adrenergic uptake inhibitors


Summary: Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.

Top Publications

  1. Ramos Quiroga J, Montoya A, Kutzelnigg A, Deberdt W, Sobanski E. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in the European adult population: prevalence, disease awareness, and treatment guidelines. Curr Med Res Opin. 2013;29:1093-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder with childhood onset and persistence into adolescence and adulthood...
  2. Hysek C, Simmler L, Ineichen M, Grouzmann E, Hoener M, Brenneisen R, et al. The norepinephrine transporter inhibitor reboxetine reduces stimulant effects of MDMA ("ecstasy") in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011;90:246-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that transporter-mediated NE release has a critical role in the cardiovascular and stimulant-like effects of MDMA in humans...
  3. Pangallo B, Dellva M, D Souza D, Essink B, Russell J, Goldberger C. A randomized, double-blind study comparing LY2216684 and placebo in the treatment of major depressive disorder. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45:748-55 pubmed publisher
    ..01) from baseline in systolic (3 mm Hg) and diastolic (4 mm Hg) blood pressure and pulse (10 bpm) compared with placebo. LY2216684 6-18 mg demonstrated significant efficacy and was tolerated in the treatment of MDD...
  4. Kaplan G, Newcorn J. Pharmacotherapy for child and adolescent attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2011;58:99-120, xi pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, it addresses treatment selection, guidelines for monitoring treatment, and recent controversies in the field...
  5. Graf H, Abler B, Freudenmann R, Beschoner P, Schaeffeler E, Spitzer M, et al. Neural correlates of error monitoring modulated by atomoxetine in healthy volunteers. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;69:890-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effects of atomoxetine (80 mg) on error monitoring as a second key component of cognitive control...
  6. Wilens T, Adler L, Tanaka Y, Xiao F, D Souza D, Gutkin S, et al. Correlates of alcohol use in adults with ADHD and comorbid alcohol use disorders: exploratory analysis of a placebo-controlled trial of atomoxetine. Curr Med Res Opin. 2011;27:2309-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorder are often comorbid in adults. The effects of ADHD treatment on comorbid alcohol use disorder have not been extensively studied...
  7. Jin L, Xu W, Krefetz D, Gruener D, Kielbasa W, Tauscher Wisniewski S, et al. Clinical outcomes from an open-label study of edivoxetine use in pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2013;23:200-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes from an open label study of edivoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  8. Gamo N, Wang M, Arnsten A. Methylphenidate and atomoxetine enhance prefrontal function through ?2-adrenergic and dopamine D1 receptors. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;49:1011-23 pubmed publisher
  9. Childress A, Berry S. Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents. Drugs. 2012;72:309-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, clinical decisions used in selecting pharmacotherapy to treat ADHD in children aged 6-12 years can be applied in the adolescent population. ..

More Information


  1. Paterson N, Ricciardi J, Wetzler C, Hanania T. Sub-optimal performance in the 5-choice serial reaction time task in rats was sensitive to methylphenidate, atomoxetine and d-amphetamine, but unaffected by the COMT inhibitor tolcapone. Neurosci Res. 2011;69:41-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, tolcapone had no effects on sub-optimal performance in the variable ITI 5-CSRTT. These results suggest minimal potential of tolcapone as a therapeutic agent for ADHD and implicate cortical NE, not DA, in impulsive action...
  2. Graham J, Banaschewski T, Buitelaar J, Coghill D, Danckaerts M, Dittmann R, et al. European guidelines on managing adverse effects of medication for ADHD. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;20:17-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the effects examined appeared to be minimal in impact or difficult to distinguish from risk to untreated populations. However, several areas require further study to allow a more precise understanding of these risks...
  3. Hennessy S, Schelleman H, Daniel G, Bilker W, Kimmel S, Guevara J, et al. Cardiovascular safety of ADHD medications: rationale for and design of an investigator-initiated observational study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2010;19:934-41 pubmed publisher
  4. Hammerness P, Surman C, Chilton A. Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment and cardiovascular implications. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2011;13:357-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is indicated to delineate clinical and functional outcomes for adults with ADHD, as well as long-term safety of medication treatment. ..
  5. Kielbasa W, Quinlan T, Jin L, Xu W, Lachno D, Dean R, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of edivoxetine (LY2216684), a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2012;22:269-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of edivoxetine were assessed in children and adolescent patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) following single and once-daily oral doses of edivoxetine...
  6. Arnsten A, Pliszka S. Catecholamine influences on prefrontal cortical function: relevance to treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and related disorders. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2011;99:211-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Stronger PFC regulation of attention, behavior, and emotion likely contributes to the therapeutic effects of these medications for the treatment of ADHD...
  7. Marquand A, De Simoni S, O Daly O, Williams S, Mourão Miranda J, Mehta M. Pattern classification of working memory networks reveals differential effects of methylphenidate, atomoxetine, and placebo in healthy volunteers. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36:1237-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, interactions between drug effects and motivational state are crucial in defining the effects of MPH and ATX. ..
  8. McCarthy S, Cranswick N, Potts L, Taylor E, Wong I. Mortality associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drug treatment: a retrospective cohort study of children, adolescents and young adults using the general practice research database. Drug Saf. 2009;32:1089-96 pubmed publisher
  9. Wietecha L, Williams D, Herbert M, Melmed R, Greenbaum M, Schuh K. Atomoxetine treatment in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2009;19:719-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Atomoxetine 0.8 and 1.4 mg/kg/day were equally well tolerated. Maintenance of benefit with atomoxetine hydrochloride in adolescents with ADHD, NCT00191035. ..
  10. Bauer M, Monz B, Montejo A, Quail D, Dantchev N, Demyttenaere K, et al. Prescribing patterns of antidepressants in Europe: results from the Factors Influencing Depression Endpoints Research (FINDER) study. Eur Psychiatry. 2008;23:66-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the prescribing of antidepressants varies by country, and the type of antidepressant chosen is influenced by physician- as well as patient-related factors. ..
  11. Newcorn J, Kratochvil C, Allen A, Casat C, Ruff D, Moore R, et al. Atomoxetine and osmotically released methylphenidate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: acute comparison and differential response. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165:721-30 pubmed publisher
    ..One-third of patients who received methylphenidate followed by atomoxetine responded better to one or the other, suggesting that there may be preferential responders. ..
  12. Martenyi F, Zavadenko N, Jarkova N, Yarosh A, Soldatenkova V, Bardenstein L, et al. Atomoxetine in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in Russia. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;19:57-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Atomoxetine treatment may be associated with a numerically higher incidence of anorexia, somnolence, abdominal pain and nausea, as well as statistically greater losses in body weight. ..
  13. Hammerness P, Doyle R, Kotarski M, Georgiopoulos A, Joshi G, Zeitlin S, et al. Atomoxetine in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with prior stimulant therapy: a prospective open-label study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;18:493-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, atomoxetine was generally well tolerated; 85% of subjects completed the trial. Atomoxetine was effective and well tolerated in a 6-week open study of ADHD youth with a prior history of stimulant treatment. ..
  14. Smoot L, Boothby L, Gillett R. Clinical assessment and treatment of ADHD in children. Int J Clin Pract. 2007;61:1730-8 pubmed
    ..Newer, long-acting medications are providing expanded options for children and their caregivers. Failure to assess and treat can lead to serious long-term effects later in life. ..
  15. Trivedi M, Hollander E, Nutt D, Blier P. Clinical evidence and potential neurobiological underpinnings of unresolved symptoms of depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69:246-58 pubmed
    ..Future research is needed to more precisely characterize residual symptoms and their underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms in order to develop more effective treatment methods. ..
  16. Escobar R, Montoya A, Polavieja P, Cardo E, Artigas J, Hervas A, et al. Evaluation of patients' and parents' quality of life in a randomized placebo-controlled atomoxetine study in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2009;19:253-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to demonstrate the superior efficacy of atomoxetine with respect to placebo and to compare parent and child perceptions of health-related quality of life (HRQoL)...
  17. Durell T, Pumariega A, Rothe E, Tamayo J, Baron D, Williams D. Effects of open-label atomoxetine on African-American and Caucasian pediatric outpatients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2009;21:26-37 pubmed
    ..Atomoxetine exhibited similar tolerability, safety, and efficacy profiles in African-Americans and Caucasians with ADHD. ..
  18. Cottrell S, Tilden D, Robinson P, Bae J, Arellano J, Edgell E, et al. A modeled economic evaluation comparing atomoxetine with stimulant therapy in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the United Kingdom. Value Health. 2008;11:376-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The economic evaluation showed atomoxetine is an effective alternative across a range of ADHD populations and offers value-for-money in the treatment of ADHD. ..
  19. Bangs M, Tauscher Wisniewski S, Polzer J, Zhang S, Acharya N, Desaiah D, et al. Meta-analysis of suicide-related behavior events in patients treated with atomoxetine. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008;47:209-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Although uncommon, suicidal ideation was significantly more frequent in pediatric ADHD patients treated with atomoxetine compared to those treated with placebo. Retrospective analysis has limitations in ascertaining intent. ..
  20. Vaughan B, Fegert J, Kratochvil C. Update on atomoxetine in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009;10:669-76 pubmed
    ..Atomoxetine is an effective acute and long-term pharmacotherapy for ADHD, and may play a particular role in the treatment of patients with comorbid disorders and those who have failed or are unable to tolerate stimulants. ..
  21. Russell I, Mease P, Smith T, Kajdasz D, Wohlreich M, Detke M, et al. Efficacy and safety of duloxetine for treatment of fibromyalgia in patients with or without major depressive disorder: Results from a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose trial. Pain. 2008;136:432-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Study results demonstrated that duloxetine at doses of 60 mg/day and 120 mg/day appears to be safe and efficacious in patients with fibromyalgia. ..
  22. Koda K, Ago Y, Cong Y, Kita Y, Takuma K, Matsuda T. Effects of acute and chronic administration of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on extracellular levels of noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of mice. J Neurochem. 2010;114:259-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that acute and chronic administration of the ADHD drugs selectively activate the prefrontal catecholamine systems in mice...
  23. Sears J, Patel N. Development of tics in a thirteen-year-old male following atomoxetine use. CNS Spectr. 2008;13:301-3 pubmed
    ..We present a unique case of a patient, without any prior history of a movement disorder, who developed tics following a single dose of atomoxetine that did not improve until interventional therapy was initiated. ..
  24. Mizoguchi N, Saigusa T, Aono Y, Sekino R, Takada K, Oi Y, et al. The reboxetine-induced increase of accumbal dopamine efflux is inhibited by l-propranolol: a microdialysis study with freely moving rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;601:94-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested that the reboxetine-induced increase of the endogenous accumbal noradrenaline activates among others accumbal beta-adrenoceptors that, in turn, stimulate the accumbal release of dopamine...
  25. Jasinski D, Faries D, Moore R, Schuh L, Allen A. Abuse liability assessment of atomoxetine in a drug-abusing population. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;95:140-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Atomoxetine has significantly less abuse liability than methylphenidate or phentermine and no greater abuse liability than desipramine. ..
  26. Wehmeier P, Dittmann R, Schacht A, Minarzyk A, Lehmann M, Sevecke K, et al. Effectiveness of atomoxetine and quality of life in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as perceived by patients, parents, and physicians in an open-label study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2007;17:813-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from the GIPD suggest that patient quality of life improves with time on atomoxetine. The effectiveness of atomoxetine in an open-label study was very similar to the effectiveness shown in placebo-controlled trials. ..
  27. Dube S, Dellva M, Jones M, Kielbasa W, Padich R, Saha A, et al. A study of the effects of LY2216684, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in the treatment of major depression. J Psychiatr Res. 2010;44:356-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this initial investigation of LY2216684's efficacy suggest that it may have antidepressant potential. More definitive data to confirm this is necessary. Its safety profile does not preclude further clinical development. ..
  28. Janknegt R, Faber A, Rodrigues Pereira R, Kalverdijk L. InforMatrix for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009;10:755-72 pubmed
    ..It enables the user to judge both the importance of the selection criteria and the properties of each therapeutic option per criterion on the basis of his or her own personal expertise and/or the present document. ..
  29. Ghuman J, Aman M, Ghuman H, Reichenbacher T, Gelenberg A, Wright R, et al. Prospective, naturalistic, pilot study of open-label atomoxetine treatment in preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2009;19:155-66 pubmed publisher
  30. Frank S, Ondo W, Fahn S, Hunter C, Oakes D, Plumb S, et al. A study of chorea after tetrabenazine withdrawal in patients with Huntington disease. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2008;31:127-33 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess tetrabenazine (TBZ) efficacy by evaluating the change in Huntington disease-associated chorea resulting from TBZ treatment withdrawal...
  31. McAfee A, Holdridge K, Johannes C, Hornbuckle K, Walker A. The effect of pharmacotherapy for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on risk of seizures in pediatric patients as assessed in an insurance claims database. Curr Drug Saf. 2008;3:123-31 pubmed
    ..7, 1.1 - 2.6). In this study, there was no statistically significant association between use of atomoxetine or stimulants and seizure risk in children ages 6 to 17 years with ADHD and without prior seizure disorder. ..
  32. Cohen Yavin I, Yoran Hegesh R, Strous R, Kotler M, Weizman A, Spivak B. Efficacy of reboxetine in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in boys with intolerance to methylphenidate: an open-label, 8-week, methylphenidate-controlled trial. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2009;32:179-82 pubmed publisher
  33. Barry R, Clarke A, Hajos M, McCarthy R, Selikowitz M, Bruggemann J. Acute atomoxetine effects on the EEG of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropharmacology. 2009;57:702-7 pubmed publisher
  34. Wilens T, Adler L, Weiss M, Michelson D, Ramsey J, Moore R, et al. Atomoxetine treatment of adults with ADHD and comorbid alcohol use disorders. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2008;96:145-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The study aim was to determine if atomoxetine was superior to placebo in improving ADHD and alcohol use in recently abstinent adults with ADHD and comorbid alcohol use disorder...
  35. Chamberlain S, Hampshire A, Muller U, Rubia K, Del Campo N, Craig K, et al. Atomoxetine modulates right inferior frontal activation during inhibitory control: a pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;65:550-5 pubmed publisher
  36. Paulzen M, Clement H, Grunder G. Enhancement of atomoxetine serum levels by co-administration of paroxetine. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2008;11:289-91 pubmed publisher
  37. Hu L, Zhou T, Ahn J, Wang S, Zhou J, Hu Y, et al. Human and mouse trace amine-associated receptor 1 have distinct pharmacology towards endogenous monoamines and imidazoline receptor ligands. Biochem J. 2009;424:39-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings of the present study not only shed light on the pharmacological species difference of TAAR1, but also raise new possibilities about the mechanism of some of the imidazoline-related agents...
  38. Dell agnello G, Maschietto D, Bravaccio C, Calamoneri F, Masi G, Curatolo P, et al. Atomoxetine hydrochloride in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder: A placebo-controlled Italian study. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009;19:822-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Atomoxetine was well tolerated. ..
  39. Svanborg P, Thernlund G, Gustafsson P, Hägglöf B, Schacht A, Kadesjö B. Atomoxetine improves patient and family coping in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in Swedish children and adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;18:725-35 pubmed publisher
  40. Kendall T, Taylor E, Perez A, Taylor C. Diagnosis and management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children, young people, and adults: summary of NICE guidance. BMJ. 2008;337:a1239 pubmed publisher
  41. Newcorn J, Sutton V, Weiss M, Sumner C. Clinical responses to atomoxetine in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the Integrated Data Exploratory Analysis (IDEA) study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;48:511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a retrospective analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to identify potential baseline (moderator) and on-treatment (mediator) predictors of responses...
  42. Paxton G, Cranswick N. Acute suicidality after commencing atomoxetine. J Paediatr Child Health. 2008;44:596-8 pubmed publisher
  43. Levy F. Dopamine vs noradrenaline: inverted-U effects and ADHD theories. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2009;43:101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies utilizing delay-related firing paradigms should be useful in the investigation of attentional syndromes, and responses to newer pharmacological treatments. ..
  44. Chen C, Gerhard T, Winterstein A. Determinants of initial pharmacological treatment for youths with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2009;19:187-95 pubmed publisher
    ..More evidence on psychotropic safety and efficacy is needed considering the high prevalence of concomitant mental disorders, multidrug regimens, and off-label use. ..
  45. Garnock Jones K, Keating G. Spotlight on atomoxetine in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. CNS Drugs. 2010;24:85-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, atomoxetine is a useful option in the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents. ..
  46. Spencer T, Sallee F, Gilbert D, Dunn D, McCracken J, Coffey B, et al. Atomoxetine treatment of ADHD in children with comorbid Tourette syndrome. J Atten Disord. 2008;11:470-81 pubmed
    ..Atomoxetine is efficacious for treatment of ADHD and its use appears well tolerated in ADHD patients with comorbid TS. ..
  47. Wilens T, Hammerness P, Utzinger L, Schillinger M, Georgiopoulous A, Doyle R, et al. An open study of adjunct OROS-methylphenidate in children and adolescents who are atomoxetine partial responders: I. Effectiveness. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2009;19:485-92 pubmed publisher
    ..5, p < 0.0001), as well as improvements in executive functioning. These results suggest that OROS MPH added to the regimen of partial responders to ATMX improves ADHD and executive functioning, necessitating further controlled trials. ..
  48. Garnock Jones K, Keating G. Atomoxetine: a review of its use in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Paediatr Drugs. 2009;11:203-26 pubmed publisher
  49. Ramoz N, Boni C, Downing A, Close S, Peters S, Prokop A, et al. A haplotype of the norepinephrine transporter (Net) gene Slc6a2 is associated with clinical response to atomoxetine in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:2135-42 pubmed publisher
  50. Fasano A, Cadeddu F, Guidubaldi A, Piano C, Soleti F, Zinzi P, et al. The long-term effect of tetrabenazine in the management of Huntington disease. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2008;31:313-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Tetrabenazine was well tolerated and produced long-term improvement of motor symptoms in Huntington disease patients, although a slight reduction of benefit occurred during the course of treatment. ..
  51. Bangs M, Hazell P, Danckaerts M, Hoare P, Coghill D, Wehmeier P, et al. Atomoxetine for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. Pediatrics. 2008;121:e314-20 pubmed publisher
    ..It remains uncertain, however, whether atomoxetine exerts a specific and enduring effect on oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. ..
  52. Párraga H, Párraga M, Harris D. Tic exacerbation and precipitation during atomoxetine treatment in two children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2007;37:415-24 pubmed
    ..Independent controlled studies are needed to determine if atomoxetine should be used in children with ADHD and comorbid tic disorders or TS. ..
  53. Gualtieri C, Johnson L. Medications do not necessarily normalize cognition in ADHD patients. J Atten Disord. 2008;11:459-69 pubmed
    ..Although ADHD medications are effective for the behavioral components of the disorder, little information exists concerning their effects on cognition, especially in community samples...
  54. Spencer T, Kratochvil C, Sangal R, Saylor K, Bailey C, Dunn D, et al. Effects of atomoxetine on growth in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder following up to five years of treatment. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2007;17:689-700 pubmed
    ..To examine the effects on growth of long-term pharmacological treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we present findings from an ongoing 5-year study of the efficacy and safety of treatment with atomoxetine...
  55. Kajdasz D, Iyengar S, Desaiah D, Backonja M, Farrar J, Fishbain D, et al. Duloxetine for the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain: evidence-based findings from post hoc analysis of three multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies. Clin Ther. 2007;29 Suppl:2536-46 pubmed publisher
  56. Harpin V. Medication options when treating children and adolescents with ADHD: interpreting the NICE guidance 2006. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed. 2008;93:58-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper aims to interpret these guidelines by reviewing the medication options in light of relevant research and clinical practice. The properties of methylphenidate, dexamfetamine and atomoxetine are discussed. ..
  57. Verheij M, Cools A. Twenty years of dopamine research: individual differences in the response of accumbal dopamine to environmental and pharmacological challenges. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;585:228-44 pubmed publisher
  58. Arabgol F, Panaghi L, Hebrani P. Reboxetine versus methylphenidate in treatment of children and adolescents with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009;18:53-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The study revealed that reboxetine may be beneficial in treatment of ADHD. Further studies are required to clarify the potential therapeutic effects on comorbid depression and anxiety and adverse effect profile. ..
  59. Montoya A, Hervas A, Cardo E, Artigas J, Mardomingo M, Alda J, et al. Evaluation of atomoxetine for first-line treatment of newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009;25:2745-54 pubmed publisher
    ..To test the hypothesis that first-line treatment with atomoxetine provides superior efficacy than placebo for up to 12 weeks in improving the symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)...
  60. Chang K, Nayar D, Howe M, Rana M. Atomoxetine as an adjunct therapy in the treatment of co-morbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents with bipolar I or II disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2009;19:547-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted an 8-week, open label study to study the efficacy and tolerability of adjunct atomoxetine in euthymic children and adolescents with BPD and ADHD...
  61. Seu E, Lang A, Rivera R, Jentsch J. Inhibition of the norepinephrine transporter improves behavioral flexibility in rats and monkeys. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009;202:505-19 pubmed publisher
  62. Faraone S, Glatt S. A comparison of the efficacy of medications for adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using meta-analysis of effect sizes. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010;71:754-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Study design features vary widely among studies and can confound indirect comparisons unless addressed statistically as we have done in this study. ..