glycine agents

Summary

Summary: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.

Top Publications

  1. Hussy N, Deleuze C, Pantaloni A, Desarmenien M, Moos F. Agonist action of taurine on glycine receptors in rat supraoptic magnocellular neurones: possible role in osmoregulation. J Physiol. 1997;502 ( Pt 3):609-21 pubmed
  2. Mueller P, Foley C, Vogl H, Hay M, Hasser E. Cardiovascular response to a group III mGluR agonist in NTS requires NMDA receptors. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;289:R198-208 pubmed
    ..Thus we conclude that responses to L-AP4 in the NTS are mediated by an interaction between group III mGluRs and NMDA receptors. Finally, we also caution that nonselective actions of L-AP4 should be considered in future studies. ..
  3. Aguayo L, van Zundert B, Tapia J, Carrasco M, Alvarez F. Changes on the properties of glycine receptors during neuronal development. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2004;47:33-45 pubmed
    ..Finally, the high level of plasticity found in immature GlyRs is likely associated to changes in cytoskeleton dynamics. ..
  4. Santos S, Rebelo S, Derkach V, Safronov B. Excitatory interneurons dominate sensory processing in the spinal substantia gelatinosa of rat. J Physiol. 2007;581:241-54 pubmed
    ..We conclude that sensory integration in the intrinsic SG neuronal network is dominated by excitatory interneurons. Such organization of neuronal circuitries in the spinal SG can be important for nociceptive encoding. ..
  5. O Brien J, Berger A. The nonuniform distribution of the GABA(A) receptor alpha 1 subunit influences inhibitory synaptic transmission to motoneurons within a motor nucleus. J Neurosci. 2001;21:8482-94 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the number of synapses using GABA(A) receptor-mediated transmission is greater on ventrolateral HMs than dorsal HMs, demonstrating a nonuniformity of synaptic function within a defined motor nucleus. ..
  6. Aslanyan S, Fazekas F, Weir C, Horner S, Lees K. Effect of blood pressure during the acute period of ischemic stroke on stroke outcome: a tertiary analysis of the GAIN International Trial. Stroke. 2003;34:2420-5 pubmed
    ..03; 95% CI, 1.30 to 7.02). Baseline MAP was not associated with poor ischemic stroke outcome. However, variables describing the course of BP over the first 2.5 days have a marked and independent relationship with 1- and 3-month outcome. ..
  7. Rousseau C, Dugué G, Dumoulin A, Mugnaini E, Dieudonné S, Diana M. Mixed inhibitory synaptic balance correlates with glutamatergic synaptic phenotype in cerebellar unipolar brush cells. J Neurosci. 2012;32:4632-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that slow glycinergic IPSCs may provide an inhibitory tone, setting the gain of the MF to UBC relay, whereas large and fast GABAergic IPSCs may in addition control spike timing in mGluRII-negative UBCs. ..
  8. Ris L, Capron B, Vibert N, Vidal P, Godaux E. Modification of the pacemaker activity of vestibular neurons in brainstem slices during vestibular compensation in the guinea pig. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;13:2234-40 pubmed
    ..They suggest that an increase in pacemaker activity might be a factor responsible for the restoration of spontaneous activity in the vestibular neurons after labyrinthectomy. ..
  9. Zheng M, Lin S, Holden D, Naganawa M, Ropchan J, Najafzaden S, et al. Comparative evaluation of two glycine transporter 1 radiotracers [11C]GSK931145 and [18F]MK-6577 in baboons. Synapse. 2016;70:112-20 pubmed publisher
    ..18) F]MK-6577 appears to be a superior radiotracer with higher brain uptake, faster kinetics, and higher specific binding signals than [(11) C]GSK931145. ..

More Information

Publications115 found, 100 shown here

  1. Dutertre S, Drwal M, Laube B, Betz H. Probing the pharmacological properties of distinct subunit interfaces within heteromeric glycine receptors reveals a functional ?? agonist-binding site. J Neurochem. 2012;122:38-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutational approach described here should be generally applicable to heteromeric ligand-gated ion channels composed of homologous subunits and facilitate screening efforts aimed at targeting inter-subunit specific binding sites. ..
  2. Apostolides P, Trussell L. Rapid, activity-independent turnover of vesicular transmitter content at a mixed glycine/GABA synapse. J Neurosci. 2013;33:4768-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, cytosolic transmitter levels dynamically set the strength of inhibitory synapses in a release-independent manner. ..
  3. Ehrlich I, Lohrke S, Friauf E. Shift from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing glycine action in rat auditory neurones is due to age-dependent Cl- regulation. J Physiol. 1999;520 Pt 1:121-37 pubmed
    ..A high intracellular [Cl-] is generated in neonatal LSO neurones which decreases during maturation. ..
  4. Matsumoto N, Kumamoto E, Furue H, Yoshimura M. GABA-mediated inhibition of glutamate release during ischemia in substantia gelatinosa of the adult rat. J Neurophysiol. 2003;89:257-64 pubmed
    ..This action might protect SG neurons from an excessive excitation mediated by L-glutamate during ischemia. ..
  5. Wong K, Adolph A, Dowling J. Retinal bipolar cell input mechanisms in giant danio. I. Electroretinographic analysis. J Neurophysiol. 2005;93:84-93 pubmed
  6. Sukhdeo K, Koch C, Miller T, Zhou H, Rivera M, Yan K, et al. The Lgr5 transgene is expressed specifically in glycinergic amacrine cells in the mouse retina. Exp Eye Res. 2014;119:106-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We further interrogated the spatiotemporal labeling of individual amacrine cells with controlled fluorophore expression. This "fluorofilling" technique provides a tool to study amacrine morphology and dissect neural networks. ..
  7. Streit J, Tscherter A, Heuschkel M, Renaud P. The generation of rhythmic activity in dissociated cultures of rat spinal cord. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;14:191-202 pubmed
    ..From these findings we conclude that rhythmic activity in spinal cultures is controlled by the interplay of intrinsic neuronal activity and recurrent excitation in neuronal networks without the need for a specific architecture. ..
  8. Yu K, Ge S, Ruan D. Fe2+ decreases the taurine-induced Cl- current in acutely dissociated rat hippocampal neurons. Brain Res. 2003;960:25-35 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Fe(2+) decreases I(tau) in acutely dissociated rat hippocampal neurons and the inhibition of glycine receptors by Fe(2+) might be one possible approach through which Fe(2+) induces seizures. ..
  9. Cheng J, Chou R, Hwang L, Chiou L. Antiallodynic effects of intrathecal orexins in a rat model of postoperative pain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;307:1065-71 pubmed
    ..Endogenous orexin might be released after incision injury to activate the spinal OX1 receptors as an endogenous analgesic protector. ..
  10. Zonouzi M, Renzi M, Farrant M, Cull Candy S. Bidirectional plasticity of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors in oligodendrocyte lineage cells. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:1430-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we found that stargazin-related transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins, which are critical for AMPAR surface expression in neurons, regulate CP-AMPAR plasticity in OPCs. ..
  11. Linn G, O Keeffe R, Lifshitz K, Schroeder C, Javitt D. Behavioral effects of orally administered glycine in socially housed monkeys chronically treated with phencyclidine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007;192:27-38 pubmed
    ..Although further validation is needed, the results also indicate that chronic PCP in primates may be an appropriate model system for development of drugs targeting positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. ..
  12. Rousseau F, Aubrey K, Supplisson S. The glycine transporter GlyT2 controls the dynamics of synaptic vesicle refilling in inhibitory spinal cord neurons. J Neurosci. 2008;28:9755-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results demonstrate the central role played by GlyT2 in determining inhibitory phenotype and therefore in the physiology and pathology of inhibitory circuits. ..
  13. Wang H, Lü X, Lu D, Qi R, Wang Y, Fu Y, et al. Glycine inhibits the LPS-induced increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and TNFalpha production in cardiomyocytes by activating a glycine receptor. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30:1107-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Cardiomyocytes possess the glycine-gated chloride channel, through which GLY prevents the increase in [Ca2+]c and inhibits the TNFalpha production induced by LPS at high doses in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. ..
  14. Spittler A, Reissner C, Oehler R, Gornikiewicz A, Gruenberger T, Manhart N, et al. Immunomodulatory effects of glycine on LPS-treated monocytes: reduced TNF-alpha production and accelerated IL-10 expression. FASEB J. 1999;13:563-71 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that GLY has a potential to be used as an additional immunomodulatory tool in the early phase of sepsis and in different pathophysiological situations related to hypoxia and reperfusion. ..
  15. Mehta B, Snellman J, Chen S, Li W, Zenisek D. Synaptic ribbons influence the size and frequency of miniature-like evoked postsynaptic currents. Neuron. 2013;77:516-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that ribbon size may influence mlEPSC frequency and support a role for ribbons in coordinating multivesicular release. ..
  16. Belachew S, Malgrange B, Rigo J, Rogister B, Leprince P, Hans G, et al. Glycine triggers an intracellular calcium influx in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells which is mediated by the activation of both the ionotropic glycine receptor and Na+-dependent transporters. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:1924-30 pubmed
    ..Through this GlyR- and transporter-mediated effect on OP intrcellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]i, glycine released by neurons may, as well as other neurotransmitters, serve as a signal between neurons and OP during development. ..
  17. Beato M, Burzomato V, Sivilotti L. The kinetics of inhibition of rat recombinant heteromeric alpha1beta glycine receptors by the low-affinity antagonist SR-95531. J Physiol. 2007;580:171-9 pubmed
    ..The fast unbinding rate of SR-95531 from the glycine receptor will make it useful for establishing the time course of glycine concentration at glycinergic synapses. ..
  18. Zhang H, Thio L. Zinc enhances the inhibitory effects of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in mouse hippocampal neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98:3666-76 pubmed
    ..Thus Zn(2+) may modulate neuronal excitability normally and in pathological conditions such as seizures by potentiating GlyRs tonically activated by low agonist concentrations. ..
  19. Talpalar A, Endo T, Low P, Borgius L, Hägglund M, Dougherty K, et al. Identification of minimal neuronal networks involved in flexor-extensor alternation in the mammalian spinal cord. Neuron. 2011;71:1071-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study defines a minimal inhibitory network that is needed to produce flexor-extensor alternation during locomotion. ..
  20. Di Fabio R, Conti N, De Magistris E, Feriani A, Provera S, Sabbatini F, et al. Substituted analogues of GV150526 as potent glycine binding site antagonists in animal models of cerebral ischemia. J Med Chem. 1999;42:3486-93 pubmed
  21. Muller F, Heinke B, Sandkuhler J. Reduction of glycine receptor-mediated miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in rat spinal lamina I neurons after peripheral inflammation. Neuroscience. 2003;122:799-805 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that long-lasting peripheral inflammation leads to a reduced glycinergic inhibitory control of spinal lamina I neurons by a presynaptic mechanism. ..
  22. Inquimbert P, Rodeau J, Schlichter R. Differential contribution of GABAergic and glycinergic components to inhibitory synaptic transmission in lamina II and laminae III-IV of the young rat spinal cord. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:2940-9 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that, compared with lamina II, inhibitory synaptic transmission in laminae III-IV is characterized by a dominant role of glycinergic inhibition and the absence of a functional GABA/glycine co-transmission. ..
  23. Findlay G, Phelan R, Roberts M, Homanics G, Bergeson S, Lopreato G, et al. Glycine receptor knock-in mice and hyperekplexia-like phenotypes: comparisons with the null mutant. J Neurosci. 2003;23:8051-9 pubmed
  24. Kruger W, Gilbert D, Hawthorne R, Hryciw D, Frings S, Poronnik P, et al. A yellow fluorescent protein-based assay for high-throughput screening of glycine and GABAA receptor chloride channels. Neurosci Lett. 2005;380:340-5 pubmed
    ..The robustness, sensitivity and low cost of this assay render it suited for high-throughput screening of transiently expressed anionic ligand-gated channels. ..
  25. Zimmer M, Goshgarian H. GABA, not glycine, mediates inhibition of latent respiratory motor pathways after spinal cord injury. Exp Neurol. 2007;203:493-501 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that phrenic motor neurons are inhibited via a GABA-A mediated receptor mechanism located within the spinal cord to inhibit the expression of crossed phrenic pathways. ..
  26. Liu J, Wu D, Wang Y. Allosteric potentiation of glycine receptor chloride currents by glutamate. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:1225-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a rapid homeostatic regulatory mechanism may be important for tuning functional balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition in the CNS. ..
  27. Cazalets J. Metachronal propagation of motoneurone burst activation in isolated spinal cord of newborn rat. J Physiol. 2005;568:583-97 pubmed
    ..The simple model developed here could be useful in unravelling more general mechanisms of neuronal circuit coupling. ..
  28. Pedroarena C, Kamphausen S. Glycinergic synaptic currents in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Neuropharmacology. 2008;54:784-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study, by demonstrating fast glycinergic IPSCs in mature DCNs, points to the activation of glycinergic microcircuits as one of the possible mechanism involved in the spatio-temporal control of cerebellar output. ..
  29. Hirata H, Ogino K, Yamada K, Leacock S, Harvey R. Defective escape behavior in DEAH-box RNA helicase mutants improved by restoring glycine receptor expression. J Neurosci. 2013;33:14638-44 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first identification of pathologically relevant substrates for an RNA helicase...
  30. Beckstead M, Phelan R, Trudell J, Bianchini M, Mihic S. Anesthetic and ethanol effects on spontaneously opening glycine receptor channels. J Neurochem. 2002;82:1343-51 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that ethanol and volatile anesthetics can affect glycine receptor channel opening independently of their effects on enhancing neurotransmitter binding. ..
  31. Phillips S, Dai D, Mitnitski A, Gubitz G, Johnston K, Koroshetz W, et al. Clinical diagnosis of lacunar stroke in the first 6 hours after symptom onset: analysis of data from the glycine antagonist in neuroprotection (GAIN) Americas trial. Stroke. 2007;38:2706-11 pubmed
    ..An OCSP LACS diagnosis made within 6 hours of stroke onset is reasonably predictive of a final diagnosis of "small vessel (lacunar)" disease made using TOAST criteria and has a similar relationship to outcome at 3 months. ..
  32. Majumdar S, Weiss J, Wässle H. Glycinergic input of widefield, displaced amacrine cells of the mouse retina. J Physiol. 2009;587:3831-49 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that GlyRs of group II cells are dominated by the alpha2 subunit; GlyRs of ON-starburst amacrine cells appear to be dominated by the alpha4 subunit. ..
  33. Orts Del Immagine A, Seddik R, Tell F, Airault C, Er Raoui G, Najimi M, et al. A single polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 channel opening acts as a spike generator in cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons of adult mouse brainstem. Neuropharmacology. 2016;101:549-65 pubmed publisher
    ..ASIC) generating specific responses. Altogether, this study reinforces the idea that CSF-cNs represent sensory neurons intrinsic to the central nervous system and suggests a role for PKD2L1 channels as spike generators. ..
  34. Shefchyk S, Espey M, Carr P, Nance D, Sawchuk M, Buss R. Evidence for a strychnine-sensitive mechanism and glycine receptors involved in the control of urethral sphincter activity during micturition in the cat. Exp Brain Res. 1998;119:297-306 pubmed
  35. Ster J, Colomer C, Monzo C, Duvoid Guillou A, Moos F, Alonso G, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-1 inhibits adult supraoptic neurons via complementary modulation of mechanoreceptors and glycine receptors. J Neurosci. 2005;25:2267-76 pubmed
  36. Paniagua Castro N, Escalona Cardoso G, Madrigal Bujaidar E, Martínez Galero E, Chamorro Cevallos G. Protection against cadmium-induced teratogenicity in vitro by glycine. Toxicol In Vitro. 2008;22:75-9 pubmed
    ..Such protective effect seems to be partly due to decreased lipoperoxidation levels in embryos exposed to the metal, which would make it a direct effect. ..
  37. Lavrov I, Cheng J. Methodological optimization of applying neuroactive agents for the study of locomotor-like activity in the mudpuppies (Necturus maculatus). J Neurosci Methods. 2008;174:97-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, the dose-dependent effects of DMSO on the activity of neural networks for locomotion should be taken into account in data interpretation. ..
  38. Carmans S, Hendriks J, Thewissen K, Van den Eynden J, Stinissen P, Rigo J, et al. The inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine modulates macrophage activity by activation of neutral amino acid transporters. J Neurosci Res. 2010;88:2420-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Glycine may thereby influence immunological processes in inflammatory diseases involving macrophage activation and demyelination, including MS and related conditions associated with altered glycine levels...
  39. Tedesco G, Feriani A, Mor M. Statistical analysis on a series of glycine antagonists. Farmaco. 2000;55:194-6 pubmed
    ..A significant model was obtained for both series of compounds. Structure-activity implications are discussed. ..
  40. Gao B, Stricker C, Ziskind Conhaim L. Transition from GABAergic to glycinergic synaptic transmission in newly formed spinal networks. J Neurophysiol. 2001;86:492-502 pubmed
    ..The developmental switch from predominantly long-duration GABAergic inhibitory synaptic currents to short-duration glycinergic currents might serve as a mechanism regulating neuronal excitation in the developing spinal networks. ..
  41. Aliyev N, Aliyev Z. Application of glycine in acute alcohol hallucinosis. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2005;20:591-4 pubmed
    ..The positive effects of glycine may be related to an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters. ..
  42. Froh M, Zhong Z, Walbrun P, Lehnert M, Netter S, Wiest R, et al. Dietary glycine blunts liver injury after bile duct ligation in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:5996-6003 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that glycine significantly decreased liver injury, most likely by a direct effect on hepatocytes. Kupffer cells do not appear to play an important role in the pathological changes caused by cholestasis. ..
  43. Christie K, Whelan P. Monoaminergic establishment of rostrocaudal gradients of rhythmicity in the neonatal mouse spinal cord. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94:1554-64 pubmed
    ..Our results show that monoamines establish rostrocaudal gradients of rhythmicity in the thoracolumbar spinal cord. This may be one mechanism by which combinations of monoaminergic compounds normally stably activate locomotor networks. ..
  44. Poleszak E, Wlaz P, Wrobel A, Fidecka S, Nowak G. NMDA/glutamate mechanism of magnesium-induced anxiolytic-like behavior in mice. Pharmacol Rep. 2008;60:655-63 pubmed
    ..The present study demonstrates the involvement of the NMDA/glutamate pathway in the magnesium anxiolytic-like activity in the EPM in mice, and that this activity particularly involves the glycineB sites. ..
  45. Shin M, Nonaka K, Wakita M, Yamaga T, Torii Y, Harakawa T, et al. Effects of tetanus toxin on spontaneous and evoked transmitter release at inhibitory and excitatory synapses in the rat SDCN neurons. Toxicon. 2012;59:385-92 pubmed publisher
  46. Baptista V, Varanda W. Glycine binding site of the synaptic NMDA receptor in subpostremal NTS neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94:147-52 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the glycine site of the NMDA receptor in neurons of the subpostremal NTS is not saturated and that glycine may act as a modulator of the NMDA transmission in this nucleus. ..
  47. Luo Z, McMullen N, Costy Bennett S, Fregosi R. Prenatal nicotine exposure alters glycinergic and GABAergic control of respiratory frequency in the neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord preparation. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2007;157:226-34 pubmed
    ..6 s in nicotine-exposed (N=12) neonates (P<0.05). These data show that prenatal nicotine exposure alters development of central ventilatory control, and that neurons in the PBC region are involved. ..
  48. MacLeod K, Carr C. Synaptic physiology in the cochlear nucleus angularis of the chick. J Neurophysiol. 2005;93:2520-9 pubmed
    ..5 ms, which was heavily influenced by the membrane time constant. Thus NA neurons spatially and temporally integrate auditory information arriving from multiple auditory nerve afferents. ..
  49. Wenstrup J, Leroy S. Spectral integration in the inferior colliculus: role of glycinergic inhibition in response facilitation. J Neurosci. 2001;21:RC124 pubmed
  50. Kajbaf M, Barnaby R, Bottacini M, Bertolotti L, Ismail I, Cholerton T, et al. Pharmacokinetics, metabolism and excretion of the glycine antagonist GV150526A in rat and dog. Xenobiotica. 2003;33:415-28 pubmed
    ..Multiple glucuronide peaks were observed and identified as isomeric glucuronides and their anomers arising from acyl migration and muta-rotation. ..
  51. Paton J, ST JOHN W. Long-term intracellular recordings of respiratory neuronal activities in situ during eupnea, gasping and blockade of synaptic transmission. J Neurosci Methods. 2005;147:138-45 pubmed
  52. Yu D, Eldred W. Gycine and GABA interact to regulate the nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway in the turtle retina. Vis Neurosci. 2005;22:825-38 pubmed
    ..Such interacting inhibitory pathways could shape the course of signal transduction of the NO/cGMP pathway under different physiological situations. ..
  53. Agid O, Kapur S, Remington G. Emerging drugs for schizophrenia. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2008;13:479-95 pubmed
    ..On a mechanistic level, it seems that dopamine D(2) blockade is necessary and even sufficient for antipsychotic response (at least in some), though other receptors may contribute in ways that are not yet well understood. ..
  54. Antri M, Fenelon K, Dubuc R. The contribution of synaptic inputs to sustained depolarizations in reticulospinal neurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29:1140-51 pubmed publisher
  55. Hartenstein B, Schenkel J, Kuhse J, Besenbeck B, Kling C, Becker C, et al. Low level expression of glycine receptor beta subunit transgene is sufficient for phenotype correction in spastic mice. EMBO J. 1996;15:1275-82 pubmed
  56. Sergeeva O. Comparison of glycine- and GABA-evoked currents in two types of neurons isolated from the rat striatum. Neurosci Lett. 1998;243:9-12 pubmed
    ..GABA- and glycine- responses were additive and blocked selectively by bicuculline (1 microM) and strychnine (50 nM), respectively. These results predict the presence of alpha- and beta-subunits of the glycine receptor in the striatum. ..
  57. Hoke J, Dyker A, Barnaby R, Lees K. Pharmacokinetics of a glycine site antagonist (gavestinel) following multiple dosing in patients with acute stroke. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2000;55:867-72 pubmed
    ..The high protein binding of gavestinel was confirmed in acute stroke patients. A pharmacokinetic interaction between gavestinel and bilirubin may contribute to the increase in bilirubin. ..
  58. Zhang Y, Wu S, Eger E, Sonner J. Neither GABA(A) nor strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors are the sole mediators of MAC for isoflurane. Anesth Analg. 2001;92:123-7 pubmed
    ..They are not, however, the only receptors that contribute to isoflurane-induced immobility (i.e., that determine the MAC of isoflurane). ..
  59. Eichberg M, Dorta R, Grotjahn D, Lamottke K, Schmidt M, Vollhardt K. Approaches to the synthesis of (+/-)-strychnine via the cobalt-mediated [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition: rapid assembly of a classic framework. J Am Chem Soc. 2001;123:9324-37 pubmed
    ..Numerous attempts toward the formation of the piperidine ring of 1 from vinyl iodide 56 were made and its successful formation via palladium-, nickel-, and radical-mediated processes is described. ..
  60. Branchereau P, Chapron J, Meyrand P. Descending 5-hydroxytryptamine raphe inputs repress the expression of serotonergic neurons and slow the maturation of inhibitory systems in mouse embryonic spinal cord. J Neurosci. 2002;22:2598-606 pubmed
    ..Together, our data indicate that descending 5-HT raphe inputs (1) repress the expression of spinal serotonergic neurons and (2) slow the maturation of inhibitory systems in mouse spinal cord. ..
  61. Maksay G, Bíró T, Laube B. Hyperekplexia mutation of glycine receptors: decreased gating efficacy with altered binding thermodynamics. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002;64:285-8 pubmed
    ..The hyperekplexia mutation offers a model system to demonstrate the correlation among pathophysiology, gating efficacy and binding thermodynamics of GlyRs. ..
  62. Ramirez J, Telgkamp P, Elsen F, Quellmalz U, Richter D. Respiratory rhythm generation in mammals: synaptic and membrane properties. Respir Physiol. 1997;110:71-85 pubmed
  63. Hernandes M, de Magalhães L, Troncone L. Glycine stimulates the release of labeled acetylcholine but not dopamine nor glutamate from superfused rat striatal tissue. Brain Res. 2007;1168:32-7 pubmed
    ..These effects could be attributed to changes in chloride transporters expressed in the giant striatal cholinergic cell as well as glycine receptor subunit composition and finally, GABA/glycine co-release in this tissue. ..
  64. Wang Z, Li L, Goulding M, Frank E. Early postnatal development of reciprocal Ia inhibition in the murine spinal cord. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100:185-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests either that Pax6 is not required for the phenotypic development of all V1-derived spinal interneurons or that these inhibitory interneurons are not derived from V1 precursors. ..
  65. Hama Y, Katsuki H, Suminaka C, Kume T, Akaike A. Chloride-dependent acute excitotoxicity in adult rat retinal ganglion cells. Neuropharmacology. 2008;55:677-86 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, niflumic acid, a Cl(-) channel blocker, markedly inhibited RGC death induced by kainate as well as by NMDA. These results underscore the important role of Cl(-) in acute excitotoxicity in adult rat RGCs. ..
  66. Kaneda M, Ishii T, Hosoya T. Pathway-dependent modulation by P2-purinoceptors in the mouse retina. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:128-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that ATP physiologically modulates signal processing of the ON and OFF pathways in a pathway-specific manner through P2-purinoceptors. ..
  67. Ng K, Leung H, Wong P, Low C. Cleavage of the NR2B subunit amino terminus of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor by tissue plasminogen activator: identification of the cleavage site and characterization of ifenprodil and glycine affinities on truncated NMDA receptor. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:25520-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results confirmed NR2B as a novel proteolytic substrate of tPA, where tPA may directly interact with NR2B subunits leading to a change in pharmacological properties of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors. ..
  68. Ressot C, Collado V, Molat J, Dallel R. Strychnine alters response properties of trigeminal nociceptive neurons in the rat. J Neurophysiol. 2001;86:3069-72 pubmed
    ..Thus, alteration of trigeminal glycinergic modulation may contribute to the dynamic mechanical allodynia that occurs in trigeminal neuropathies. ..
  69. Marchetti C, Taccola G, Nistri A. Distinct subtypes of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors on rat spinal neurons mediate complex facilitatory and inhibitory effects. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:1873-83 pubmed
  70. Papa S, Auberson Y, Greenamyre J. Prolongation of levodopa responses by glycineB antagonists in parkinsonian primates. Ann Neurol. 2004;56:723-7 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors selectively to manipulate dopaminergic-mediated motor responses may be produced effectively by glycineB antagonists. ..
  71. Ran I, Mathers D, Puil E. Pentobarbital induces thalamic oscillations in brain slices, modulated by GABA and glycine receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2004;47:985-93 pubmed
    ..These stationary oscillations represent a model of sedation-hypnosis, amenable to pharmacological analysis. ..
  72. Xie R, Meitzen J, Pollak G. Differing roles of inhibition in hierarchical processing of species-specific calls in auditory brainstem nuclei. J Neurophysiol. 2005;94:4019-37 pubmed
  73. Adermark L, Clarke R, Olsson T, Hansson E, Söderpalm B, Ericson M. Implications for glycine receptors and astrocytes in ethanol-induced elevation of dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Addict Biol. 2011;16:43-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest that extracellular concentrations of dopamine and taurine are interconnected and that swelling of astrocytes contributes to the acute rewarding sensation of EtOH. ..
  74. Lu Y, Dong H, Gao Y, Gong Y, Ren Y, Gu N, et al. A feed-forward spinal cord glycinergic neural circuit gates mechanical allodynia. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:4050-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption of this glycinergic inhibitory circuit after peripheral nerve injury has the potential to elicit mechanical allodynia, a cardinal symptom of neuropathic pain. ..
  75. Maple B, Wu S. Glycinergic synaptic inputs to bipolar cells in the salamander retina. J Physiol. 1998;506 ( Pt 3):731-44 pubmed
  76. Antolini M, Donati D, Micheli F. Recent developments in glycine antagonists. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2000;1:230-5 pubmed
    ..Many of the molecules described here are approaching the final stages of clinical studies. ..
  77. Berger A, Huynh P. Activation of 5HT1B receptors inhibits glycinergic synaptic inputs to mammalian motoneurons during postnatal development. Brain Res. 2002;956:380-4 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that over the postnatal period studied, 5-HT(1B) receptor-mediated inhibition of glycinergic eIPSCs is not age dependent. ..
  78. Trexler E, Li W, Massey S. Simultaneous contribution of two rod pathways to AII amacrine and cone bipolar cell light responses. J Neurophysiol. 2005;93:1476-85 pubmed
    ..Thus for a large range of intensities, rod signals reach the inner retina by both rod bipolar-AII and rod-cone coupling pathways. ..
  79. Elkind M, Prabhakaran S, Pittman J, Koroshetz W, Jacoby M, Johnston K. Sex as a predictor of outcomes in patients treated with thrombolysis for acute stroke. Neurology. 2007;68:842-8 pubmed
    ..Thrombolysis for stroke may not reverse the tendency for women to have worse functional outcomes after stroke. ..
  80. Brockhoff A, Behrens M, Roudnitzky N, Appendino G, Avonto C, Meyerhof W. Receptor agonism and antagonism of dietary bitter compounds. J Neurosci. 2011;31:14775-82 pubmed publisher
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