007;178:3814-21 pubmed
  38. Amirav I, Yacobov R, Luder A. Formoterol turbuhaler is as effective as salbutamol diskus in relieving adenosine-induced bronchoconstriction in children. J Aerosol Med. 2007;20:1-6 pubmed
    ..FT was slightly better than SD, but this difference was not statistically significant. FT and SD are both effective bronchodilators and may be of comparable efficiency during acute bronchoconstriction in young children with asthma. ..
  39. Keyhanmanesh R, Boskabady M, Eslamizadeh M, Khamneh S, Ebrahimi M. The effect of thymoquinone, the main constituent of Nigella sativa on tracheal responsiveness and white blood cell count in lung lavage of sensitized guinea pigs. Planta Med. 2010;76:218-22 pubmed publisher
    ..sativa, on tracheal responsiveness and inflammatory cells of lung lavage of sensitized guinea pigs which was comparable or even greater than that of the inhaled steroid. ..
  40. Chapman D, Berend N, King G, McParland B, Salome C. Deep inspirations protect against airway closure in nonasthmatic subjects. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;107:564-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The protective effect of DI on FEV1 and FVC was abolished by expiration to residual volume. We speculate that the reduced airway closure is due to reduced baseline ventilation heterogeneity and/or reduced airway surface tension. ..
  41. Vanoirbeek J, De Vooght V, Nemery B, Hoet P. Multiple challenges in a mouse model of chemical-induced asthma lead to tolerance: ventilatory and inflammatory responses are blunted, immunologic humoral responses are not. Toxicology. 2009;257:144-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Although humoral signs of allergy remain increased after multiple challenges, diminishing ventilatory and inflammatory responses are indicative of the induction of tolerance...
  42. Jonasson S, Hedenstierna G, Hedenström H, Hjoberg J. Comparisons of effects of intravenous and inhaled methacholine on airway physiology in a murine asthma model. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2009;165:229-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The two methods of MCh delivery have important advantages but also certain limitations with regard to measuring airway reactivity in a murine model of allergic asthma. ..
  43. Liem J, Kozyrskyj A, Cockroft D, Becker A. Diagnosing asthma in children: what is the role for methacholine bronchoprovocation testing?. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008;43:481-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence or absence of airways hyperresponsiveness to methacholine is of no help for the diagnosis of asthma in nonatopic boys. Laboratory tests must be placed in context of the clinical assessment of children for asthma. ..
  44. Kivastik J, Gibson A, Primhak R. Methacholine challenge in pre-school children--which outcome measure?. Respir Med. 2007;101:2555-60 pubmed
    ..Both R(int) and tcpO(2) measurements may allow detection of bronchial hyper-responsiveness at lower Mch doses and also provide a less subjective measure, but will not be feasible in all children. ..
  45. Harrington L, Lucas R, McMaster S, Moreno L, Scadding G, Warner T, et al. COX-1, and not COX-2 activity, regulates airway function: relevance to aspirin-sensitive asthma. FASEB J. 2008;22:4005-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations show that despite the presence of COX-2, COX-1 is functionally predominant in the airways and explains clinical observations relating to drug specificity in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma. ..
  46. Covar R, Colvin R, Shapiro G, Strunk R. Safety of methacholine challenges in a multicenter pediatric asthma study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117:709-11 pubmed
  47. Behndig A, Larsson N, Brown J, Stenfors N, Helleday R, Duggan S, et al. Proinflammatory doses of diesel exhaust in healthy subjects fail to elicit equivalent or augmented airway inflammation in subjects with asthma. Thorax. 2011;66:12-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This response was absent in subjects with asthma, as was evidence supporting a worsening of allergic airway inflammation. ..
  48. Suh D, Lee J, Kim C, Koh Y. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate, and the presence and degree of atopy in young children with asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2011;41:338-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The degree of atopy appeared to be an important factor in AMP responsiveness, but not in methacholine responsiveness, and thus might be a marker of airway inflammation in asthma. ..
  49. Wong R, Larcombe A, Fernandes L, Zosky G, Noble P. The mechanism of deep inspiration-induced bronchoprotection: evidence from a mouse model. Eur Respir J. 2012;40:982-9 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that the relative magnitudes of these opposing physiological and mechanical effects will determine the net effect on respiratory function in health and disease. ..
  50. Coates A, Leung K, Dell S. Developing alternative delivery systems for methacholine challenge tests. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2014;27:66-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These data will allow for planning in vivo studies to develop methacholine challenge protocols using modern aerosol delivery systems. ..
  51. Prieto L, Lopez V, Llusar R, Rojas R, Marin J. Differences in the response to methacholine between the tidal breathing and dosimeter methods: influence of the dose of bronchoconstrictor agent delivered to the mouth. Chest. 2008;134:699-703 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the dose of aerosol delivered to the mouth on differences in the response obtained with each challenge method...
  52. Bourke J, Bai Y, Donovan C, Esposito J, Tan X, Sanderson M. Novel small airway bronchodilator responses to rosiglitazone in mouse lung slices. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2014;50:748-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Because RGZ continues to elicit relaxation when ?-adrenoceptor agonists have a limited effect, RGZ or related compounds may have potential as bronchodilators for the treatment of difficult asthma. ..
  53. Joos G. [Indirect bronchial provocation tests: a new, specific group of bronchial provocation tests for asthma]. Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg. 2005;67:153-67 pubmed
    ..It has become clear that indirect challenges form a specific group of challenges that play a role in the diagnosis and the monitoring of asthma. ..